Anda di halaman 1dari 86

TENERGY

Diesel engine development


Achievement & experience of TENERGY

World Best of Energy Conversion Technology


28. September 2013
TENERGY

Contents
1. Diesel engine development of TENERGY
2. Process of diesel engine development
3. Design

4. CAE analysis
5. Combustion development
6. Mechanical & Functional test

7. ECU calibration of diesel engine


8. Resources of TENERGY for diesel engine

1. Diesel engine development by TENERGY

A2300T IDI Engine (Kukje Machinery)


Cylinder Head Design & development
Mechanical & Function development
Vehicle cooling system development

D2400T DI Engine (Kukje Machinery)


Turn-key Project : Concept Design,
Test and development
Production Development support

D3400T DI Engine (Kukje machinery)


Turn-key Project : Concept Design,
Test and development
Production Development support

3
www.tenergy.co.kr

1. Diesel engine development by TENERGY

Denso Piezo 2,000 & 2,200 bar FIE Application to HMC R-Engine
R-Engine based EMS

Denso FIE system application

2.4L
(TCI, TC, NA)
CRDI Tier 4 Engine
Combustion development
Mechanical & Functional development
Engine & Vehicle calibration

Engine calibration & EMS application

1.8/2.4L
(TC, NA) CRDI Tier 4 Engine
Combustion development
Mechanical & Functional development
Engine & Vehicle calibration

4
www.tenergy.co.kr

1. Diesel engine development by TENERGY

3.4L
TCI CRDI Tier 4
Engine
Combustion Development
Mechanical & Functional
Development
Engine & DPF calibration

2.0L
CRDI Euro 5 Engine
C150 Vehicle calibration
(with CDPF)

CRDI Euro 4 Engine

V12 30L TCI CRDI


Diesel Engine
1 MW Power plant engine design

2.0L
CRDI Euro 5 Engine
A150 Vehicle calibration
(with CDPF)

CRDI Euro 4 Engine


A150 Vehicle calibraiton

1.9L / 2.5L
3 / 4 cylinder TCI
CRDI engine
Combustion development
Mechanical & Functional development
Engine & Vehicle calibration

C150 Vehicle calibration

5
www.tenergy.co.kr

2. Process of development of diesel engine


1) 4V Port and Combustion Chamber
Target

Objectives

Performance

Emission

Fuel

Regulation

Economy

(Tier4)

Durability

Cost

Max. Power
Max. Torque
Fuel Consumption
Emission Strategy
Reliability & Durability
NVH
Engine Dimension
Engine Weight
Machine Application
Common-use of Parts

6
www.tenergy.co.kr

2. Process of development of diesel engine


2) Design Process
Analysis

Engine Target

Design

Valve System
Gas Exchange
Simulation with
T/C Matching

Valve Train Kinematics


Camshaft
In-Cylinder Motion /

1-D Cooling
: Cooling Circuit

Piston

Injection Targeting /
Combustion
Cylinder Head

1-D Lubrication
: Oil Circuit
Belt Drive Layout

Timing Drive Layout

FIE System

Cooling Circuit CFD

Head Cover

Cylinder Block
Oil Pan

Head & Block FEA


Intake Manifold CFD

Intake Manifold

Ex/Manifold CFD & FEA

Exhaust Manifold

Crankshaft TV & FEA

Crankshaft

Con Rod FEA

Con Rod

Brackets

Modal Analysis

Bearing Load Analysis

Concept

Definitive & Detail


7
www.tenergy.co.kr

3. Design
1) Typical Design Feature of Diesel engine
FIE System
With Common Rail

Center Injector,
Glow Plug in Cylinder Head

4 Valve , OHV,
Rocker Arm Valve Train

Skewed Intake Port


(1-Tangential & 1-Helical )
6 Cylinder
Head Bolt Pattern

EGR & Oil Cooler


Application

Timing Gear Drive System

2nd Mass Balancing System


(Lanchester Type)

PTO Application
Rigid Bottom End Construction
(Half Skirt Cylinder Block + Bed
Plate + Structural Oil Pan)

8
www.tenergy.co.kr

3. Design
2) Engine Layout Major functional components
Intake
Exhaust

O/filter & cooler, F/pump, O/pump, O/level gauge, O/filler cap, EGR valve
EGR cooler, Start-motor, PTO, Alternator, Cam shaft

EGR Cooler

EGR
Valve

Oil Filter
& Cooler

Water Pump

Starter
Crank Pulley

Fuel Pump

Alternator
PTO Gear
Oil Pump
Bal. SHF Gear
(Drive Ratio 2/1)

Bal. SHF Gear


(Drive Ratio 2/1)

