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Tutorial-9

Chapter 6: Work and Kinetic Energy


Date: 22-04-2012

Q-1). An object moved under the action of an applied force


+(4y2)j

F = [(2x) i

] N, where x and y are in meters. If the object is displaced from

an initial position

2i +3 j

) m to a final position

( 4 i+7 j ) m ,

how much work

is done by the force during this displacement ?

Q-2). A block of ice with mass 2.00 Kg slides 0.750 m down an inclined plane
that slopes downward at an angle of 36.9 o below the horizontal. If the block
of ice starts from rest, what is its final speed ? Ignore friction. (YF-13EdQ6.28)

Q-3). A child applies a force

parallel to the x-axis to a 10.0 kg sled

moving on the frozen surface of a small pond. As the child controls the speed
of the sled, the x-component of the force she applied varies with the x-

Tutorial-9

Chapter 6: Work and Kinetic Energy


Date: 22-04-2012

coordinate of the sled as shown in the figure. Calculate the work done by the

force F when the sled moves (YF-13Ed-Q6.34 & 6.35)


(a) from x=0 to x =8.0 m

(b) from x =8.0 m to x= 12.0 m

(c ). From x =0 to 12.0 m

(d). Suppose the sled is initially at rest at x= 0. Use the work-energy


theorem to find the speed of the sled at
(i) x =8.0 m
(ignore friction)
m. (ignore friction)

(ii) x = 12.0

Q-4). A 2.0-kg and a 3.0-kg box on a perfectly smooth horizontal floor have
a spring of force constant 250 N/m compressed between them. If the initial
compression of the spring is 6.0 cm, find the acceleration of each box the
instant after they are released. Be sure to include free body diagrams of each
box as part of your solution. (YF-13Ed-Q6.36)

Tutorial-9

Chapter 6: Work and Kinetic Energy


Date: 22-04-2012

Q-5). A 4.00 kg block of ice is placed against a horizontal spring that has
force constant k = 200 N/m and is compressed 0.025 m. The spring is
released and accelerates the block along a horizontal surface. You can ignore
friction and the mass of the spring. (YF-13Ed-Q6.40)
(a) Calculate the work done on the block by the spring during the motion of
the block from its initial position to where the spring has returned to its
uncompressed length.

(b). What is the speed of the block after it leaves the spring ?

Q-6). An ingenious bricklayer builds a device for shooting brick up to the top
of the wall where he is working. He places a brick on a vertical compressed
spring with force constant k = 450 N/m and negligible mass. When the spring
is released the brick is propelled upward. If the brick has mass 1.80 kg and is
to reach a maximum height of 3.6 m above its initial position on the
compressed spring, what distance must the bricklayer compress the spring
initially ? (YF-13Ed-Q6.46)

Tutorial-9

Chapter 6: Work and Kinetic Energy


Date: 22-04-2012

Q-7). A 20.0 kg rock is sliding on a rough, horizontal surface at 8.00 m/s and
eventually stops due to friction. The coefficient of kinetic friction between
the rock and the surface is 0.200. What average power is produced by
friction as the rock stops ? (YF-13Ed-Q6.52)

Q-8). An elevator has mass 600 kg, not including passengers. The elevator is
designed to ascend , at constant speed, a vertical distance of 20.0 m in 16.0
s, and it is driven by a motor that can provide up to 40 hp to the elevator.
What is the maximum number of passengers that can ride in the elevator ?
Assume that an average passenger has mass 65.0 kg.
(YF-13EdQ6.56)

Tutorial-9

Chapter 6: Work and Kinetic Energy


Date: 22-04-2012

Q-1). 6.14.
IDENTIFY: The book changes its speed and hence its
kinetic energy, so work must have been done on it.
SET UP:

Use the work-kinetic energy theorem

In part (a) use


W to calculate
EXECUTE:

Ki

and

Kf

Wnet K f K i ,

K 12 mv 2 .

with

to calculate W. In parts (b) and (c) use

Ki

and

Kf .

(a)

Substituting

the

notation

i A

f B,

and

Wnet K B K A 12 (150 kg)[(125 m/s)2 (321 m/s) 2 ] 656 J.

iB

(b) Noting
KC

1 mv 2
C
2

K C K B Wnet 12 (150 kg)(125 m/s)2 0750 J 0422 J.

f C,

and

vC 2 KC /m 0.750 m/s.

so
K C 12 (150 kg)(125 m/s) 2 0750 J 1922 J

(c) Similarly,
EVALUATE:

and

Negative

Wnet

vC 160 m/s.

corresponds to a decrease in kinetic energy

(slowing down) and positive


energy (speeding up).

Wnet

corresponds to an increase in kinetic

Wtot K 2 K1.

Q-2). 6.28.

IDENTIFY:Apply
K1 0.

SET UP:
gravity is

The normal force does no work. The work W done by

W mgh

, where

h L sin

is the vertical distance the block has

dropped when it has traveled a distance L down the incline and


the angle the plane makes with the horizontal.
v

v 2(9.80 m/s )(0.75 m)sin 36.9 2.97 m/s.

