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MPLS- ISP NETWORK CONSOLIDATION

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree


of B.Tech.
Submitted By
Kshitij Chaudhary
(Roll No. 1212043)
Under the Supervision
OF
MR. SANDEEP MEHTA

CANDIDATES DECLARATION

I, Kshitij Chaudhary, bearing roll number:1212043 student of B. Tech (ECE) hereby declared
that I own the full responsibility for the information, result etc. provided in this project titled
MPLS- ISP NETWORK CONSOLIDATION. I have taken care to honor the intellectual
property right and have acknowledged the contributions of other for using them in this
academic purpose. I further declared that in case of any violation of intellectual property right
or copyright I as the candidate would be fully responsible for the same. My supervisor and
institute should not be held for full or partial violation of copyright if found at any stage of
my degree.

Kshitij Chaudhary
1212043
ECE
6th SEMESTER.
2

CERTIFICATE BY THE SUPERVISOR

It is certified that this thesis report titled MPLS- ISP NETWORK CONSOLIDATION
by Kshitij Chaaudhary in the partial fulfillment of requirement for the award of Bachelor of
Technology (Electronics and communication Engineering ) is a record of students own work
carried out under my supervision and guidance. The work contained in this dissertation is at
per university standards. I wish her good success in life.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Completing a task is never a one mans effort. It is the result of invaluable contribution of a
number of individuals.
From the depth of my heart, I wish to express my thanks to Mr. Ankit Chauhan , Senior
Engineer not only for his valuable guidance but also for inspiration, encouragement,
patience, interest and pain staking fortitude during the entire period of industrial training. It
has been a matter of great pride and satisfaction for me to work under him.
Words cannot express my gratitude to Mr. Sandeep Mehta, GM who helped me in this
endeavor. I take this opportunity to express my sincere thanks to him. Their knowledge and
professional management style created friendly environment. They provided whatever help
was required at all time to keep the training work on right course and towards the right target.
It has been a privilege and pleasure to take guidance from them.
I wish to record my heartiest thanks for Mr. Krishankumar, HR Department, for granting
me the permission to work as a trainee in this esteemed organization.
I would also thank entire staff of Bharti Airtel Ltd. who has directly or indirectly helped in
making my training a success and making it an educational experience.

Kshitij Chaudhary

INDEX

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION TO BHARTI
AIRTEL
1.1 ABOUT BHARTI AIRTEL
1.2 HISTORY OF BHARTI AIRTEL
1.3 COORPORATE STRUCTURE
1.4 ORGANISATION STRUCTURE
1.5 WORLDWIDE PRESENCE
1.6 ACHIEVEMENTS
1.7 DEPARTMENT OF TRAINING
1.8 TEAMS IN NOC
1.81DATA NOC-NS

CHAPTER 2

CHAPTER 3

1.82 DATA NOC-FAULT TEAM


1.83 DATA NOC- CHANGE MANAGEMENT
TEAM
1.84 DATA NOC- TAC3 TEAM
1.85 DATA NOC- PROVISIONING TEAM
2.1 OSI MODEL
2.2 THE SEVEN LAYERS
2.21 APPLICATION LAYER
2.22 PRESENTATION LAYER
2.23 SESSION LAYER
2.24 TRANSPORT LAYER
2.25 NETWORK LAYER
2.26 DATA LINK LAYER
2.27 PHYSICAL LAYER
2.3 I.P ADDRESS
2.31 IPv4
2.32 IPv6
2.4 PRIVATE AND PUBLIC IP ADDRESS
2.41PRIVATE IP ADDRESS
2.42PUBLIC IP ADDRESS
2.5 STATIC AND DYNAMIC IP ADDRESS
2.51DYNAMIC IP ADDRESS
2.52 STATIC IP ADDRESS
2.6 IP CLASSES
2.7 SUBNETTING
2.71 SUBNET MASK
2.8 NETWORKING DEVICES
2.81 NIC
2.82 ROUTER
2.83 HUB
2.84 SWITCH
2.84.1 SWITCHING
3.1 NETWORK SERVICE PROVIDER
3.11 ISP
5

CHAPTER 4

CHAPTER 4

CHAPTER 5
CHAPTER 6

3.11.1 CLASSIFICATION
3.11.2 BASIC NETWORK
3.12 MPLS
3.12.1 HISTORY
3.12.2 LABEL SWITCHING
3.12.3 ARCHITECTURE
3.12.4 REASONS TO CHOOSE MPLS
4.1 COMMONLY USED PROTOCOLS
4.11 Is-Is
4.12 BGP
4.13 LDP
4.2 PuTTY
4.21 ROUTER LOGGIN
4.22 FEATURES
4.1 COMMANDS USED
4.11CISCO/JUNIPER COMMANDS
4.2 SOME COMMANDS AND RESULTS
4.3 PING
4.31PING COMMAND
5.1 DAY TO DAY TASKS
6.1CONCLUSION
6.2BIBLIOGRAPHY

CHAPTER-1
COMPANY PROFILE
BHARTI AIRTEL LTD.

1.1.

Company Information

Full name
Bharti Airtel Ltd.

Status: Listed
Legal Form: Public Limited Company
Operational Status: Operational
Legal Address
ISIN CODE : INE397D01016
Bharti Crescent, 1 , Nelson Mandela Road,
Financial Auditors: SR Batliboi & Associates
Vasant Kunj , Phase - II; Delhi; Delhi; 110070 (2011)
Incorporation Date: July 7, 1995
Total Employees: 18,354
Tel: +91-11-46666100

1.2.

