Lineline short circuit of synchronous machine:
illustration of computeraided machine analysis
I. Gopal Reddy, B.E., M.Tech., and C. V. Jones, M.Eng., B.Sc, Ph.D.
Indexing terms: Synchronous machines, Shortcircuit currents, Computeraided circuit analysis
Abstract
The sudden unbalanced short circuit of the 3phase synchronous machine constitutes one of the most
difficult problems of conventional machine analysis, whether traditional or unified. It is, however, readily
susceptible to numerical integration using digital computers. The general approach, which is believed to
have a wide application, is illustrated by the simple case of the 2winding singlephase machine, and is then
extended to the practical problem of the salientpole machine with damper windings. Predicted and test
results are found to be in good agreement.
List of symbols
/ = direct current
/ = instantaneous current
k = coupling factor
L = self inductance
L* = damped self inductance
M = mutual inductance
M* = damped mutual inductance
p = d\dt
R = resistance
V = direct voltage
v = instantaneous voltage
X = synchronous reactance
x' = transient reactance
x" = subtransient reactance
Z + = positivesequence impedance
Z_ = negativesequence impedance
6 = cut + 8 = rotor angle
8 = initial rotor angle
to = 2vf
Subscripts
a armature
d directaxis armature
D directaxis dampers
F field
q quadratureaxis armature
Q quadratureaxis dampers
Introduction
approximate, and secondly, how exceptionally complicated
the whole subject is. Adkins, for example, at one point in his
standard textbook3 introduces a block of 22 parameters;
others have gone before, and more follow. Again, one of the
present authors6 devoted a long chapter to the study of (i)
the balanced short circuit and (ii) the unbalanced steady stateUnbalanced short circuits, such as the lineline short circuit
considered in this paper, he neglected as being too difficult.
The root cause of the difficulty is that the voltage equations,
which can readily be established, cannot be solved in closed
form, and the methods of conventional analysis, being
oriented towards balanced sinusoidal steadystate operation,
are really quite unsuited to problems possessing none of these
properties. An altogether different approach is required.
From the time of Euler, however, an alternative method of
solution of nonlinear simultaneous differential equations has
been well known. This is the stepbystep solution.7 Until
quite recently, this type of solution has had no engineering
value, because of the prohibitive amount of computation
involved. The increasing availability of digital computers has
eliminated this difficulty. In the present context, there is the
additional advantage that the original voltage equations can
be used without the need for any transfomations.
In the following Section, the simplest practical case, that
of the sudden short circuit of the roundrotor singlephase
machine without dampers, is worked through in detail to
illustrate the method. The analysis is then extended to cover
the salientpole 3phase machine with dampers. It is assumed
that the magnetic circuit is laminated throughout, so that the
damping effects of eddy currents may be neglected. The
results are compared with test results, and also with those
obtained by using the method of Ching and Adkins.
The sudden symmetrical short circuit of the 3phase
synchronous generator, although simpler to analyse, is comparatively unusual, the most frequently encountered faults
being lineline and lineneutral short circuits.
The singlephase short circuit on an alternator without
dampers was first analysed by Doherty and Nickle.1 Concordia2 later extended the treatment to cover machines with
dampers, and studied each of the three types of unbalanced
short circuit. The method used by these authors was to derive
the initial values of the components of the currents by approximate methods, and to estimate a time constant appropriate
to each component.3 Ching and Adkins4 have obtained more
rigorous mathematical solutions, subject to certain assumptions about the relative magnitudes of the parameters.
Hwang5 has analysed the lineearth short circuit of a machine
without dampers by a method of successive approximations.
A study of these papers, or indeed of those dealing with
the symmetrical short circuit, leaves two clear impressions;
first, that at the end of it all the solutions are still only
Paper 6332 P, first received 6th August and in revised form 24th
September 1970
Mr. Reddy and Dr. Jones are with the Department of Electrical
Engineering & Electronics, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill,
PO Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, England
PROC. IEE, Vol. 118, No. 1, JANUARY 1971
Fig. 1
Diagram of the singlephase machine
161
Sudden short circuit of the singlephase
machine
The voltage equations of any 2winding machine (see
Fig. 1) may be written down in a general form directly from
Faraday's law
VF = RFiF + {LFiF + MFaia)
0)
V
a = RJa + J^a'a
+ MaFiF)
In the present problem, the assumption of a cylindrical air gap
and appropriate slot skewing will make the self inductances
LF and La independent of the rotor position 6, and the
mutual inductance will be a simple cosine function MFa =
MaF = Mcos 6. Since suddenly switching the machine on to a
particular load can be dealt with by adding the load impedance
to the armature impedance, it follows that a short circuit,
va = 0, may be considered without loss of generality. The
above equations are motor equations, so that reversing the
sign of ia to apply to generator operation gives
U
VF =
'F
.