Cam Gear
(Drive Ratio 1/2)
9
www.tenergy.co.kr

3. Design
3) Lubrication system
T/charger
(Thru main bearing & cam shaft journal groove)

Rocker Shaft

Piston Cooling Jet


Cam-Shaft Journal
(Thru main bearing
journal groove)

Main Gallery

Main Journal

Oil-Filter & Cooler


Oil-Pump
(Indirect driven)

Cooled Oil
Hot Oil

Oil Strainer
10
www.tenergy.co.kr

3. Design
4) Intake Port (1 tangential + 1 helical) : Layout

4
25

2
3
1
[ Port Layout ]
Items

[ Skewed Angle ]
Features
Separated (1 tangential + 1 helical) + Swirl chamfer

Intake port

- Tangential port : Rectangular shape entrance


- Helical port : Oval shape entrance

Exhaust port

Siamese

G/plug

Mounted on intake side

Injector

Center in cylinder head

11
www.tenergy.co.kr

3. Design
5) Intake Port (1 tangential + 1 helical) : Cross-sectional Area

Tangential port

Helical port

Position

Tangential port

Helical port

Port entrance
(Intake manifold)

55%

45%

Middle

50%

50%

Escape
(Combustion chamber)

45%

55%

Cross-section

Little tapered

Constant

Entrance

Middle

Escape

[ Cross-sectional Area ]
12
www.tenergy.co.kr

3. Design
6) Combustion Chamber Layout
Intake valve dia.
: Improvement of volumetric efficiency at high speed
- Maximum size under layout restriction while considering
cooling performance
(Performance matching at low speed : low capacity T/charger)

Exhaust valve dia.


: A little smaller size considering exhaust gas temperature

: Decrease of friction => improvement of fuel economy

In-valve dia.
(mm)

Ex-valve dia.
(mm)

Valve seat ~
Injector hole
(mm)

Valve seat~
G/plug hole
(mm)

Injector hole~
G/plug hole
(mm)

35

29

8.0

5.0

8.0 (angle 48)

13
www.tenergy.co.kr

3. Design
7) Cooling Concept : Individual Cross Flow

W/pump
OUT

Individual Cross Flow Cooling


: Water duct on the upper intake side of cylinder block
[ Top View ]
: Individual cross flow from intake side to exhaust side

in cylinder head
- Injector & G/plug cooling

- Valve bridge cooling


: W/pump outlet on exhaust side of cylinder head
W/pump
IN

[ Intake Side View ]

Water duct
14
www.tenergy.co.kr

3. Design
8) Valve Train Layout

Rocker Arm

Rocker Shaft Spring


(Spacing spring)

: Lash adjustment screw & ball joint with elephant foot

: Applied spring for rocker-arm position fixing


Ball Joint

Push Rod
: Sphere-socket type, Hollow pushrod

15
www.tenergy.co.kr

3. Design
9) Water Pump
Water Pump Rig Test

Heat Rejection
for middle & heavy duty engine,
Heat rejection 75~85% of engine power

Water Pump
- qradiator = * Q * Cp * T,
: Density of coolant
Cp : Specific heat of coolant
T : temp. difference between in & outlet

16
www.tenergy.co.kr

3. Design
10) Oil Pump

Oil Flow Rate Calculation


Main
Bearing

Con-rod
Bearing

Cam
Bearing

Cooling
Jet

R/Arm &
Shaft

Turbocharger

Bal.
Shaft

Qtotal

Pm

Journal dia. (mm)

Bearing width(mm)

Detail Design Data

Clearance (mm)

Orifice dia. (mm)

(l/min)

2600rpm

7.21

1.48

5.78

9.20

4.43

3.00

1.63

32.73

3.5bar

1000rpm

3.08

0.59

2.47

6.03

1.85

1.25

0.69

15.96

1.5bar

Oil Distribution
Oil Pump Capacity
: Focused at low speed (1000rpm)
Primary
point

: At rated rpm, oil pump has additional relief


margin of about 10%.

17
www.tenergy.co.kr

3. Design
11) High Pressure Common Rail System

High injection pressure needed for both


emission feasibility and reasonable
performance
At least 1600bar system needed

18
www.tenergy.co.kr

3. Design
12) Injector Nozzle Optimization

Nozzle layout optimization

Number of Hole
Hole dia (Hydraulic Flow Rate),
Conical nozzle
Spray cone angle
SAC volume(VCO or minisac)
NTP(Nozzle Tip Protrusion) optimization
Injector nozzle gasket thickness
Spray target point optimization
Nozzle tip max temperature limit

I4-2.0L Diesel EU5 Ref.