Company Description

Bharti Airtel Limited, commonly known as Airtel, is an Indian telecommunications


Services Company headquartered at New Delhi, India. It operates in 20 countries across
South Asia, Africa and the Channel Islands. Airtel has GSM network in all countries in which
it operates, providing 2G, 3G and 4G services depending upon the country of operation.
Airtel is the world's fourth largest mobile telecommunications company with over 261
million subscribers across 20 countries as of August 2012. It is the largest cellular service
provider in India, with 183.61 million subscribers as of November 2012. Airtel is the third
largest in-country mobile operator by subscriber base, behind China Mobile and China
Unicom.
Airtel is the largest provider of mobile telephony and second largest provider of fixed
telephony in India, and is also a provider of broadband and subscription television services. It
offers its telecom services under the Airtel brand, and is headed by Sunil Bharti Mittal. Bharti
Airtel is the first Indian telecom service provider to achieve Cisco Gold Certification. It also
acts as a carrier for national and international long distance communication services. The
company has a submarine cable landing station at Chennai, which connects the submarine
cable connecting Chennai and Singapore.
7

Airtel is credited with pioneering the business strategy of outsourcing all of its business
operations except marketing, sales and finance and building the 'minutes factory' model of
low cost and high volumes. The strategy has since been copied by several operators. Its
networkbase stations, microwave links, etc.is maintained by Ericsson and Nokia
Siemens Networkwhereas business support is provided by IBM, and transmission towers are
maintained by another company (Bharti Infratel Ltd. in India). Ericsson agreed for the first
time to be paid by the minute for installation and maintenance of their equipment rather than
being paid up front, which allowed Airtel to provide low call rates of 1/minute
(US$0.02/minute). During the last financial year (200910), Bharti negotiated for its strategic
partner Alcatel-Lucent to manage the network infrastructure for the tele-media business. On
31 May 2012, Bharti Airtel awarded the three-year contract to Alcatel-Lucent for setting up
an Internet Protocol access network (mobile backhaul) across the country. This would help
consumers access internet at faster speed and high quality internet browsing on mobile
handsets.
The company is structured into four strategic business units - Mobile, Telemedia, Enterprise
and Digital TV. The Telemedia business provides broadband, IPTV and telephone services in
89 Indian cities. The Digital TV business provides Direct-to-Home TV services across India.
The Enterprise business provides end-to-end telecom solutions to corporate customers and
national and international long distance services to telecom. Today, Airtel is the largest
cellular service provider in India and fifth largest in the world.

1.3.

History of Bharti Airtel Ltd.

Sunil Bharti Mittal founded the Bharti Group. In 1983, Sunil Mittal was into an agreement
with Germany's Siemens to manufacture the company's push-button telephone models for the
Indian market. In 1986, Sunil Bharti Mittal incorporated Bharti Telecom Limited (BTL) and
his company became the first in India to offer push-button telephones, establishing the basis
of Bharti Enterprises. This first-mover advantage allowed Sunil Mittal to expand his
manufacturing capacity elsewhere in the telecommunications market. By the early 1990s,
Sunil Mittal had also launched the country's first fax machines and its first cordless
telephones. In 1992, Sunil Mittal won a bid to build a cellular phone network in Delhi. In
1995, Sunil Mittal incorporated the cellular operations as Bharti Tele-Ventures and launched
service in Delhi. In 1996, cellular service was extended to Himachal Pradesh. In 1999, Bharti
Enterprises acquired control of JT Holdings, and extended cellular operations to Karnataka
and Andhra Pradesh. In 2000, Bharti acquired control of Sky cell Communications, in
Chennai. In 2001, the company acquired control of Spice Cell in Calcutta. Bharti Enterprises
went public in 2002, and the company was listed on Mumbai Stock Exchange and National
Stock Exchange of India. In 2003, the cellular phone operations were rebranded under the
single Airtel brand. In 2004, Bharti acquired control of Hexagon and entered Rajasthan. In
2005, Bharti extended its network to Andaman and Nicobar.
In 2009, Airtel launched its first international mobile network in Sri Lanka. In 2010, Airtel
began operating in Bangladesh and 16 African countries.

1.4.

Department Of Training- DATA NOC

A network operations center (NOC) is a place from which administrators supervise, monitor
and maintain a telecommunications network. Large enterprises with large networks as well as
large network service providers typically have a network operations center, a room containing
visualizations of the network or networks that are being monitored, workstations at which the
detailed status of the network can be seen, and the necessary software to manage the
networks. The network operations center is the focal point for network troubleshooting,
software distribution and updating, router and domain name management, performance
monitoring, and coordination with affiliated networks.
NOC are frequently laid out with several rows of desks, all facing a video wall, which
typically shows details of highly significant alarms, ongoing incidents and general network
performance; a corner of the wall is sometimes used for showing a news or weather TV
channel, as this can keep the NOC technicians aware of current events which may have an
impact on the network or systems they are responsible for. The back wall of a NOC is
sometimes glazed; there may be a room attached to this wall which is used by members of the
team responsible for dealing with serious incidents to meet while still able to watch events
unfolding within the NOC. Individual desks are generally assigned to a specific network,
technology or area. A technician may have several computer monitors on their desk, with the
9

extra monitors used for monitoring the systems or networks covered from that desk. The
location housing a NOC may also contain many or all of the primary servers and other
equipment essential to running the network, although it is not uncommon for a single NOC to
monitor and control a number of geographically dispersed sites.
Various departments which come under DATA NOC in Airtel office manesar where I am
going to be present during my training session are:

Network Surveillance,

Change Management,

Change Provisioning, Fault,

Traffic engineer.

NOC Engineers

A NOC engineer has several duties in order to ensure the smooth running of the network.
They deal with things such as network failures. There are of course the basic roles, such as
remote hands, support, and configuration of hardware (such as firewalls and routers,
purchased by a client). NOC engineers, also have to ensure the core network is stable. This
can be done by configuring hardware in a way that makes the network more secure, but still
have optimal performance. NOC Engineers are also responsible for monitoring activity, such
as network usage, temperatures etc. The majority of NOC engineers are also on call and have
a 7 day rota, working both day and night, on and off respectively.
Functions-NOCs analyze problems, perform troubleshooting, communicate with site
technicians and other NOCs, and track problems through resolution. When necessary, NOCs
escalate problems to the appropriate stakeholders. For severe conditions that are impossible
to anticipate, such as a power failure or a cut optical fiber cable, NOCs have procedures in
place to immediately contact technicians to remedy the problem.
Primary responsibilities of NOC personnel may include: Network monitoring, Incident
response, Communications management, reporting. NOCs often escalate issues in a
hierarchic manner, so if an issue is not resolved in a specific time frame, the next level is
informed to speed up problem remediation. NOCs sometimes have multiple tiers of
personnel, which define how experienced and/or skilled a NOC technician is. A newly-hired
NOC technician might be considered a "tier 1", whereas a technician that has several years of
experience may be considered "tier 3" or "tier 4". As such, some problems are escalated
within a NOC before a site technician or other network engineer is contacted.
NOC personnel may perform extra duties; a network with equipment in public areas (such as
a mobile network Base Transceiver Station) may be required to have a telephone number
10

attached to the equipment for emergencies; as the NOC may be the only continuously staffed
part of the business, these calls will often be answered there.