dt
aA
a"'a
MCOSC/
dt
di
expression 6 = iot + 8 is specified, the initial rates of change
of currents may be determined. In the present case, with, say,
IF = 1A and 8 = 45 there is dijdt =  4600 A/s and
diFjdt = 2507 A/s. It may be assumed that these rates of
change are maintained over a very short interval of time, say
005ms, so that the new values of the currents at the end of
this interval become ia =  0230 A and ;> = 0987 A. The
introduction of these new currents into eqn. 3, together with
the new value of 6, gives the new rates of change, and so on.
This type of problem is ideally suited to the digital computer,
which,'if fitted with an xy plotter, can be arranged to draw
the current waves directly. The programming is straightforward, but it is important to check convergence by comparing results for different increments of time, and it may be
necessary to use a more precise method of numerical integration such as the RungeKutta method.
Fig. 2 shows the computed and test results for sudden short
circuits at two different switching angles.
Fig. 3 shows the comparison for sudden switching of a
resistive load. The agreement is seen to be close.
2.1
BL
(2)
0 = Raia + Laj Mcos 8 + wMsin 8iF
where cu = ddjdt. Rearrangement now gives
d'a _(VF RF'F ~ wMsin 6ia)Mcos 6 (Raia + coMsin 6iF)LF
It
LFLa  M2 cos2 6
dip _ (VF RFiF wM sin 6ia)La (Raia + wM sin 6iF)M cos 6
It
LFLa  M 2 cos2 0
It is a simple matter to determine the parameters in the righthand sides of these equations. The test generator described in
Appendix 8.2 has the parameters
La = 0 00S12H
LF=\ 305H
M = 0 1005i7
The initial values of the currents are iF = IF, the d.c. value,
and ia = 0, so that, once the instant of short circuit 8 in the
Discussion
It will be appreciated that the electromagnetic theory,
laboratory testing, numerical analysis and computer programming required for this problem are very elementary, and thus
make a remarkable contrast with the conventional treatment.
(3)
The problem can, in fact, be successfully tackled by undergraduates with virtually no previous knowledge of synchronous machines.8 On the other hand, it might be argued that
this type of solution gives no general information such as,
for example, the influence of the various parameters, and
that the classical treatment, although very difficult, does
ultimately present the result in terms of quantities, e.g. the
Fig. 2
Shortcircuit currents of
the singlephase machine
VF = 21V, 1F = O83A
predicted
experimental
a First two cycles (8 = 180)
b First two cycles (S= 103)
c Steady state
PROC. IEE, Vol. 118, No. 1, JANUARY 1971
extent, a matter of fashion. As an example, it was, until quite
recently, taken for granted that an understanding of the
transformer or induction motor required vector or circle
diagrams, but these are now obsolescent, and understanding
is obtained instead from a study of the equivalent circuit.
Nevertheless, with the exact solution obtained so easily, it is
worthwhile to look for a simple approximation which may
help to elucidate the mechanism. The point being made is
that the introduction of approximations at the end is significantly different from their introduction at the commencement,
when their validity may be quite difficult to judge.
directaxis transient reactance, which have meaningful physical
significance. It is doubtful whether this argument is valid.
In the first place, the effects of varying a parameter may be
easily found by recomputing. Secondly, arguments about
'understanding' seem to be very subjective and, to some
2.2
Approximate solution
The simplest approximation is to neglect the resistances. This implies that the voltage VF applied to the field
is also zero. After this, only derivatives remain in eqn. 1, so
that instant integration is possible, giving
LFiF M c o s 6ia = LFIF
Laia M cos diF = M cos 8lF
(4)
These equations represent the constantfluxlinkage theorem,
the quantities on the righthand side being the initial values.
Rearrangement gives the currents
'a
. _
'F
Fig. 3
VF = 51 V, Ip = 1 5 A, Pioad = 11 5 n , 8 = 177
predicted
experimental
8O
LFLa M cos 6 cos 8
LFLa  M2 cos 2 ^
(5)
f
8O
4O
?\ ft"
8O
The approximate and exact solutions for a sudden short circuit
are compared in Figs. 4a and Ab for two different switching
angles. Examination of these Figures shows that neglecting
the resistances has led to appreciable overestimates for the
first peak.
