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ORIENTAL

RELIGIONS
THEIR

AND

RELATION

UNIVERSAL

TO
RELIGION

BY

SAMUEL

JOHNSON

INDIA

IN

TWO

VOLUMES

VOL.

I.

LONDON
TRUBNER

"

CO., LUDGATE

I879
[Allrightsreservetf\

HILL

THE

AUTHOR'S

NOTE

TO

THE

THE

ENGLISH

but

nevertheless,

the

series,

the

refer

its

older

religions

to

laws.

psychological

BOSTON,

in

MASS.,
April,

1879.

their

an

of

with

functions

work,

independent

race-stock,

the

the

In

have
in

precision

more

in

to

Section.

mankind,

each

for

suitable

civilization

Introductory

of

traits

found

itself

Hindu

the

treatment

specific

completeness

of

Series,

extended

more

be

by

forth

separate

believed,

relations

set

reviewing

of

constituting

the

on

is

Triibner's

Mr.

portion

it

as

principles

to

single

will

treatise

of

number

present

although

EDITION.

the

evolution

ferred
preorder

and
of

CONTENTS

OF

VOL.

I.

Page
INTRODUCTORY

INDIA.

I.

RELIGION

I.
II.
III.

IV.
V.
VI.

VII.

THE

PRIMITIVE

THE

HINDU

THE

HYMNS

AND

ARYAS

39

MIND

57

87

TRADITION
THE

153

169

LAWS

WOMAN

SOCIAL

LIFE.

203
FORMS

AND

FORCES

237

II.

RELIGIOUS

I.
II.

PHILOSOPHY.

VEDANTA

305

SANKHYA

375

INTRODUCTORY.

HPHE
"*"

Natural

interest

studies

for

in

of

number

So

and

in upon

flowing
I

that

this

the

moment,

without

force.
of

themes
I

illustrated,

here

of

statement

offer

to

of
in

that

what

the

belief, is
the

and

present

stage

all who

in

degree

and

have
which

that

that

non-Christian

of

in

until

the

the

public

the

nature

trustworthy

world

inquiry,

has

in

to
ters
mat-

demanded

religious questions

it is

earnestly

more

but

since,

thereon,

in

years

sense

of

inadequacy

thoughtfully approached
none

cation
publi-

comparatively

are

free

of

positive

ever

report

note

ious
Relig-

constantly

scholarship,

but

the

of

been

principles

of

that

defer

research

my

thoroughly

more

indispensable
by

cannot

the

of

eye

of

many

and

about

Faiths

to

has

reasons

for

sented
pre-

of

I chose

of

such

Engaged

presentation

sources

defer

state

when

the

light

field

to

existing

present

of

great

continued

have
of

view

increase

such

Ancient

that

accessible,

then

knowledge

were

the

studies

views

Universality

by

imperfect

the

delivered

the

on

illustrated

as

East.

Lectures,

since,

years

Ideas,
the

of

series

stand-

P"int-

These

confirm

to

The

constant

years.

the

to

the

are

with

twenty

substantially

served

have

Religion

pursued

than

more

contribution

as

of

History

of

outgrowth

offered

now

pages

themselves

the
can

felt

subject,
compre-

INTRODUCTORY.

tend, should
Bur

no

parts in this work.

several

that the response


on

longer prevent
to

this demand

the part of liberal thinkers

To

the present contribution

them

appreciationof
been

in

labor

not

of

from

performing
I need
hardly add
is alreadyadmirable
Europe and America.
us

is dedicated, in

spiritand their aim.


duty only, but of love.

their

dial
cor-

It has
I have

prompted by a desire of combining the testimony


faculties in different epochs
rendered
by man's spiritual
been

ties
concerningquestionson which these faculof final appeal. I have
of necessity
his court
are
of any
written, not as an advocate of Christianity
or
other distinctive religion,
but as attracted on
the one
of the religious
sentiment
under
hand by the identity
all its great historic forms, and
the other by the
on
and

races,

indicated

movement

in their diversities and

contrasts

clusive
higher plane of unity,on which their exclaims shall disappear.
It is only from this standpoint of the Universal
in
Religionthat they can be treated with an appreciation
worthy of our freedom, science, and humanity. The
of worship, as of work, are no longer to
corner-stones
is special,local, exclusive, or anomabe laid in what
lous
is essentially
in that which
and
human,
; but
revelation
therefore
of
unmistakably divine. The
be given in nothing else
God, in other words, can
thanTKe "natural consTilution'and culture of man.
To

towards

convinced
be"~ihoroughly

of

this will of itself forbid

imposing religiouspartialismon the facts presented


by the historyof the soul.
Yet it should
perhaps be stated that the following
outline of what I mean
by the idea of Universal Religion,
althoughprefatory,
represents no purely a priori
assumption,but the results to which my studies have
our

INTRODUCTORY.

led me,

well

as

as

the

in
spirit

which

been

they have

pursued.
Man's

instinctive

of

sense

divine

origin,
interpreted

historical derivation, explains his infantile

as

of

dreams

form

crude

the

to

xhehistorical Process*

primitive"golden age." In this


he begins to recognize his inherent
But

Perfect.

Infinite and

while,

tion
relahis

as

have
an
enduring
happy mythology, these dreams
tive
symbolicvalue, they no longer stand as data of posiAnd
belief.
the
historyor permanent religious
fate befalls the claims of specialreligions
to have
same
in some
been opened by men
sense
perfectfrom their
birth, and to possess revelations complete and final at
All these ideas of genesis are
their announcement.
transient,because they contradict the natural processes
of growth. We
to note, as they depart,a procome
gressive
of man,
essential
education
through his own
relations with the Infinite,commencing at the lowest
to fresh ascension
stage, and at each step pointingonward
;

advance

an

fact that in

the

surpass

instruct

to

And

means

ment

sure,

specialdirections

later attainment,

whole, for

the

upon

earlier may

an

proving competent,

this progress

is

natural

as

laws inherent

as

so

far,

it is divine.

and immanent

It

in

humanity ;
absoluteness affirms Infinite Mind
whose
as
cated
impliin this finite advance
up to mind, and then by
of mind; laws whose continuous onward
mpveis inspiration.

If this be true, the distinction hitherto made


1

often

it.1

proceedsby
laws

less

not

I insist

on

the

of the
indispensableness

infinite element

to

every

between

step of evolution,

because I find this nowise explicableas creation of the higher by the lower*
The very
than mere
idea of giowth involves more
historicalderivation. Genesis is a constant
mystery
of origination.And
an
ascending series is to be accounted for by what is greater
not

less,than its highest


term.

INTRODUCTORY.

4
w

"

"

"

profane history,interpretit as we
"Profane
tory
hiswill, vanishes
utterlyand for ever.
The
is a misnomer.
line popularly drawn
and Christianity
between
Heathenism
as
stages respectively
of blindness
and
insight,of guess-work and
and
of
nature
authority,
grace,"is equally unjust
in both directions, because
himself.
In
unjustto man
all religions
there are
imperfections;in all,the claim
sacred

and

"

to

infallible

"

is alike untenable

revelation

exclusive

or

yet, in all, experience

have

somehow

must

reached

authorityand up to certitude. In all, the


have
intuitive facultymust
pressed beyond experience
finable
of impalpable, indemonstrable, indeinto the realm
realities. In all, millions of souls, beset by
have
the same
seen
problems of life and death, must
man's positiverelations with the order of the universe
In all, the one
face to face.
nature, that
spiritual
makes
possiblethe intercourse of ideas and times
down

to

tribes, must

and

valid
The

difference

civilization,

is

not

to

be

consummation

ideal is but
in the line of
traceable

to

and

civiliza-

modern

explained by referringto
as

new

process

ideal
religious
of history,
as
or

of this process.

The

tian
Chris-

singleforce

others,all equally
among
Civilization is now
definitely

movement.
a

nally
eter-

some

conduct.

ancient

between

in

utterance

thought and

whether
Christianity,
life graftedinto the
or

the natural

which

of

form

tion

found

have

great variety of

of Race

influences, among

is

probably the most prominent;


its present breadth
and fulness being the result of a
fusion of the more
and expansiveraces
5 while
energetic
that

the freedom

and

have

in

Church

found
on

science, which
the

manifold

the whole

quiteas

are

ideals
much

its motive

of the

hindrance

power,

Christian
as

help.

INTRODUCTORY.

But, apart from* the


ancient

and

modern

be described

may

marked
of

as

in either

growth,

the

that

self-consciousness
bolder

claims,

less

was

of the kind

The

which

the

the

child

there

manhood

child,

to

become

to

gradual and

while

was

faithful

to

is

no
Contmuit

needs

of thenaw.
r

by

forms

process*

tenderly

as

beginning as

Whatever

growth.

There

need

minutest

the

divine

law.

proceeds

at

child

-whole
a

"

the very law


is itself divine.
It is

later stage of

and

than

The

man.

interference, where

all

the

there in germ.
become
a flower

historyof Religionfollows the same


is no pointwhere
Deity enters ; for there
pointwhere Deityis absent. There is no
which

with

more

The

of divine

ural,"
supernat-

product of
pervading it.

is the miracle,

force that transcends

not

was

specialmiracle

of growth

"process

In

for his whole


no

is

brings higher powers


of which
the
criminality

the

enters

leaf needs
does

nor

is

but

mean,

may

"

called

supplants instinct,and,

capable.

childishness

transition

changes in the nature


faculties,nor
engraftingof new

the

Reflection

normal.

between

sudden

by specialinterferences
whatever

difference

This

man.

by

case

by

nor

of

causes

conceptionsof life,the fact itself


tween
simply the natural difference be-

and

the child

may

at

any

arise,

nor
explanation,
they requireneither fresh legitimation
since their germs
lay in the earlier forms, their finest
fruit encloses
the primal seeds, and
history,when

read

is discerned

backward,

have

been

higher

and

to

natural

prophecy.
Thus

there

the forms

are

differences

of revelation

but

of

there

is

no

'Such

lower

thingas
religion.

religionin distinction from natural


and physicaldiffer ; but natural
So, too, spiritual
be opposed to spiritual
only in a very restricted
a

revealed

in

can

and

INTRODUCTORY.

must

lie within

taken

by

from

limits of each

the

itself.

distinction

Any

questionable sense.
It

mark

cannot

another, still less

and

off

indicated

religion
positive
religion

every

one

from

one

thus

since,

the rest;

meanings be given to these terms, every


its own
such
will be found to have
spiritual
religion
and natural sides, if any one
has them.
is nevertheless
Christianity
constantlyopposed, as
False preto the earlier faiths,as
a
spiritual religion,
tensions set
some
were
ones
; as if there
nierelynatural
up for chmtianity.
essential contradiction
and good in
to truth
abolished by the advent
human
our
was
nature, which
far from teachof Jesus. The
ing
so
historyof religion,
whatever

"

"

such
"

or

schism

this

between

bridging over

which, by its very


the
of God

and

in
pointsto perfection

all the

at

the divine,
of

epoch

gulf

monstrate
impassable, desubstantial unity
a
"

"

all outward

the laws

varying phases

and

certain

contrary,

beneath

Ai

the human

definition,was

exact

Man

"r

alienations.

of human

of human

It

nature, under

character

; to

stitutional
con-

by the diseases incident to


growth ; to moral and spiritual
recuperation,as human
the vices that requiredit; to divine immanence,
as
under finite conditions, from the beginning onwards.
Universal
be any one, exReligion,then, cannot
c^us^cfy^"f ^e great positivereligionsof
where is the
Yet
it is reallywhat
is best *n
Universal
the world.
elglon
of them;
each and every
one
purifiedfrom
and
and
baser inter-mixture
developed in freedom
Being the purport of nature, it has been germinating
power.
health

in every
elements

exist, at

unshaken

vital energy
some

of

man

; so

stage of evolution

th"t

its

in every

of mankind.
great religion
If any

belief fails to abide this test, the

worse

for its

INTRODUCTORY.