A company

B company

Type

Bosch Piezo 1800 bar

Delphi Sol. 1800bar

Power level

184PS

150PS

Hole no.

Cone angle

156

156

HFR(cc/min@100bar)

940

800

19
www.tenergy.co.kr

3. Design
13) Turbocharger Matching

Turbocharger can not be matched efficiently around whole operating area.


Therefore normally matched for high power before EURO 5
Efficiently matched for emission region together with reasonable power for EURO 6

THE MATCHING
PROCESS

BEST COMPRESSOR

BEST TURBINE
20
www.tenergy.co.kr

3. Design
14) Cooled EGR

Cooled EGR is effective measure to improve NOx-PM trade-off


Cooler by-pass is necessary to reduce HC & CO emission before warm-up

NOx

Smoke

EGR cooler with by-pass valve

21
www.tenergy.co.kr

3. Design
15) Emission potential of LP-EGR
Emission, Fuel con. 14-pts average
BSNOx

Smoke

BSFC

BSCO

BASE
(HP-EGR only)

1.07

1.01

389

6.51

LP-EGR

0.68

1.00

368

6.75

Improvement

35.8%

0.9%

5.2%

-3.6%

22
www.tenergy.co.kr

3. Design
16) Summary of Technology to meet EURO Legislation
EURO 2

EURO 3

EURO 4

EURO 5

EURO 6

Combustion

IDI

DI
(IDI)

Compression Ratio

20

18

17.5

16.5

FIE

Mech. Rotary

Electronic control
CRS 1350bar

CRS 1600bar

CRS 1600bar

CRS 1600bar

PFP [bar]

120

140

160

180

180

T/C (w/ I. Cooler)


Waste Gate

Wastegate or
VGT

Charging Device

NA
(or T/C)

VGT
(2 stage)

VGT or
2 stage TC

EGR

ON/OFF
EGR

Duty control
EGR

EEGR
w/ cooler

EEGR
w/ cooler
bypass

(LP-EGR)

Swirl Control

Exhaust Afer treatment

DOC

DOC(DPF)

DPF

LNT or SCR
23
www.tenergy.co.kr

4. CAE Analysis
1) 1D Performance Simulation
START
Developed using
CFD or flow bench

Build and calibrate air


induction system

Induction system
geometry & flow
data

Developed using
CFD or flow bench

Build and calibrate port


model

Port geometry &


flow data

Build and calibrate


intake & exhaust
manifolds

Manifold geometry
& flow data

Developed using
CFD or flow bench

For
naturally
aspirated
engines

For boosted
engines

Build and calibrate


exhaust system

Flow data
Pressure & drop

Build and calibrate


intercooler model

Efficiency Model

Build turbo charger


model

Gas Stand Maps

Exhaust system
geometry & flow
data

Build GT-Power
Setup engine model with
dyno inputs

Dyno test data


combustion data
heat transfer data

Execute Model
Verify results

GT-Power model results


mach dyno

Re-evaluate dyno inputs, assumptions, verify engine


hardware evaluated on the dyno (i.e. induct. sys, intake
manifold, cams, cylinder head, exhaust sys, etc.), engine
friction, CR, fuel type, etc.
GT-Power model results
DONT match dyno

24
www.tenergy.co.kr

4. CAE Analysis
1) 1D Performance Simulation
1-D Engine Modeling (Diesel)

25
www.tenergy.co.kr

4. CAE Analysis
1) 1D Performance Simulation
1-D Simulation Results

Corrected Break Torque

Location of Peak Pressure

Pressure per Crank Angle

P-V diagram
26
www.tenergy.co.kr

4. CAE Analysis
2) Hydrodynamic bearing analysis
Crank train design analysis with EXCITE-Designer
: Min. oil film thickness & max. oil film pressure

Minimum Oilfilm Thickness


Main Bearing - Uppershell: PSI_1
Minimum Oilfilm Thickness(micron)

16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

Engine Speed(rpm)
bearing 1
bearing 2
bearing 3
bearing 4
bearing 5

27
www.tenergy.co.kr

4. CAE Analysis
2) Hydrodynamic bearing analysis

Crank train design analysis with EXCITE-Designer

Eccentricity Ratio(-)

: Oil hole positioning


1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0

90

180

270

360

450

540

630

720

Eccentricity Ratio
Relative to Shell
Eccentricity Ratio(-)

0
1

330

360
720
0

0.9

30

0.8
0.7
300

0.6

60

0.5
0.4
0.3
270

90

540
180

240

210

120

150
180

Shell Angle(deg)

