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This appendix lists all the verbs with irregular forms that are included

in the dictionary, except for those formed with a hyphenated prex


and the modal verbs (e.g. can, must ). Irregular forms that are only
used in certain senses are marked with an asterisk (e.g. *abode).
Full information on usage, pronunciation, etc. is given at the entry.
Infinitive

Past tense

Past participle

abide
abided, abided,
*abode *abode
arise
arose arisen
awake
awoke awoken
babysit
babysat babysat
bear
bore borne
beat
beat beaten
become
became become
befall
befell befallen
beget
begot, *begat
begot, *begotten
begin
began begun
behold
beheld beheld
bend
bent bent
beseech
beseeched,
beseeched,

besought besought
beset
beset beset
bespeak
bespoke bespoken
bet
bet bet
betake
betook betaken
1
bid bid
bid
2
bid
bade, bid
bidden, bid
bind
bound bound
bite
bit bitten
bleed
bled bled
blow
blew
blown, *blowed
break
broke broken
breastfeed
breastfed breastfed
breed
bred bred
bring
brought brought
broadcast
broadcast broadcast
browbeat
browbeat browbeaten
build
built built
burn
burnt, burned
burnt, burned
burst
burst burst
bust
bust, busted
bust, busted
buy
bought bought
cast
cast cast
catch
caught caught
choose
chose chosen
cleave
cleaved, *cleft,
cleaved, *cleft,
*clove *cloven
cling
clung clung
come
came come
cost
cost, *costed
cost, *costed
creep
crept crept
cut
cut cut
deal
dealt dealt
dig
dug dug
dive
dived
dived
(NAmE also dove)
draw
drew drawn
dream
dreamt, dreamed dreamt, dreamed
drink
drank drunk
drip-feed
drip-fed drip-fed
drive
drove driven
dwell
dwelt, dwelled
dwelt, dwelled
eat
ate eaten
fall
fell fallen
feed
fed fed
feel
felt felt
fight
fought fought

Infinitive

Past tense

Past participle

find
found found
fit
fitted
fitted
(NAmE usually fit) (NAmE usually fit)
flee
fled fled
fling
flung flung
floodlight
floodlit floodlit
fly
flew, *flied
flown, *flied
forbear
forbore forborne
forbid
forbade forbidden
forecast
forecast, forecasted forecast, forecasted
foresee
foresaw foreseen
foretell
foretold foretold
forget
forgot forgotten
forgive
forgave forgiven
forgo
forwent forgone
forsake
forsook forsaken
forswear
forswore forsworn
freeze
froze frozen
gainsay
gainsaid gainsaid
get
got
got (NAmE, spoken

gotten)
give
gave given
go
went
gone, *been
grind
ground ground
grow
grew grown
hamstring
hamstrung hamstrung
hang
hung, *hanged
hung, *hanged
hear
heard heard
heave
heaved, *hove
heaved, *hove
hew
hewed
hewed, hewn
hide
hid hidden
hit
hit hit
hold
held held
hurt
hurt hurt
inlay
inlaid inlaid
input
input, inputted
input, inputted
inset
inset inset
intercut
intercut intercut
interweave
interwove interwoven
keep
kept kept
kneel
knelt
knelt
(NAmE also
(NAmE also

kneeled) kneeled)
knit
knitted, *knit
knitted, *knit
know
knew known
lay
laid laid
lead
led led
lean
leaned
leaned
(BrE also leant)
(BrE also leant)
leap
leapt, leaped
leapt, leaped
learn
learnt, learned
learnt, learned
leave
left left
lend
lent lent
let
let let
1
lie lay lain
light
lit, *lighted
lit, *lighted
lose
lost lost
make
made made
mean
meant meant
meet
met met
miscast
miscast miscast

Oxford University Press

Irregular verbs

Irregular verbs

Irregular verbs

Infinitive

Past tense

Past participle

mishear
misheard misheard
mishit
mishit mishit
mislay
mislaid mislaid
mislead
misled
misled
misread
misread
misread
misspeak
misspoke
misspoken
misspell
misspelled,
misspelled,

misspelt misspelt
misspend
misspent misspent
mistake
mistook mistaken
misunderstand misunderstood misunderstood
mow
mowed
mown, mowed
multicast
multicast multicast
narrowcast
narrowcast, narrowcast,

narrowcasted narrowcasted
offset
offset offset
outbid
outbid outbid
outdo
outdid outdone
outgrow
outgrew outgrown
output
output output
outrun
outran outrun
outsell
outsold outsold
outshine
outshone outshone
overcome
overcame overcome
overdo
overdid overdone
overdraw
overdrew overdrawn
overeat
overate overeaten
overfeed
overfed overfed
overfly
overflew overflown
overhang
overhung overhung
overhear
overheard overheard
overlay
overlaid overlaid
overlie
overlay overlain
overpay
overpaid overpaid
override
overrode overridden
overrun
overran overrun
oversee
oversaw overseen
oversell
oversold oversold
overshoot
overshot overshot
oversleep
overslept overslept
overspend
overspent overspent
overtake
overtook overtaken
overthink
overthought overthought
overthrow
overthrew overthrown
overwrite
overwrote overwritten
partake
partook partaken
pay
paid paid
plead
pleaded
pleaded
(NAmE also pled) (NAmE also pled)
preset
preset preset
proofread proofread
proofread
prove
proved
proved (also proven
especially in NAmE)
put
put put
quit
quit
quit
(BrE also quitted) (BrE also quitted)
read /rid/
read /red/
read /red/
rebuild
rebuilt rebuilt
recast
recast recast
redo
redid redone
redraw
redrew redrawn
rehear
reheard reheard
remake
remade remade
rend
rent rent
rerun
reran rerun
resell
resold resold
reset
reset reset
resit
resat resat
restring
restrung restrung
retake
retook retaken
retell
retold retold
rethink
rethought rethought
rewind
rewound rewound