If that were
true
religiousnature.
is commonly taken
for granted," wrote
Cudwhich
the
worth,1 "that
generalityof the Pagan nations
but scattered their
acknowledged no sovereign numen,
devotions amongst a multitude of independent deities,
have
much
stumbled
the naturalityof the
this would
divine idea ;
effect equivalent,in his large and
an
clear mind, to disprovalof the divineness itself.
As
in fact but a single
distinctive Christianity
was
unfolding process, so those RlRhtSof o"
step in a for ever
earlier beliefs are
disparaged when
they are oklcr Failhs"
made
to point to it as their final cause.
They stand, as
it has stood, in their own
as it has been,
right; justified,
soil,
day and on its own
by meeting,each in its own
of human
the demands
nature.
They point forward,
but not to a singleand final revelation enteringhistory
their line, and
from
without
their
reversing at once
whole
in its new
dealingwith their attained
process
results.
They point forward ; but it is with the prophecy
claims

our

on

"

of

an

endless

which

progress,

forerunners

or

faith,which

has

labors, and

in

the

fresh

"

"

forces

in
due

types

they
"

in

fact entered

are

to

They

be

of

interest

mere

later

into the fruit of their

transmits

season

that

held

are

the

name,

foreclose.

ideal, can

or
even
symbol, authority,
are
misrepresented,when
w

distinctive

no

opening

its

up

own

best

to

largerunity,

and a broader
name
alreadydemanding a new
communion.
trast
when, to conThey are misrepresented,
is simply a successor,
with what
them
they are
The
gencies
exicalled
preparationsfor the truth of God."
of Christian
dogma have requiredthat they
and

should

even

be described

"

as

mere

fallacies of human

to despair;
reason," tending inevitably
1

Prefcce to Intellectual System of the

Univeru.

charge

re-

INTRODUCTORY.

futed

alike

the

by

of science

laws

and

the

facts of

since man
did, and never
never
history,
can,
despair.
in
of this nature, inherent, it would
seem,
Prejudices
which
the make-up of a distinctive religion,
forbid its
of faith, are
to other forms
disciplesto render justice
rapidlyyieldingto the larger scope and freer method
times.
of inquirypeculiarto our
embodies
the sacred personEvery historical religion
Misicpre- alityof man
; announcing his infinite relations
sentatiou
of....,
been
most
alto life,duty, destiny. Yet
it has
an
them.
invariable instinct of the Christian world to ignore
this presence
of the soul in her own
phases of belief,
and

"

to hold

with

harmonized
it has

"

heathenism

non-Christian

seldom

to be

in

is best

is

always

assents

natural

foe.

sentiment

may

New

the

the

accorded

been

"

her

moralityand
what

Although there
orthodoxy, which

ever
Howhave

Testament,
of revelation.

name

comparativelyintelligent

the

to

of

idea

divine

manence
im-

in all ages,

thus recognized
yet the divinity
and moreover
the Christ
being,after all, the Christ^
ff

"

of

this Christ in
and, further still,

especialtradition,
"

there can
merely preliminaryand provisionalform,
in such appreciationof the faith
be but little freedom
a

or

"

virtue

these,
the

Church,
liberal

called

in non-Christian

extant

unlike

not

is

of senting
prethat of the early apologists
of

common

sects

ages.

mode

with writers

even

while, with

the

more

of the

so-

exclusive

praisethe heathen being regarded as despoiling


it is an easy step to the inference that
Christianity,
is exalted by referringheathenism
to the
Christianity

ones,

to

category of delusions
much

to

treatment

and

snares.

And

the whole, that the


say, upon
of the older religions
would

adjustthe

balance

and
fairly,

to

most

it is not

too

affirmative

hardly suffice to
place them on their

INTRODUCTORY.

real merits before the conscience

of

civilization which

all its hospitality

has, until very recently,


expended almost
claims

the

on

Many

alone.1
Christianity

of

of those who
efforts have

write

national
interest of denomi-

in the

trained themselves

shrink

to

from

assumptionsin the line of their purpose ; while others


tory.
blinded by its logicto the most
are
patent facts of hisIt has been common
to deny boldlythat moral
existence for the
and religious
truth had any positive
mind
before the Christian
human
epoch ; to assume
the Mount
that the Sermon
on
actuallyintroduced into
no

human

in

power

itselfhave
could

been

been

have

teacher,

imported

be traced

or

like commercial

As

appeal.

an

back

samples

to

trust

into

man

of arrival,

moment

some

in

machinery

belief
powerful is a traditional religious
can
perceptionthat every moral truth man
be the outgrowth of his own
must
nature,
1

We

mention,

may

Svm"oltkt Duncker's

Phtlosophe"i Mis.
of

the

de

Geschichte

des

les

Intellect.

To

of

Kenan

are

distinguishedfrom

et Id"es

Morales

De

apprehend
and

has

al-

Christendom, such

of
la

Religion^ Creuzer's
Lectures and
Fragments on
dans
CAntiquitf, Quinet's

of

narrowness

and

Muller,

on

the

of

Nicolas

Michel

remoter

Oriental
;

and

Literutute,we
those

Eastern

of

Abel

races.

All

must

Remu
of these

the

far the

the so-called rationalisticschools of Lobeck


are

specialfield

of writers on
this theme
mass
by a spirit of universality,
scholarshipof this age has advanced beyond the theological
of Voltaire, and the hard
negation of
Bossuet, the critical superficiality

how

proves

the

these, in

studies

Ruckert, Lassen, Roth, and

scholars

general lecoid

Cultes, Constant's

Altfrthum""" Cousin's

Thrones

gat,

which

to this

contiast

Tons

efface the

to

les
de rHumamtc,
Menard's
Morale
Bible
avant
Progress of Religious Ideas, and R. W. Mackay's Progress

Child's

Shcmitic

the

add

sinking

Religions^ Michelet's

des

Grnif

in

I'hito^ofhy^DemV

History of

the

as

Dupuis' Ongmes

as

it could

principles
by a special

So

works

existing
pre-

if ideal

inventions

or

whose

to

of its hearers

hearts

the

but

and

love

that very

nature

stillreputed heretical,and

and

stand

Voss.

But

that these

it is to be observed

in dibfavor with

distinctive Christianity
in

are
proportionto their historical impartiality.Of unequalledsignificance
Lessing's
Treatise on the Education
of the Human
Race" and Herder's Ideas of a Philosophy

exact

of

Man

works

of marvellous

influences,we
literary

in this dilution.

Heine

nations

of

accntdingto

great master,

the

and

than to any
to which, more
insight,
of
modern
the
thought
assign
parentage
Herder, that, "instead of inquisitonally
judging

breadth, freedom, and

other historicaland

finelysays

of

must

he regardedhumanity
degree of their faith,

as

harp

in

the hands

each people a specialstring)


helpingto the harmony of the whole.1'

INTRODUCTORY.

IO

been

ways

less

or

reach

seeking to

expression,with greater

success.

the most
confident commonplace
recentlyit was
of New
England preachingthat all positive
into the world with Jesus.
belief in immortality
came
And
it is stillrepeated,as a fact beyond all question,
that no
other religionbesides Christianity
ever
taught
to bear each other's burdens, or preached a gospel
men

Until very

to

the poor.
Nor has there
form

wanting a somewhat
specialpleading, for the

of

reducingthe

able
discredit-

been

of heathenism

claims

to

of
purpose
the smallest sible
pos-

tion,
grudging literalism,a strict construcbase rendering,of ancient beliefs; which
a
or
would
apparent spiritualperceptiona
prove
every
phantom of fancy or blind hope, or else a mirage

amount;

reflected from

the idealism

of the
and

delicate

of the present

Resolving the

past.

divinations

of

mockery betrays, however,


the

critic than

in

often

dispositionhas
Thus

notion

the

the

arisen

desire

of

of innate ideas led him

in this direGtion, which

has

imaginations

childlike

the
far
he

race

fair

the background

on

into

races

scepticism in

more

The

wrongs.

same

from

philosophicalprejudice.
Locke
to disprove the
to

had

degree

of unbelief

noticeable

effect

on

subsequentthought.
But

have

we

of traditional
is still held

deny

moral

noblest

yet

to

mention

on
religion

consistent
earnestness

thinkers

of

man.

They

effects

history.It
scholarshipto
of

treatment

Christian

conviction to
practical
in what
antiquity,
they have
"

were

with

of the worst

and

of the Fatherhood

of

the

one

of God

and

failed to

firmed
af-

the Brotherhood

theorists,
not believers

finelyabout virtues,but

the

apply them

"

"

;
"

talked

"gave

INTRODUCTORY.

such

meanings

II

their great words

give to
aristocrats in thought,whispering one
them;"
were
and
doctrine to their disciples,
preaching another to
the people; and so on.
All of which
is not only exaggerated
and
false in details, but in its principle
or
method
utterlydestructive of historical knowledge.
all foundation
to rejecting
too, it amounts
Substantially,
of man,
and the constant
for moralityin the nature
no

to

as

we

"

laws

of life.

doctrinal

Critics of this temper

Calvin, who

of

excuse

have

ascribed

not

the

now

the apparent

hypocrisy; and Dugald Stewart


was
hardlymore
wanting than they must be in the true
when
the first modern
he met
spiritof scholarship,
with the charge that
revelations of Oriental wisdom
invention
of
the Sanskrit language was
recent
a mere
and Sanskrit literature an
the Brahmans,
imposture.
The
Catholic
largehistorical relations of the Roman
Church
have permitted its scholars to gather up the
of the heathen, though in the interest
wisdom
spiritual
this appreciation,
of its own
such
authority.1But even
included
it was,
the Reformation
in its sweeping
as
virtues of the heathen

"

malediction

upon

And

continued

to

to

Church

self-centred

mere

Protestantism,with few
show,

in its

pietyand morality,the
a

of

and exclusive

tions."
tradi-

exceptions,has
of non-Christian

treatment

narrow

human

sympathiesincident

to

of reaction, and

movement

attitude

inherentlysectarian.
When
other grounds of depreciation
failed, there
remained the presumptionthat all such outlyingtruth
been
carried over
have
into Pagan records by
must
Christian or Hebrew
In its origin,
hands.
doubtless,
the natural
this idea was
thusiasm,
outgrowth of Christian enand the signof a geniality
and breadth in the
to

an

See especially
Lamennaia, Essai

sur

PIndiff"nnce

tn

Matitrt

de

Religion.