1.5.

Teams under NOC

The various teams under NOC are -

1.5.1.

DATA NOC-NS

There are various alarms which are being monitored by NS-DATA related to router and switches.
These alarms are used to monitor the link/backbone while it goes down. They are:
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h

Trunk Alarm
Memory Alarm
Hardware Alarm
MPLS, ISP, DCN, MEN Device Availability
BGP Peering Status
Label Distribution Protocol Alarm
ISIS Alarm
Temperature, CPU Process Alarm

For checking these alarms the software used is named as NETCOL.

1.5.2.

DATA NOC-FAULT TEAM

This department helps to solve any customer related issues. These issues are raised at the customer
end point. So, fault helps in resolving all that issues. There is various kinds of fault issues. On these
issues are resolved on the bases of severities. There are many functions performed by Fault
department to maintain the network in proper order.

1.5.3.

DATA NOC- CHANGE MANAGEMENT TEAM

Change management is an approach to transitioning individuals, teams, and organizations to a desired


future state. Change management uses basic structures and tools to control organizational change
efforts, with the goal of maximizing benefits and minimizing negative impact on those affected. In
some project management contexts, change management refers to a project management process
wherein changes to a project are formally introduced and approved.

1.5.4.

DATA NOC- TAC3 TEAM

TAC3 is another team present in data NOC which performs various important role in managing the
connection in between the router and switch.

11

TAC3 manages the limit of traffic on a particular router. If in case the limit of traffic increases they
are used to increase the capacity of that interfaces so that traffic can smoothly flow without any
interruption.TAC3 useful in Bandwidth upgradationTAC3 also controls all the international peering
data that is present in Info Vista. International peering here means is that connection in between the
India and foreign country to set a communication in between them in proper way without any damage.

1.5.5.

DATA NOC- PROVISIONING TEAM

The performance done by provisioning tem is it approves the customer to share the network. If any
new customer wants to join the network this team is responsible to allow them to use it by providing
suitable interfaces to the customer. This team adds a new customer to the network, the network in
which adding is already in working process. So, it is required to work in proper way otherwise there
will be a drawback.

12

CHAPTER-2
THEORTICAL PORTION
2.1.

IP Addressing

One of the most important topics in any discussion of TCP/IP is IP addressing. An IP


addressis a numeric identifier assigned to each machine on an IP network. It designates the
location of a device on the network. An IP address is a software address, not a hardware
addressthe latter is hardcoded on a network interface card (NIC) and used for finding hosts
on a local network. IP addressing was designed to allow a host on one network to
communicate with a host on a different network, regardless of the type of LANs the hosts is
participating in. An IP address consists of 32 bits of information. These bits are divided into
four sections, referred to as octets or bytes, each containing 1 byte (8 bits). You can depict an
IP address using one of three methods:
Dotted-decimal, as in 172.16.30.56
Binary, as in 10101100.00010000.00011110.00111000
The network address uniquely identifies each network. Every machine on the same network
shares that network address as part of its IP address. In the IP address 172.16.30.56, for
example, 172.16 is the network address. The node addressis assigned to, and uniquely
identifies, each machine on a network. This part of the address must be unique because it
identifies a particular Machinean individualas opposed to a network, which is a group.
This number can also be referred to as a host address. In the sample IP address
172.16.30.56, .30.56 is the node address. There are five different classes which come under ip
addressing. They are

Class A

The designers of the IP address scheme said that the first bit of the first byte in a Class
A network address must always be off, or 0. This means a Class A address must be between 0
and 127. Here is how those numbers are defined: 0xxxxxxx: If we turn the other 7 bits all off
and then turn them all on, we will find your Class A range of network addresses.
00000000=0
01111111=127
So, a Class A network is defined in the first octet between 0 and 127. It cant be less or more.

Class B

In a Class B network, the RFCs state that the first bit of the first byte must always be
turned on, but the second bit must always be turned off. If you turn the other six bits all off
and then all on, you will find the range for a Class B network:
13

10000000=128
10111111=191
As you can see, this means that a Class B network can be defined when the first byte is
configured from 128 to 191.

Class C

For Class C networks, the RFCs define the first two bits of the first octet always
turned on, but the third bit can never be on. Following the same process as the previous
classes, convert from binary to decimal to find the range. Here is the range for a Class C
network:
11000000=192
11011111=223
So, if you see an IP address that starts at 192 and goes to 223, youll know it is a Class C IP
address.

Classes D and E

The addresses between 224 and 255 are reserved for Class D and E networks. Class D
is used for multicast addresses and Class E for scientific purposes. We will not discuss Class
D and E addresses in this book.

2.2.

NETWORKING DEVICES

Networking devices do various kinds of jobs like transferring the data to signals, providing
connectivity to different network devices, transferring the data in form of packets or frames
form one device to other. These are the central connections for all the network equipments
and handle a data type known as frame or packet. Actually frames/ packet contain data and
the destination address of where it is going. When a frame is received, it is amplified and then
transmitted on to port of destination PC. But different networking components do this job in
diff form at diff layers.
2.2.1. Network Interface Card
A Network Interface Card (NIC) is a circuit board that plugs into both clients and servers and
controls the exchange of data between them (A specific softwaredriver must be installed
depending on the make of the NIC. A physical transmission medium, such as twisted pair or
14