The influence of the switching angle 8 on the magnitude of
the first peak may be investigated by determining the maximum
Currents for resistive load on singlephase machine
I6O
LpM (cos 6 cos 8)
LFLa  M2 cos 2 e
4O
27T
7TW27T
' \l
.I ! i
I6O
8O "
"V
Fig. 4
Comparison of exact and approximate solutions for singlephase machine
VF = 20V, IF = 083A)
exact
approximate
a First cycle (8 = 0)
b First cycle (8 = 90)
c Steady state
PROC. IEE, Vol. 118, No. 1, JANUARY 1971
,163
where j8 = {1  y/{\  2 )/l + V d  k2)}. For the machine,
under consideration, k = 0 942 so that ft = 0 498 and the
relative magnitudes of the first five harmonics are 1st = 100,
3rd = 50, 5th = 25, 7th = 12, 9th = 6. This particular waveform has a higher harmonic content than is common. At
6 = 90, all the harmonics add numerically, giving the peaky
waveform which seems to be characteristic of this form of
operation.
value of the approximate expression for the armature current
above. This occurs when 6 = TT, and is given by
(6)
The worst condition is when S = 0, i.e. when the generated
voltage is zero. The current after half a cycle then reaches
the peak value (2coMjx'd)IF, and the importance of the
leakage or transient reactance x'd = a>(La M2fLF) is clear.
x'd is a small reactance, and neglecting the resistances is not
legitimate at this point.
For the steadystate condition, the current will lag behind
the voltage by almost 90. Writing 8 = 90 in the expression
for the field current above gives iF = IFj{\ k2 sin2 cot),
where k = M/\/(LFLa)
is the coupling factor. The mean value
of this current is not IF but {l/\/U k2)}IF, and it follows
VF
vD = 0
vQ = 0
= 0
RF + LFp
MFDp
0
_MFp sin 6
a(ss) ~
Lineline short circuit
The case of the lineline short circuit of the 3phase
machine with damper windings is a straightforward extension
of the singlephase case. The general voltage equation of the
complete 3phase machine is well known. 6 It may be modified
to apply to the present problem by omitting the red phase
and connecting the yellow and blue windings together, to give
MFDp
RD f LDp
0
0
MFp sin 6
M^/7 sin 6
i? Q + JLJ3/>
MQp COS #
Af^p sin 6
MQp COS 0
that the steadystate armature current will be given by writing
8 = 90 and replacing IF by \/(l k2)IF in eqn. 5:
l
sin a>t
1  k2 sin2 cot Fa
v/(l
i? a + Ldp sin 0 + I ^ p cos
(8)
(9)
'Q
and the only new feature is the 2ndharmonic component of
the armature self inductance due to saliency.
This equation may be written in matrix form
(7)
where IFa = (MlLa)IF is the field current referred to the
armature.
This current is compared with the exact current in Fig. Ac,
and agreement is seen to be uniformly close.
Finally, eqn. 7 may be expanded as a sine series to give
= 0 + j6) (sin cot jS sin 3cot
+ )82 sin 5cot  + . . .)//
'F
'D
= RI+p(LI)
 RI + Lpl + coGI
(10)
where G = dL/dd, so that the rates of change of current are
given by
pi
= L\V
RI  OJGI)
Since L is a 4 x 4 inductance matrix, the determination of its
inverse algebraically would be laborious. This is, however,
unnecessary, because, once the switching angle 8 is specified,
I2OL
Fig. 5
Currents for lineline short circuit
vF = 2ov, if = O83A
predicted
experimental
a First two cycles (S = 96)
b First two cycles (8 = 185)
c Steady state
164
PROC. IEE, Vol. 118, No. 1, JANUARY 1971
numerical values can be calculated at any instant for each
term in L, and inversion can be done numerically by calling
the appropriate subroutine in the computer program.
Standstill tests were carried out on the generator described
in Appendix 8.2 to measure the parameters, and the results
were used to compute the shortcircuit current waveforms.
Numerical integration was effected using the RungeKutta
method with a time interval of 0 0001 s.
Fig. 5 compares the predicted values of the field and armature currents with the oscillograms of the actual shortcircuit
tests for two different switching angles. The steadystate
currents, which are common to all switching angles, are also
compared.
Fig. 6 gives similar comparisons for the sudden switching
of a resistive load. Here the steady state is reached almost
immediately, there being virtually no transient phase. The
switching angle is therefore irrelevant.
