Straight Lines
CONCEPT NO
TES
NOTES
01.
Introduction
02.
Straight Lines
03.
LOCUS
Straight Lines
Section  1
INTRODUCTION
Coordinate geometry is a marriage of pure geometry and algebra, and is indispensable in all branches of science
today. Many of you must be pretty familiar with the general outline of this subject.
We will restrict ourselves to 2dimensional (plane) coordinate geometry in the following pages. Later on, we will
also get the chance of studying 3dimensional coordinate geometry.
The basic idea in coordinate geometry, as has been mentioned earlier, is to study the properties of geometrical
figures such as straight lines, circles, parabolas etc through the use of numbers. The core concept is that on a
2dimensional (Euclidean) plane, any point can be represented by a pair of real numbers, using two nonparallel
straight lines. The point where these two nonparallel reference lines meet is termed the origin of the reference axis.
By convention, one axis is called the xaxis and one the yaxis. Any point on the plane can now be determined in
reference to this reference axes as described in the figure below:
yaxis
y
(origin) O
x
xaxis
Fig  1
Conversely, given the coordinates x and y of a point P, we can easily determine its location by moving x units
along the xaxis and then yunits parallel to the yaxis.
Notice that as long as the two axes are nonparallel, the entire plane is representable using these two axes as
reference. These two axes in general can be at any nonzero angle to each other.
LOCUS
However, it is almost always the case (out of convenience) that the two axis are taken at right angles to each other.
Such axes are called Rectangular Axes. We will always be using Rectangular Axes in our discussion from now
onwards.
With this introduction, we start with the most elementary of geometric figures: line segments and lines (and other
geometric figures obtainable from these elementary ones, like polygons).
Section  2
STRAIGHT LINES
For a good command over coordinate geometry, a lot of results will be required to be memorised since they are
encountered so often. For this purpose, each new theorem or result or property that we will encounter in the
following pages is discussed in a separate article for ease of reference later.
Art 1 : Distance formula
One of the most basic expressions in coordinate geometry is that of the distance between two arbitrary
points P1 ( x1 , y1 ) and P2 ( x2 , y2 ) . To obtain the required distance in terms of the coordinates of these
points, the Pythagoras theorem is employed as described in the figure below:
y
P2(x2 ,y2 )
Note that:
(i) OC = x1 ; OB = x2
BC = AP1 = x2 x1
P1
(x1 ,y1)
A
(ii) CP1 = y1 ; BP2 = y2
AP2 = y2 y1
B
Fig  2
As explained in the figure, the distances AP1 and AP2 have been obtained. Thus, by the Pythagoras
theorem, the distance d is
d=
AP12 + AP22 or
( x2 x1 ) + ( y2 y1 )
2
As a direct consequence of this formula, the distance of an arbitrary point P(x, y) from the origin is
x 2 + y 2 . As an elementary exercise, assume four points anywhere on the coordinate plane randomly,
and use the distance formula to calculate the distance between each pair of points.
LOCUS
that two such points will exist. Name them C1 and C2. One of them will divide the line segment AB
internally in the ratio m : n while the other will divide AB in the same ratio externally, as shown in the
figure below:
y
y
C2(xe , ye )
B(x2 , y2)
B(x2 , y2 )
C1(xi , yi )
A(x1 , y1 )
A(x1 , y1 )
x
Internal division
C1 divides AB internally in
the ratio m : n. Thus,
AC1
C1B
External division
C2 divides AB externally in
the ratio m : n. Thus,
m
n
AC2
C2 B
m
n
Fig  3
Let us find the coordinates of C1 using the help of the more detailed figure of internal division below:
y
B(x2 , y2 )
(0, y2 )
C1(xi , yi )
(0, yi )
(0, y)
A(x1 , y1)
(x1,0)
(xi ,0)
(x2 ,0)
EC1
DB
Fig  4
AE EC1
m
=
=
AD DB m + n
xi x1 yi y1
m
=
=
x2 x1 y2 y1 m + n
mx2 + nx1
my2 + ny1
, yi =
m+n
m+n
Thus, the coordinates of the point C1 which divides AB internally in the ratio m : n are
Internal
Division m:n
xi =
AB
It is given that
AC1 : C1 B = m : n.
Thus,
AC1
m
=
m
+n
AB
AC1
LOCUS
Using an analogous approach, we can obtain the coordinates of the point C2 which divides AB externally
in the ratio m : n
External
Division m:n
A particular case of internal division is finding the coordinates of the midpoint of AB. Since the midpoint
of AB divides the segment AB in the ratio 1 : 1, the coordinates of the midpoint will be
Mid point of AB where
A ( x1 , y1 ) and B ( x2 , y2 )
x1 + x2 y1 + y2
,
2
2
Example 1
Find the coordinates of the centroid of a triangle with the vertices A ( x1 , y1 ) , B ( x2 , y2 ) and C ( x3 , y3 ).
Solution: To determine the centroid, we will borrow a result from plane geometry that you might remember from
high school: the centroid divides any median in the ratio 2 : 1.
A(x1, y1)
AD is a median of ABC
G divides AD in the
ratio 2 : 1, i.e,
AG : GD = 2 : 1
C(x3 , y3 )
B(x2 , y2 )
Fig  5
x + x y + y3
The coordinates of D, the midpoint of BC, are 2 3 , 2
. Since AG : GD = 2 :1,
2
2
we have the coordinates of G by the section formula as
x +x
y + y3
2 2 3 + 1.x1 2 2
+ 1. y1
2
2
G
,
2 +1
2 +1
x1 + x2 + x3 y1 + y2 + y3
,
3
3
v
The expression for the centroid confirms the obvious fact that the coordinates of the centroid are
symmetric with respect to the coordinates of the three vertices of the triangle.
LOCUS
Example 2
G is the centroid of triangle ABC. If O is any other point in the plane, prove that
OA2 + OB 2 + OC 2 = GA2 + GB 2 + GC 2 + 3 GO 2 .
Solution: Theres no loss of generality in taking O as the origin of our reference axis since even if we are given O
to be a nonorigin point, we can always translate the axes (keeping the triangle ABC unchanged) so
that its origin coincides with O. Note that this operation will have no effect on the lengths
OA, OB, OC , OG , GA, GB, GC etc. However, the expressions for distances will become much
more simplified (In coordinate geometry, you will be required to follow such steps often, so that the
expressions you are to deal with can be kept as simple as possible).
Now, we assume some coordinates for A, B and C as shown in the figure below:
y
C (x3 , y3 )
B (x2 , y2 )
G (x, y)
x1 + x2 + x3 y1 + y2 + y3
,
3
3
A(x1 , y1 )
Fig  6
We have,
OA2 + OB 2 + OC 2 = x12 + y12 + x22 + y22 + x32 + y32
... (1)
while
GA2 + GB 2 + GC 2 + 3GO 2 =
( x x1 ) + ( y y 1 ) + ( x x2 ) + ( y y2 )
2
+ ( x x3 ) + ( y y 3 ) + 3 ( x 2 + y 2 )
2
... (2)
Comparing (1) and (2), we see that the two expressions are indeed equal
v
____________________________________________________________________________________
Art  3 Area of a triangle
Suppose we are given three points in the coordinate plane : A ( x1 , y1 ) , B ( x2 , y2 ) and C ( x3 , y3 ). We
intend to find the area of ABC in terms of the given coordinates. How to evaluate this area is described
in the figure below:
Maths / Straight Lines
LOCUS
y
Note that
B (x2 , y2 )
area ( ABC) =
A(
x
,y
C (x3 , y3)
Fig  7
Observe how the area of ABC has been written in terms of the area of three trapeziums.
From plane geometry, the area of a trapezium is
1
(sum of bases ) height. Thus,
2
1
area ( trap. APQB ) = ( AP + BQ ) PQ
2
=
1
( y1 + y2 )( x2 x1 )
2
... (1)
Similarly,
1
area ( trap. BQRC ) = ( BQ + CR ) QR
2
=
1
( y2 + y3 )( x3 x2 )
2
... (2)
1
area ( trap. APRC ) = ( AP + CR ) PR
2
1
( y1 + y3 )( x3 x1 )
2
From (1), (2) and (3), we have, upon simplification,
=
area ( ABC ) =
... (3)
1
( x2 y1 x1 y2 + x3 y2 x2 y3 + x1 y3 x3 y1 )
2
1
{x1 ( y2 y3 ) + x2 ( y3 y1 ) + x3 ( y1 y2 )}
2
We used the mod sign in the last expression because area is by definition positive.