coaxial cable interconnects all network interface cards to network hubs or switches. Ethernet
and Token Ring are common network interface cards. Todays cards supports 10baseT and
100baseT with automatic recognition.
2.2.2. HUB
When the need for interconnecting more than two devices together then a device known as
hub comes to picture. Basically hub is a layer one device. i.e. it operates on the physical layer
of the OSI model. It is designed to do broadcasting i.e when it gets any frame it broadcasts it
to every port irrespective that whether it is destined for that port or not. Hub has no way of
distinguishing which port a frame should be sent. Broadcasting results in lot of traffic on the
network which lead to poor network response. If two PC simultaneously transmit there data
packets and both are connected to a HUB, then collision will occur, so we can say, it creates a
single collision domain. On the other hand all PCs connected to a hub will get a same
message so a single broadcast domain will be created.
A 100/1000 Mbps hub must share its bandwidth with each and every one of its ports. So
when only one PC is broadcasting, it will have access to the max available bandwidth. If,
however, multiple PCs are broadcasting, then that bandwidth will need to be divided
between all of these systems, which will degrade the performance. They are usually HalfDuplex in nature.
2.2.3. SWITCH
Hubs are capable of joining more than two PC but having some demerits like if two PC
would want to communicate at a time then there would be a collision and the both PC would
have to send the data once again. This shortcoming of Hub is overcame by Switches.
Switches are intelligent devices which work on the Layer2 of the OSI model. Basically a
switch keeps a record of MAC addresses of all the devices connected to it. Using this
information, it builds a MAC address table.
So when a frame is received, it knows exactly which port to send it to, which increases the
network response time.
Basic Working Principle of Switch:

15

1. At the time of initializing the switch the MAC address table is yet to be built
up. When a frame is send by some of the PC, it recognizes the source MAC
address and update the MAC address table.
2. If the destination is available in the MAC table then forward to the
corresponding PC.
3. If the destination MAC address is not present in the table then forwards in all
the port available expect the incoming one. The designated PC will respond
for the data and it will send the acknowledgement for the data received. This
acknowledged data will be examined by the switch and the MAC address table
would be up dated accordingly.
If two PC simultaneously transmit there data packets and both are connected to a SWITCH,
then collision will not occur, so we can say, it creates a multiple collision domain.
The switch supports broadcast. Hence we can call switches create single broadcast domain
and multiple collision domains.
A 100/1000Mbps switch will allocate a full 100/1000 Mbps to each of its ports. So regardless
of the no of PCs transmitting user will always have access to max amt of bandwidth. They
are usually Full-Duplex in nature.
Switches are of two types:

Managed
Unmanaged

Managed switch supports SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)

2.2.4. ROUTER
Switch and the Hub can only interconnect devices in a single LAN. For interconnecting two
LAN or two or more different networks anther device known as router is used. Its main job is
to route (sends) packets to other networks and to do the routing (establishing paths between
networks) it uses the IP address.
A router is typically connected to at least two networks, commonly two LANs or WANs or a
LAN and its ISPs network. Routers are located at gateways, the places where two or more
16

networks connect. Routers to determine the best path for forwarding the packet are using
forwarding tables.

2.3.

It is a layer 3 device i.e it operates at network layer of OSI model. The working
principle of the router is totally different from a switch. Router makes a table known
as routing table, which contains all the IP address in the network, the information for
IP address router obtains directly ( all configured IP address on it ) or indirectly ( from
neighbor routers ). When a packet is received it compares the destination IP address of
the packet with the available IP addresses in its Routing table. If the IP address is not
available in the routing table then it simply discard the packet instead of flooding in
all the ports like a switch pilfered management.
Facilitated spanning of large geographical distances

Subnetting

Sub netting is a process of dividing large network into the smaller networks based on layer 3 IP
address. Every computer on network has an IP address that represents its location on network.
The half-and-double size concept is the very basic of sub netting

1 x2=2

2 x2=4

4 x2=8

8 x 2 = 16

half the size

16 x 2 = 32

32 x 2 = 64

64 x 2 = 128
128 x 2 = 256

V
double the size

|
|

17

In terms of sub netting

1 = /32 = 255.255.255.255
2 = /31 = 255.255.255.254
4 = /30 = 255.255.255.252
8 = /29 = 255.255.255.248
16 = /28 = 255.255.255.240
32 = /27 = 255.255.255.224
64 = /26 = 255.255.255.192
128 = /25 = 255.255.255.128
256 = /24 = 255.255.255.0

In terms of IP address quantity

/32: 2^0 = 1

= 1 IP address within the subnet

/31: 2^1 = 2 of /32 = 2 x 1 = 2 = 2 IP addresses within the subnet


/30: 2^2 = 2 of /31 = 2 x 2 = 4 = 4 IP addresses within the subnet
/29: 2^3 = 2 of /30 = 2 x 4 = 8 = 8 IP addresses within the subnet
/28: 2^4 = 2 of /29 = 2 x 8 = 16 = 16 IP addresses within the subnet
/27: 2^5 = 2 of /28 = 2 x 16 = 32 = 32 IP addresses within the subnet
/26: 2^6 = 2 of /27 = 2 x 32 = 64 = 64 IP addresses within the subnet
/25: 2^7 = 2 of /26 = 2 x 64 = 128 = 128 IP addresses within the subnet
/24: 2^8 = 2 of /25 = 2 x 128 = 256 = 256 IP addresses within the subnet

2.3.1.

Subnet mask

Subnet mask is a 32 bits long address used to distinguish between network address and host address in
IP address. Subnet mask is always used with IP address. Subnet mask has only one purpose, to
identify which part of an IP address is network address and which part is host address.
18

In decimal notation subnet mask value 1 to 255 represent network address and value 0 [Zero]
represent host address.
In binary notation subnet mask on bit [1] represent network address while off bit[0] represent host
address.
In decimal notation
IP address
192.168.1.10
Subnet mask
255.255.255.0
Network address is 192.168.1 and host address is 10.
In binary notation
IP address 11000000.10101000.00000001.00001010
Subnet mask 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000

P Class

Default Subnet

Network bits

Host bits

Total hosts

Valid hosts

255.0.0.0

First 8 bits

Last 24 bits

16, 777, 216

16, 777, 214

255.255.0.0

First 16 bits

Last 16 bits

65,536

65,534

255.255.255.0

First 24 bits

Last 8 bits

256

254

Example to show the same:

1 = /32 = 255.255.255.255
2 = /31 = 255.255.255.254
4 = /30 = 255.255.255.252
8 = /29 = 255.255.255.248
16 = /28 = 255.255.255.240
32 = /27 = 255.255.255.224
64 = /26 = 255.255.255.192
128 = /25 = 255.255.255.128
256 = /24 = 255.255.255.0

Another format of displaying subnet mask is by using CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing) format. Where the 4-tup
above table rightmost column, the CIDR format is shown on the above table leftmost column. To clarify, check out foll
IP Address Quantity
Within Subnet
1
2

CIDR format subnet mask


4-tuple octet format subnet mask
(Prefix)
/32
255.255.255.255
/31
255.255.255.254
19

4
8
16
32
64
128
256

2.4.