28
www.tenergy.co.kr

4. CAE Analysis
3) 1D Torsional Vibration & FEA
Crank train design analysis with EXCITE-Designer
: Torsional vibrations (TV amplitude & Dynamic torque)

- Max. 0.15deg at a specific order with the highest amplitude

- Max. 0.5deg at total TV amplitude


- Mass damper tuning
: Fatigue strength calculation (Safety factor)
- Safety factor for web cross-section

29
www.tenergy.co.kr

4. CAE Analysis
4) FEA crank-train & optimization

FEA of crank train


: Stress & stiffness analysis

- Examination of the weakest points


Torsion

Bending

Calculation of torsional stress concentration factors

Calculation of bending stress concentration factors


30
www.tenergy.co.kr

4. CAE Analysis
5) FEA crank-train & optimization

FEA of crank train


: Fatigue strength analysis (safety factor) after stress analysis

[ Fatigue strength of crankshaft ]

[ Fatigue strength of connecting rod ]


31
www.tenergy.co.kr

4. CAE Analysis
5) FEA crank-train & optimization

FEA of connecting rod


: Bore deformation of connecting rod big-end
- Below 90% deformation of mean bearing clearance

con-rod = max ( 1 , 2 )
d_ratio = con-rod / clearance 100 (% )

Design optimization by numeric and FEA analysis

32
www.tenergy.co.kr

4. CAE Analysis
6) Crankcase _ Sealing performance

FE Model of Cylinder Block & Head & Gasket

Non-linear Behavior of Gasket

Load Condition

33
www.tenergy.co.kr

4. CAE Analysis
6) Crankcase _ Sealing performance

Pressure Line of Gasket

Surface Pressure on Full Bead

Surface Pressure on Stopper

Surface Pressure on Bead

34
www.tenergy.co.kr

4. CAE Analysis
7) Crankcase _ Bore Deformation

35
www.tenergy.co.kr

4. CAE Analysis
8) Crankcase _ Crankcase FEA & Optimization

Thermal Analysis of Bulkhead Inter Bore

36
www.tenergy.co.kr

4. CAE Analysis
9) Crankcase _ Crankcase FEA & Optimization
Fatigue Safety

37
www.tenergy.co.kr

4. CAE Analysis
10) Intake Port Design : Process

Database

Port Layout

Valve system
- 2V / 4V
- OHV / OHC
Valve(Port)
arrangement

Target
Cf & Swirl
Decision
Target Cf
Target swirl
- Consideration
of engine
performance

CAD 3D
Design

CFD
Analysis

Flow Bench
Test

Parametric
port design

Optimization
of port design

Measurement
of Cf & swirl
in flow bench
test

38
www.tenergy.co.kr

4. CAE Analysis
11) Intake Port Design

Major factor to influence performance of engine

Port Design
: Utilizing of benchmark data for initial layout

: Close collaboration with CFD analysis and flow bench tests

Diesel engine
Target

High flow coefficient & reasonable swirl

Features

Swirl(helical) port design considered

Shape

39
www.tenergy.co.kr

4. CAE Analysis
12) Intake Port Design
Port types for 4 valve pattern (for Diesel)
Helical / Tangential

2-Tangential

2-Helical

Interaction

Medium

Small

Strong

CF

0%

+3%

-8%

Geometry

Features

- Good compromise

between the flow and


Remarks

the swirl sensitivity


- Recommendation for
Daedong 3.5L engine

- Almost same direction


flow vectors
- More sensitive swirl
of the single cylinders

- Stronger interaction
of the two helical ports

of one cylinder head


40
www.tenergy.co.kr

4. CAE Analysis
12) Intake Port Design

Comparison of each port


Tangential port

Helical port

Geometry

Production of the swirling by impingement of


the air jet to the cylinder wall
Dependent upon the angle between cylinder
wall and air jet
Features

: Port positioning, direction, shape of the runner


More sensitive against casting displacements
(position of sharp edge)
Low swirl at small and medium valve lift,
very high swirl at large valve lifts

Production of the swirling air motion


inside the port
Independent from the valve positioning
Low sensitivity against casting displacements
A particular swirl number with high accuracy

Shorter development time and smaller


uncertainties during the design stage
41
www.tenergy.co.kr

4. CAE Analysis
12) Intake Port Design

Data base of swirl ratio vs. flow coefficient => Target Cf & swirl setting

42
www.tenergy.co.kr

4. CAE Analysis
12) Intake Port Design
Important geometry parameters for swirl port design
: Inlet & outlet position

: Port angle
: Sectional profile over port length
: Slope of spiral
: Eccentricity of spiral

[ Sectional Area of Helix ]