In both Figures, the agreement between predicted and test
results is regarded as being very close, perhaps remarkably so
when one recalls the extreme simplicity of the approach.
4
Approximate solution
Once again, with the predicted results confirmed, it is
interesting to examine the approximate solutions obtained by
neglecting the resistances. The analysis follows the same
pattern as the singlephase case, but the detailed algebraic
work, which is now more involved, is relegated to Appendix
8.1. With VF and all the resistances zero, the voltage equations may be integrated immediately to give the four fluxlinkage equations. These are first processed to give the
currents immediately after the short circuit. In particular, the
field and armature currents are
4r
. _
la
4 "
Fig. 6
Currents for lineline resistive load
VP = 50V, IF = 15A,Rioad = 115 0 , 8
predicted
experimental
=  127
a>Mp (sin 9 sin 8)
~ V^x'J sin2 9 + x'^ cos2 9)
~
MF (sin 9 sin 8) sin 9
L*F )
00
x'J sin 9 f x'g cos 9
where IF is thefieldcurrent before the short circuit, the starred
quantities are damped inductances,6 and the doubleprimed
quantities are subtransient reactances defined in Appendix 8.1.
Figs, la and 1b give the comparison between the exact and
approximate solutions for two different switching angles.
Initially, the results are close, and there is reasonable qualitative agreement throughout. Neglecting the resistances does,
however, lead to a serious overestimate of the first and subsequent peaks.
16 r
AAr
8O
I6O
Fig. 7
Comparison of exact and approximate solutions for lineline short circuit
VF = 20V, IF = O83A
exact
approximate
a First cycle (S = 90)
b First cycle (6 = 180) .
c Steady state
PROC. IEE, Vol. 118, No. 1, JANUAR Y 1971
165
The maximum armature current, from eqn. 11, is
* n win v
' (1 + sin 8)
where Xd is the directaxis synchronous reactance. Conventional analysis6 gives, for the r.m.s. value,
(12)
'0/
(15)
Z_
where Ko/ is the r.m.s. line voltage before short circuit. The
worst switching angle is 90, as shown in Fig. la, and the
critical parameter is the subtransient reactance x"d. This is a
very small quantity, compared with which the resistances
cannot be neglected in the machine under test.
Expressions for the steadystate currents are also derived
in Appendix 8.1. These are
sin 0
coMF{xd +
cos 2
a>Mf
1 
(13)
Since the positivesequence reactance per phase can be
identified with the directaxis synchronous reactance Xd, it
follows that the negativesequence impedance Z_ must, in
the absence of resistance, be given by jy/(x'd'x'). Now in
the conventional approach, if the current is assumed to be
sinusoidal, the fundamental of the voltage, which is not
sinusoidal, leads to Z_ being the arithmetic mean of the two
subtransient reactances.6 Conversely, assuming a sinusoidal
voltage and taking the current fundamental leads to the
harmonic mean.3 The true value is now seen to be the geometric mean, which lies between the arithmetic and harmonic
means, and was, in fact, intuitively used by one of the
authors.6
Expanding in Fourier series, the expressions for the steadystate currents in the armature and field become
xd sin2 0 + x'q cos2 0.
l
Fig. 1c compares the exact and approximate solutions for the
steadystate case. Agreement here is seen to be very close.
It follows that eqn. 13 may be regarded as giving an
accurate representation of the steadystate currents, and it is
of interest to compare these expressions with those of conventional analysis. Conventional analysis is primarily concerned with the fundamental. of the armaturecurrent wave,
and this may perhaps be regarded as a further limitation,
in view of the marked harmonic content of the actual waveform shown in Fig. 7c. The fundamental of the expression
for ia in eqn. 13 is given by
01
a(ss)
Xd
(sin 6  j8 sin 30 + j82 sin 50 ...)
F(ss) 
(16)
2OJMFX'
iXj 4 \/(x"x")M(x" 4 \/(x"x")\
(cos 20  j8 cos 40 + 2 cos 60  . . .)
where p
v/2Ko/sin0
. (14)
. ,,
jTT
It will be noticed that, if the two subtransient reactances were
Art
27T
I2O 1 
Fig.8
Comparison of computer method with that of Ching and Adkins for lineline short circuit
Vp = 20V, IF = O83A
computer
Ching and Adkins
a First two cycles (5 = 96)
b First two cycles (8 = 185)
c Steady state
166
PROC. IEE, Vol. 118, No. 1, JANUARY 1971
equal, the armaturecurrent wave would be a pure sine wave,
and the field current would have only a 2ndharmonic component superimposed on the direct current.