/30
/29
/28
/27
/26
/25
/24

255.255.255.252
255.255.255.248
255.255.255.240
255.255.255.224
255.255.255.192
255.255.255.128
255.255.255.0

Important protocols used

2.4.1. IS-IS
Intermediate System To Intermediate System (IS-IS), sometimes called is-is, is a routing
protocol designed to move information efficiently within a computer network, a group of
physically connected computers or similar devices. It accomplishes this by determining the
best route for datagrams through a packet-switched network. The protocol was defined in
ISO/IEC 10589:2002 as an international standard within the Open Systems Interconnection
(OSI) reference design. Though originally an ISO standard, the IETF republished the protocol
as an Internet Standard in RFC 1142. IS-IS has been called "the de facto standard for large
service provider network backbones.
IS-IS (pronounced "i-s i-s") is an interior gateway protocol, designed for use within an
administrative domain or network. This is in contrast to Exterior Gateway Protocols,
primarily Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), which is used for routing between autonomous
systems (RFC 1930).
IS-IS is a link-state routing protocol, operating by reliably flooding link state information
throughout a network of routers. Each IS-IS router independently builds a database of the
network's topology, aggregating the flooded network information. Like the OSPF protocol,
IS-IS uses Dijkstra's algorithm for computing the best path through the network. Packets
(datagrams) are then forwarded, based on the computed ideal path, through the network to the
destination.
2.4.2. MPLS

20

Multiprotocol

Label

Switching

(MPLS)

is

mechanism

in

high-performance

telecommunications networks that directs data from one network node to the next based on
short path labels rather than long network addresses, avoiding complex lookups in a routing
table. The labels identify virtual links (paths) between distant nodes rather than endpoints.
MPLS can encapsulate packets of various network protocols. MPLS supports a range of
access technologies, including T1/E1, ATM, Frame Relay, and DSL.
MPLS is a highly scalable, protocol agnostic, data-carrying mechanism. In an MPLS
network, data packets are assigned labels. Packet-forwarding decisions are made solely on the
contents of this label, without the need to examine the packet itself. This allows one to create
end-to-end circuits across any type of transport medium, using any protocol. The primary
benefit is to eliminate dependence on a particular OSI model data link layer technology, such
as Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), Frame Relay, Synchronous Optical Networking
(SONET) or Ethernet, and eliminate the need for multiple layer-2 networks to satisfy
different types of traffic. MPLS belongs to the family of packet-switched networks.
MPLS operates at a layer that is generally considered to lie between traditional definitions of
layer 2 (data link layer) and layer 3 (network layer), and thus is often referred to as a "layer
2.5" protocol. It was designed to provide a unified data-carrying service for both circuit-based
clients and packet-switching clients which provide a datagram service model. It can be used
to carry many different kinds of traffic, including IP packets, as well as native ATM, SONET,
and Ethernet frames.

2.4.3. ISP
An Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides access to the Internet.
Internet service providers can be either community-owned and non-profit, or privately owned
and for-profit.
Access ISPs directly connect clients to the Internet using copper wires, wireless or fiber-optic
connections.[1] Hosting ISPs lease server space for smaller businesses and other people
(colocation). Transit ISPs provide large amounts of bandwidth for connecting hosting ISPs to
access ISPs.

21

The Internet started off as a closed network between government research laboratories and
relevant parts of universities. As it became more popular, universities and colleges started
giving more of their members access to it. As a result of its popularity, commercial Internet
service providers sprang up to offer access to the Internet to anyone willing to pay for the
service, mainly to those who missed their university accounts. In 1990, Brookline,
Massachusetts-based The World became the first commercial ISP.
2.4.4. DCN
A dynamic circuit network (DCN) is an advanced computer networking technology that
combines traditional packet-switched communication based on the Internet Protocol, as used
in the Internet, with circuit-switched technologies that are characteristic of traditional
telephone network systems. This combination allows user-initiated ad-hoc dedicated
allocation of network bandwidth for high-demand, real-time applications and network
services, delivered over an optical fibre infrastructure. Dynamic circuit networks were
pioneered by the Internet2 advanced networking consortium. The experimental Internet2
HOPI infrastructure, decommissioned in 2007, was a forerunner to the current SONET-based
Ciena Network underlying the Internet2 DCN. The Internet2 DCN began operation in late
2007 as part of the larger Internet2 network. It provides advanced networking capabilities and
resources to the scientific and research communities, such as the Large Hadron Collider
(LHC) project.
The Internet2 DCN is based on open-source, standards-based software, the Inter-domain
Controller (IDC) protocol, developed in cooperation with ESnet and GANT2. The entire
software set is known as the Dynamic Circuit Network Software Suite (DCN SS).

22

CHAPTER-3
PROCESS OF GETTING LINKS

3.1.

How link is provided

How the customer takes the network connection from the Airtel?
Your request goes through many internal processes like planning, implementation,
configuration etc. First customer demands for the network connection to the AES (Airtel
Enterprise Service) according to their requirements like type of connection or speed. After
taking orders from the customers AES forward those details to the TNG (Transport Network
Group) and TNG forwards the details of connection or the capacity of links to
ANG(Administrative network group). Then ANG gives the detail of free E1 links back to the
TNG and then TNG configure those links and then connection will establish from company
to customer end.
3.2.

Types of network Service provider

There are two type of network service provider.


1. ISP (Internet Service Provider)
2. MPLS (Multiprotocol labelled Switching)
ISP
An Internet service provider (ISP) is a company that provides access to the Internet.
Access ISPs connect customers to the Internet using copper, wireless or fiber connections.
Hosting ISPs lease server space for smaller businesses and host other people servers. Transit
ISPs provide large tubes for connecting hosting ISPs to access ISPs.