43
www.tenergy.co.kr

4. CAE Analysis
13) Intake Port CFD

CFD analysis
: CFD analysis

- Under same condition in flow bench test

: Computational Model
- CFD code : STAR-CCM+ v4.06
- No. of grids : about 5,900,000 cells
=> High Accuracy

- Steady state / cold flow condition


- Variable valve lift
- Boundary condition : Pressure boundary

[ Diesel engine port CFD model ]

44
www.tenergy.co.kr

4. CAE Analysis
13) Intake Port Flow Bench

Flow bench test

45
www.tenergy.co.kr

4. CAE Analysis
13) Intake Port Flow Bench

Flow bench test

46
www.tenergy.co.kr

4. CAE Analysis
14) CFD water jacket
STAR-CCM+ v4.06
Outputs
: Flow distribution
: Heat transfer coefficient
: Pressure drop

Guide Line Confirmation


: Minimum flow velocity in critical areas at peak engine power
: Maximum flow velocity at peak engine power
: Minimum heat transfer coefficient in critical areas at peak engine power
: Total pressure drop(Program specific)

Velocity distribution

Heat Transfer Coefficient

Total Pressure Drop

47
www.tenergy.co.kr

4. CAE Analysis
15) Valvetrain kinematics (WINDAV)
Cam design

Kineto-Static Analysis (Spring load, inertia load, contact load, spring margin)
Cam/Tappet contact stress, contact ellipse
Valve Spring Design (Stress amplitude, Natural frequency)
HLA Load, Cam Torque.

Cam lift (Displ./Vel./Accel.)

Spring margin

Cam contact load & stress

48
www.tenergy.co.kr

4. CAE Analysis
15) CFD analysis of intake & exhaust manifold

Intake Manifold

Exhaust Manifold

49
www.tenergy.co.kr

4. CAE Analysis
16) FEA analysis of connecting rod
Stress Distribution for Each Step
1st Step
Cold Assembly

2nd Step
Inertia Load

3rd Step
Pressure Load

50
www.tenergy.co.kr

4. CAE Analysis
16) FEA analysis of connecting rod
Safety Factor Distribution

Big End Cross-In

51
www.tenergy.co.kr

5. Combustion Development
1) Diesel Engine Performance Development

Port swirl

Optimization

Port flow
BSFC
NVH

Performance
PM/NOx

Turbocharger
matching

Swirl Control valve

Valve timing
optimization

Combustion
Chamber

EGR cooler capacity

BypassEGR cooler

Throttle Valve

Breathing

Combustion

High Pressure Pump


& Rail

Injector nozzle
layout

Nozzle tip
protrusion
52
www.tenergy.co.kr

5. Combustion Development
2) Intake Port and Development Process
Port Improvement by CFD Analysis

Correlation of Flow Bench & CFD

Cf
Swirl
Velocity

Cf Improvement by port flow


measurement

Correlation of flow box &


actual head flow

Actual Head Test


Measurement of Cf & swirl
(tumble) in flow bench
Torque & V.E of Engine performance

Head Prototype Manufacturing

Engine Performance Test

53
www.tenergy.co.kr

5. Combustion Development
3) Combustion System Development

Both air motion and fuel spray energies contribute to mixture preparation
Significant effort is expended in matching the intake port and combustion bowl

CAD 3D
Design

CFD
Analysis

Flow Bench
Test

Parametric
port design

Optimization
of port design

Measurement
of Cf & swirl
(tumble) in
flow bench

Engineering
experience

Test

Simulation

Optimally
matched bowl

54
www.tenergy.co.kr

5. Combustion Development
4) Intake port & variable swirl

Moderate swirl(1.5~1.8) is feasible for full load performance


Parallel arrangement with one tangential and one semi-helical port is optimal
for both performance and durability
Variable swirl is mandatory to comply with higher swirl demand at emission cycle
Parallel

Tandem

Twisted

Variable swirl by swirl control valve

Semi-helical port

Tangential port
55
www.tenergy.co.kr

6. Mechanical & Functional test


1) Cooling System Evaluation

56
www.tenergy.co.kr

6. Mechanical & Functional test


2) Lubrication System Evaluation

57
www.tenergy.co.kr

6. Mechanical & Functional test


3) Ventilation System Evaluation

58
www.tenergy.co.kr

6. Mechanical & Functional test


4) Engine Thermal Survey

59
www.tenergy.co.kr

6. Mechanical & Functional test


5) Piston Marking test

60
www.tenergy.co.kr

6. Mechanical & Functional test


6) Motoring Friction Test

61
www.tenergy.co.kr

7. ECU calibration of diesel engine


1) Diesel EMS calibration - Overview
Items

Activities
Full load calibration
Emission optimization (DoE & Transient test)