We can express the area obtained in determinant form very concisely:
=
x1
1
= area ( ABC ) = x2
2
x3
y1 1
y2 1
y3 1
LOCUS
As a consequence of this result, we can now easily find the area of an arbitrary quadrilateral ABCD as
describe in the figure below:
y
B(x2 , y2 )
C(x3 , y3 )
x1
1
= x2
2
x3
D(x4, y4)
A(x1 , y1 )
x
y1 1
x1
y2 1 + x3
y3 1
x4
y1 1
y3 1
y4 1
Fig  8
We can generalise this method easily to find the area of any polygon as a sum of the areas of the constituent
triangles.
v
Example 3
a
a
a
Find the area of the triangle, the coordinates of whose vertices are ap, , aq, and ar , .
p
q
r
1
aq
2
ar
a a
a a
1 a a
ap + aq + ar
2 q r
r p
p q
a2 p (r q ) q ( p r ) r (q p )
+
+
2
qr
pr
pq
v
Maths / Straight Lines
a
1
p
a
1
q
a
1
r
a 2 p 2 (q r ) + q 2 (r p ) + r 2 ( p q )
2 pqr
LOCUS
Example 4
Assume two fixed points in the coordinate plane: A ( a, 0 ) and B ( a, 0 ) . A variable point C(x, y) moves in the
plane in such a way that CA + CB is a constant k. Use the distance formula to evaluate the condition that the
coordinates of C must satisfy.
Solution: We have,
and
CA =
(x a)
CB =
(x + a)
+ y2
+ y2
CA + CB = k
CA2 + CB 2 + 2 CA CB = k 2
(x a)
2 x 4 + y 4 + a 4 + 2 x 2 y 2 2a 2 x 2 + 2a 2 y 2 = k 2 2 ( x 2 + y 2 + a 2 )
(x
+ y2 + ( x + a ) + y2 + 2
2
(( x a ) + y ) (( x + a ) + y ) = k
2
a2 ) + y 4 + 2 y 2 ( x2 + a2 ) = k 2 2 ( x2 + y 2 + a2 )
2
Squaring both sides and cancelling out the common terms on both sides, we obtain
8a 2 x 2 = k 4 + 8a 2 x 2 4 k 2 ( x 2 + y 2 + a 2 )
4k 2 x 2 16a 2 x 2 + 4k 2 y 2 = k 4 4k 2 a 2
4 x 2 ( k 2 4a 2 ) + 4 k 2 y 2 = k 2 ( k 2 4a 2 )
This is the relation that the coordinates of the variable point C (x, y) must satisfy. All the pairs (x, y)
which satisfy this equation, when plotted on the coordinate plane, will trace out the path on which the
variable point C is constrained to move. In other words, this equation specifies the locus of the
point C.
____________________________________________________________________________________
Art  4 Equation ( s ) representing a straight line
The last three articles dealt with the preliminaries of coordinate geometry and certain elementary formulae
which find widespread use. With this article, we start the discussion of the geometry of straight lines in
detail.
On the coordinate plane, the simplest case for a straight line would be one in which the line is parallel to
one of the coordinate axes.
Maths / Straight Lines
LOCUS
10
y0
x0
As described in the figure above, the equation of such a line is y = y0 or x = x0 accordingly as the line is
parallel to the xaxis or the yaxis respectively.
These are special cases of lines; we want to find the equation of any arbitrary line in general. Visualise any
such line in your mind. To completely specify such a line, you would need two quantities: the inclination of
the line (or its slope or the angle it makes with say, the xaxis) and the placement of the line (i.e. where the
line passes through with reference to the axes: we can specify the placement of the line by specifying the
point on the yaxis through which the line passes, or in other words, by specifying the yintercept.)
y
It should be obvious to you that any line can be determined uniquely using these two parameters.
We now find out the equation of this straight line, assuming that we know and c. In other words, we
intend to find out the relation that the coordinates (x, y) of any arbitrary point on the line must satisfy. The
determination of this equation is straightforward:
LOCUS
11
y
P
We assume an arbitrary
point P(x, y) on the line
and try to relate x and y
to the known quantities
and c.
The relation we
require is obtainable
from the fact that in APB,
PB
tan =
AB
(x, y)
A(0, c)
Fig  11
yc
x
y = mx + c
! !
Slope
y intercept
This is the general equation of a straight line involving its slope and its yintercept. This form of the equation
of the line is therefore termed the slopeintercept form.
Notice that if the line passes through the origin, its equation would reduce to y = mx.
As you might have guessed by now, this is not the only form to represent a straight line. This form uses the
slope and the intercept of the line.
Lets discuss another form. Notice that to uniquely determine any straight line, we either need the slope of
the line and a point through which this line passes, or we need at least two points through which that line
passes. Thus for example, a line can also be uniquely determined if we are given the two points where this
line intersects the xaxis and the yaxis.
y
The straight line
L can be uniquely
determined if we
know a and b, i.e
if we know the xintercept
and the y  intercept
a
L
Fig  12
LOCUS
12
b
b
so that the slope of the line is m = tan = tan ( ) = tan = . Also, the
a
a
yintercept is b. Thus, using the slope intercept form obtained earlier, the equation of the line L is
y=
b
x+b
a
bx + ay = ab
x y
+ =1
a b
"
!
Intercept form
x intercept y intercept
Thus, if we know the x and y intercepts, we can directly use this form to write the equation of the line.
Lets consider a third form to represent a line. From the figure below, observe carefully that to uniquely
determine a line, we could also specify the length of the perpendicular dropped from the origin to that line
and the orientation (inclination) of that perpendicular:
y
The straight line L
can be uniquely
determined if we know
p and
p
y
L
Fig  13
To determine the equation of this line, assume any point P on the line with the coordinate (x, y). Observe
the geometry described in the figure below carefully:
y
Observe that:
OR = OQ cos = x cos
and
RA = SP = PQ sin
= y sin
A
P(x, y)
p R
S
B
Q
Fig  14
LOCUS
13
x cos + y sin = p
!
"
inclination of
perpendicular
Normal form
length of
perpendicular
Thus, we now know of three forms in which the equation of an arbitrary straight line can be written.
From those three forms, you might be able to deduce that the most general form for the equation of an
arbitrary straight line is Ax + By + C = 0 . Let us try to prove this assertion, that is, let us try to show that
Ax + By + C = 0 represents the equation of a straight line.
For this purpose, it will suffice to show that if we take any three arbitrary points ( x1 , y1 ) , ( x2 , y2 ) and
( x3 , y3 ) on the curve Ax + By + C = 0, these three points will turn out to be collinear. Equivalently, the
area of the triangle with the vertices as these three points will turn out to be zero.
Since all the three points satisfy the equation Ax + By + C = 0, we have
Ax1 + By1 + C = 0
Ax2 + By2 + C = 0
Ax3 + By3 + C = 0
We can eliminate A, B and C from these three equations simultaneously to obtain a relation involving only
the coordinates of the three points. A basic knowledge of elimination in determinant form will tell you that
the relation well get after elimination is
x1
x2
x3
y1 1
y2 1 = 0
y3 1
which means that the area of the triangle formed by these three points as vertices is zero! Hence, the
assertion is true.
With this discussion in mind, you should be able to write the equation for any arbitrary straight line. We will
encounter the use of all these forms in the coming examples.
Before concluding this article, do this as a simple exercise based on the discussion we've already done:
(a) Show that the equation of the straight line with slope m and passing through the fixed point (x1, y1)
is y y1 = m ( x x1 )
(b) Show that the equation of the straight line passing through the two fixed points ( x1 , y1 ) and ( x2 , y2 )
is
y y1 y2 y1
=
x x1 x2 x1
Maths / Straight Lines
LOCUS
14
The following table summarizes the various forms of the straight line that we've encountered.
Known parameters about the line
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Slope m
yintercept c
x intercept a
y intercept b
Length of perpendicular
from origin to the line
Inclination of perpendicular
Slope : m
Any point through
which the line passes
: ( x1 , y1 )
: ( x1 , y1 )
:p
:
: ( x2 , y2 )
Equation
y = mx + c
Slopeintercept form
x y
+ =1
a b
Intercept form
x cos + y sin = p
Normal form
y y1 = m ( x x1 )
Pointslope form
y y1 y2 y1
=
x x1 x2 x1
: Ax + By + C = 0
where A, B, C #
and at least one of
A, B is nonzero
Note that each of the five specific forms mentioned in the table above can be converted easily to the most
general form of the equation of a line. You are urged to do this as an exercise.
Also, the five forms are inter convertible among themselves in most cases too. For example, y = mx + c
c
x
y
+ = 1 so that the xintercept of this line is a = and the
m
(c / m ) c
yintercept is b = c. You are urged to try out all the (possible) conversions from one form to another.
You should now be able to understand that to determine a straight line uniquely, we must have two
quantities given. Thus, two points could uniquely fix a line, or a point on the line and its slope could do so
too, and so on. Notice that the general equation of the line also in fact contains only two arbitrary
constants:
Ax + By + C = 0
Art 5
A
B
x + y +1 = 0
C
C
Px + Qy + 1 = 0
arbitrary constants
We are given two lines L1 and L2, and we are required to find the point at which they intersect (if they are
nonparallel) and the angle at which they are inclined to one another, i.e., the angle of intersection.