History of ISP

The internet started off as a closed network between government research laboratories
and relevant parts of universities. It became popular and then universities and colleges started
giving more of their members access to it. As a result, commercial Internet Service Providers
occurred to provide access for mainly those who missed their university accounts. In 1990,
Brookline, Massachusetts-based The World became the 1st commercial ISP.

23

O Access ISP
ISPs employ a range of technologies to enable consumers to connect to their
network.For users and small businesses, the most popular options include dial-up, DSL
(typically Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line, ADSL), broadband wireless, cable modem,
fiber to the premises (FTTH), and Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) (typically
basic rate interface). For customers with more demanding requirements, such as medium-tolarge businesses, or other ISPs, DSL (often SHDSL or ADSL), Ethernet, Metro Ethernet,
Gigabit Ethernet, Frame Relay, ISDN (BRI or PRI), ATM, satellite Internet access and
synchronous optical networking (SONET) are more likely to be used.
Typical home user connection
Broadband wireless access
Cable Internet
Dial-up
ISDN
Modem
DSL

Typical business-type connection


DSL
Ethernet technologies
Leased line
SHDSL

24

MPLS
Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a mechanism in high-performance
telecommunications networks which directs and carries data from one network node to the
next with the help of labels. MPLS makes it easy to create "virtual links" between distant
nodes. It can encapsulate packets of various network protocols.
MPLS is a highly scalable, protocol agnostic, data-carrying mechanism. In an MPLS
network, data packets are assigned labels. Packet-forwarding decisions are made solely on the
contents of this label, without the need to examine the packet itself. This allows one to create
end-to-end circuits across any type of transport medium, using any protocol. The primary
benefit is to eliminate dependence on a particular Data Link Layer technology, such as ATM,
frame relay, SONET or Ethernet, and eliminate the need for multiple Layer 2 networks to
satisfy different types of traffic. MPLS belongs to the family of packet-switched networks.
MPLS operates at an OSI Model layer that is generally considered to lie between traditional
definitions of Layer 2 (Data Link Layer) and Layer 3 (Network Layer), and thus is often
referred to as a "Layer 2.5" protocol. It was designed to provide a unified data-carrying
service for both circuit-based clients and packet-switching clients which provide a datagram
service model. It can be used to carry many different kinds of traffic, including IP packets, as
well as native ATM, SONET, and Ethernet frames.
A number of different technologies were previously deployed with essentially identical goals,
such as frame relay and ATM. MPLS technologies have evolved with the strengths and
weaknesses of ATM in mind. Many network engineers agree that ATM should be replaced
with a protocol that requires less overhead, while providing connection-oriented services for
variable-length frames. MPLS is currently replacing some of these technologies in the
marketplace. It is highly possible that MPLS will completely replace these technologies in the
future, thus aligning these technologies with current and future technology needs.

o History of MPLS
25

MPLS was originally proposed by a group of engineers from Ipsilon Networks, but their "IP
Switching" technology, which was defined only to work over ATM, did not achieve market
dominance. Cisco Systems, Inc., introduced a related proposal, not restricted to ATM
transmission, called "Tag Switching". It was a Cisco proprietary proposal, and was renamed
"Label Switching". It was handed over to the IETF for open standardization. The IETF work
involved proposals from other vendors, and development of a consensus protocol that
combined features from several vendors' work.
One original motivation was to allow the creation of simple high-speed switches, since for a
significant length of time it was impossible to forward IP packets entirely in hardware.
However, advances in VLSI have made such devices possible. Therefore the advantages of
MPLS primarily revolve around the ability to support multiple service models and perform
traffic management. MPLS also offers a robust recovery framework that goes beyond the
simple protection rings of synchronous optical networking.

o Need for Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)

Forwarding function of a conventional router


A capacity demanding procedure
Constitute a bottle neck with increase in line speed

MPLS simplifies forwarding function by taking totally different approach by introducing a


connection oriented mechanism inside the connectionless IP networks.

26

Figure.2.3 Basic Model for Mpls Network


LSR = Label Switched Router
LER = Label Edge Router

O How MPLS works


MPLS works by prefixing packets with an MPLS header, containing one or more "labels".
This is called a label stack. Each label stack entry contains four fields:

3.3.

A 20-bit label value.


A 3-bit Traffic Class field for QoS (quality of service) priority (experimental) and
ECN (Explicit Congestion Notification).
A 1-bit bottom of stack flag. If this is set, it signifies that the current label is the last in
the stack.
An 8-bit TTL (time to live) field.

Software requirement
(a) PuTTY V-0.60
(B) METASOLV SOLUTIONS
(C) IBM TIVOLI NETCOOL
27

3.3.1. PuTTY
PuTTY is a client program for the SSH, Telnet and Rlogin network protocols: logging in to a
multiuser computer from another, over a network. These protocols are all used to run a
remote session on a computer, over a network. PuTTY implements the client end of that
session: the end at which the session is displayed, rather than the end at which it runs. In
really simple terms: you run PuTTY on a Windows machine, and tell it to connect to (for
example) a Unix machine. PuTTY opens a window. Then, anything you type into that
window is sent straight to the Unix machine, and everything the Unix machine sends back is
displayed in the window. So you can work on the Unix machine as if you were sitting at its
console, while actually sitting somewhere else.

Figure.2.5 PuTTY Logo


Multi-user operating systems, such as Unix and VMS, usually present a command-line
interface to the user, much like the Command Prompt in Windows. The system prints a
prompt, and you type commands which the system will obey. Using this type of interface,
there is no need for you to be sitting at the same machine you are typing commands to. The
commands, and response, can be sent over a network, so you can sit at one computer and give
commands to another one, or even to more than one. SSH, Telnet and Rlogin are network
protocols that allow you to do this. On the computer you sit at, you run a client , which make
a network connection to the other computer (the server). The network connection carries your
keystrokes and commands from the client to server, and carries the servers response back to
you.

3.3.2.