Using the given numbers,

is

2K
2W

2 gh 2 gL sin
m
m

EXECUTE:The work-energy theorem gives


2

Tutorial-9

Chapter 6: Work and Kinetic Energy


Date: 22-04-2012

EVALUATE:The final speed of the block is the same as if it had been


dropped from a height h.

Q-3(i) 6.34.
IDENTIFY: The magnitude of the work can be found by
finding the area under the graph.
1/2 base height. Fx 0,

SET UP: The area under each triangle is


so the work
done is positive when x increases during the displacement.
1/2 (8m)(10 N) 40J.

EXECUTE:

(a)

1/2 (4m)(10 N) 20 J.

(b)

1/2 (12 m)(10N) 60J.

(c)
EVALUATE: The sum of the answers to parts (a) and (b) equals the
answer to part (c).
Q-3(ii) 6.35.
IDENTIFY: Use the work-energy theorem and the results of
Problem 6.30.
SET UP:

For

x0

to

x 80 m, Wtot 40 J.

For

x0

to

x 120 m, Wtot 60 J.

(2)(40J)
v
283m/s
10 kg

EXECUTE:

(a)

(2)(60 J)
v
346m/s.
10kg

(b)

r
F

r
F

x-direction.

EVALUATE:
is always in the
For this motion
does positive
work and the speed continually increases during the motion.

Q-4). 6.36.
IDENTIFY: The force of the spring is the same on each box,
but they have different accelerations because their masses are
different. Hookes law gives the spring force.
SET UP: The free-body diagrams for the boxes are shown in Figure
6.36. Label the boxes A and B, with

mA 20 kg

and

mB 30 kg. F kx

spring force and is the same for each box. We apply


box.

F ma

is the

to each

Tutorial-9

Chapter 6: Work and Kinetic Energy


Date: 22-04-2012

Figure 6.36

aA

F k x (250 N/m)(0060 m) 150 N.

EXECUTE:
aB

F
150 N

75 m/s 2 ;
m A 20 kg

F
150 N

50 m/s 2 .
mB 30 kg

The accelerations are in opposite directions.


EVALUATE: The same magnitude of force is exerted on each object,
but the acceleration that is produced by this force is larger for the
object of smaller mass.
W 12 kx12 12 kx22 .

Q-5). 6.40. IDENTIFY:


SET UP:

For the spring,

x1 - 0025 m
W

EXECUTE:

and

1 kx 2
2 1

Apply

Wtot K 2 K1.

x2 0.

12 (200N/m)(0025m) 2 0060J.

(a)
2W
2(0062J)

018 m/s.
m
(40kg)

v2

(b) The work-energy theorem gives


EVALUATE: The block moves in the direction of the spring force, the
spring does positive work and the kinetic energy of the block
increases.
Wtot K 2 K1

Q-6). 6.46.
IDENTIFY: Apply
the spring force and by gravity.
SET UP:
Wgrav mgh.

At the maximum height,

to the brick. Work is done by

v 0.

Gravity does negative work,


1 kd 2 ,
2

The work done by the spring is


where d is the distance
the spring is compressed initially.
EXECUTE: The initial and final kinetic energies of the brick are both
zero, so the net work done on the brick by the spring and gravity is

Tutorial-9

Chapter 6: Work and Kinetic Energy


Date: 22-04-2012
(1/2) kd 2 mgh 0,

d 2mgh/k 2(180kg)(980 m/s 2 )(36m)/(450 N/m) 053m

zero, so
or
The spring will provide an upward force while the spring and the brick
are in contact. When this force goes to zero, the spring is at its
uncompressed length. But when the spring reaches its uncompressed
length the brick has an upward velocity and leaves the spring.
EVALUATE: Gravity does negative work because the gravity force is
downward and the brick moves upward. The spring force does positive
work on the brick because the spring force is upward and the brick
moves upward.
Q-7). 6.52.

IDENTIFY:

the force of friction,

The thermal energy is produced as a result of

F k mg .

The average thermal power is thus the


P F||vav .

average rate of work done by friction or


vav

v2 v1 800 m/s 0

400 m/s

2
2

SET UP:
EXECUTE:
EVALUATE:

P Fvav [(0200)(200 kg)(980 m/s 2 )](400 m/s) 157 W

The power could also be determined as the rate of change


K/t ,

of kinetic energy,

where the time is calculated from

is calculated from a force balance,

F ma k mg .

vf vi at

and a

Q-8)6.56. IDENTIFY and SET UP: Use Eq. (6.15) to relate the power
provided and the amount of work done against gravity in 16.0 s. The
work done against gravity depends on the total weight which depends
on the number of passengers.
EXECUTE: Find the total mass that can be lifted:
Pav

W mgh

,
t
t

Pavt
gh

so

746 W
4
2984 10 W
1
hp

Pav (40 hp)

Pavt (2984 104 W)(160 s)

2436 103 kg
gh
(980 m/s 2 )(200 m)

Tutorial-9

Chapter 6: Work and Kinetic Energy


Date: 22-04-2012

This is the total mass of elevator plus passengers. The mass of the
2436 103 kg 600 kg 1836 103 kg.

passengers is
3

1836 10 kg
282.
650 kg

28 passengers can ride.

The number of passengers is