For the machine being considered, Table 1 gives a comparison of the harmonics obtained from the digital computer
solution with those obtained from eqn. 16. This gives a
quantitative measure of the accuracy of the approximation.
Fig. 8 compares the two sets of results. These are naturally
almost identical for the steadystate phase. In the subtransient
phase, the agreement is much closer than was the case when
the resistances were entirely neglected, but there is a measurable
difference between the results.
Conclusions
The main conclusion is undoubtedly that the lineline short circuit, which is exceptionally difficult to treat by
conventional methods, turns out to be remarkably straightforward when treated by computeraided analysis. The analysis
is carried out in terms of the fundamental voltage equations
of the machine. No current or voltage transformations have
been employed, nor have the resistances been neglected; the
computed current waveforms are complete, not merely the
fundamental component. The computed and measured values
are in close agreement throughout. One feels that the computer has rendered obsolete the traditional approach to
transient problems of this type, since the computer approach
is general and applicable to all terminal conditions. Further,
any form of variations in the inductance parameters due to
saliency, winding distribution etc. can easily be incorporated
in the program.
Table 1
COMPARISON
OF HARMONIC
COMPONENTS
Order of
harmonic
Computer
solution
Armature
current
Fundamental
3
5
7
9
1000
0285
0 082
0 024
0 007
1000
0291
0 085
0025
0 007
Field
Direct current
2
4
6
8
1000
0800
0230
0 067
0019
1000
0817
0238
0 069
0 020
current
Vp = 2 0 V; lp =
Approximate
solution
083A
Finally, the effects of saturation, which have been neglected
during the computation, may be examined. During the subtransient phase, the field flux linkages, and therefore the
saturation level, are constant at LFIF. It is shown in
Appendix 8.1 that, between the subtransient and steadystate
phases, the field flux linkages fall to
References
DOHERTY, R. E., and NICKLE, c. A.: 'Synchronous machines I V ,
Trans. Amer. Inst. Elect. Engrs., 1928, 47, pp. 457492
2 CONCORDIA, c.: 'Synchronous machines' (Wiley, 1951)
3 ADKINS, B. : 'The general theory of electrical machines' (Chapman
& Hall, 1959)
4
xd + VO
where x'd is the transient reactance. Although this has not
been done, there would appear to be no difficulty in taking
saturation into account throughout the short circuit, by
finding the field flux linkages during each interval of time,
and deriving the appropriate values of the inductances from
the magnetisation characteristic.
7
8
Comparison with conventional methods
It may be of interest to compare the computational
method with the classical methods of solution. Of the methods
developed by previous authors,1"5 that presented by Ching
and Adkins appears to be the most rigourous. The appropriate values of the parameters of the machine under test
were therefore introduced into the expressions developed by
Ching and Adkins.
CHING, Y. K., and ADKINS, B.: 'Transient theory of synchronous
generators under unbalanced conditions', Proc. IEE, 1954, 101,
Pt. IV, pp. 166182
HWANG, H. H.: 'Transient analysis of unbalanced shortcircuit of
synchronous machines', IEEE Trans., 1969, PAS88, pp. 6771
JONES, c. v.: 'The unified theory of electrical machines' (Butterworth,
1967)
HILDEBRAND, F. B.:'Introduction to numerical analysis'(McGrawHill, 1956)
JONES, c. v.: 'Computeraided machine analysis'. Presented at
EM70 conference, Dundee, Scotland, July 13, 1970
Appendixes
8.1
Approximate analysis of the lineline short
circuit
The assumption that all the resistances are zero implies
Vf = 0. Eqn. 10 then reduces to p(LI) = 0, so that LI = L0IQ.