12

INTRODUCTORY.

which

consciousness
religious

But

to find its own.

there

reachingout everywhere
also a dogmatic
was

development of these claims;


paths of fair inquiry.Justas the

interest in the
foreclosed

was

the

and

this

drian
Alexan-

philosophyto Moses (some of


them
resorted to piousfrauds to prove it) so under
even
and natural
the exigencyof their creeds of depravity
incapacity,of atonement, incarnation,and mediation,
been
Christians
have
impelled to trace all ancient
records ; to imagine late interpolations
pietyto their own
tian
communications
with Jewish doctors or Chrisor
are
reallybut
apostles,in explanationof what
natural
correspondences of the religioussentiment in
And
for such imputed influence
different races.
when
Jews

referred Greek

there could

be found

not

even

of

the shadow

historical

proof,well-reputedwriters in all times have not been


wanting,who dared to affirm it without hesitation upon
purely a -priori grounds.1
A common
of dealingwith the relative claims
method
is illustrated in a recent
of positivereligions
writer,*
extensive
whose
reading is almost nullified for the
of comparative theology and
ethics by the
purposes
of his authoritative creed.
absolutism
He begins with
will tolerate no rival; that
affirmingthat "Christianity
other
they who wish to raise a tabernacle for some
that

Christ, and

Christ

alone,

1 Thus
Hyde (A.D. 1700) supposes that the Persians must have been converted from
and that their fire-altars have been imitations of that of Jerusalem ;
Abraham,
ilatry
by

id

and

writer in the Bthliotheca

and declares
"

be warned

must

master

icvealed

not

very

Seneca

Sacra

that the Persians

of
religion

have borrowed

must

the Hebrews."

scrupulously conducted,

from

(1859) attributes*the A

St. Paul,

so

Another
to

vesta

to

their notion of

instance of the

derive the moral

same

the
a

prophet Daniel*

Messiah

from

the

kind is the attempt,

philosophyand

faith of
spiritual

thoroughly defeated by HUgenfeld (Zeitschr. d.

Wiss

Tkeol.

1858)
1

Hardwick,

Christ and

of this learned
pages

writer

other Masters, \. pp. 39, 43.


to

render

133 and 336 of the firstvolume.

pacity
Examples of the extreme incajusticeto pre-Christianbeliefs may be iound on

INTRODUCTORY.

is to be

worshipped ;
of
recognition

of his

effectual way

most

and

proceeds

character

to

in the

the

state

limits

theory that

the

is not to
defendingChristianity
all the virtues of distinguished
heathens, but
in its favor,"
make
them
not
at
all,
testify

condemn
rather

"

13

to

of

"

be it observed^ in their

All

own.

of

which

reminds

of St.

Augustine'ssaying,that whatever of truth the


Gentiles taught should be
claimed by Christians from
its heathen
promulgators,as unlawful possessors of it,
justas the Hebrews
spoiledthe Egyptians;" a process
still extensively
of historical justice
practisedby the
us

"

Church.
It is not

surprisingthat appreciativeOrientalists
moved

should

be

warmth

againstaudacities

ff

The

reaction

on

the

as

reminds

to be

gel at
at

like those

here

some

mentioned.
too

far,"

touches

of

criminately
indisphilosophyis to be marked
modern
a
forgery; if every conception
of Moses, Plato, or the Apostles,is
us
borrowed
from Jewish,
as
necessarily
and

sources,

foisted thence

Friedrich von
poetry of the Hindus."
the outset of Oriental studies, as well as

later stage, found

it necessary

Christian

among
does

protest with

extravagant theories goes


Miiller, if every thought which

put down
Greek, or Christian

ancient

their

from

problems

which

enter

"

Max

exclaims

to

hesitate

to

scholars.
Oriental

into the
SchleMiiller

position
this disreprove
Yet he himself

point an
as
affordingthe only clew to
appeal to Christianity
too
principles
loftyto have been elicited by human
not

to

use

errors

to

"

reason."

It is time

studied in the
were
religions
of their own
intrinsic values.
light
They are at Their indeof desire and faith,and ele- Pd^cnt
once
spontaneities
the

older

vai"

Indian

Literature,B.

HI.

ch. iv.

INTRODUCTORY.

14
ments

since been
back

go

of

the

tenderness

too, of those

which

faculties of

are

and

our

eternal

attained.

We

feel for

we

emotions

earliest intuitions and

cludes
in-

should

maturityof science,with

in the

now,

which

guarantees of all that

shall yet be

or

to them

something

unity of growth,

stage natural

each

at

has

indivisible

an

in

with

of

truths.

For

the

use,

tion
contempla-

tions
essential rela-

to

access

own

reverent

imaginationand

real way

our

race

as

for

the

individual,

"

"

The

And
Bound

ideal eic-

wish

jn

which

we

days to

be

natural

piety.'*

their ideal

world

guarantee of
are

by

man

principleof religionis

{jie natural
the

our

to each

each

great beliefs have

merely,but
with

could

we

first universal

The

ments.

child 's the father of the

the
a

elements;

bud

flower.

mainly concerned,

is not
And
as

that all

justas
a

bud

it is these

pointingto

beyond themselves, in a future that will


be mortgaged to any names,
not
to any claims.
nor
They are that promise in the firstbelief,which the last
fulfil alone ; the dream
which
cannot
only their mutual
to find
ran
us
interpret. And it becomes
recognition
in our
own
experience the secret which explainshow
they have met the problems of ages and answered the
prayers of generations.
Illustrations of these ideal
elements, high-water
marks
of ancient faith,readilysuggest themselves.
The
religioustoleration prevailingin China from
it is
early times is not fairlyestimated when
very
that deep moral earnestness
shown
and
to have lacked
the highestforms
spiritual
dignitywhich distinguish
of modern
libertyin Europe or America.
religious
fulfilments

INTRODUCTORY.

15

philosophyis,whether
questionfor our religious
the same
nature
it is not of essentially
out of
; a germ
which that highestfreedom
might come
by pure force
of the familiar laws of social and scientific growth, by
The

of

the intercourse
beliefs

it has

whether

reached

races

and

the

not,

even

certain respects, which

makes

look
opportunities
and

it may

whether

whereof

culture

our

with the

less than
hold

of the

involve

would

thought

we

of moral

infusion.

the

Buddhist.

human

instances

to

the best culture

and

that there would

re-enforcement

time, would

itself

be

fullyequal

purityand

of

Monotheism,

to

to

even

zeal for
same

the

and

definite Theism

and

shows

in the

trated
illus-

as

But

progress

of the best

assumption
rest

an

to

implicit
germ

"element-worship"of

of

of mankind,

into

the

the

pure

Indo-Europeanminds ;
divine depositof this

centraltruth with the Shemitic Hebrews


the

add, the

ideal standard

an

way,

earlyAryans, fullyguarantees

to

good
largest

tic
change, to unfold Buddhisbest morality
and pietyknown
to
ignorethe fact that it has shown
these in the spiritof practical

truth. In the

the

that

not

either of miraculous

be need

in ardent

benevolence, and
of

value

essential

or

self-denial into the


our

social

efficiency.Neither is this,we may


practical
virtue, even
qualityand extent of the same
and taught in the Christian
records.
suppose

them

Similarly
It is

powers

or

ward
out-

greater

our

elements

needs

ground,

own

certain

these

of the
self-abnegation

perfectdevotion
which

not

its

on

pointof development, in

of diverse

intimacies

to

be

tribution
alone, for dis-

entirely
less
ground-

gratuitous. Thus the cardinal virtues and


but to all religions
belong not to one religion,
;

and
beliefs
and

the

diversities of form

ideals is broken

by

into which

differences of

race

each
and

of these

culture do

l6

INTRODUCTORY.

affect its essential

not

find ourselves

through their
and

to

in

Everywhere

to

where
every-

is nearest

what

solvingthe great

which

with

relations

deal.

appeal
us

We

all.

them

in the world's great faiths,

at home

common

familiar

most

in
identity

soul is for

the

and

central facts
called

ever

to

greet essential meanings of the

we

fice,
unityof God with man, of fate and freedom, of sacrities
inspiration,
immortality,practicalduprogress,
and
humanities, just as we
everywhere find the
mysteries of birth and death, the bliss of loving and
of moral
sharing,the self-vespect
loyalty,the stress
of ideal desire.

found, in followingthe

It will be

studies, that all those

forms

which

to

of

wont

are

of

be

visible

Christianityare

conditions

of moral

and

regarded as
through the

Asiatic

old

the

of these

course

spiritual
ception
perpeculiargifts
crude

communities

social
in

such

not only
too, for growth as demonstrates
struggle,
those conditions, but also the fact
their vitality
under
that they fulfilfunctions inherent
in the
and
constant
of man.
Such
of ultimate
the recognition
nature
are
gain through
good through transient evil ; of spiritual
and hindrance
; of freedom
suffering
through acceptance
of divinely
natural conditions ; of love, beyond a
la\v ; of the rightful
thought of constraining
authority

brave

of the soul

the

over

senses

of the inevitableness
of disinterested
in the
Human
Our
wherein

of moral
; of

motive

spiritualuniverse
Brotherhood,

advantage
seen

in
ge.ad

immutable

of somewhat

and

to
some

and

over

consist
new

of the sacredness

invincible remedial

Immortal

older

science,
con-

in its decrees

penalty,and

of Divine

of

the

beauty
energies

Fatherhood

and

Life.

civilizations will thus


is

be

generallyimagined,
force, infused miraculously,or
not,

as

INTRODUCTORY.

Christian

otherwise, by the
of
in

the

of the faculties of observation

analysis;

in the

friction of

growth

thereon

of

of

advancement
races

in

and

in fact,

to

all.

that writers

dependent,

standing
under-

the forces

science, and
So

understanding,and

the

thing
some-

the

in the wealth
and, finally,

practicalmaterial opened

this

but

It is found,
quitedifferent nature.
immense
special development of the

fusion and
of

;
religion

of

lj

like

impressive is
the

Buckle

sciences
to

go

the

inferringthat morality and religion,on the


other hand, as being the comparatively "unchanging
factors"
in history,have
influence
"no
had
on
ress."
progin
But this is to reduce
history to a sum
Its factors
arithmetic.
History is a living process.
are
dynamic, and are not to be pulled apart like dead
ethical forces are
bones
a
or
heap of sticks. These
of being constant
and
"unchanging," only in the sense
clears their
unfailing;and the mental growth, which
vision and
in fact
develops their practicalcapacities,
enables
them
to
exert
an
ever-increasinginfluence, a
ideal.
completer fulfilment of their own
And
of modern
tion
civilizaso, in holding the vantage
in the sphere of the understanding,
to lie specially
of

extent

I do

not

ideals

older

are
no
our

the

of Christian
ones,

at

force with

belief have

its vast

looms

of

which

the

manifold

wrought, like other


productivepower.

and

But

perfectlythese variations in the religious


ideal of Christianity
correspond with and depend on
steps of intellectual progress ; how analogous they
to those of other religions
a point of
; and
finally,
lightimport, how littlewhat is broadest and best in

I note

the

overlook

also how

civilization has

Christian

faith,

Jesus of

Nazareth

"

to

do

with

what

namely, itsexclusive
as

the Christ.
2

It

is distinctive

concentration

is,moreover,

in
on

pre-

INTRODUCTORY.

ciselyin

its moral

and

religious
aspects

tendom
that the Chris-

eighteencenturies can claim least practical


to the older civilizations.
superiority
I have sought to bring into view a law of progress,
in which
the most
important transitions in
Spiritual
Xeacnon.
historyfind their true explanation.
religious
I refer to SpiritualReaction.
It is mainly from
habitual disregard of this familiar law in its broader
of

aspects that

transitions

such

interference

specialdivine
of history.
It is

with

When

divine

life

human

theory requiresthe
forces having become

miraculous

the

necessary.