Evaluating the point of intersection is a simple matter of solving two simultaneous linear equations. Let the
LOCUS
15
a1 x1 + b1 y1 + c1 = 0
a2 x1 + b2 y1 + c2 = 0
This system can be solved to get
x1
y1
1
=
=
b1c2 b2 c1 c1a2 c2 a1 a1b2 a2b1
From this relation we obtain the point of intersection ( x1 , y1 ) as
b1c2 b2 c1 c1a2 c2 c1
,
Point of intersection
To obtain the angle of intersection between these two lines, consider the figure below:
L2 = a2 x + b2 y + c2 = 0
y
Note that
= 2 1
L1 = a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0
Fig  15
a c
c
a
y1 = 1 x + 1 = m1 x + 1 where m1 = 1
b1
b1 b1
b1
and
a
c
c
a
y2 = 2 x + 2 = m2 x + 2 where m2 = 2
b2
b2
b2
b2
tan = tan ( 2 1 )
=
tan 2 tan 1
1 + tan 1 tan 2
m2 m1
1 + m1m2
... (1)
Conventionally, we would be interested only in the acute angle between the two lines and thus we have to
m2 m1
have tan as a positive quantity. So in (1) above, if the expression 1 + m m turns out to be negative, this
1 2
would be the tangent of the obtuse angle between the two lines; thus, to get the acute angle between the
two lines, we use the magnitude of this expression.
Maths / Straight Lines
LOCUS
16
m2 m1
1 + m1 m2
From this relation, we can easily deduce the conditions on m1 and m2 such that the two lines L1 and L2 are
parallel or perpendicular.
If the lines are parallel, = 0 so that m1 = m2 which is intuitively obvious since parallel lines must have the
same slope. For the two lines to be perpendicular, =
or m1m2 = 1. Thus,
m1 = m2 : for parallel lines
and
m1 m2 = 1 : for perpendicular lines
If the lines L1 and L2 are given in the general form given in the general form ax + by + c = 0, the slope of
a
so that the condition for L1 and L2 to be parallel becomes a1 = a2 or a1b2 = a2b1
b
b1
b2
aa
and the condition for L1 and L2 to be perpendicular becomes 1 2 = 1 or a1a2 + b1b2 = 0 .
b1b2
this line is m =
For example, the line L1 x + y = 1 is perpendicular to the line L2 x y = 1 because the slope of L1
is 1 while the slope of L2 is 1.
y
L2 = x  y = 1
L1 = x + y = 1
Fig  16
LOCUS
17
Example 5
Find the equation to the straight line which passes through (3, 2) and is inclined at 60 to the line 3 x + y = 1.
Solution: Observe carefully that there will be two such lines. Denote the two lines by L1 and L2
L2
60
(3, 2)
L1
60
3x+y = 1
Fig  17
tan 60 =
3=
m1 m
1 + mm1
3m
1 3 m
m+ 3
= 3
1 3 m
m + 3 = 3 3m or m + 3 = 3m 3
m = 0 or m = 3
Since we get two values of m, this confirms our earlier assertion that two such lines will exist. We now
have the slope. We also know that the lines pass through (3, 2). We can therefore use the pointslope
form to write down the required equations:
L1 y ( 2 ) = 0 ( x 3) ; L2 y ( 2 ) = 3 ( x 3)
L1 y + 2 = 0 and L2 y 3 x + 2 + 3 3 = 0
Example 6
3
3
Find the equation of the straight line which passes through the point ( a cos , a sin ) and is perpendicular to
LOCUS
18
sec
= tan
cosec
Therefore, the slope of the line we require will be given by m2 where
m2 =
1
m1
m2 = cot
We now know the slope of the line and we are also given a fixed point through which the line passes.
We can therefore use the pointslope form to determine its equation:
y a sin 3 = cot ( x a cos3 )
= a cos 2
Thus, the required equation is
x cos y sin = a cos 2
____________________________________________________________________________________
Art 6
Halfplanes
Any straight line divides the Euclidean plane into two half planes. In this article, we wish to determine the
halfplane in which an arbitrary point lies with respect to a given line.
Let the equation of the given line be ax + by + c = 0. Consider two points ( x1 , y1 ) and ( x2 , y 2 ) that lie in
different halfplanes with respect to this line:
y
Halfplane B
ax + by + c = 0
(x2 , y2 )
(x1 , y'1 )
Halfplane A
(x1 , y1 )
(x2 , y'2 )
x
Fig  18
The point ( x1 , y1 ) lies in the lower halfplane while ( x2 , y2 ) lies in the upper half plane. We require a
condition on these coordinates which must be satisfied if the points lie in opposite halfplanes. In Fig  18,
we have dropped verticle line segments from ( x1 , y1 ) and ( x2 y2 ) to the given line, intersecting it in P and
Q respectively.
The coordinates of P and Q are ( x1 , y1' ) and ( x2 , y2' ) respectively where y1' y1 and y2' y2 .
Since P, Q lie on the given line, their coordinates must satisfy the equation of the line. Thus,
Maths / Straight Lines
LOCUS
19
ax1 + by1' + c = 0
ax2 + by2' + c = 0
and
y1' =
( ax1 + c )
b
( ax2 + c )
=
y2'
and
y2 > y2'
and
y2 >
and
ax2 + by2 + c
>0
b
( ax1 + c )
( ax2 + c )
y1 <
ax1 + by1 + c
<0
b
This is the required condition. Translated into words, it says that for two points lying in opposite
halfplanes, their coordinates when substituted respectively into the equation of the line must give
expressions of opposite signs. (For two points in the same halfplane, the signs would be the same).
As a corollary, observe that a point (x1, y1) lies in the same halfplane or opposite halfplane in which the
origin lies accordingly as ( ax1 + by1 + c ) and c are of the same sign or opposite signs respectively.
Art 7
Length of perpendicular
Suppose that we are given the equation of a line L and we are required to find the length of the
perpendicular dropped from an arbitrary point P ( x1 , y1 ) on L.
Suppose that the equation of L is in normal form, i.e, L x cos + y sin = p.
y
We are required to find
PQ. Note that
PQ = OR  OS
= OR  p
To determine OR, we
draw a line L' parallel to
L through P (x1, y1)
Let OR = p1
R
P (x1, y1)
S
p
L = x cos + y sin  p = 0
L'
Fig  19
Based on the discussion in the figure above, the equation of the line L' is x cos + y sin p1 = 0.
Since L1 passes through P, the coordinates of P must satisfy the equation of L1. Thus,
x1 cos + y1 sin p1 = 0
Thus, we get p1 as
( x1 cos + y1 sin ).
Length of perpendicular
LOCUS
20
Let us now assume the case where L is given in the general form, i.e. L ax + by + c = 0.
We can easily adjust the equation of L so that c is negative. We do this so that we can convert L into the
normal form:
ax + by + c = 0
where
c<0
ax + by = c
c
a
b
x+
y =
2
2
2
2
2
2
a +b
a +b
a +b
x cos + y sin = p
cos =
a +b
2
... (1)
b
, sin =
a +b
2
and p =
a + b2
2
The equation in (1) is in the normal form; we can now use the result obtained in the preceding discussion
to obtain the length of the perpendicular PQ:
Modulus sign is
used since PQ
must be +ve
PQ = x1 cos + y1 sin p
=
PQ =
ax1
by1
a 2 + b2
a 2 + b2
c
a 2 + b2
ax1 + by1 + c
a 2 + b2
Length of perpendicular
Example 7
Find the distance between two parallel lines L1 and L2 given by L1 ax + by + c1 = 0 and L2 ax + by + c2 = 0
Solution:
L1
P(x1, y1 )
L2
Fig  20
ax1 + by1 + c1 = 0
ax1 + by1 = c1
ax1 + by1 + c2 = c2 c1
... (1)
LOCUS
21
By the previous article, the length of the perpendicular dropped from P upon the line L2 is
d=
=
ax1 + by1 + c2
a 2 + b2
c1 c2
a 2 + b2
Example 8
If p and p' be the perpendiculars from the origin upon the lines L1 x sec + y cosec a = 0 and
a
sec 2 + cosec 2
= a sin cos
... (1)
p' =
cos 2 + sin 2
= a cos 2
... (2)
Art 8
Concurrency
L1 a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0
... (1)
L2 a2 x + b2 y + c2 = 0
... (2)
L3 a3 x + b3 y + c3 = 0
... (3)
We need to evaluate the constraint on the coefficients ai' s, bi' s and ci' s such that the three lines are
concurrent.