ROUTER LOGGING

After double click on PuTTY software you will get this window named PuTTY
Configuration. In this window the two things are main one is Host Name (or IP address) and
second is Connection type, it may be Raw, Telnet, Rlogin, SSH and Serial. When we will
select the connection type it automatically select the Port number. After clicking on open
28

button we will get the Command Line Interface window. After that it will ask for the
Username and Password for the user access verification. If entered username or password
goes wrong, it will again ask for right username and password. If access verification goes
right then you are able to apply the commands for configure/handle the Router/Switch.

Figure.2.6 Logging A MPLS Router 202.123.37.175

Figure. 2.7 User Access Verification

29

Figure.2.8 Command Line Interface Of Router 202.123.37.175

3.3.3. FEATURES

(a) Support for local serial port connections.


(b) Self-contained executable requires no installation.
(c) Public-key authentication support.
(d) Control over the SSH encryption key and protocol version.
(e) The storing of hosts and preferences for later use.

3.3.4. APPLICATIONS
Main functions are realized by PuTTY files themselves:
(a) PuTTY - the Telnet and SSH client itself,
(b) PSCP - an SCP client, i.e. command-line secure file copy,
(c) PSFTP - an SFTP client, i.e. general file transfer sessions much like FTP,
(d) PuTTYtel - a Telnet-only client,
(e) Plink - a command-line interface to the PuTTY back ends,
(f) Pageant - an SSH authentication agent for PuTTY, PSCP and Plink,
(g) PuTTY gen - an RSA and DSA key generation utility
30

CHAPTER-4
VARIOUS COMMANDS REQUIRED

When we get any link down alarm then we have to login that router/switch for seeing that
link became down or it was a flapping. For this we used many commands. There are different
commands used for Juniper and Cisco devices. The description of different commands is
given below.

4.1.

Cisco/Juniper Command

Cisco Command
show run

Juniper Command
sh configuration

Co-Ordinating Definition
Show running configuration

Sh ver

Sh ver

Show version

show ip interface brief

show interface terse

displays the status of interfaces


configured for IP

show interface [intfc]

show interfaces
detail

show controller intfc

show interfaces
extensive

show interface | incl (proto| show


Desc)
description

[intfc] displays the interface configuration,


status and statistics.
intfc displays information
physical port device

about

interfaces displays the interface configuration,


status and statistics

show ip route

show route

displays summary information about


entries in the routing table

show ip bgp summary

show bgp summary

displays the status of all Border


Gateway
Protocol
(BGP)
connections

show ip bgp net mask

show route protocol bgp will show you how that route is
prefix
being advertised, look for the first
line

show ip bgp net mask longer- show route range prefix


prefixes

will show you how that route is


being advertised, look for the first
line

show ip bgp regexp AS-regexp show route aspath-regexp displays routes matching the
"AS-regexp"
autonomous system (AS) path
31

regular expression
show ipbgp neighbors neigh show
route
receive- Shows whether a neighbor supports
received-routes
protocol
bgp
neigh the route refresh capability
show
route
sourcegateway neigh protocol
bgp
show ip bgp neighbor neigh show route advertising- Shows whether a neighbor supports
advertised-routes
protocol bgp neigh
the route refresh capabilty
show clns neighbors

show isis adjacency

displays both ES and IS neighbors

show clns interface

show isis interface

shows specific information about


each interface

show ip route isis

show isis routes

displays the current state of the the


routing table

show isis topology

show isisspf

displays a list of all connected


routers in all areas

show ipospf interface

show ospf neighbor

shows neighbor ID, Priority, IP, &


State if the neighbor router, dead
time.

show ipospf interface

show ospf interface

shows neighbor id, pri, state, dead


time, address and interface

show ip route ospf

show ospf route

display the current state of the


routing table

show ipospf database

show ospf database

display list of information related to


the OSPF database for a specific
communication server

show version

show
version,
system uptime

show diags

show chasis hardware

displays power-on diagnostics status

show processes cpu

show system process

displays utilization statistics

show tech-support

request support info

displays the current software image,


configuration, controllers, counters,
stacks, interfaces, memory and
buffers

show logging

show log messages

display the state of logging to the


syslog

32

show display the system hardware config.,


software version, and name and
source of configuration files and
boot images

show route-map name

show policy name

displayall route-maps configured or


only the one specified

show ip prefix-list name

show policy name

display information about a prefix


list or prefix list entries

show ip community-list list

configure,
display routes that are permitted by
show
policy-options BGP community list
community name

Show running-config intrfc

Show
intrfc

Sh run vrf

Show run vrf

show environment all

show
environment

ping dest

ping dest rapid (for cisco to check to see if a destination is


like
output) alive
ping dest (for unix like
output)

running-config Shows the running configuration on


an interface
Shows the running configuration
associated with the particular vrf
chassis

displays temperature and voltage


information on the console

Table-3.1 Table of command of cisco and juniper


4.2.

SOME COMMANDS AND RESULT

Command- Show isis neighbors

33

Command- show interface

Figure 3.2 -Screenshot of Show Interface Command

Command- show isis hostname

34

Figure.3.3 -Screenshot of Show Isis Hostname | Include Command

Command- show interface description

35

Figure3.4 - Screenshot of Show Interface Description Command

Command- show version

36

Figure 3.5 -Screenshot of Show Version Command

Command- show diag

37

Figure3.6Screenshot of Show Diags Command

Command- show backup

Figure 3.7Scrrenshot of Show backup Command

Command- Ping process

38

Figure 3.8- Screenshot of Pinging Process

Command- Show bgp summary

39

Figure 3.9Screenshot of Show bgp summary command

Command- show ldp neighbor

Figure 3.10 Screenshot of Show ldp neighbor command

Command- Show ldp neighbor detail

40

Figure 3.11Screenshot of Show ldp neighbor detail command

Command-show interface description | include RTR

41

Figure 3.12- Screenshot of Show interface description | include RTR command

Command- show environment all

Figure 3.13- Screenshot of Show environment all command

Command- show run

42

Figure 3.14- Screenshot of Show run

4.3.

Ping

Ping is a utility to determine whether a specific IP address is accessible. It works by sending


a packet to the specified address and waiting for a reply. PING is used primarily to
troubleshoot Internet connections.

4.3.1.