What

of "unaided

old

theory

inference

that, natural

effete and

exhausted,

of

of

creation

biology,had

Such

is the usual

new

become

stop the downward

else should

nature"?

processes

natural

interference, like the

species" in

natural

to

growth in
proceed only in a direct
in a degenerating
appears

this

age,

referred

been

the

that

commonly supposed
can
things moral and spiritual
line.

have

dency
ten-

method

;
accountingfor Jesus of Nazareth and his religion
such the principleof historical construction which
is
assumed
throughout the growth of Christian dogma :
the Christ and his gospelwere
a new
spiritual
species.
So far "as Jesus is concerned, this theory in fact rests
kind
on
a very
superficial
survey of the condition of manfaith
at his birth ; since his ethical and
spiritual

of

"

had

their tap-roots within

his native

soil,and

followed

tendencies in
spiritual
that age. Yet it is also true both of the Roman
Empire
as a whole, and of the old faiths that were
perishingin
life had, on
the
its bosom, that social and religious
whole, become
fearfully
degenerate. Grant this to
the fullest extent
possible,yet miraculous intera

line of strong democratic

and

INTRODUCTORY.

ference"

need

assumed

be

not

19
in

explanationof

the

revival*
For
mind

there
as

well

is

of

self-recovery
by

as

in matter;

different indeed

law

reaction, in
from

that,

but a new
and greater
equivalent,
force. It lias been described as
that vicious
forbidding
ideas or institutions shall go so far as their principle
1
It strikes back
demands."
individuals and
logically
nations from degeneracy. It restrains excess
in the
passionswith timelywarnings. And it shows us each
in some
historic periodhasteningto an extreme
special
direction, only that the next may be forced into doing
to a different and
justice
balancing class of energies,
be liberated into free
and so in good time all faculty
tial
play. This natural law of reaction is quiteas essenthe law of steady linear growth ;
and constant
as
though perhaps, when clearlyapprehended, it will be
as

developingnot

an

"

found

to

thereof.

be but
It is

interior and

more

not

only essential

less obvious

to the

form

explanationof

in its relation to the degeneracies


Christianity
primitive
of the epoch, but thoroughlycompetent to that end.
It is adequateto prove the phenomenon a sign not that
forces of human
had become
the spiritual
nature
hausted,
exbut that they were
exhaustless, since even
suppressioncmly nerved them to unprecedentedvigor.
this natural solution of religious
Of course
progress
does not exclude personal or social inspiration,
*

in

any

rational

Inspiration.

of the word.

sense

genius,as
religious

to

intellectual,its own

mystery, its immediate

in the

unquestionedthe

unfathomed

of

life and

of

fact that there is an

present instant which


1

to

its enits spontaneity,


thusiasm,
insight,

its fateful mastery


leaves

It leaves

the

past

Gu'txot,
Ifutory of Civilization.

cannot

men.

It

element

explain*

INTRODUCTORY.

2O

the constancy

it affirms

Nay:

of

this transcendence

ual
primacy in the instantaneous fact of spiritperception. It recognizesthe specialenergy of

and

of this

intuition in the saint and

the

seer.

ditions,
religious
genius also has its conthat
and inspiration
its laws ; and it demands
line with
in this respect they be placed in the same
of
if in advance
intellectual and poetic genius,even
than these,
them.
They are not less purely human
either in their original
in the law of their
or
source,

But

it impliesthat

appearance.
of all these forces in the earlyOriental
energy
has seemed
noble illustration of
to me
world
a very
And
I may
need
add that we
their universality.
not
The

the weaknesses

surprisedto find, amidst

be

of

spiritual

also, incident
childhood, certain superiorities

to

that

of imagination,intuition, and
stage, in the qualities
civilizations.
maturer
faith,over
In

point of

moral

of serious

admits
Religions
judged by

question whether

accustomed

to

It would

has

be

revealed

difficult to

respect far behind

us

in those

of
qualities

lead

the

are

faithful service

practiceof
predictionthat we

prove

in any

the heart

of social ress,
progthat Braces
in this

the laws

and the conscience

of what

the

shall yet learn

Nothing
than

to

could

lessons in moral
be

more

he

one

what

many

inferiors

degree our

the honest

exalt

we

highestform of civilization is an ad^he phases of faith it has been


UpOn
contemn.
Admitting the clearer light

science

in which

to

what

it

call the
vance

nations

also,
fidelity

their fruits.

to

and

earnestness

which

worships,and

believes.

I venture

of the Oriental

and integrity.
simplicity

unfortunate

for those who

wish

Christianity
by comparison with Heathenism
rest their argument on what
they call "judging

21

INTRODUCTORY.

religions
by their
said, "My answer
It would

"My

India

it is

is shown

image
be

reasonable

is India, past and


for

Buddhist

ent."
presto

say,

of its
of

been, the Western

able

But

now.

is

has

better

in its

said

as

is and

probablybe
than

Buddha

has

Judaism, past and present;"


rejectedBuddha, as Judaism did Christ.

India

What

be

orator
distinguished

to

to Christ

answer

for

fruits."

to

if the power
mould

to
ability

moral

own

whose

one

state

will

world

half

of

specificreligion

century hence

civilization into the

shall

ideal, what
spiritual

and

eighteen centuries

results after

of

terize
characmust
orator
our
preaching and instituting
if
by saying that no one would know its Founder
he came
us
to-day; that there is no Christian
among
round
community at all ; and that Christianity
goes

and

stamps

give

literal

too

substantial
would

is

note

disciples
; and
meet

of

that

these

not

expressions whose

to

What

we

admissions

concerning the
made
are
Christianity
by its noblest
confess its inadequacy
theyvirtually

productive,and

final.

misunderstandingof

Here

dently
is evi-

originof

the

these

demands.

It is in fact

imagined,but

Our

Such

advancing

an

that

"

were

Christian precepts
reformer's

but

its

moral

at

all,as

is here

standard, due

to

criticises the institutions in

now

institutions

Christianity, nay,
love

Christ-ideal

the

not

causes,

new

question.
by definite

and

need

of social progress.
its religious
ideal is still confidently

all

as

some

ages.

We

the actual demands

presented

many

sin?

is justified
by the facts.

that

Nevertheless,

nobler

as

construction

meaning

practicalfruits
to

institution

every

in

fact unmolested

for many
prohibitions
old as
is indeed
as
inspiration

more

than

or

that, as old

practicalpresent

resources

as

heroism
lie in

INTRODUCTORY.

22

and even
liberty,
represent the triumph of
interests over
distinctively
opposition.
religious

science

and

secular
And

fresh

every

task

of

the

reformer

is made

ceivable
con-

only through the accomplishment of the last.


evolved
How
then can
it have been
solelyout of the
It is not
faith and virtue of eighteen centuries ago?
the fruit of Christianity
alone, but generatedby living
experience,in the breadth and freedom of modern
civilization.

by their
subjectof judgingreligions
fruits,we are yet to collect the data for a justdecision ;
inner
since it involves the study of civilizations whose
On

this whole

from

the view

of

Man=Man

Western

our

is the broad
well

as
"

hitherto been

have

movements

of

as

in

great

sealed

measure

world.
of historicalscience,

formula

But

practical brotherhood.

Meaning

it

interpreted.It does
superficially
equality.
fae falsehood and
not
mean
munistic
egotism of comand
theories, which
disintegrate
personality
of an unconditioned
societyalike in the name
"equality"
must

of natural

which

be

not

natural

allows.

ethics nowhere

It

that in

means

every age and race, under the varying surface-currents


of organizationand intellectual condition, you
shall
find

deep-sea calm,

"

the

essential

same

instincts

and

The

tendencies, demands.
insights,
aspirations,
first vital problem of historical research
is
the

duty

laws, by

is

every

form

we

pause

of earnest

variables.

Its first

at

faith

or

mere

work

its witness

dulge
in-

from

mutable
of im-

good. Not tillthis is done,


the diverand interpret
sities
wiselyapply analysis,
law

can

the

negation,nor
arrogant disparagement,but to draw
to

never

in

of

means

find
and

factor,the guarantee of immutable

constant

eternal

to

of human

and

endless

belief.

INTRODUCTORY.

23

of modern
inspiration
physicalstudies is in the
This fine
of their idea and aims.
universality
Universalit
of nature, by lens
idealism in the exploration
physical
8tudies*
and prism and calculus, which casts theologies
into the background of human
interest,is preparing
of religions,
Bible shall
whose
the way for a religion
Nature.
How
be the full word of Hitman
opulent the
ence
and
time with encyclopedicsurvey
comparative sciCosmos
! Humboldt's
was
representativeof
the drift of the century ; a search for that all-insphering harmony, of which the worlds and ages and races
chords,
Humboldt, pursuing the idea of unity
are
deeps of law, with a reverence
through immeasurable
of worship to need the curthat is too full of the spirit
rent
phraseology of religion;Pritchard, tracingthe
and Muller the linguistic,
aflinities of
physiological,
tribes ; Ritter, unfoldingthe function
of
the human
The

"

"

mountain
and
sea,
every continent and
every
range
river basin, in the developmentof humanity as a whole

Kirchhoffand

spectrum

Bunsen,

analysisto

determination

with
the

of the "sun's

their

rays

successors,

of every

place

in the

applying
star,

till the

universe"

is

singleelement in the immeasurable


significance
of lightnow
ment
opening before this marvellous instruof research ; Tyndall,making the subtlest phases
of force a revelation of poetry and
philosophy,and a
these, with others not
delightfor the generalmind,
less earnestlypursuing the unities of law, whether
and
its evolution
wisely or imperfectlyinterpreting
definingits higher facts and relations, represent the
physicalscience of our time.
fail to be explored
How
should the spiritual
nature
of the
instinct ?
It is a deepening sense
by the same
as
unityof human
experience,and so of its reliability
but

"

INTRODUCTORY.

24

dignity,that banishes supernaturalism,affirms


universal laws in place of miracle, and bids us rest in
them
with entire trust ;
loving,"as the Stoic Aurelius
well

as

"

said,

"

whatever

happens

to

from

us

because

nature,

only c;m happen by nature which is suitable,and


it is enough to remember
that law rules all."
The
of law is the guargrowing belief that the stability
antee
of universal
good, or, to translate it into the
that Law
means
JLove, is the
language of the spirit,
sign that Love, in its practicaland universal sense, is
itself becoming the all-solving
calculus and all-analyzing
the pursuer,
spiritualastronomy,
prism of our
of Law.
diviner, interpreter
therefore
And
they who disapproveour inevitable
that

"

exodus
In

distinctive

from

religions,
upon
t"
'

relation

the

be
organizinggood works would
lty
better than reconstructing
theology,have very
slightcomprehensionof that which they distrust. It is
the very spirit
of humanity that is moving in this religious
emancipation; clearingits own vision,reachingout
and self-respect,
and findingits sphere
to consistency
Herder
has said, "not merely universal
to be, as
as
human
but properly no
less than
human
nature,
to

ground

Human-

that

itself."1

nature

object of

"The

all
All

Hafiz, "is alike.


all the world

is not

mosque

or

"The

God

is the

good

is best, with

alone

is

good

creed

true

the

love's

lover

differs from

the followers
whose
whose
of Man,

teachers

love

of every

heart is
life is
U. VIII

Him

And

talk of

dwelling? Why

who

Persian

the

their beloved.