Let us first determine the point P of intersection of L1 and L2. By Art  5, it will be
P
Maths / Straight Lines
b1c2 b2 c1 c1a2 c2 a1
,
a1b2 a2b1 a1b2 a2b1
LOCUS
22
Thus three lines will be concurrent if L3 passes through P too, that is P satisfies the equation of L3. Thus,
bc b c
c a c a
a3 1 2 2 1 + b3 1 2 2 1 + c3 = 0
a1b2 a2b1
a1b2 a2b1
a1
a2
a3
b1
b2
b3
c1
c2 = 0
c3
This is the condition that must be satisfied for the three lines to be concurrent.
For example, consider the three lines 2 x 3 y + 5 = 0, 3 x + 4 y 7 = 0 and 9 x 5 y + 8 = 0 . These three
lines are concurrent because the determinant of the coefficients is 0, i.e,
2 3 5
3 4 7 = 0
9 5 8
Example 9
Prove that the three lines L1, L2 and L3 whose equations have been mentioned in the preceeding discussion, are
concurrent if we can find three constants 1 , 2 and 3 such that
1 L1 + 2 L2 + 3 L3 = 0
Solution: Assume that L1 and L2 intersect at the point P whose coordinates are (x0, y0) P should satisfy the
equations of both L1 and L2.
L1 (at P ) a1 x0 + b1 y0 + c1 = 0
... (1)
L2 ( at P ) a2 x0 + b2 y0 + c2 = 0
... (2)
Now assume that we can find three nonzero constants 1 , 2 and 3 such that
1L1 + 2 L2 + 3 L3 = 0 . We will prove that due to this condition, L3 will definitely have to pass
through P:
1 L1 + 2 L2 + 3 L3 = 0
L3 = 1 L1 + 2 L2
3
3
If we evaluate the value of L3 at P, we get
L3 ( at P ) = 1 L1 (at P ) + 2 L2 (at P )
3
3
= 1 0 + 2 0
3
3
By (1)
and ( 2 )
=0
Since the value of L3 is 0 at P, the line L3 must pass through P. Thus, L1, L2 and L3 are concurrent.
Maths / Straight Lines
LOCUS
23
Example 10
Show that the medians of a triangle are concurrent.
Solution: Let the triangle have the vertices A ( x1 , y1 ) , B ( x2 , y2 ) and C ( x3 , y3 ) as in the figure below:
A(x1 , y1 )
E
F
C(x3 , y3 )
x2 + x3 y2 + y3
,
2
2
D
B(x2 , y2 )
Fig  21
From the twopoint form of the equation of a line, we can write down the equations of AD, BE and
CF.
The equation L1 of the median AD is:
y + y3
y1 2
y y1
2
L1
=
x
+
x x1 x 2 x3
1
2
L1 ( 2 y1 ( y2 + y3 )) x ( 2 x1 ( x2 + x3 )) y = x1 ( 2 y1 ( y2 + y3 )) y1 ( 2 x1 ( x2 + x3 ))
By symmetry, we can write down the corresponding equations L2 and L3 of the medians BE and CF.
Observe carefully that when we subsequently add the three equations L1, L2 and L3, their left hand
sides sum to 0. Thus, we have found three constants 1, 1 and 1 such that
1 L1 + 1 L2 + 1 L3 = 0
Example 11
Show that the equation of any line passing through the intersection point P of two given lines whose equations
are L1 and L2, can be expressed as L1 + L2 = 0, where is a real parameter.
Solution: Let L1 a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0 and L2 a2 x + b2 y + c2 = 0
Consider the equation L1 + L2 = 0
a1 x + b1 y + c1 + ( a2 x + b2 y + c2 ) = 0
( a1 + a2 ) x + (b1 + b2 ) y + (c1 + c2 ) = 0
... (1)
LOCUS
24
This is definitely the equation of a straight line because it is of the form ax + by + c = 0. Also, notice in
addition that the intersection point P will satisfy this equation, because if we substitute the coordinates
of the intersection point P in (1), both L1 and L2 vanish.
Thus, L1 + L2 = 0 is the equation of an arbitrary straight line that passes through the intersection
point P of L1 and L2. (As we vary , the slope of this line will vary but it will always pass through P).
L1 + L2= 0
L1 = 0
L2 = 0
Fig  22
This result is very beneficial in certain cases. Well see such cases in some subsequent examples
Example 12
Find the equations to the straight lines passing through
(a) (3, 2) and the point of intersection of 2 x + 3 y = 1 and 3 x 4 y = 6
(b) Origin and the point of intersection of
x y
x y
+ = 1 and + = 1 .
a b
b a
Solution: (a) The equations of the two given lines in standard form are :
L1 2 x + 3 y 1 = 0
L2 3x 4 y 6 = 0
Any line passing through the intersection point of L1 and L2 is
L1 + L2 = 0
(2 x + 3 y 1) + (3 x 4 y 6) = 0
(2 + 3 ) x + (3 4 ) y (1 + 6 ) = 0
... (1)
We want this line to pass through (3, 2). Therefore (3, 2) must satisfy the equation of this line, i.e.
(2 + 3 )3 + (3 4 )2 (1 + 6 ) = 0
5 + 11 = 0
11
5
LOCUS
25
We substitute =
11
in (1) to get the required equation:
5
11
11
11
) x + (3 4 ) y (1 + 6 ) = 0
5
5
5
(2 + 2
43 x 29 y 71 = 0
L1 : bx + ay ab = 0
L2 : ax + by ab = 0
The equation of any line passing through the intersection point of L1 and L2 is
L1 + L2 = 0
(b + a ) x + (a + b ) y ab (1 + ) = 0
... (2)
Since this line must pass through (0, 0), we substitute (0, 0) into (2) to get
ab(1 + ) = 0
= 1
x y =0
____________________________________________________________________________________
Art 9
Angle Bisectors
L1 : a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0
L2 : a2 x + b2 y + c2 = 0
We intend to find the angle bisector formed at the intersection point P of L1 and L2. Note that there will be
two such angle bisectors
y
P
We denote the
two angle bisectors
by A1 and A2
x
L2
A2
L1
Fig  23
Maths / Straight Lines
A2
LOCUS
26
To write down the equations of the two angle bisectors, we first modify the equations of L1 and L2 so that
c1 and c2 are say, both negative in sign. This can always be done. Why this is done will soon become clear.
We first write down the equation of A1, the angle bisector of the angle in which the origin lies.
By virtue of being an angle bisector, if any point P ( x, y ) lies on A1, the distance of P from L1 and L2 must
be equal. Using the perpendicular distance formula of Art 7, we have
a1 x + b1 y + c1
a12 + b1 2
a1 x + b1 y + c1
a1 + b1
2
a2 x + b2 y + c2
a22 + b22
a2 x + b2 y + c2
a22 + b22
...(1)
Which sign should we select, + or , for the bisector of the angle containing the origin?
Since P and origin lie on the same side of L1, a1 x + b1 y + c1 and c1 must be of the same sign by Art  6.
Similarly, a2 x + b2 y + c2 and c2 must be of the same sign. But since we have already arranged c1 and c2
to be of the same sign (both negative), we must have ( a1 x + b1 y + c1 ) and ( a2 x + b2 y + c2 ) also of the
same sign.
Thus, it follows from (1) that to write the equation of the angle bisector of the angle containing the origin,
we must select the + sign since ( a1 x + b1 y + c1 ) and ( a2 x + b2 y + c2 ) are of the same sign. The
sign gives the angle bisector of the angle not containing the origin, i.e., the equation of A2.
To summarize, we first arrange the equations of L1 and L2 so that c1 and c2 are both of the same sign.
Subsequently, using the property of any angle bisector, we obtain
a1 x + b1 y + c1
a1 + b1
2
=+
a2 x + b2 y + c2
a +b
2
2
2
2
and
a1 x + b1 y + c1
a1 + b1
2
a2 x + b2 y + c2
a +b
2
2
2
2
Example 13
Find the angle bisector of the angle between the straight lines L1 : 3x 4 y + 7 = 0 and L2 :12 x 5 y 8 = 0 which
contains the origin.
LOCUS
27
Solution: Following the discussion of the preceeding article, we first modify the equations L1 and L2 so that the
constant terms in both the equations are of the same sign (say both positive):
L1 : 3x 4 y + 7 = 0
L2 : 12 x + 5 y + 8 = 0
The angle bisector of the angle containing the origin is
(3 x 4 y + 7)
32 + 4 2
=+
(12 x + 5 y + 8)
12 2 + 52
99 x 77 y + 51 = 0
L1 : x 2 y + 11 = 0
L2 : 3x + 6 y + 5 = 0
Note that
This means that the point (1, 3) does not lie in the same region as the origin, since (1, 3) must be on
the opposite side of the origin with respect to L2.The example figure below will make this clear:
L1
(1, 3 )
Origin
L2
Fig  24
LOCUS
28
Thus, it is clear that (1, 3) lies in the angle not containing the origin.
(x, y)
L1
Origin
L2
Fig  25
To determine the angle bisector of the angle containing (1, 3), we simply determine the angle bisector
of the angle not containing the origin, i.e.
x 2 y + 11
3 x + 6 y + 5
=
5
3 5
6 5 x = 38 5
x=
19
3
Note that to determine the angle bisector of the angle containing the point P as in Fig.25, we would
have chosen the angle bisector of the angle containing the origin.