Ping command

The ping command is a Command Prompt command used to test the ability of the source computer to
reach a specified destination computer. The ping command is usually used as a simple way verify that
a computer can communicate over the network with another computer or network device. The ping
command operates by sending Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Echo Request messages to
the destination computer and waiting for a response. How many of those responses are returned, and
how long it takes for them to return, are the two major pieces of information that the ping command
provides.Ping can also be defines as the tools which is used to check the communication of between
43

the systems, routers switches and also the Internet". The abbreviation of PING is: "Packet Internet
Gopher". Depending on the implementation, the ping command can be run with various command
line switches to enable special operational modes. Example options include: specifying the packet size
used as the probe, automatic repeated operation for sending a specified count of probes, and time
stamping

44

CHAPTER 6

6.1.

DAY TO DAY TASKS

During my training session in AIRTEL under DATA-NOC, There are various live tasks on
which I have worked in this training session. Some of them are listed below.

6.1.1.

MAKING NETWORK TOPOLOGY

Under this task I was given a device list. This device list as shown below lists routers of
different locations. I was supposed to make detailed topology for the same showing
connection of router with other routers and switches enlisting the interfaces involved too.

45

1. Log into the device.


2. Run command shisisneighbors(or shisisadj in juniper).
3. For each interface run sh run interface name
4. Telnet to the IP address it gives and this gives the router to which our device is connected.
5. Use command s hip route i.paddress(sh route in juniper) to know the interface at remote end.
6. Similarly connection with switch is checked by using the command shisis neigh | include SWH.

46

This is beneficial graphical record for the company to know how their network is connected and is
beneficial for tracking source of problem.

6.1.2.

Finding the route to destination

In this task I was assigned two destination routers and I had to track down the connection from given
source routers to the destination.
The same is performed as follows1. Open the given router.
2. In the same type command ship route destination ip
3. Telnet to the address obtained above.
4, Now repeat the same till destination is reached.
The series of router encountered from source to destination form the path between the same.

6.1.3. DETERMINING THE MAXIMUM MTU


47

I was given a list of devices and I had to determine the maximum amount of data that can be
transmitted without fragmentation. The same was compared with the mtu specified in the description.

1. Using the command sh run int the interfaces are seen.


2. Now the particular interface is seen by s hint int name. This gives the MTU
specified for the same.
3. The same is checked by pinging to the next hop address and specifying the
size of packet to see if the same is able to reach the destination using
command
ping address of next hop size specify size.

48

6.1.4. CIRCUIT ID BASE

One more project which I completed during my training session is that I collected all the
circuit id database of all the routers of ISP, MPLS and DCN. Circuit id is used to mark the
path between the two connectivitys. Suppose, one interface is provided from Mumbai side to
communicate at Kolkata side with one interface present over that side, thus Circuit id is used
so that we can mark the route number to that connection.
1. Using command shisis neigh (adj in juniper) find the interfaces.
2. Using shintint name determine the circuit-id

49

6.1.5. VERSION OF DEVICES


I was asked to check the version of devices in the device list by logging into each device and
running the command sh version.

6.1.6. CHECK IF ROUTER IS LISTED ON THE SERVER


The same is checked using a softwareKivicat.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Log into kivicat.


Switch off the timer .
Search the desired ip address.
If the router shows for the same it is listed else not.
This database enables the company to ensure all its devices are listed on server.

6.1.7.

SAVING HARDWARE DETAILS OF THE DEVICE

I was given a list of juniper routers of which I had to store hardware details like card, slot no
etc.as text files.
1. Login to the desired device.
2. Right click on the top edge of putty screen and go to change settings.
3. Select the option capture all and browse the location where the file is supposed to be
stored.
4. Save the file with .txt extension,
5. Run the command sh chassis hardware |display xml

50

51

This is used to maintain backup data.

6.1.8. MAINTAIN GENERALISED DATABASE FOR CASES

I was given a list of cases for which I had to study the notes and attachment to list the
problem and take the captures for further reference.

52

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Go to cisco site tools.cisco


Login to the same.
Go to manage support cases.
Search your case no.
Then go through the notes and attachments for errors and captures

53

54

This database is to ease the problem solving mechanism for future needs.

6.1.9.

FIND NO OF LINKS FOR FCP PIC SET

I was given a list of routers for which I had to obtain FCP,PIC values and links associated for
specified type of card specified.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Login to the router.


Run sh chassis hardware.
Note the FCP and pic values.
Now run sh interfaces description |match combination
55

5. Count the no. of links and note the same

56

CONCLUSION
My experience of training in Bharti Airtel has indeed been a fruitful one. It has not only enhanced my
technical knowhow but has also led to development on social front.
My short term at Airtel gave me a taste of office environment. It gave me a look how on how these
big organizations maintain the decorum and upholds their rules and regulations which is the key to
their smooth running.
During my term I got an opportunity to learn and use different software's and utilities which are used
by the organization. It helped me boost my practical skills, Plus it gave me a insight into company's
network.
I discovered how the links are made and maintained. More than anything it was an eye opener as to
how much the technology has developed and eased otherwise tedious tasks.
It also gave me an opportunity to study how well structured hierarchy in workplace , healthy
interactions between employees, regular discussions and meetings, and the team spirit is necessary to
resolve all problems with ease.
Like mentioned above the experience was equally fulfilling on social font. I got to meet and interact
with some amazingly knowledgeable and experienced professionals during my term. It was wonderful
opportunity for me as a student interact and learn from them every day All of them were king enough
to help me out as and when they found time.
.
There were few downfalls to the otherwise wonderful experience. The interaction with the mentor was
very less. Due to heavy work load my mentor was unable to guide me in the way desired. The nature
of work was uncertain. Sometimes there was lot to do and sometimes there was nothing
to do for days. Most of the work revolved around database maintaining, which was
rather boring and not very informative. Plus Bharti Airtel is a Govt. Undertaking Company, so
interface with the equipments is not allowed to students.
But on the whole it was an honor to work for Airtel as an intern

BIBLIOGRAPHY
57

www.wikipedia.org
www.cisco.com
tcpipguide.com
computer.howstuffworks.com
www.techrepublic.com
www.Airtel.co.in
Cisco Study Guide by Todd Lammle
.............and many others

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