Hindu

of those

Hindu

Mussulman

seek

men

church?"
of

creed

religions,"sings

said:

have

other
;

creeds.

and

faith."

to

do

"He

just,and he only
pure." "Remembei

ch.

V.

INTRODUCTORY.

Him

has

who

Sivas,

numberless

seen

and

come

25

and

go,

Mahomets,

who

is

Vishnus,

found

not

by
"

forgetsor turns away from the poor."


common
standpointof the three religions,"
say
of
Chinese, "is that they insist on the banishment

who

one

The
the
evil

desire."
Buddhist

Chinese

The

the music

priestprays
wakens

of the bell which

morning

at

him

that

his matins

to

"may sound through the whole world, and that every


livingsoul may gain release, and find eternal peace in
God."1
himself

to

Saviour2

Buddhist

The

in the

creature

every

arrive at Buddhahood

to

into the divine rest,


What

else,

Christian
It is

far

religionsto
humanities

universe, and
delivered

are

to their

receivinganswer

better, is the

wherein

or

Jew?
from being

manifest
never

from

sin

prayers."

claim

of

the

the

or

so

tillall

"to

vows

of

level

common

the

that

age,

that

true

is

the

effort

to

to
antagonistic

humanities

these

lift
the

could

possiblydispense with such an effort. It is their


natural
much
not
so
expression. It is the demand
of instant social duty.
of comparative science even,
as
which
Is it not quite time
that the excuses
religious
the heathen
furnished for treating
caste has constantly
not

lawful

as

globe

prey

were

unities

of

of the Christian

finallyrefuted, by bringing
the religioussentiment, and
of mankind?

brotherhood

of exclusive revelation
this

all quarters of the

in

of
spirit

caste

Is it

time

not

ceased, which

can

to

the

the

ethical

that claims

only flatter

the globe of human


circumnavigate
that he might show
how it could be regupassions,"
lated
for the utmost
good of all : surely a magnificent

Fourier tried to

view

Catena

of Buddhist

Scriptures.

'

Avalokitiswara.

26

INTRODUCTORY.

aim, however

beyond

his mistakes

whatever

the

testifies to
of

make

that

of

in

social

be

all

ments
leading move-

humanitarian

the

the

principles

very

infinite in

and

stature

of mind,

theories

function, brave

equal opportunityfor

Let

similar idealism

it is this instinct that

sciences

new

analyses of

progress,
claims

the

from

colossal

Hence

reach.

them

fallingaway

them

of method.

guarantees

their

forbids

accomplishment,and

in
inspiration
thought. It is

same

modern

instinct that

man's

any

assured

the

and

broad
the

and

races

of

that

Liberty,Democracy,
Labor
Reform, Popular Progress,are to reach beyond
the assertion of exclusive
rights or selfish claims into
full recognitionof universal duties ; that liberty
is not
to stop in license, nor
democracy in greed and aggression,
butions
nor
through bloody retriprogress to be earned
sexes.

us

alone.

instinct,which

this humanitarian

And

impels each
the universal life,is not only
art, but changing the heart

towards
private current
recreating literature and
of scholarshipalso.
It demands
and
shall give breadth
freedom

It culls

life.
would

nurse

wisdom
as

the

and

which

them

that
the veins

manly sinew
fine gold in

philosophyof

of

all time.
of that

breast

Law

but
the

the

It

oldest

of all ages

service.

and

echo

blood
to

Prophets,

and

beginning

mother's

one

of present

currency.
in prehistoric
bone

the

Hebrew

from

all creeds

our

Jesus confessedlybut repeated


was

experience

transmutes

through

in

to

ideal culture, that

thought

at

of the

substance

human

child

every

of love

which

choicest

the

an

of

all noble

of

time.

discern

rites,which

gave
It will read in sphynx and

heap

and

flows

which

practicalnerve
It will

It

them

and
the
during
en-

pyramid,

sculpturedwall,

in Druid

27

INTRODUCTORY.

cies
Mysteries,and Shemitic Propheand
and the antique Bibles
Codes, the varied
of Deity, duty, and
hieroglyph of man's assurance
tions
immortality. It will trace through all transformaideal to reof faith the eternal right of man's
interpret
life and nature, and to change old gods for
Circles

and

Greek

new.

Even

so

Guizot

as

decided

an

witness

bears

this

to
aspiration
gives the modern

formidable

most

which
at all

has

found

and

to

heroes

and

despiteof

for its sake


to

stronger proof that

the

is

it demands

The

scholar

reformer, and
old Bibles

of naturalistic

religion
spiritof

constructive

largersynthesisof faith. "What


its
movement
againstChristianity

this is "formidable"

which

the

character," he

risks, and

of truth

opponent

must

says, "is

sentiment

the love

martyrs,

of truth

for the sake


consequences,
If such a spiritas
alone."

could
Christianity,
time

for

that

fullycome?
identifyhimself

demonstrate

free

with

brotherhood

there

out

culture

the
of

be

social

ixuyofthe
Scholar-

stammering speech of
It is his duty to show
that the human
men.
primitive
arteries beat everywhere with the same
royal blood.
the strongholds
It is his duty to help break
of
down
theologicaland social contempt, and refute the pretences
have
their
ever
justified
by which strong races
avail himself of
He
oppressionof the weak.
may
Comparative Philology,or Comparative Physiology,
of ethnological
science.
other branch
The
or of any
the

materials
harvests

are

and

at

equal to

the

last abundant,
his

utmost

the

need.

laborers
But

in these

if all these

inadequate; if the language,


of any
and
social condition
physical organization,
resources

race,

should

should

prove

all appear

to

invite

the

contempt

of

28

INTRODUCTORY.

Christian

nations, there

is still left the

testimonyof
unityof man
psychological

The
essential
religioussentiment.
does
but on
not
rest
on
physiological,
grounds.
A
how
to
true
philosophy of History will know
reconcile
this identityin the substance
with
phases of
progressive development. But no theory will serve,
which
fails to
of
recognize it as real in every one
these phases. Formulas
are
as
dangerous as they are
fascinating. Thus
Hegel, compelled by his formal
logic,regards the Oriental religionsas merely representing
in the undeveloped state of non-distinction
man
from nature
; in other words, in pure
bondage to
the senses.
And
as
elsewhere, his philosophical
so,
plays into the hands of theological
generalization
udice.
prejIt ignoresthe fact
It tells but half the truth.
the

that

himself

man

soul of these

the

was

earlier faiths.

incessantlynoble reactions which


tested
proagainst such bondage as he describes, and
human
as
nature,
justified
genius and intuition and
free self-consciousness, even
in the crude
experience
had
of its earlier
not
children; although men
yet
learned
and object,
to analyze the mysteriesof subject
Being and Thought. Let us be admonished
by the
There

of the

hint
"

were

The
have

Buddhist

old

are
depths of antiquity
a

few

The
Rchginus

think

been

rays

like infants born

rise, we

poet

at

that

opening of

in

events

their

"

full of

transmitted

light.
to

we
midnight. When
was."
yesterdaynever

China

of the West
are

to
as

to

the Western

Chinese

momentous

commercial

us.
see

ly
ScarceWe
the

are
sun

nations, and

emigrationand labor,
in their religious
as
and
political
bearings.

29

INTRODUCTORY.

in connection

Taken

the
disclosure

growth of
of

the

with
a

liberal

field of

in

revolutions
and
polic}',

Hindu

Japan

cating
indi-

with the

rapid

literature

and

life

a
new
during the past half century, they announce
It is as certain
phase in the education of Christendom.
that the complacent faith of the Christian Church
in itself as the sole depositary
of religious
truth is to
be startled and confounded
experience,
by the new
that the fixed ideas of that huge populationwhich
as
swarms
along the great river-arteries of China, and
and
heaps flowers in the temples of spirit-ancestors,

bows

at

of Confucius

shrines

immense

at the

and

Christ.

The

modern

social

and

Fo,
of the

resources

their

peculiarworship

time

has

and

to

are
fr

be

outside

tounded
as-

barians,"
bar-

of Mammon

and

arrived, in the providence of

industrial

progress,

for

mutual

the
the East and
interchangeof experience between
neither was
is
West, for which
prepared, but which
of both forms
to the advancement
quiteindispensable

of civilization.
In their natural
millions

as

converts

impatienceto
to Christian

these unknown

count

theology, the
"*

Churches
ness

tional

where

but

feeblycomprehend

of the situation.

Dreams

the

'

serious-

of denomina-

in these realms
trophieswon
the tidingsof salvation by

of
the

XT
Not

an

er-

cieM^ticai

"Itl)0rtunlly

Pagan night,
power

or

the

long-desireddawn
of day, will probablyprove illusory.Missionaryzeal
All its
but a poor
has been
spell to conjure with.
auguriesand exorcisms have failed. The real opportunity
world of
The
and promise is of another
kind.
is wider than Christendom
has apprehended,
religion
and it is undoubtedlydestined to widen in the sightof
and trade*
much
of population
the world
as
as
man
blood

of Christ

are

to

come

as

INTRODUCTORY.

30

is on the eve of
well as Heathendom,
as
Christianity,
judgment. It is to discover that it has much to learn
I firmlybelieve that in making
well as to teach.
as
the Christ"
the worship of Jesus as
which, more
"

"

than

any

difference

essential

in

moral

precept

or

religiousintuition, forms its actual distinction from


basis of faith, it will
other religions a prescriptive
of outside human
strike againsta mass
experienceso
of
overwhelming as to put beyond doubt the futility
pressing either this or any other exclusive claim as
I have written in no spirit
authoritative for mankind.
of negationtowards
aught that deserves respect in its
faith or its purpose ; in no
disparagement of what is
in the life of Jesus;
noble and dear to man
eternally
but with
the sincere desire to help in bridgingthe
belief,and
gulf of an inevitable transition in religious
in pointingout the better foundations
alreadyarising
"

amidst

these tides that will


and

not

spare

the ancient

finalities of faith.

contented

spiritit is,that, after

such

serious

of the East, their bibles

possible,without

And

study

and

holds
foot-

in this

of the

ligions
Re-

traditions,as has

direct

acquaintancewith the
Oriental languages,
through the labors of scholars
like Lassen,^Schlegel,
Weber, Rosen, Kuhn, Wilson,
Burnouf, Bunsen, Spiegel,Riickert,Mtiller,Legge,
ing
Bastian,our own
Whitney, and of many others, rendersuch direct acquaintancecomparatively
needless,
I have reached the conviction that these oldest religions
have
an
importantfunction to fulfilin
exceedingly
been

"

"

that present transformation

Theism, which
The

of the

is still irreverently
denounced
mission

of

to
Christianity

of many
only for the overthrow
but quite as trulyfor
peculiarities,
not

latest into

purer
delity.
infias

the heathen

of their
the

is

religious

essential mod*

INTRODUCTORY.

ification of

its

31

The

change from distinctive


to Universal
pared
Religionis a revolution, comChristianity
the passage
from Judaism to Christianity
with which
own.

itself was
Here

is

henceforth

practicalsituation.

the
to

of which

trivial.

its

face those

civilizations

older

life has

own

Christendom

in

out

than

its own,
"

whose

races

and

even

more

claims, it will be

siveness

and

of natural

beliefs

do

sustained

that have

are

to
justice

other

the

hitherto
intimate
obstinate

in

obliged to drop
to

situa.

tlon*

more

firmlyrooted

absolutism, defer

and
religion,

The

large measure

proceeded,and on which its reactions have


made
scarcelyany impression. Brought into
relations with

is

natural
super-

all exclu-

light

common

instincts and

civilizations

victions
con-

through

is not
The
movement
longer periods than its own.
but in the direct line of our
American
own
retrograde,
of
growth ; a promise of science and a consequence
to bygone
liberty.It can be regarded as a return
feet clingtoo closely
own
systems onlyby those whose
to specialtraditions to venture
on
testingwhat lies
As well think it makes
difference
no
beyond them.
with Agassiz in a Pacific
whether
one
goes to China
the sands
across
steamer, or as a Middle Age monk

of Gobi.
old life new.