LOCUS
29
Q(x, y)
r
Let PQ = r
P(h, k)
x
Fig  26
For any point Q ( x , y ) at a distance r from P along this line, we can write the simple relation
xh yk
=
=r
cos sin
This is the required equation of the line. The point Q ( x , y ), at a distance r from P, has the coordinates
Q ( x, y ) ( h + r cos , k + r sin ).
Obviously, there will be another point, say Q( x, y ), at a distance r from P
along this line but on the opposite side of Q; thus Q( x, y ) will have the
Example 15
A line through A( 5, 4) meets the lines x + 3 y = 2, 2 x + y + 4 = 0 and x y 5 = 0 at the points B, C and D
respectively. If
2
15 10 6
+
=
,
AB AC AD
find the equation of the line.
LOCUS
30
Solution:
B
xy5=0
We want to
find the equation
of the line L.
Assume
AB = r1
AC = r2
AD = r3
x + 3y = 2
A
(5,4)
2x + y + 4 = 0
D
Fig  27
L=0
The figure above roughly sketches the situation described in the equation. Let B, C and D be at
distances r1 , r2 and r3 from A along the line L = 0, whose equation we wish to determine. Assume the
inclination of L to be . Thus, B, C and D have the coordinates (respectively):
B (5 + r1 cos , 4 + r1 sin )
C (5 + r2 cos , 4 + r2 sin )
D (5 + r3 cos , 4 + r3 sin )
Since these three points(respectively) satisfy the three given equations, we have :
Point B : (5 + r1 cos ) + 3(4 + r1 sin ) + 2 = 0
r1 =
15
cos + 3sin
r2 =
10
2 cos + sin
r3 =
6
cos sin
It is given that
2
15 10 6
+
=
AB AC AD
2
i.e.
15 10 6
+ =
r1 r2 r3
(2 cos + 3sin )2 = 0
tan =
m=
2
3
2
3
LOCUS
31
2
. The equation of L can now be easily written :
3
L : y ( 4) =
2
( x (5))
3
L : 2 x + 3 y + 22 = 0
LOCUS
32
TRY YOURSELF  I
1.
x y
x y
+ = 1 and + = 1 meets the
a b
b a
The line bx + ay = ab cuts the axes in A and B. Another variable line cuts the axes in C and D such
that OA + OB = OC + OD, where O is the origin. Prove that the locus of the point of intersection of
the lines AD and BC is the line x + y = a + b.
3.
A point P moves so that the square of its distance from (3, 2) is equal to its distance from the line
5 x 12 y = 13. Find the locus of P.
4.
A line intersects the xaxis in A(7, 0) and the yaxis in B(0, 5). A variable line perpendicular to AB
intersects the xaxis in P and the yaxis in Q. If AQ and BP intersect in R, find the locus of R.
If the sum of the distances of a point from two perpendicular lines in a plane is 1, prove that its locus
is a square.
5.
6.
A vertex of an equilateral triangle is (2, 3) and the opposite side is x + y = 2. Find the equations of the
other sides.
7.
A ray of light along the line x 2 y 3 = 0 is incident upon the mirrorline 3 x 2 y 5 = 0. Find the
equation of the reflected ray.
If the vertices of a triangle have integral coordinates, show that it cannot be equilateral.
Show using coordinate geometry that the angle bisectors of the sides of a triangle are concurrent.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
If p is the length of the perpendicular from the origin to the line whose intercepts on the axes are a and
b, show that
13.
1
1 1
= 2 + 2.
2
p
a b
The lines 3 x + 4 y 8 = 0 and 5 x + 12 y + 3 = 0 intersect in A. Find the equations of the lines passing
through P (3, 4), which intersect the given lines at B and C, such that AB = AC.
14.
The equal sides AB and AC of an isosceles triangle ABC are produced to the points P and Q such that
BP CQ = AB 2 . Prove that the line PQ always passes through a fixed point.
15.
One side of a square is inclined to the xaxis at an angle and one of its extremities is at the origin;
prove that the equations to its diagonals are
y (cos sin ) = x(sin + cos )
and
LOCUS
33
Section  3
L2 y m2 x c2 = 0
What do you think will L1L2 = 0 represent ? It is obvious that any point lying on L1 and L2 will satisfy L1L2 = 0,
and thus L1L2 = 0 represents the set of points constituting both the lines, i.e.,
L1 L2 = 0 represents the pair of straight lines given by L1 = 0 and L2 = 0
For example, consider the equation y 2 x 2 = 0. What does this represent ? We have
y2 x2 = 0
...(1)
( y + x)( y x) = 0
x+y=0
Fig  28
There is nothing special about considering a pair. We can similarly define the joint equation of n straight lines
Li y mi x ci = 0 (i = 1, 2..., n) as
L1L2 ...Ln = 0
( y m1 x c1 )( y m2 x c2 )...( y mn x cn ) = 0
...(2)
Any point lying on any of these n straight lines will satisfy (2), and thus (2) represents the set of all points constituting
the n lines, i.e. (2) represents the joint equation of the n straight lines.
What is relevant to us at this stage is only a pair of straight lines and it is on a pair of lines that we now focus our
attention.
Maths / Straight Lines
LOCUS
34
L1 : y m1 x = 0
L2 : y m2 x = 0
y
L2
L1
2
O
Fig  29
L1L2 = 0
( y m1 x)( y m2 x) = 0
y 2 + m1m2 x 2 (m1 + m2 ) xy = 0
...(3)
(3) suggests that the general equation of a pair of straight lines passing through the origin is
ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0
...(4)
(4) is a homogenous equation of degree 2, implying that the degree of each term is 2.
It should now be apparent that any homogenous equation of degree 2 will represent two straight lines passing
through the origin (well soon see that the two straight lines might be imaginary; the meaning of this will become
clear in a subsequent example).
Generalising, any nth degree homogenous equation of the form
a0 x n + a1 x n 1 y + a2 x n 2 y 2 + ... + an y n = 0
...(5)
represents n straight lines (real or imaginary) passing through the origin. To obtain the slopes of these n lines, we
y
divide by x n in (5) and substitute = m :
x
an m n + an 1m n 1 + ... + a0 = 0
LOCUS
35
Example 16
Find the straight lines represented by
(a) y 2 5 xy + 6 x 2 = 0
(b) 3 y 2 10 xy + 3 x 2 = 0
(c) y 2 + xy + x 2 = 0
Solution: Note that the homogenous nature of these equations tells us that the lines will pass through the origin.
(a) y 2 5 xy + 6 x 2 = 0
We either factorize this equation straightaway :
( y 2 x )( y 3 x ) = 0
OR,
y
we divide it by x 2 and substitute m = to obtain :
x
m 2 5m + 6 = 0
m = 2, 3
y
= 2, 3
x
y = 2 x or y = 3 x
(b)
3m 10m + 3 = 0
m = 3,
y = 3 x, y =
1
3
x
3
m =
x
LOCUS
36
y 2 + xy + x 2 = 0
(c)
m2 + m + 1 = 0
Again, m =
x
This has no real roots and thus physically, no lines will exist with the joint equation y 2 + xy + x 2 = 0.
We sometimes say that this equation represents imaginary lines.
Note that in the entire plane, only (0, 0) satisfies this equation.
____________________________________________________________________________________
Consider now that weve been given the equation of a pair of straight lines passing through the origin as :
ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0
...(1)
We wish to determine the angle between these two lines. Let m1 and m2 be the slopes of these two lines. By
y
dividing(1) by x2 and substituting = m, we have
x
bm 2 + 2 hm + a = 0
2h
;
b
m1m2 =
a
b
...(2)
m1 m2
1 + m1m2
(m1 + m2 ) 2 4m1m2
=
1 + m1m2
2 h 2 ab
=
a+b
(Using (2))
As a consequence of this formula, we see that the lines represented by (1), are :
Parallel (in fact coincident since both pass through the origin)
Perpendicular
if
if
h 2 = ab
a+b = 0
The importance of this condition must be mentioned; it is very widely used and should be committed to memory.
As an example, the locus given by
3 y 2 8 xy 3 x 2 = 0
represent two perpendicular straight lines since
a + b = (3) + ( 3) = 0
...(3)
LOCUS
37
Example 17
Find the equation of the pair of lines through the origin and perpendicular to the pair of lines ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0.
