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Traian CICONE

11.3.1.

MEM 2005-2006

Gear modification

Gear modification includes any change of the standard geometry of a gear introduced to agree with
technological or functional requirements as well as to improve gear operating performance characteristics. There
are many ways to modify a gear which can be included into two categories: (a) face modification affecting the
profile in any axial cross-section respectively (b) axial modification (which affects the profile along the teeth).
The most important axial modification is gear bulging that makes barrel teeth, gear crowning or gear end relief.
gear axial direction

crowning

end relief

Face modification changes the tooth profile but it will be still the same in any axial cross-section. It can be
divided, at its turn, into two main categories:
(a1) modifications induced by rack modification, which includes any change in standard rack dimensions:
pressure angle, 0, addendum, h0f, bottom clearance, c0, or tip relief1.
(a2) modifications made without changing standard rack include: profile shifting, tooth addendum shortening, or
some other manufacturing procedures.
Gear modifications are made for the following reasons:
(1) to agree with design restrictions like: a given distance between axes (usually a standard value) or to
accomodate within a given overall dimensions
(2) to improve performance characteristics like
(a) smooth and quiet operation by increasing the contact ratio,
(b) uniform repartition of the load on the tooth
(c) increased efficiency and reduced wear by diminishing the relative sliding velocity
(d) increased strength for contact and bending stresses
(e) improve lubrication conditions
Gear profile shifting (or simply gear shifting)is the most efficient gear modification to improve gear
performances which does not require a modified rack. Gear shifting is made by changing the relative position of
the generating rack in respect with the blank, by shifting the rack radially (Fig. ). An unshifted tooth (or
unshifted gear) is generated with the rack axis tangent to the gear reference diameter (pitch diameter). A
positive shifted gear (plus gear) is cut with the rack outwardly shifted, whilst a negative (minus gear) is
cut with a inwardly shifted rack. The amount of shifting is defined by the shifting coefficient, x, times the
module.
Correspondingly if shifted gears are included in a gear set, we have shifted gear set which can be (Fig. 11.X):
(a) positive shifted gear set x=x1+ x2 >0
(b) negative shifted gear set x=x1+ x2 <0
(c) zero shifted gear set x=x1+ x2 =0 which means that x1 = -x2.
Most of the shifted gears are made positive. Positive shifting of gear has the following important consequences:
(a) increased tooth thickness at the root which gives improved strength at bending

Tip relief = a discretionary modification of the tooth profile near the tip of the tooth to eliminate tip interference. It is
considered desirable for the involute to be a few thousandths minus at the tip - never plus.

Cap. 9 GEARS

26.06.06

Traian CICONE

MEM 2005-2006

(b) increased radius of curvature that gives improved strength at contact


(c) the possibility to avoid undercutting for gears with small numbers of teeth (z < zmin) see Fig. 11.Y.
(d) tooth sharpening on the addendum circle
On the other hand, positive shifting of a gear set has, besides the previous characteristics of positive gears, the
following shortcomings:
(a) reduced relative slip speed that gives increased efficiency
(b) reduced contact ratio which is undesired especially for high speed gearings.
In order to compensate the shortcoming of tooth sharpening, usually the teeth are shortened; consequently the
bottom clearance increases, which is also favorable for positive shifted gear set, where, normally, clearances are
reduced. Usually the shortening of the teeth is calculated to assure the standard clearance c=0.25m.
x = 0 unshifted gear

x > 0 pozitive shifted gear

x < 0 negative shifted gear

mx
mx

h0
h0f

Fig. 11.X. Gear shifting

pitch circle
base circle

Fig. 11.Y. Undercut tooth

Cap. 9 GEARS

26.06.06