The

new

wisdom

richer

and

makes

and

finds all the

deeper synthesisbeckons
telegraph and treaty are but symbols.
us, of which
divine recognitions
in that grasp of brothThere
erly
are
will soon
hands which
completethe circuit of the
physicalglobe.
Scholars have not been wanting who bring us hints
of this large communion
from the Scripturesof the
East.
and
Here
there a thoughtfultraveller or a
liberal missionary has noted the brighterfacts, that

INTRODUCTORY.

32
tell for human

enduringfaith

and
from

Even

said, have

Catholic

the
come

person,

has failed of its due

wise

no

distant

already

been

the

to

confined

At

fields.

to

perverted
idea
one

the strongest evidence

effect thus far, because

of society had

interests

have

we

claims,

own

religion. But

or

race,

in

has

as

willingtributes,however

support of its

revelation

that

social permanence

of these strange civilizations.

Church,

many

the

to

explain the

and

nature,

not

the practical

compelled

attention

last their

immensity, as
well as actuality,
fact of common
becomes
a
ence
experithe ethics of Confucius
and the pietyof the
; and
Vedas
before the mind
to stand as real and positive
are
the mercantile
and political
of Christendom
ests
interas
that give dignityto this opening of the great gates
of the Morning Land.
Oricntc
Lux!"
Ex
Light from the East once
these

to

rhe

Prom-

more

As

it

Mysteries" with

ise.

and

the

to

came

the

Chaldaic

in the

Dorians
Oracles

and
;

to

"

the

Sacred

goreans
Pytha-

Alexandria

Europe in Judaism and


; to the Middle
Ages by the Crusades, in
Christianity
floods of legend and
fable, the imaginativelore that
of the ideal faculty,
and preitselC an education
was
pared
for modern
the way
ture,
libertyand aesthetic culcivilization
to modern
now
so
again it comes
and religious
through literature and commerce
pathy
symbefore, with a mission to help
as
ever
; and,
clear the sightand enlargethe field of belief.
tendom
Chrisin Philo

Plotinus

Greece

and

to

"

will

not

become

Buddhist,

nor

bow

to

cius,
Confu-

; but it will render


worship Brahma
justice
which
to the one
nature
spiritual
spoke in ways as
It will
faiths.
yet unrecognized,in these differing
learn that Religion itself is more
than any positive
nor

33

INTRODUCTORY.

uhder

form

which

it has

appeared, and

rests

broader

on

than
be confined in
can
ever
deeper authority
demands
prescribed ideal* The
religioussentiment

and

freedom

from

its

exclusive

own

it

that

venerations,

validity,and

recognize principlesin their own


may
of
instead
revolving in endless beat

around

some

fixed historic name


some
or
pivotalpersonality,
bol,
symfront directlythe spiritual
laws
and facts which
and
has ever
man
sought to recognize and express,
find them
ample guaranties of growth, and ministers
of good.
These
on
questions
bearings of the present work
in

uppermost

now

ness

consciousreligious
"

the

summed

are

up

to forestall the

in

the

not

outset,

_.

Limits

in

and

Purpose of

thelmiu'ry*

reader's

judgment on the
pendent
field of inquirybefore
to that indehim, but in justice
attitude towards
distinctive religions,
which
is
ity,
alike by science, philosophy, and humandemanded
enforced
by the results of historical study, and
birth of intellectua
recognized by religionitself as a new
While
freedom
and
our
spiritualpower.
criticism must
point out deficiency of this universal
to it, wherever
element, and hostility
they appear, yet
the substantial spirit
and motive of these studies is not
even
polemical nor
theological.As far as they go
whose
in regions of research
immensity the largest
be
scholarship does but open (and of these I would
line),
Understood
the general outbut aspiringto sketch
as
port
imthey would record the ethical and spiritual
order

of

those

India, China,

epoch
results

would

with
as

may

older
and

such
be

emphasize

civilizations,whose
Persia

previous

lightfrom
required for
in them
3

their
their

whatever

scats

to

the

in

were

Christian

later forms

and

appreciation.I
may

encourage

34

INTRODUCTORY.

respect

for

darker

features

human

of

inadequacy

common

of

our

the
aim.

ourselves

would

being,

and

of

Finally,

in

in

to

bring

doors

justice

the
under

to

differing

the

defects;

other's
old

antipodal
light
and

to

races

of
the

forward

as

free

common

of

of

now

and

essential
of

wrould

good

perience
ex-

note

help

may
sum,

endeavor

practically
fair

ual
spirit-

diverse.

civilizations
in

forms,

most

inquiry,

and,

and

whereof

conditions
the

must

step

the

may

under

progress

limits

these

that
them

of

stages

which

each

clear

as

view

so

spontaneities

the

aspirations,

within

diiections

supply

make

and

representative

in

roots

human

and

to

their

to

the
in

institutions,

and

without

not

are

trace

identity

beliefs

faith

of

the

theif

illustrate

ideals,
to

of

none

but

forms

past

religion

Ill-understood

we

do

advancing

commend

more

all

still

and

new

indeed

which

hiding

while

nature,

inquiry
requires.

at

which

our

AND

RELIGION

LIFE.

I.

THE

PRIMITIVE

ARYAS.

THE

nr^HAT

elevated

"*"

from

of

teau

which

Iran,

least

the

hitherto

of

ancestral

abode

and

led

the

structure

function
also

for

"

knots
of

and

Thibet

with

summit

of

answer

be

of

civilization.

real

side

every

the

of

apex

into

look

India,

wide

sands

of

Arabia

and

the

Herder,

creation,

given

to

this

with

the

steppes

clown

into
still open

TktSartk.

and

ward
southfe

Where

enthusiasm,

natural

should

the

man,

Whatever

being?"
question,
we

the

ward
north-

Seas.

"

its

mountain

Asia,

majestic plateau points,


iReclus,

And

westward

Tropic

knowledge,
come

continental

the

over

Central

is

sphere.
hemi-

Mediterranean,

the

towards

radiation

commanding

eastward

of

such

to

earth."1

the

position

Eastern

of

intersection

the

have

Its

the

at

was

which

races

of

scientific

of the

those

ethnic

at

It

family.

of

centre

important

an

of

plains

if not

human

focus

and

demands

in

main

that

else,"

called

Ar"an

Homestead.

pla-

this

ranges,

across

the

appropriate

on

the

over

as

wonderfully

lowlands

Assyrian

Thc

are

the

rise

borders

movement

There,

stands

axes,

the

geographical

the

be

to

extending

Armenian

the

known

entitled

Asia

Central
to

now

homestead

the

sense

Kuh

is

is

in

region

Hindu

the

mountains,

ARYAS.

PRIMITIVE

may

the

bolism
sym-

suggest,

AND

RELIGION

40

LIFE.

torical
hismeaning than that of the mere
higher human
beginning of the race.
The
languages and mythologies of nearly all the
in their widest dispersion,
point
great historic races,

to

back

outlooks

mountain

these

to

Persian, Hebrew,

Mongol,

kneel

Hindu,

Iran.

of

these

towards

able
vener-

fatherland ; a primeval
heights,as their common
Eden, peopled by their earliest legends with gods and
of
The
homes
happy men.
genii, and long-lived,
civilization

ancient

of

shadow

the

around

rose

patriarchaltent

gathered to the dust.


of human
historylies

were

strewn

what

the

over

spaces

amidst

their

and

recesses,

they enclose ; attesting


life have preceded our
own
;
achievement

relics of old

mysterioustongues

they
ries
centufojfjty

drift of

The

vestigesof aspirationand
times

there

and

under

as

which

tides of

and

storms

their bases,

local

hid

in

historic
pre-

in
religions
; inscriptions
whose

names,

mological
ety-

vague

affinities suggest

widely separatedages
oldest

the

from

out

commerce

it

on

age

either side
hint the

that issued

be

from

contemplatinga

the human

race

of the

out

meaning

relations between
startling
and races.
The
highways of
strike across
this plateau, and

and

and

lines of those

of its movement

mystic intimacyof

of

symbol

in

Nature

We

seem

to

unityof
history; born
the

its inmost

with

primevallife of races on
indeed
know
but little. Why
we
primeval? It is but a step or two
Of

primitivemigrations

its colossal gates.

marvellous

of immemorial

tracks

caravan

this

the

can

penetrate towards

any

should
that
form

that would

name.

much

human

reallydeserve that
by knowing the crudest

grander Ararat
call it

we

historyor
of

human

Should

we

ence
scilife

gain

conditions, after

all?

It is said

ARYAS.

PRIMITIVE

THE

that

there

4!

tribes in Thibet

are

descended
glory in believingthemselves
Darwinians
would
probably be content
merely gettingsightof the process, if
But

found.

in Thibet

it,whether

originof
a

as

man,

should

we
or

come

is,

that

in every

apes.1
glory in

from
to

that could

as

be

traces

of

it show

the

upon

elsewhere, would

mind;

involved

mystery

in the

if

even

that

Man

step of mental

This

is

evolution

fact of

and we
cannot
account
thinking,now;
shall
for this evolution by any previous steps. We
of our
personalityby tracking
hardly find the source
it backward
and downward
into nought.
I do not even
whether
here into the question,
enter
the western
the eastern
or
edge of the great plateau
Armenia
Bactria
first peopled ; or whether
or
was
earliest

the

was

oldest

centre

of

radiation.

ethnic

The

Bibles

"belong to the modern


historyof the
What
race."
are
patriarchallegends,what is Balkh,
''mother
of cities,"what
is Ararat
or
Belur-Tagh,
what
Manu,
are
or
Aryas or Shemites, what is Adam
who
to him
explores the pathless,voiceless ages
of prehistoricman?
is no
There
respect of persons
centuries that
or
places in that silence of unnumbered
shrouds the infancyof the soul.
It suffices to say that in 'the dawn
of history we
find the
Hindus
descending from these heights of
"

Central
and

to

the South,2 the

the Chinese

Let
know

Asia

turn

us

the

multitudinous
1

focus of movement,

the West,

of which

we

Highlands, at the
extremity of Iran, nestlingunder the
heightsof the Belur-Tagh and Hindu
"

to

the

Bactrian

KJaproth,Aita. Polyghtta.
proofsand authorities in Muir's Sanskrit

See

to

the East.

to that

most,

north-eastern

"

to

Iranians

Texts, ii 306-392.