Solution: Let the slopes of the two lines represented by the given equation be m1 and m2. As explained earlier,
m1 and m2 are the roots of the quadratic
bm 2 + 2 hm + a = 0
so that
m1 + m2 =
2h
,
b
m1m2 =
a
b
...(1)
1
1
The slopes of the lines whose joint equation we require will simply be m and m so that their
1
2
equations will be :
y=
1
x,
m1
x + m1 y = 0,
y=
1
x
m2
x + m2 y = 0
( x + m1 y )( x + m2 y ) = 0
x 2 + m1m2 y 2 + (m1 + m2 ) xy = 0
x2 +
bx 2 2hxy + ay 2 = 0
a 2 2h
y
xy = 0
b
b
(Using (1))
Example 18
he equation ax 3 + bx 2 y + cx 2 + dy 3 = 0 is a third degree homogenous equation and hence represents three straight
lines passing through the origin. Find the condition so that two of these three lines may be perpendicular.
Solution: We divide the given equation by x 3 and substitute
y
= m to obtain:
x
dm3 + cm 2 + bm + a = 0
...(1)
This has three roots, say m1 , m2 , m3 , corresponding to the three straight lines. Since we want two of
these lines to be perpendicular, we can assume
m1m2 = 1
Maths / Straight Lines
LOCUS
38
m3 =
a
d
a
d
a 2 + ac + bd + d 2 = 0
Example 19
Find the area of the triangle formed by the lines y 2 9 xy + 18 x 2 = 0 and y = 9.
Solution: The joint equation can be factorized to obtained
( y 3 x )( y 6 x ) = 0
Thus, the three lines forming the sides of the triangle are
y = 3 x, y = 6 x, y = 9
27
sq. units
4
Example 20
The slope of one of the two lines represented by ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0 is the square of the other. Prove that
a + b 8h 2
+
=6
h
ab
Maths / Straight Lines
LOCUS
39
Solution: Let the two slopes be m and m2; these are the roots of the quadratic
bM 2 + 2 hM = a = 0
so that
m + m2 =
2 h
,
b
m3 =
a
b
8h3
b3
a a 2 3a 2h 8h3
+ +
= 3
b b2 b b
b
ba 2 + ab 2 + 8h 3 = 6hab
a + b 8h 2
+
=6
h
ab
_____________________________________________________________________________________
GENERAL EQUATION OF A PAIR OF LINES
Consider the equations of two arbitrary lines L1 and L2:
L1 : l1 x + m1 y + n1 = 0
L2 : l2 x + m2 y + n2 = 0
The joint equation of the two lines is
L1L2 = 0
(l1 x + m1 y + n1 )(l2 x + m2 y + n2 ) = 0
...(1)
(1) suggests that the most general equation to a pair of straight lines has the form
ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 + 2 gx + 2 fy + c = 0
...(2)
It might be apparent to you that (2) will not always represent a pair of straight lines. For (2) to indeed represent a
pair of straight lines, it must be able to be factorised into two linear factors; as an exercise for the reader, show that
(2) can be expressed as a product of linear factors if the following condition is satisfied:
abc + 2 fgh af 2 bg 2 ch 2 = 0
a
h
g
h
b
f
g
f =0
c
LOCUS
40
We now reevaluate the conditions for parallel and perpendicular lines, in the general case :
Let L1 and L2 be two lines with slopes s1 and s2; their equations have already been mentioned above. L1 and L2 are
parallel if
s1 = s2
l1 l2
=
m1 m2
l1m2 = l2 m1
(l1m2 l2 m1 )
(l1m2 + l2 m1 )
=0
= 4 l1 l2 m1 m2
...(3)
h 2 = ab
Parallel lines
This is the same condition as the one for the homogenous case.
For L1 and L2 to be perpendicular,
s1 s2 = 1
l1 l2
= 1
m1 m2
l1l2 + m1m2 = 0
a+b = 0
Perpendicular lines
Again, this condition is the same as the one in the homogenous case.
If fact, you can verify that the angle subtended between the two lines is also given by the same formula as in the
homogenous case, i.e.,
tan =
2 h 2 ab
a+b
That these formulae in the homogenous and the general case are the same should be obvious since the slope of any
line is independent of the constant term appearing in its equation.
Example 21
Prove that the equation 6 x 2 + 13 xy + 6 y 2 + 8 x + 7 y + 2 = 0 represents a pair of straight lines. Find the point of
intersection and the angle between these two lines.
Maths / Straight Lines
LOCUS
41
Solution: To show that this equation represents a pair of straight lines, we use the determinant condition mentioned
earlier:
6
a
h
h
b
g
13
f =
2
c
4
13
2
7
2
7
2
49 13
91
= 6 12 + (14 13) + 4 24
4 2
3 13
= + 5
2 2
=0
which confirms the stated assertion.
The angle between these two lines is given by
tan =
=
2 h 2 ab
a+b
5
12
5
= tan 1
12
To find the point of intersection, we must factorise the joint equation to obtain the separate equations
of the lines. This task can be made easy be observing that since the homogenous part of the given
equation is
6 x 2 + 13 xy + 6 y 2 = 0
which can be factorised as
(2 x + 3 y )(3 x + 2 y ) = 0,
Convince yourself about this argument. and can easily be evaluated using comparison of coefficients
to be 2 and 1 respectively. Thus, the two lines are
L1 : 2 x + 3 y + 2 = 0
L2 : 3x + 2 y + 1 = 0
1 4
so that their point of intersection is, by solving this system of equations, ,
.
5 5
Maths / Straight Lines
LOCUS
42
Example 22
Show that the four lines given by the equations
3 x 2 + 8 xy 3 y 2 = 0
3 x 2 + 8 xy 3 y 2 + 2 x 4 y 1 = 0
form a square. What is the length of the sides of the square ?
Solution: The first joint equation can be easily factorised to yield
(3 x y )( x + 3 y ) = 0
3 x y = 0,
x + 3y = 0
...(1)
These are perpendicular lines intersecting at the origin. As described in the previous example, the
second joint equation can be factorised as
(3 x y + ) ( x + 3 y + ) = 0
...(2)
From (1) and (2), it should be evident that the four lines form a square. The length l of the sides of this
square can be evaluated by determining the perpendicular distance between any pair of opposite
sides, say 3 x y = 0 and 3 x y 1 = 0 :
l=
0 (1)
12 + 32
1
10
Example 23
Find the joint equation of the angle bisectors of the lines represented by ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0.
Solution: Let the slopes of the two lines represented by ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0 be m1 and m2, so that m1 and m2
are the roots of the quadratic
bm 2 + 2 hm + a = 0
Thus,
m1 + m2 =
2h
,
b
m1m2 =
a
b
LOCUS
43
It should be obvious that the angle bisectors will also pass through the origin, as shown below:
y
L2
A1
A2
L1
2
1 1
Fig  30
1 + 2
,
2
2 =
1 + 2
+
2
2
21 = 1 + 2 , 22 = + 1 + 2
tan 1 + tan 2
1 tan 1 tan 2
m1 + m2
1 m1m2
2h
a b
or tan 2 =
x
tan 1 =
y
x
tan 2 =
2 xy
x y2
2
x 2 y 2 xy
=
ab
h
Maths / Straight Lines
We have used to
1
2
... (1)
LOCUS
44
This is the joint equation of the angle bisectors; as expected, it is a second degree homogenous
equation.
As a corollary, suppose we are required to find the joint equation of the angle bisectors of the lines
L1 and L2 represented by
ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 + 2 gx + 2 fy + c = 0
We first find the point of intersection of L1 and L2, say P (, ). If we now shift our coordinate system
(translation) so that P is the origin (Refer to Appendix  1), and denote the coordinates in the new
system by ( X , Y ), we will have the joint equation of the angle bisectors of L1 and L2 as
X 2 Y 2 XY
=
a b
h
But since X x , Y y , the joint equation in the original frame is
( x ) 2 ( y ) 2 ( x )( y )
=
a b
h
____________________________________________________________________________________
We now discuss a very useful application of the concept of pair of straight lines.
Consider a second degree curve S ( x, y ) with the equation
S ( x, y ) ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 + 2 gx + 2 fy + c = 0
and a straight line
L px + qy + r = 0
intersecting S = 0 in A and B. Let O be the origin.
B
What is the joint
equation of the pair
of straight lines
OA and OB?
O
S(x, y) =0
Fig  31
L=0
LOCUS
45
The insight that we use here is that since both OA and OB pass through the origin, their joint equation will be
homogenous. We now construct a homogenous equation and show that both A and B satisfy it; that equation is
then guaranteed to jointly represent OA and OB.
First of all, observe that since A and B satisfy the equation of L, i.e. px + qy + r = 0, they will also satisfy the
relation
px + qy
=1
r
Now, we homogenize the equation of the second degree curve S ( x, y ) using the relation above; consider this
equation :
px + qy
px + qy px + qy
ax + 2hxy + by + 2 gx
+ 2 fy
+ c
=0
r
r r
2
...(1)
Can you understand why weve done this? The equation we obtain above is a second degree homogenous equation,
and so it must represent two straight lines passing through the origin. Which two straight lines? Since A and B
satisfy the equation of the original curve as well as the relation
px + qy
= 1, A and B both satisfy the homogenized
r
equation in (1).