Engine Dyno Calibration

Air model calibration (MAF, V/E, T/C model, PSE, TSE)


Torque model calibration (Friction model, MBT, Timing/Thermal efficiency)

DPF temperature control (Open loop model, Closed loop)


Soot mass estimation (Engine out soot model, Dp model)
Cold Startability (down to -25)
Driveability Calibration

Demand Torque Calibration


Normal & Hot/Cold Idle & driveability test

NVH Calibration
Chassis Dyno Calibration

Combustion noise check & improvement

Air model / control optimization


Emission & Fuel consumption optimization
62
www.tenergy.co.kr

7. ECU calibration of diesel engine


1) Diesel EMS calibration - Overview
Items

Activities
EOBD regulation conformity

EOBD Calibration

EOBD threshold safety margin


Fail safe strategy and calibration

Regeneration strategy (Regeneration triggering/ Fail safe)


DPF calibration(Vehicle)

Temperature control calibration in all environment condition

Accuracy check & improvement of soot mass estimation


Test trip

Validation and fine calibration under Hot/Cold & High altitude condition

Lesson learned

Verification the lesson learned items

63
www.tenergy.co.kr

7. ECU calibration of diesel engine


2) Engine calibration with DoE incl. DPF calibration

EMS parameters

Responses

SOI
Rail pressure
EGR, .

Fuel Consumption
Emission
etc

Model Based Calibration

DPF Re-gen calibration

NOx
PM
FC

SOI
EGR

64
www.tenergy.co.kr

7. ECU calibration of diesel engine


3) Engine calibration (performance & emission)

PSE/TSE

MAF, Injector Q
calibration

Pilot Inj. Q

VGT model

Model based Boost


Control

Valve flow model

14 mode
selection

Full load
calibration

Structured
Eng cal.

Pilot Inj. timing


Main Inj. timing

14 mode
EM/FE cal.

Rail Pressure
Boost Pressure
(A/F ratio)

Volumetric Eff.
Smoothing

EGR

Model based
EGR control
Mapping

Swirl

Torque structure
65
www.tenergy.co.kr

7. ECU calibration of diesel engine


4) Base map calibration : steady 14 mode point selection
Cycle
simulation

Steady 14 mode+Idle

Vehicle Parameters

400
350
1.25

Torque, Nm_ _

300
2.13

250
3.75

200

2.74

150

9.76 3.743.22
9.52

100

Replication

Vehicle modal data

1.01

32.23

4.04

4.58 8.2

50
5.83

4.65

0
0

Speed, Q

500

1000
1500
Speed, rpm

2000

2500

Speed, Torque
66
www.tenergy.co.kr

7. ECU calibration of diesel engine


4) Base map calibration : steady 14 mode point selection
Cycle
simulation

Steady 14 mode+Idle

Vehicle Parameters

400
350
1.25

Torque, Nm_ _

300
2.13

250
3.75

200

2.74

150

9.76 3.743.22
9.52

100

Replication

Vehicle modal data

1.01

32.23

4.04

4.58 8.2

50
5.83

4.65

0
0

Speed, Q

500

1000
1500
Speed, rpm

2000

2500

Speed, Torque
67
www.tenergy.co.kr

7. ECU calibration of diesel engine


5) Base map calibration : steady 14 mode point selection (DoE)

Measured
Variable

ECUVariable
Y
X

Engine

Z=a0+a1X+a2Y+a3XY+a4X2+a5Y2
Start of main injection
Rail pressure
EGR
Boost Pressure
Variable swirl
Quantity of pilot injection
Start of pilot Injection
Quantity of post injection
Start of post injection

Engine

Fuel Consumption
NOx
Smoke or PM
CO
HC
Combustion noise

68
www.tenergy.co.kr

7. ECU calibration of diesel engine


6) Base map calibration
Steady 14 mode calibration(Test, Modeling)

Optimization & map manipulation

69
www.tenergy.co.kr

7. ECU calibration of diesel engine


7) Base map calibration (Transient validation and refinement)
Transient test at engine bench provide quick refinement
in advance of vehicle calibration

70
www.tenergy.co.kr

7. ECU calibration of diesel engine


8) DPF calibration
Regeneration mode calibration

Steady state base calibration with DoE


Open & closed loop temp. controller
Transient validation and tuning

Start of main injection


Rail pressure
Boost Pressure
Variable swirl
Quantity of pilot injection
Start of pilot Injection
Quantity of post injection
Start of post injection

DPF inlet temperature


O2 concentration
Oil Dilution
Fuel Consumption
Smoke
HC
71
www.tenergy.co.kr

7. ECU calibration of diesel engine


8) DPF calibration
Soot load estimation
DP soot mass with clean filter model
Engine out soot mass model

O2 burn rate
NO2 burn rate
24
22

P_T_Dpf_dp_soot_mass
model_soot_mass
Real_soot_mass

20

Soot_mass

18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0

20000

40000

60000

80000

100000

time [s]

120000

140000

160000

180000
72
www.tenergy.co.kr

7. ECU calibration of diesel engine


9) Driveability calibration overview

The basic drivability function need to be calibrated in an early phase,

and repeated as emission calibration status.