AND

RELIGION

42

LIFE.

penetratedfarthest into these


mountain
ranges report that the silent abyssesof the
midnight sky with its intenselyburning stars, and
their white masses
the colossal peaks lifting
beyond
of
storms,
impress the imaginationwith such a sense
Kuh.

fathomless

earth

summits

their

of forest which

belts

explore. From
peaks, each over

ridge of
for

horizon

of Snow,

twenty

f^et in

and

look
over-

man,

ventured

not

saw

silver stretched

hundred

one

has

he

twenty thousand
frosted

is loftier

system in the world

point Hooker

one

other

no

altitude of

mighty faces, unapproachable by

vast

white

Home

Himala}'a,the

as

repose
The
mean

that of any other mountain

than

and

suggest.

can

of

eternal

and

mystery

region on
these

have

who

They

to

snow

height,whose
the whole

over

Here

sixty degrees.

splendors and

are

in

nature

penetrabl
glooms, unutterable powers, imreserves,
correspondent to that spiritual
earlier education
whose
sential
they bore an es-

part.
Here

mythologicalMount

"centre

"

of

is the

the

of the

Universe."

celestial mountain

perhaps i$
says

the

saints."

the

arc

river

and
Eden

of

Mahabharata,
Here

throughoutAsia

is the
the

as

Borj

is all

dome

holy,

of

and

deluge waters, comes


when
they subside
land.1

Here

the

to shore

descends
Greeks

Kashmir,"

inhabited

Pamer,

of the world."

go to the North," say the Brahmanas,


Here
Noah, led
Manu, the Hindu
the

"

saw

the

Here

Persians.

Semites.

plateau
"

Arvand,

and

of the

the
"

seed-vessel

worlds, and

seven

Here

of the Hindus,

Meru

by

regarded
w

Men

speech."
by a fish through
on
a mountain-top,
ern
to peoplethe South"to learn

an

ideal

climate,

allowing every varietyof product,wondrously fecund


*

Satapatha Brilhmana.

PRIMITIVE

THE

in

plants,animals,

and

and

men;

by mysterious tribes

and

4^

guarded

sion
intru-

from

hall-human

creatures,

the hidden
of
treasures
over
powers
It was
the great unwritten Bible of Asia,

marvellous

with

the earth.1
free

the

tradition

the

of culture,
starting-point

the

Zoroastrian

fire.

fountains, the

Here

immemorial

quarter of the

every

that

lake

originof

on

"

Mother

resort

East.

the summit

of the

system

of which

this

Buddhists
is the

Himalaya
And

all the rivers of the world.

the mountain

of Cities,"

Chinese

The

was

birthplaceof the
lakes and mystic
of pilgrims from

the

sacred

are

Here

faith.

imaginationand

field of

Balkh, in Oriental

say

ARYAS.

in fact,from

regionis the

centre,

the
great rivers of Asia descend on every side,
pootra,
Oxus, the Yaxartes, the Yang-tze-kiang,the Brahma-

the

"

the Indus, and


but

recognize an
of

scope
broad

human

Ganges. Again we cannot


impressivesymbol of the wealth and
the

and

nature;

not

less of its love

of

divergenceinto specialforms, made kindred by


ever
far-reachingsuppliesof one inspiration,
flowing
from central springs.
It is in a spot so rich in spiritual
suggestionthat we
are

seek

to

our

earliest data

Historyof Religion. What


of human

nature

of the

"

that

Asia ?

the

various

races

the

Natural

The

epoch

when

dwelt

wit-

ness-

resources

It is only of the

comprising the
and

were

remote

modern
principal

of Central

family

at

for the

the

tors
ances-

these

highlands
Indo-European
on

historical Hindus,

the

sians,
Per-

ra|||of Europe, excepting

that we
Jews, Turks, Basques, Fi"!^!^ Magyars
'of this prerender a positiveangHRr jlad even
can
eminent
familyof nations W" cannot speak from data
afforded by the ordinaryforms of testimony. For we
"

Curtius,Strabo,Ptolemy.

RELIGION

44
have
to the

here

with

to do

AND

LIFE.

periodfar antecedent, not only

oldest Bibles of mankind,

but

to

even

the

very

edge.
thing as the transmission of knowlBut in these prehistoric
the
deeps, where even
half-blind guides of mythology and tradition fail,we
of scientific certainty.It seems
greet a fresh source
if the infancyof man
became
but a starless night,
as
aid we
in respect of all those dubious guidesby whose
penetrate the past, in order that the pure testimonyof
his divine
it,might make
language, alone illuminating
For language is,as the oldest
originunmistakable.
faith and the latest science unite to declare it,an inspiration.
It is no arbitrary
invention,like the steam
engine
imitation of natural sounds ;
the cotton
or
gin ; no mere
but the natural result of a perfectcorrespondencebetween
notion

of such

the
which

must

from

outward
have
no

organ

material

and

the

inward

expression
.

processes,

Its testimony
ceeds
pro-

interested witnesses, from

no

treacherous

from no play of imagination,but from


the
prejudices,
Men
do not invent names
certainties of organiclaw.
for things of which
they have no idea. A people
its historyinto its language,
and
puts its character
without hypocrisyand without reserve.
It is a spontaneous
The
creation.
"Word"
has always been
cognized
rethe fittest symbol of truth, as the purest
as
of deity.
manifestation
This unimpeachable witness it is,that testifiesof man
other is possible. And
in an antiquity
where
the
no
most
is thus la
primitivefact we know of his nature
certain unconscious
honesty^that discloses his inner
lif?vithout disguise.
It is by the testimonyof Language that the nations
called Aryan or, more
are
properly,Indo-European,

brought into
origin.1And
of the

of these

referred to

step has

the next
of words

mass

and

singleclass

nations

been,

roots

or

45

ARYAS.

PRIMITIVE

THE

common

out

recover

to

common

much

as

to

the

guages
lan-

possibleof

as

the

primitivelanguage spoken by the parent race in its


into many
previousto dispersion
prehistoric
antiquity
best philological
branches.2
The
scholarshipof the
employed

been

has

age

look

fairlybe said that we are able alreadyto


and condition of
the character
in upon
directly

may

hitherto unknown
of the

Greek

No

Teuton.
brilliant

or

of the Hindu

ancestors

and

the

more

Roman,

the

Celt and

It is the

marvellous.

comparativePhilologyas subtile
Astronomy. It has evoked from

these

the Persian,

and

science

of modern

achievement

It

this reconstruction.

upon

is

the
more

result of

the calculations

as

human

of

data hitherto

of a lost language and a


the substance
unintelligible
have appliedthe strange
race, as astronomers
forgotten
of the solar system to effect the discovery
perturbations
of hidden
planets. It is not over-confident to claim
certaintyfor the general result here stated.
positive
its
Enough is already achieved in this field to justify
in claimingfor it the name
skilful explorers
of
most
Palaeontology.3
Linguistic

See

the
especially

"

We

do

have

not

succeeded

Europeans,

out

mean

in

researches of Burnouf

and

Bopp.

that Pictet,Eichhoff,Schleicher,
Kuhn, Fick,and other

of the radicals afforded by this comparison

of tongues.

into view
thoughof very unequal value,have resulted in bringing
Of the ideasand objects
which that languagewas used to designate.
*

Pictet, Qriginn Indo-Rurvpfanes,

Etntett. cxi.-cxv. ; A. Kuhn


A vestti,
l|i,
"en's Jndifchf

Alterthumskunde*

Duncker,Gesch. d. Alterthums^ III


IA Race
Svukrit

scholars,

the language actuallyspoken by the originalIndoreconstructing

or

Aryas

in Weber's

1. 527;
9 ;

Les

Primitifs,

hidtsitu

Mdller, Science

Hut their
a

searches,
re-

largenumber

See also Spiegel's

btudien, \. 321-363; Lasof Languages)

Schoebel, Rcchett/tessurla

Indo-Europ. (Paris,1868); Whitney, Study of Language


Ttxto, II.; Fick, WVrttrbuch d. Indog Spracht.

234*236;

Religto*Prem*

d*

(Lect.V.); MUT,

RELIGION

The

common

their

the

by
self-respect

people is

The

to

pean
of Euro-

magnificentrecord
for

firstfixed datum
their

name.

appears

from

these

They occupied

the soil.

val
prime-

our

that the

researches

of Bactriana

which

travellers.9

modern
and

make

to

Their

have

geographers, and

the Greek

It

were

Their

cereal.

commonest

Names

for

race,

trade, for the


all taken

us

confirmed

are

enough

to

scription
de-

to stir the

number

Barley, the grain of

doors.

which

cold

was

down

come

its

their years by winters.


and
roofed, and had windows

them

houses

region,richly

highly metalliferous ;
correspondingwith the

fauna

climate, flora,and

diversified

tilled

and

wooded,

and

watered

of

justify

lived in fixed habitations,kept herds, and

Aryas

blood

Iranian

after thousands

now,

therefore

It further

by

and

scientific nomenclature,

in

returns,

civilization.

from

the Indian

honor,1 which

titleof

years,

which

by

name

LIFE.

("rPersian)branches of this great familydeswas


Aryas (inZend, Airignated themselves

yas) ;

AND

cool climates,

wealth

was

their

in their cattle*

was

tribe, family relations,property and

inn, the
from

guest, the master,

words

the

king,

which

designatedthe herd.
the
They called'dawn
mustering time of the cows ; f"
evening, the hour of bringing them home."
They
domesticated
the sheep, the goat, the
the cow,
had
the
slow walker ;
was
horse, and the dog. The cow
"
the dog was
the ox,
the vigorousone
;
speed ; the
wolf, "the destroyer/'They used yokes and axles
and
probably ploughs; wrought in various metaUk,}
were

"e

"

spun

and

wove

terracotta, and

; had

vessels

*metal

Compare Greek

"

Pictet,I. 35-4*.

and

made
musical

"p?r%,
valor,rod

German

of

"

wood, leather*
instruments

ekrt,honor.

of

THE

shells and

reeds.

counted

They

47

beyond

in oared

navigated rivers

They

ARYAS.

PRIMITIVE

boats; fought with

bows, clubs, bucklers, lances, and


and

chariots

other

They besiegedeach
and

know

we

Domestic
and

their enemies

reduced

of which

There

absolutism

Father
and

was

"

of

in battle

swords,
and

trumpets

in towns

to

kind

some

employed spies,
of

servitude,

extent.

sentiments

on

of affection

no

"

brother,

the

supporter

"

and

careful," or "the consoling,


pleasingone."
of

conchs.

signsof polygamy!!Patri*
tempered by natural instincts.
protector;"mother, "the former
are

"the

meant

disposer;

"the

the

not

relations rested

respect.

archal

sound

the

to

hundred.

The

of

forms

have
relationship
with
transmitted
been
slightchange through most
of the Indo-European race
branches
to the preseven
ent
day. And thus the closest domestic ties not only
became, as common
speech, the symbols of an ethnic
brotherhood, which time and space are bound to guard
sealed also to immortal
and expand, but were
ings
meannature
for the moral
by the oldest testimonyof

primitivenames

And

mankind.
words

of the

in other
The

these

sister,

affirmations

the

were
Spirit,

not

of

less

conscience, the

clearlypronounced,

directions.1

Kuhn,

had

in Weber's

"*aay*for 1856; Weber,


336; Pictet,II. 746.