What does this imply ? That (1) is the joint equation of OA and OB!
Go over this discussion again if you find this confusing. You must fully understand the described technique which
will find very wide usage in subsequent chapters.
Example 24
Find the joint equation of the straight lines passing through the origin O and the points of intersection of the line
3 x + 4 y 5 = 0 and the curve 2 x 2 + 3 y 2 = 5.
Solution: One approach is of course to explicitly determine the two points of intersection, say A and B, writing
the equations of OA and OB, thereby obtaining the required joint equation. You are urged to do this as
an exercise.
However, well use the homogenizing technique just described :
y
B
A
x
O
2
2x + 3y = 5
Fig  32
Maths / Straight Lines
We wish to determine
the joint equation of
OA and OB
LOCUS
46
=1
5
and then using this relation to homogenize the equation of the curve :
3x + 4 y
2x + 3 y = 5
5
2
10 x 2 + 15 y 2 = 9 x 2 + 16 y 2 + 24 xy
x 2 24 xy y 2 = 0
Example 25
Find the value of m, if the lines joining the origin O to the points of intersection A, B of y = 1 + mx and x 2 + y 2 = 1
are perpendicular.
Solution: The joint equation of OA and OB is
x 2 + y 2 = ( y mx) 2
(1 m2 ) x 2 + 2mxy = 0
... (1)
a+b = 0
which when applied to (1) yields
1 m2 = 0
m = 1
This example was more or less trivial and a little knowledge of circles would have enabled you to solve this
question without resorting to the homogenizing approach; however, the fact that this approach is very powerful in
many cases will become apparent in later examples.
LOCUS
47
TRY YOURSELF  II
Q. 1
Find the values(s) of m for which the following equation(s) represents a pair of straight lines:
(a) x 2 + xy 2 y 2 + 3 y 1 = 0
(b) 4 x 2 + 10 xy + y 2 + 5 x + 10 y = 0
Q. 2
Find the angle of intersection of the straight lines given by the equation
3 x 2 7 xy + 2 y 2 + 9 x + 2 y 12 = 0
Q. 3
Show that the lines joining the origin to the points common to x 2 + hxy y 2 + gx + fy = 0 and
fx gy = are at right angles for all values of .
Q. 4
Q. 5
Prove that the lines joining the origin to the points of intersection of the line
x y
+ = 2 with the curve
h k
( x h) 2 + ( y k ) 2 = c 2 , are perpendicular if h 2 + k 2 = c 2 .
Q. 6
Find the joint equations of the straight lines passing through (1, 1) and parallel to the lines given by
x 2 5 xy + 4 y 2 + x + 2 y 2 = 0.
Q. 7
Evaluate the point of intersection for the lines represented by the general equation
ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 + 2 gx + 2 fy + c = 0.
Q. 8
Find the joint equation of the images of the pair of lines ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0 in the mirror y = 0.
Q. 9
Find the joint equation of the angle bisectors of the lines given by x 2 + 2 xy sec + y 2 = 0.
Q. 10
= ( ha ha )( hb hb)
2
LOCUS
48
SOLVED EXAMPLES
Example 1
Consider a fixed point O and n fixed straight lines. Through O, a (variable) line is drawn intersecting the fixed lines
in P1 , P2 ....., Pn . On this variable line, a point P is taken such that
n
1
1
1
=
+
+ ..... +
.
OP OP1 OP2
OPn
P2
P1
P3
Pn
A figure illustrating
the situation described
...
L1
L3 L n
L2
Fig  33
i = 1, 2,.....n
i = 1, 2.....n
OPi =
( hai + kbi + ci )
ai cos + bi sin
y = k + OP sin
...(1)
LOCUS
49
n
a cos + bi sin
= i
NP
hai + kbi + ci
ai
bi
=
cos +
sin
hai + kbi + ci
hai + kbi + ci
= cos + sin
x + y ( h + k + n ) = 0
Example 2
Lines are drawn to intersect n concurrent lines at the points A1 , A2 ....., An such that
n
OA
i =1
= constant
where O is the point of concurrency. Show that the variable lines all pass through a fixed point.
Solution: Theres no loss of generality in assuming O to be the origin since we are dealing only with lengths which
are invariant with respect to the choice of the coordinate axes.
L2
Ln
L1
A2
A1
O
Fig  34
Maths / Straight Lines
LOCUS
50
The inclinations of the fixed lines can be assumed to be i so that the points Ai have the coordinates
Ai (OAi cos i , OAi sin i )
Let the variable line have the equation
ax + by + c = 0
c
a cos i + b sin i
OAi =
...(1)
OA
i =1
= costant = K (say)
...(2)
i =1
a cos i + b sin i
=K
c
n
n
cos
sin i
+ b i =1
+c = 0
a i =1
K
n
cos i
,
(3) shows that the variable line L always passes through the fixed point i =1
K
...(3)
sin
i =1
Example 3
Prove that the centroid G of a triangle divides the line joining its circumcentre C and its orthocentre H in the
ratio 1 : 2.
LOCUS
51
Solution: To make our task simpler, we choose a coordinate frame in which the triangles vertices have coordinates
that are easy to work with. One such choice is shown below.
y
R(b,c)
x
P(a,0)
Q(a,0)
Fig  35
xG =
a + a + b b
=
3
3
yG =
0+0+c c
=
3
3
b c
G ,
3 3
x=0
Since the slope of PR is
c
, the equation of the B
b+a
of PR is
y
c b + a
ba
=
x
2
2
c
b2 a2 + c2
C 0,
2c
LOCUS
52
x=b
Let find the altitude from Q onto PR:
b+a
y 0 =
( x a)
c
b2 a 2
H b,
b2 a 2
b2 a2 + c2
c
2c
b, c
1 b + 2 0 ,
3 3
3
3
Example 4
Find the area of the parallelogram formed by the lines
a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0;
a1 x + b1 y + d1 = 0
a2 x + b2 y + c2 = 0;
a2 x + b2 y + d2 = 0
b2 y +
a2 x +
a2 x +
b2 y +
c2 = 0
d2 = 0
a1x + b1y + d1 = 0
a1x + b1y + c1 = 0
Fig  36
LOCUS
53
We first consider a little geometry for this parallelogram. Let the parallelogram have sides a and b and
let the perpendicular distances between its opposite sides be p1 and p2:
p1
b
p2
a
Fig  37
A = ab sin = ap1
( p1 = b sin )
p2
p1
sin
p1 p2
sin
( p2 = a sin )
...(1)
Thus, the area of the parallelogram can be expressed using the perpendicular distances between its
opposite sides rather than using the length of the sides. This is good for us since we already know how
to evaluate the perpendicular distance between two parallel lines.
p1 =
p2 =
c1 d1
a12 + b12
c2 d 2
a22 + b22
Also,
a1 a2
b1 b2
tan =
aa
1+ 1 2
b1b2
...(2)
a1b2 a2b1
a1a2 + b1b2
...(3)
LOCUS
54
so that
sin =
a1b2 a2 b1
...(4)
(c1 d1 )(c2 d 2 )
(a1b2 a2 b1 )
Now, the parallelogram is a rhombus if its diagonals are perpendicular, which also means that the
distances between its opposite sides are equal, i.e.
p1 = p2
c1 d1
a12 + b12
c2 d 2
a22 + b22
Example 5
A rod AB of length l slides with its end on the coordinate axes. Let O be the origin. The rectangle OAPB is
completed. Find the locus of the foot of the perpendicular drawn from P onto AB.
Solution:
y
F
l
x
Fig  38
...(1)
LOCUS
55
The equation of AB is
x sec + y cosec = l
...(2)
k = l sin 3
1/ 3
h
cos =
l
1/ 3
k
, sin =
l
Eliminating , we have
h2 / 3 + k 2 / 3 = l 2 / 3
B(x2, y2)
A ( x 1 , y1 )
L = ax + by + c = 0
Fig  40
+1
+1
ax1 + by1 + c
ax2 + by2 + c
LOCUS
56
L( x1 , y1 )
L( x2 , y2 )
This is a useful result (as well see from part(b), the next example) and it would be worth memorizing
it.
Example 6
A line intersects BC, CA and AB in ABC at P, Q and R respectively. Show that
(b)
BP CQ AR
= 1
PC QA RB
Solution:
A ( x 1 , y1 )
L=0
Q
B
(x2, y2)
C (x 3 , y3 )
Fig  39
...(1)
BP
L( x2 , y2 )
=
PC
L( x3 , y3 )
...(2)
CQ
L( x3 , y3 )
=
QA
L ( x1 , y1 )
...(3)
From (1), (2) and (3), it should be evident that the assertion stated in the question is valid.
Example 7
The curves
C1 : a1 x 2 + 2h1 xy + b1 y 2 + 2 g1 x = 0
C2 : a2 x 2 + 2h2 xy + b2 y 2 + 2 g 2 x = 0
intersect at two points A and B other than the origin. Find the condition for OA and OB to be perpendicular.