Due to the significant influence of the drivability functions & the emission
Low idle governor
Startability calibration

Driver demand torque map


Tip in/out filter & AOS

Smoke limit calibration


EGR controller

Boost pressure controller

73
www.tenergy.co.kr

7. ECU calibration of diesel engine


10) Low Idle calibration
Target Idle setpoint calibration depend on external load and environment condition
Idle control parameter calibration depend on driving condition

TENERGY calibration check items for Idle calibration


Target Idle Setting(N/D, A/C On/Off, Temperature)

System Characteristic, Step Response measurement for every gear


Base PID Parameter selection
Control parameter selection validation
Idle control speed range selection
Idle stability validation with electric load
Idle stability validation with temperature variation(Hot/Cold)
Idle stability validation with A/C On Off

Speed drop - Clutch Engage after start (M/T)


Speed drop/overshoot when P/N-R/D Shift after start
Combustion noise refinement at Idle
PID Parameter fine tuning
Creeping characteristic validation for every gear
Creeping Surge w/+A/C +Emergency Lamp +Electrical Load
M/T Creeping Surge w/ A/C, Electrical Load

74
www.tenergy.co.kr

7. ECU calibration of diesel engine


11) Startability
Calibration under normal ambient conditions (+30 to -10C) on road.
Calibration under reproducible cold conditions (-15 to -25C) in cold chamber.

Validation and fine calibration under all environment conditions during test trip

TENERGY calibration check items for Startability


Start fuel Q/SOI/Rail pressure
Glow time setting, additional heater specification check

Startability check - engine oil characteristic


Crank'g speed check with temperature /Battery spec.
Idle speed set with temperature & characteristic of idle entering
Start & Smoke at cold condition

Idle stability during warm-Up period


Idle stability with EGR activation at cold condition
Combustion noise at cold condition
Fuel heater activation check
Idle speed characteristic with load change
75
www.tenergy.co.kr

7. ECU calibration of diesel engine


12) Driver Demand torque map calibration

Torque Based Control


Vehicle Weight and
Drive Train Spec.

Target Vehicle
Acceleration g-value

Torque Transfer Function

Required Torque
Calculation

Torque Demand Map


Calibration
76
www.tenergy.co.kr

7. ECU calibration of diesel engine


13) Tip in/out filter & AOS
Before
TENERGY calibration check items for Tip in/out
Sharp Shock
Step Response measurement for every gear
Base control Parameter selection

Control Parameter validation


Accel/Decel Fine Tuning for every gear (MT)

Accel/Decel Fine Tuning(AT) during D/C ON


Plausibility check of low speed region with Idle Control

After

Surge check during constant speed driving


No Shock
Drive Map Data validation
Clutch On/Off Tip-In/Out Shock & Surge check
gear change and Tip-In/Out Shock & Surge check

77
www.tenergy.co.kr

7. ECU calibration of diesel engine


14) NVH Combustion noise review

Input
Main Injection
Pilot Injection
Rail pressure
Swirl
EGR
-

Output
Interior Noise
Floor Vib.
S/Wheel Vib.

What NVH response will be affected by Diesel EMS Calibration ?

78
www.tenergy.co.kr

7. ECU calibration of diesel engine


14) NVH Combustion noise review
Combustion

Pressure Excitation

Mechanical excitation

Input Parameter
Main Injection
Pilot Injection
Rail pressure
etc

Transfer function
(Structure-borne & Air-borne path)

Vibration filtered by
PT dynamic characteristics

Output Response
Interior Noise
Floor Vib.
S/Wheel Vib.
etc

Noise Radiation by
Surface vibration
79
www.tenergy.co.kr

7. ECU calibration of diesel engine


15) EM calibration procedure on C/dyno
Measuring the first available vehicle in NEDC on C/dyno
Analyzing the most emission relevant operating areas
with measured Engine speed/load and temp. profile
Optimization the most emission relevant operating areas
on E/dyno bench.