To make use of the same analysis for both the steadystate
and transient conditions, it is helpful to introduce the more
general boundary conditions at t = 0, namely
t = 0
iF = I'F
iD =
I'D
'Q
' =
Integration then gives the constantfluxlinkage equations
LF
MFD
0
MF sin
MFD
LD
0
MD sin 6
0
0
LQ
MF sin 0
M D sin 9
MQ COS 0
'F
Mo cos 0 Ld sin 0 + Lo
LFI'F + MFDI'D
MFDI'F + LDI'D
0
l(MFI'F + MDr'D) sin 8,
(18)
Writing /> = (i>  I'F) + I'F, iD = (iD  I'D) + I'D, and re
arranging the order of the rows and columns, leads to
lvl
0
Jup
JvipSHiu
FD
M\fF sin 9 Ld sin 2 0 + Lq cos 2 0 M D sin 9 M e cos 9
M FD
f, sin 0
0
0
AfG cos 0
0
Le
iF I'F
~V2ia
>D I'D

'Q
(MFrF + MDI'D) (sin d  sin 8)
0
0
(19)
The currents in the damper windings may now be eliminated
in the normal way to give
M* sin 6
\_M* sin 9 L*, sin2 d + L* cos2 0
P/?OC. IEE, Vol. 118, No. 1, JANUARY 1971
(Mpl,J'P + MDI'D) (sin 0  sin S)J
(20)
167
the flux linkages during the steadystate phase are found,
upon simplification, to be
where
r*
iY
LF  LF
Fl>
M* =
MF
MDMFD
''d ^d
f x'd
(21)
JT)
F F
1 y
dXq
\.*d
where x'd Ld M}fLF\?, the directaxis transient reactance.
are the damped inductances. 6 The solution of eqn. 20 is
iF I'F = (y^r)w(M / r/^. + MDI'D)
\LF /
(sin 6 sin S) sin 6
x"d sin2 6 + x'q' cos 2 d
82
(22)
Parameters of the test machine
A laboratory generalised machine which satisfied
required conditions was chosen as both the singlephase
3phase machine. The resistances were measured by
tests. The remaining parameters were determined from
W, or W
sin 6 sin 5
V2ia =
the
and
d.c.
a.c.
where
(23)
The damper currents, if required, may be recovered from
nD  rD~\ _ r(M /L )
L iQ \ " L 0
FD
(MD/LD)
sin ei
(M G /L e ) cos
riF F   iFi
V2/J
(24)
The subtransient currents in eqn. 11 are obtained by writing
the true initial conditions J'F IF and I'D = 0 in eqn. 22.
In the steadystate condition, it is not the initial values of
iF and iD, which are IF and 0, respectively, but their mean
values over a cycle. The mean values of iF and iD may be
obtained by integrating eqns. 22 and 24. Equating these
mean values to JF and 0 then enables the currents at the
start of the steadystate cycle to be determined. These are
: = /, i
r^j
Xd + v
(25)
MFDMp
Introducing these values into eqn. 22 with 8 = 0 gives the
steadystate currents of eqn. 13.
From eqn. 18, the flux linkages with the field are given by
LFJ'F + MFD1'D. The initial value of this expression at / = 0
is LF1F, so that, throughout the subtransient phase, the
saturation corresponds to a field current of IF, the value
before the short circuit was applied. With the aid of eqn. 25
Fig. 9
Circuits for a.c. standstill tests
a Test circuit
b Equivalent circuit
standstill tests. With the notation of the test circuit of Fig. 9a,
the results obtained are tabulated in Table 2.
On the assumption of an equivalent circuit of the type
shown in Fig. 9b, the armature and field tests both lead to
the same value of mutual inductance, which confirms that
similar saturation conditions have been attained. Tests for
various rotor angles showed that the harmonic content of
the mutual inductance between the armature and the field was
less than 1 %; this was neglected. The complete list of parameters is given in Table 3. The total fieldcircuit resistance,
which differed between tests, is indicated in the individual
figure captions.
Table 3
MACHINE PARAMETERS
Table 2
Winding 1
Winding 2
V\
/.
Vl
W21
462 5
86 4
86 6
800
120
125
armature
field
f/damper
q damper
40 14 65
w
85
field
armature
^/damper
482
1 18
75
37 3
84 2
r/damper
armature
602 3 04
34
18 35
219 5
70
1175
602 3 04
33
18 25
70
90
fieJd
^damper
168
armature
phase machine
Singlephase machine
MEASUREMENT OF INDUCTANCE COEFFICIENTS
425
10
deg
0
0
90
La == 000872H
== 1305H
M == 01005H
= 01500
Ld =
LF
L = 000436 H
n
LF = 1305 H
MF =
LQ =
MFD =
MD == Mp =
Ra =
RD = RQ =
LD
007106H
00635H
0229H
OO1361H
OO75fi
140O
A point of interest is that the dampers were accessible, so
that their parameters could be measured directly. In general,
the dampers would be inaccessible, so that their properties
would have to be deduced from inductancebridge and a.c.
standstill tests. 6
PROC. IEE, Vol. 118, No. I, JANUARY 1971