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Episode 2 - Illusions > 10 questions > 10 Questions



Episode 2 - 10 questions

Episode 1 - A

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Episode 2 -

Tippity tap
Do you hear what I
Now hear this
Name that tune
I heard a tapping
somewhat louder
than before
Conversation with
John Vokey (Part 1)
What do you

Do you see what I

Conversation with
Elizabeth Loftus
The fiction of

People estimated that all of the listeners would guess the tune
being tapped, but in reality, only half of listeners were able to guess the
tune correctly.

being tapped, but in reality, only 2.5% of listeners were able to guess
the tune correctly.

People estimated that 25% of the listeners would guess the tune
being tapped, but in reality, half of listeners were able to guess the
tune correctly.
People estimated that a quarter of the listeners would guess the
tune being tapped, but in reality, 2.5% of listeners were able to guess

Nave realism

the tune correctly.

10 questions

People estimated that 50% of the listeners would guess the tune

On campus

being tapped, but in reality, only a quarter of listeners were able to

What do you
Discussion Post

In the finger tapping experiment that we described in Episode 2,

Elizabeth Newton found that if people knew what popular tune was being
tapped, they overestimated the ability of listeners to name that tune.
Which of the following results best describe her results?

People estimated that half of the listeners would guess the tune

Conversation with
John Vokey (Part 2)



guess the tune correctly.

conversation with
John Vokey

Newtons finger tapping experiment demonstrates that:

Learn more
Coming up in
Episode 3

Episode 3 Know Thyself?

Episode 4 Intuition and

Episode 5 Learning to

Episode 6 - The

Episode 7 Finding Things

Episode 8 Extraordinary
Episode 9 Health Claims
Episode 10 Applied

When you tap out a tune, you know the music that accompanies it.
We are generally terrible at tapping out popular songs because we
have poor rhythm.

Its difficult to hear things from the perspective of other people.

People cannot understand the meaning of backward messages.

If a song is not familiar to you, it will be familiar to somebody else.

John Vokey and Don Read did an experiment to find out exactly what
people are capable of doing with backwards speech. Which of the
following statements best describe their results?
People could tell whether the backward speech was spoken in
English or German, whether it was spoken by a male or female, and
whether it was a sentence or a declaration.
People could distinguish between questions and declarations
when heard backward, whether it was spoken by Speaker A and
Speaker B, and whether the words in the spoken sentence were
scrambled or not.
People could distinguish between backward speech that is spoken
by a male or a female, whether it was spoken in the same language or
not, and whether one or two people produced the speech.

Episode 11 Exploit the

Episode 12 Change the

People could identify the sex of the speaker, the language of the
speaker, and whether the sentence was a question or a declaration.
People could distinguish between scrambled or unscrambled
backward speech, whether the meaning of the sentence was Christian
or Satanic, and whether it was spoken by a male or female.

What are you

going to do
about it?


If you play the song Another One Bites the Dust by Queen backwards,
what will you likely hear according to John Vokeys account of Greenwalds
demonstrations of backward subliminal messages in rock music?
Its fun to smoke marijuana.

Do it. Do it.
And another one gone, and another one gone."
Jesus loves me. This I know.
Please write some songs that really do not suck.

The research by Elizabeth Loftus on false memories demonstrated that:
true memories persist for longer than false memories.
memories for the details of events can be transformed or distorted
with misinformation.

confidence or emotion are good indicators that a memory is


false memories are more likely among uneducated people.

false memories can be easily distinguished from real memories by
using brain scans.

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We commonly use pattern recognition to make sense of the world. Our
pattern recognition abilities are shaped by our ability to sharpen things
that are consistent with what we expect to see, and level those things that
are inconsistent. This effect is known as __________
a consistency effect.
an anticipatory effect.
a false memory.

an expectancy effect.

an experiential effect.

What are the two components to the Fundamental Cognitive Error:
We think theres a one-to-one relationship between the way we
perceive and the way they really are, and that the world is as it appears
to be.
People are essentially pattern-recognition machines, and we tend
to sharpen and level things that are (in)consistent with our

Our memories are plastic and malleable, and what we remember

is shaped by the sum of our experiences.

Our basic pattern-recognition abilities are shaped by general and

specific expectations.
People tend to underestimate the contribution of their beliefs and
theories to observation and judgement, and fail to realise how many
other ways that they could have been interpreted.

Visual, auditory and memory illusions all remind us that our perception of
the world is not as straightforward as we might believe. However,
perceptual illusions are not the same as hallucinations. According to John
Vokey, how are hallucinations different from perceptual illusions?
Hallucinations can be experienced by many people, whereas
illusions are only experienced by the individual.
Hallucinations occur even though there is no input source that
could lead to the conclusion that there is something there.

They are only different in how they are named: hallucination is

the term used in medicine and illusion is used in psychology.
Hallucinations are threshold phenomena that either is or isnt,
whereas perceptual illusions are more dynamic.
Perceptual illusions usually occur when there has been a brain
injury or disease.

Nave realism is:
the notion that with the exception of a few tricks or illusions, the
world is essentially as it appears.

the interaction between the kind of stardust that were made of

and the kind of stardust thats out there.

something you bring to the processing of the information you

the distortion that happens when one face follows another in rapid
shaped by our specific expectations and by our general

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