Maths / Straight Lines
LOCUS
57
Solution: Assume the equation of AB to be y = mx + c. Thus, using the homogenizing technique, we can write
the joint equation of OA and OB:
y mx
a1 x 2 + 2h1 xy + b1 y 2 + 2 g1 x
=0
c
Homogenizing C1:
2mg1 2
2 g1 xy
2
=0
a1
x + 2h1 xy + b1 y +
c
c
Homogenizing C2:
2mg1
+ b1 = 0
c
m a1 + b1
=
c
2 g1
...(1)
2
=0
a2
x + 2h2 xy + b2 y +
c
c
2mg 2
+ b2 = 0
c
m a2 + b2
=
c
2g2
Example 8
Find the orthocentre of the triangle formed by the lines ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0 and px + qy = 1.
...(2)
LOCUS
58
Solution: The two lines given by the joint equation pass through the origin. Assume their slopes to be m1 and m2
so that m1 and m2 are the roots of
bm 2 + 2 hm + a = 0
m1 + m2 =
2h
,
b
m1m2 =
a
b
...(1)
y
y = m2 x
y = m1 x
N
M
px +qy = 1
x
Fig  41
To evaluate the orthocentre, we need two altitudes. We take one of them to be the one dropped from
O onto MN.
qx py = 0
...(2)
Let us now find the altitude from M onto ON. The coordinates of M are, by solving y = m1 x and
px + qy = 1 simultaneously,
1
m1
M
,
p + qm1 p + qm1
1
The slope of ON is m2 so that the slope of the altitude through M is m ; thus, its equation is
2
1
m1
1
=
x
p + qm1 m2
p + qm1
x
1 + m1m2
+y=
m2
m2 ( p + qm1 )
x + m2 y =
1 + m1m2
p + qm1
...(3)
LOCUS
59
p (1 + m1m2 )
( p + qm1 )( p + qm2 )
p (1 + m1m2 )
p + pq ( m1 + m2 ) + q 2 m1m2
p (a + b)
bp 2hpq + aq 2
k=
q
.h
p
(from (1))
q ( a + b)
bp 2hpq + aq 2
2
p ( a + b)
q ( a + b)
,
2
2
2
2
bp 2hpq + aq bp 2hpq + aq
Example 9
Show that the equation
( x3 3 xy 2 ) + y 3 3 x 2 y = 0
represents three straight lines equally inclined to one another.
Solution: Observe that since the equation is homogenous, it will represent three straight lines passing through the
origin. Let the slopes of the three lines be m1 , m2 and m3 .
Thus m1 , m2 and m3 are the roots of the equation
(1 3m 2 ) + m3 3m = 0
3m m3
=
1 3m2
where m =
x
LOCUS
60
Since m =
y
= tan , where is the inclination of the line, we have
x
3 tan tan 3
= tan 3
1 3 tan 2
tan 3 =
3 = n + tan 1
n + tan 1
3
Since there are three lines corresponding to the joint equation, well have three corresponding angles
of inclination
tan 1
1 =
,
3
2 =
2
+ tan 1 , 3 =
+ tan 1
3
3
The angles of inclination show that the three lines are equally inclined to one another.
y
L2
L3
L1
x
Fig  42
Example 10
Show that all the chords of the curve 3 x 2 y 2 2 x + 4 y = 0 which subtend a right angle at the origin pass through
a fixed point. Find that point.
LOCUS
61
Solution: Let y = mx + c be a chord of the curve which subtends a right angle at the origin. The joint equation
of the lines joining the origin to points of intersection of y = mx + c and the curve is
y mx
3 x 2 y 2 + (4 y 2 x)
=0
c
2m 4
+ 1 = 0
c c
c+m+2 = 0
( 2) = m(1) + c
(1) shows that y = mx + c always passes through the fixed point (2, 1).
...(1)
LOCUS
62
ASSIGNMENT
[ LEVEL  I ]
1.
Through the origin O, a (variable) line is drawn to cut the lines y = m1 x + c1 and y = m2 x + c2 at Q
and R. Let there be a point P on this variable line such that OP is the geometric mean of OQ and OR.
Find the locus of P.
2.
Find the condition so that the pair of straight lines joining the origin to the points of intersection of
A line drawn through the origin intersects the lines 2 x + y 2 = 0 and x 2 y + 2 = 0 in A and B. Let
M be the midpoint of AB. Show that the locus of M is 2 x 2 3 xy 2 y 2 + x + 3 y = 0.
4.
Show that the reflection of the line ax + by + c = 0, a b in the line x + y + 1 = 0 is the line
bx + ay + ( a + b c ) = 0.
5.
Find the angle between the straight lines given by ( x 2 + y 2 )sin 2 = ( x cos y sin )2 .
6.
7.
Let ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 + 2 gx + 2 fy + c = 0 represent a pair of parallel straight lines. Prove that the
distance between these lines is d = 2
8.
g 2 ac
f 2 bc
=2
.
a ( a + b)
b( a + b)
If the equation 2hxy + 2 gx + 2 fy + c = 0 represents two straight lines, show that they form a rectangle
of area
fg
with the coordinate axes.
h2
[ LEVEL  II ]
9.
A straight line is such that the algebraic sum of the perpendiculars drawn upon it from any number of
fixed points is zero. Show that it always passes through a fixed point.
10.
LOCUS
11.
12.
63
a
a
a
, am2 ,
, am3 ,
Show that there exists a point equidistant from the four points am1 ,
m1
m2
m3
, am1m2 m3 .
and
m1m2 m3
The vertices of triangle are ( xi , xi tan i ), i = 1, 2,3. The circumcentre of this triangle is the origin and
its orthocentre is ( a, b). Show that
a cos 1 + cos 2 + cos 3
.
=
b sin 1 + sin 2 + sin 3
13.
A rectangle PQRS has its side PQ parallel to the line y = mx and the vertices P, Q and S lie on the
lines y = a, x = b and x = b respectively. Find the locus of R.
14.
d ( P, Q) = x1 x2 + y1 y2
Let O (0, 0) and A (3, 2). Prove that the set of points in the first quadrant which are
equiMdistant from O and A, consists of the union of a line segment of finite length and an infinite ray.
Sketch this set.
15.
The sides of a triangle are Li x cos i + y sin i = pi , i = 1, 2,3. Prove that the orthocentre of this
triangle satisfies
L1 cos( 2 3 ) = L2 cos(3 1 ) = L3 cos(1 2 ).
16.
2c
h 2 ab
17.
Find the area of the triangle formed by the lines given by ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 + 2 gx + 2 fy + c = 0 and
the xaxis.
18.
If ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 + 2 gx + 2 fy + c = 0 represents two straight lines, prove that the product of the
perpendiculars drawn from the origin to these lines is
19.
c
( a b) 2 + 4h 2
A line L through the origin meets x + y = 1 and x + y = 3 at P and Q respectively. Through P and Q,
two straight lines L1 and L2 are drawn parallel to 2 x y = 5 and 3 x + y = 5 respectively. The lines L1
and L2 intersect in R. As L varies, show that the locus of R is a straight line.
20.
U
a
b
Maths / Straight Lines
V 1
a 1 = 0
b 1
LOCUS
64
APPENDIX
TRANSFORMA
TION OF COORDIN
ATES
TRANSFORMATION
COORDINA
Suppose that a person A is flying a kite from the ground while another person B is observing this kite from the top
of a building, as shown below:
y
(H, K)
X
A
(0,0)
Fig  44
In A's frame of reference, the coordinates of B are ( H , K ). Now suppose that A and B both specify the position
of the kite relative to themselves. It should be evident that the coordinates of the kite in the two reference frames
will be different.
Let the coordinates of the kite be ( x, y ) in A's reference frame and ( X , Y ) in B's reference frame. Then, we have
X = x H,
Y = yK
...(1)
Thus, a translation of the axes implies a corresponding change in the coordinates in the manner specified by (1).
In fact, if the kite traces a path f ( x, y ) = 0 in A's reference frame, it will trace the path f ( X + H , Y + K ) = 0 in
B's frame of reference.
LOCUS
65
Translation of axes implies a simple shift in the origin without a change in the relative orientation of the axes. We
now consider the case when the axes is rotated but the origin is the same
y
Y
Fig  45
Let a point A have the coordinates ( x, y ) in the original frame of reference and ( X , Y ) in the rotated frame of
reference. Verify that the following relations hold true :
x = X cos Y sin
y = X sin + Y cos
We can now combine the case of translation and rotation of axes to determine the most general transformed
coordinates. Let the origin of the axes be shifted to ( h, k ) and the axes be rotated by an anticlockwise angle .
The original coordinates ( x, y ) and the coordinates in the new frame of reference ( X , Y ) will satisfy the relations

x = h + X cos Y sin
y = k + X sin + Y cos