Oxford University Press

Infinitive

Past tense

Past participle

rewrite
rewrote rewritten
rid
rid rid
ride
rode ridden
ring2 rang rung
rise
rose risen
run
ran run
saw
sawed sawn

(NAmE also sawed)
say
said said
see
saw seen
seek
sought sought
sell
sold sold
send
sent sent
set
set set
sew
sewed
sewn, sewed
shake
shook shaken
shear
sheared
shorn, sheared
shed
shed shed
shine
shone, *shined
shone, *shined
shit
shit, shat
shit, shat
(BrE also shitted) (BrE also shitted)
shoe
shod shod
shoot
shot shot
show
showed
shown, *showed
shrink
shrank, shrunk
shrunk
shut
shut shut
simulcast
simulcast simulcast
sing
sang sung
sink
sank, *sunk
sunk
sit
sat sat
slay
slew slain
sleep
slept slept
slide
slid slid
sling
slung slung
slink
slunk slunk
slit
slit slit
smell
smelled
smelled
(BrE also smelt)
(BrE also smelt)
smite
smote smitten
sow
sowed
sown, sowed
speak
spoke spoken
speed
speeded, *sped
speeded, *sped
spell
spelt, spelled
spelt, spelled
spend
spent spent
spill
spilled
spilled
(BrE also spilt)
(BrE also spilt)
spin
spun spun
spit
spat (also spit
spat (also spit
especially in NAmE) especially in NAmE)
split
split split
spoil
spoiled
spoiled
(BrE also spoilt)
(BrE also spoilt)
spotlight
spotlit,
spotlit,

*spotlighted *spotlighted
spread
spread spread
spring
sprang
sprung
(NAmE also sprung)
stand
stood stood
stave
staved, *stove
staved, *stove
steal
stole stolen
stick
stuck stuck
sting
stung stung
stink
stank, stunk
stunk
strew
strewed
strewed, strewn
stride
strode
strike
struck struck

(NAmE also stricken)
string
strung strung
strive
strove, *strived
striven, *strived
sublet
sublet sublet
swear
swore sworn
sweep
swept swept
swell
swelled
swollen, swelled

Infinitive

Past tense

swim
swing
take
teach
tear
telecast
tell
think
throw
thrust
tread
typecast
typeset
unbend
underbid
undercut
undergo
underlie
underpay
undersell
understand

swam swum
swung swung
took taken
taught taught
tore torn
telecast telecast
told told
thought thought
threw thrown
thrust thrust
trod
trodden, trod
typecast typecast
typeset typeset
unbent unbent
underbid underbid
undercut undercut
underwent undergone
underlay underlain
underpaid underpaid
undersold undersold
understood understood

undertake
undertook undertaken
underwrite
underwrote underwritten
undo
undid undone
unfreeze
unfroze unfrozen
unwind
unwound unwound
uphold
upheld upheld
upset
upset upset
wake
woke woken
waylay
waylaid waylaid
wear
wore worn
weave
wove, *weaved
woven, *weaved
wed
wedded, wed
wedded, wed
weep
wept wept
wet
wet, wetted
wet, wetted
win
won won
wind2 /wand/ wound /wand/ wound /wand/
withdraw
withdrew withdrawn
withhold
withheld withheld
withstand
withstood withstood
wring
wrung wrung
write
wrote written

Full
forms

Short
forms

be, do, have

Negative
short forms

be present tense
I am
Im
Im not
you are
youre you arent / youre not
he is
hes
he isnt / hes not
she is
shes
she isnt / shes not
it is
its
it isnt / its not
we are
were
we arent / were not
you are
youre you arent / youre not
they are
theyre they arent / theyre not
be past tense
I was

I wasnt
you were

you werent
he was

he wasnt
she was

she wasnt
it was

it wasnt
we were

we werent
you were

you werent
they were

they werent
have present tense
I have
Ive
I havent / Ive not
you have
youve you havent / youve not
he has
hes
he hasnt / hes not
she has
shes
she hasnt / shes not
it has
its
it hasnt / its not
we have
weve we havent / weve not
you have
youve you havent / youve not
they have
theyve they havent / theyve not
have past tense (all persons)
had
Id
hadnt

youd

etc.
do present tense
I do

I dont
you do

you dont
he does

he doesnt
she does

she doesnt
it does

it doesnt
we do

we dont
you do

you dont
they do

they dont
do past tense (all persons)
did
didnt


present participle
past participle

be do have
being doing having
been done had

Infinitive

Past tense

Past participle

The negative full forms are formed by


adding not.
Questions in the present and past are formed
by placing the verb before the subject:
am I?
isnt he?
was I? werent we?
do I?
dont you? did I? didnt I?
have I? hadnt they? etc.
Questions using the negative full form are
more formal:
has he not?do you not? etc.
The short negative question form for
I am is arent:
arent I?
When do or have is used as a main verb,
questions and negative statements can
be formed with do/does/doesnt and did/
didnt:
How did you do it?
I dont do any teaching now.
Do you have any money on you?
We didnt have much time.
The short forms ve, s and d are not usually
used when have is a main verb:
I have a shower every morning.
j not Ive a shower every morning.
The short form s can be added to other
subjects:
Sallys ill.
The cars been damaged.
The other tenses of be, do and have
are formed in the same way as those
of other verbs:
will be
would be
has been
will do
would do
has done
will have
would have have had; etc.
The pronunciation of each form of be,
do and have is given at its entry in the
dictionary.

Oxford University Press

Irregular verbs

Past participle