Evaluation engine test bench results on chassis dyno

Optimization EM relevant calibration on chassis dyno


Analyzing the effect of tolerances & aging of EM parts
80
www.tenergy.co.kr

7. ECU calibration of diesel engine


16) Diagnostic & E-OBD calibration
Preparation of a system plan including fault path strategy: MIL/SYS, priority class, P-code

Mapping of plausibility checks for digital / analogue input signals


Calibration EOBD threshold
Fail safe strategy and calibration
TENERGY calibration check items for Startability
DTC/MIL/Freez Frame/LIMP-HOME configuration
Part Fail E/M check
Comprehensive Component

Catalyst EM verification with dummy caltalyst


Air Mass Sensor Monitoring
EGR Governor Deviation Monitoring
Rail Pressure Sensor Monitoring

Rail Pressure Sensor Drift Test


VGT Governor Monitoring
Coolant Temp Sensor Monitoring
Monitoring
IN-USE PERFORMANCE
OBD

81
www.tenergy.co.kr

7. ECU calibration of diesel engine


17) DPF calibration (vehicle)
Regeneration strategy (Regeneration triggering/ Fail safe)
Temperature control calibration in all environment condition
Accuracy check & improvement of soot mass estimation
Driveability under regeneration & DPF related Diagnostics
TENERGY calibration check items for DPF calibration
Torque continuity, Combustion noise during transition
Regeneration coordinator
Regeneration interval calibration by regen strategy
Mileage regeneration trigger calibration
Possible mileage without ASH cleaning

Fuel consumption check (Min/Max DP sensor)


Temperature and pressure measurement
Emission confirm test after mileage accumulation
Temperature controllability check at COLD condition

High altitude & HOT condition correction


Driveability during regen at high alt./HOT/COLD
Visible smoke check during regen
DTI(Drop to Idle) check & uncontrolled burning check
82
www.tenergy.co.kr

7. ECU calibration of diesel engine


18) Test trip
Calibration and validation of engine and vehicle behavior in special ambient conditions:

- Cold climate
- Hot climate

- High altitude condition


Test and fine-calibration of start and drive-off behavior
Test and verification of permitted component stresses:
- Coolant, engine Oil and exhaust gas temperatures
- T/C-speed under steady state and transient conditions

83
www.tenergy.co.kr

7. ECU calibration of diesel engine


Lesson Learned check from field issues)

Items
Startability
Idle

Driving
(Accel & Decel)

The number of
detail items
3
2
18

Noise

Diagnostics

etc.

Total

45

Problem
No

1
(Phenomena)

2
(DTC)

Drive Condition
3
(Description)

Ambient Temp.

Warm-up
/cold

Road Condition

Driving
Condition

All

Warm-up

Mainly up-hill

Launch

Winter

Cold

High altitude
: 1000m above

Quick launch

Poor performance

No MIL / P0299
(When using scan tool,
No DTC)

Poor performance (cold


take-off)

No DTC

MIL on
Limp home mode

P244B

Turbocharger REA
noise

No DTC

All

All

MIL on
Limp home mode

P02E1

All

All

MIL on

P2453

Diesel particulate filter


differential pressure
sensor performance

All

White smoke @
regeneration

No DTC

Customer complaint

All

Starting Impossible @
cranking

No DTC

Engine stall
Mil on

10

No Cranking

Pending code
P0299

Diesel particulate filter


differential pressure too
high

Re-occurrence/ Measurement Condition

Engine rpm : Over 1750rpm


Fuel mass : PCR_qGvnrOn_CUR

. Cold & high altitude


. Quick launch

General driving mode

Key on/off
, deceleration

Deceleration state @DPF Regeneration

General driving mode

Regeneration

General driving

All

P0335

Crankshaft Position
(CKP) Sensor Circuit

All

P0633

Theft Deterrent Key Not


Programmed

All

Key off after running,


Tip out

DPF regeneration status

Cranking

General driving

Normal driving

Ignition On

...
...
84
www.tenergy.co.kr

8. Resources of TENERGY for diesel engine


1) Facilities
DoE Tool

Engine Dynamo

Vehicle Chassis Dynamo

CAMEO
On-line

CAMEO
Off-line

AC

EC

Emission

Calibration

1 (2WD)

1 (4WD)

Engine
Dynamo

Chassis
Emission
Dynamo

85
www.tenergy.co.kr

8. Resources of TENERGY for diesel engine


1) Facilities

Engine

Chassis

Emission

Emission

Analyzer

Analyzer

Cold

Chassis

Chamber

Mapping

(Ajou Motor

Dynamo

College)

86
www.tenergy.co.kr