Ind.

clear

conceptionsof

rightsof
property and definite guarantees for their protection.
These
based
on
ownership of the
guarantees were
the family altar stood, concentratingthe
soil where
sentiment of piety. We
at how
see
early a period
men
recognized the natural dependence of those
Necessary conditions of social order, the family and
Aryas

Studitn, I. 321-363

Lecture

OH

the

Lassen, I. 813

/""""( Berlin,1854); MUHer, Siittt

Mailer, Oxford

48

RELIGION

home,

the

and

fixed

on

Communistic

land.

LIFE.

.AND

schemes

of

ownership

permanent
have

yet

never

ceeded,
suc-

the
Indo-Europeans, in overcoming
among
which
this instinctive wisdom,
loyallymaintains the

Family, the Home, and private Property in


as
mutually dependent factors of civilization.
we

infer

may

Hindus,
stones,

the

from

sacredness

Romans

Greeks, and

family thus marking off


neighbors, that this reverence

its

also

trait of the older

vacant

for

the

by

spaces,

from

property limits

of which

race

by

its real estate

"

was

they were

branches.1

the

The

order

of

change
ex-

of wages,
and for the
All the essential elements
of

of oaths.

designatedby

of historic

cradle

which

word

in this

evidentlypresent

were

civilization,the

justicewas

for transactions

sale, for payment

administration
social

formalities

had

Aryas
and

of

by

or

each

"

And

bounds, whether

to

by ploughed trenches,

or

attached

Land

associated

of directness

and

primitive
Law

races.

was

right. The notion


with the straight
line, suggestive
impartiality.Transgression
meant

fallingoff,and oath constraint?


Their
psychological insightsurprises us.
They
to havs
seem
distinguishedclearlythe principleof
existence.
Soul was
not merely vital breath,
spiritual
but
thinking being. Thought was
recognized as
meant

the

essential

characteristic

designatingboth.
been

called

"the

For

of

the

man,

four thousand

thinker.*'

For

years m"n
consciousness,

the Aryas had


words
memory,
to material symbols. They even

that

it is believed, between

existence

1
*

concrete

word

same

not

are

made

See I)e Coulanges,La


Cite Antique, B. i.
Les Arjfuf Frimiti/S)II. 237, 427,
Pictet,

ch.
4351

has

will,

traceable

distinction,

and

v.

456.

abstract

being;1

the

made

Aryan

processes.

and

evil;a

in

signs of

They

believed

abounded

language

their

fathers

the

race

vigor which has


of philosophy. Their
tive
imaginativeand intuiin spirits,good and

science

medical

the latter kind

49

intellectual

of that

germ

ARYAS.

PRIMITIVE

THE

by

consisted

of herbs

means

in

and

cising
exor-

magical

formulas.
There
of

nor

are

signs

no

edifices

an

consecrated

established
to

to

as

sincere

prove

priesthood,
But

deities.

faith, sacrifice, and

relating to
abundant

of

adoration,
and

fervent

terms
are

so

religious

similarityof meaning in numerous


words
to
descriptiveof divine forces has seemed
point
less vaguely defined.
to a
or
more
primitive monotheism,
r3
Yet
the Aryas had
probably developed a
rich mythology before
their separation into different
branches.4
They had also firm belief in immortality
who
should
and in a happy heaven
deserve
for those
it,6beholding the soul pass forth at death as a shape
watchful
of air, under
guardians,to its upper home.
of linguistic
Some
of these inferences
palaeontology
scientific
to
require further evidence
give them
may
certainty. But there are other features in the picture
of no
admit
of Aryan
dispute.
religiouslife which
the clear
The
word
Div" designating at once
light
whatsoever
of the sky, and
spiritualmeanings these
therewith, has
simple instincts intimately associated
the root-word
endured
as
of worship for the whole
of
the
appellatives
Aryati race : in all its branches
of this primal sound, flowing through
Deity are waves
The

sentiment.

"

Pictet, II. 539-54"I

Developed

afterwards

evil spirit^ of the A


*

vesta.

Ibid.,730, 690.

749-

in the Y"us

and

Raltshasas

of the

Veda,

and

in correspondent

Pictet, I. 633.
"

Ibid.,689.

'

Ibid.,748.

RELIGION

5"3
all its manifold

and
of

transcendence

LIFE.

AND

with
changing religions

an

the

serene

eternal law.

Again, it has been shown1 that the whole substance


of Greek
quisite
mythology is but the development,with expoeticfeeling,of a primitiveAryan stock of
and legends,recognizablethrough comparison
names
of the Hindu
with the Hymns
Rig Veda, where they
In these early
found, in simplerand ruder forms.
are
yet secondarystages of their development,they represent
the dailymystery of solar movement,
the swift
of dawn
and twilight,
the conflict of day with
passage
ing
night,of sunshine with cloud, of drought with fertilizrain, the stealthy
path of the breeze, the risingof
the storm
wind, the wonder-working of the elements,
at night only to return
the loss of all visible forms
with fresh splendorsin the morning. This old Aryan
religionof intimacy with the powers of air and sky
in fact been
has
And
-.
aptly called a mcteorolatry
recent
scholarshiphas appliedmuch ingenuityas well
in bringing all Vedic
and legends
names
as
insight,
title of "solar myths,"using the word
the one
under
in the wide
And
descriptivesense
just indicated.
doubt that they all are
there
be no
less
or
can
more
related to natural phenomena, though prointimately
ceeding
primarily,it is none the less true, from moral
and
spiritualexperiences in their makers, as all
do.
But what
have
now
to
we
mythology must
of this mythologic lore,
is that the amount
observe
inherited by both the Asiatic and European branches
of the Aryan race, warrants
our
ascribing
very great
productive capacity,both aesthetic and religious,
i
a

by the
Especially

populai summary

lantic

recent

of these.

Monthly for 1871.

researches of Milller.
Also the valuable

See Cox's Manual

articlesof Mr. John

of Mythology for
Fjske,in the At*

PRIMITIVE

THE

their

to

and

And, again,names
Veda

and

tribes of

as

symbol

Avesta,

alike in the
indicate

that

art, science, and

our

faith,

mountain-plant,and used its


life renewed
through sacrifice ; l

venerated

have

sap

mountain

traditions,found

Iranian

the

fathers of

these unknown
must

the

ancestors,

common

5!

Asia.

Central

Indian

ARYAS.

of

deliverer, who, after


they believed in a human
from destruction, had reorganized their
saving men
revivingforces for social growth;2 in a human-divine
guardian of the world beyond this life ;8 and in a true
slew the serpent of physical and
Aryan hero who
And
learn how
evil.4
moral
so
we
early and how
of his proper
man's propheticsense
cordial was
unity
that

business

main

the

of the Universe,

the Order

with

make
I

all

religionand

our

another

add

gave

milk, and

were

apt

them

was

it must

whom

Finally,we
The

burdens, and

bore

deserved

man,

religiousduty,
and

redounds

that of their
have

may

the

alike from

Varna. (Ind )and Vokumano

functions

between

of the Iranian and

Vivaswat

common

not

to

four

they
of

treatment

J;oboth
their

own

the

honor

from
progenitors,

common

descended.6
infer

from

the

testimonyof
haoma

perhaps a different

was

functions

the

as

mythical beings,

See Lassen, I. 517


pointsout the curious transference of

(Zend, Vtvwghvat).
(Iran,). Schoebel

just mentioned,
Indian branches of the family.

the

kind

is

Soma

descend

ways

better lot than

that

in other

were

The
(Zend, fautma),or Asclcpiasacida^
plant,yet must have nearlyresembled it.
*
Ki"M4(Iran ) and Ma*u
(Ind.). They have common

"

to

equal significance.The
animals, which
patientdomestic

receive, and

to

Aryan races,
only, but to

science

fact of

those

that

indispensableto

and

it is

good.

thought

of

ideal which

the

personages

in consequence

Tftta, (Ind ) and Thrtuton*


(Iran.)Roth, in Zeiisckr. d Deutsck. Morg. Gtsethch., XXV.

7.

of the

separation

RELIGION

52
related

two

in all the

that

bibles

and

forms

LIFE.

AND

the

of Fire

functions

God

found

Aryas

oldest

that

they had

Deity in
of trust; and that they were
purity and simplicity
that help to explain a certain
with qualities
endowed
of falsehood,
and abhorrence
emphasis on sincerity
equally characteristic of the precepts of these old
and of the reputationof the early
ethnic scriptures,
great faith in prayer,

Persians

as

Hindus

and

intercourse

Western

the

among

with

of

races

antiquity.
The
the

as

Fire, kept kindled

sacred

of

centre

consecratingall
found
Its

be

to

flame

altar,

and
rite, and as
religioussentiment
social, civil,and political
relations,is

all

heritageof

common

ascended

from

by the///w,

watched

the domestic

on

or

Aryan

household

every

fathers, alive and

races.

hearth,
dead, of

have
scholars
primitivecivilization. Modern
traced its profound influence, as type and sacrament
of the Family, in shaping the whole
religiousand
municipal life of ancient Greece and Italy.1
Not
to designate
now
use
only are the words we
domestic
relations and religious
beliefs explainedby
the radicals of this primitive
Aryan tongue, but even
for dwellings,rivers, mountains, and
terms"
tions,2
naour
in like manner
associated with these patriare
archal

this

tribes.

So

The

men.
prehistoric

of the

ancient

become

its

most

And

here

is

See

in which

recent

this

Aryas

are

we

largestpart
has

been

home

at

of

the

among

knowledge
guage
through Lana
people have

our

reached

The

alone.

much

fleetingwords of
enduring record !
the tribute the philologist
ends by

remarkable

work

by Fustel de Contangos,La

specialsubjectis pi evented

for the

bearings,and with great cleat ness and force.


*
See Eichhofl,Grammmre
Indo-Evr0p"em%

first time,

so

248, 252.

Cite
far

us

ac-

Antique (Paris,1870)1
I

am

aware*

fttall its

THE

cording
is

them

in

mildness;

faculty ;
of

sense

I add

the

much

language

categories

the
shall

liberty and

and

Thibet,

with

true

religious

the

shall

constant

find

faculties
can

progress

enable
forms

grammatical

primeval

foundations

patriarchs
of

what

we

of

Pictet, II. 75$.

Dt

VQrigine

du

lies

to

are

Lattgafe, p.

of

origin

intellectual
the

forget

ment
move-

that
with

dispense

Imaus,
and

aja.

of

uttered

first

spontaneously
the

is

that

concealed.

the

guide

be/'2

"

planet,

much

those

never

us

the

the

in presence

which
us

of

were

where

Let

"When

so

on

sounds

first formed

were

where

ourselves

and

mysterious depths

thrown

those

employ,

Renan

probably

be

must

where

our

of

science

to

we

still

we

to

Little

when

of

be

light

localities

the

consciousness

the

the

value

by

with

explore

have

will

duty

immense

verbal

beauty

elevated

master

of

amount

and

become

and

of

of

shall

Bokhara

which

of

love

the

sided
pre-

reasoning

strong

words

of

How

and

morality

was

and

tempered

was

energy

It

organization.

impressive

race

its first

social

race

progress." *

of

Aryan

language,

give them,

to

value,

personal

desire

their

impressions

to

sound

united

"

faculties.

their

which

Aryan

the

lively imagination,

right ;

instincts,

of

of

spiritopen

of

formation

opening

53

distinguishes the

disposition,in

happy

ARYAS.

balance

the

the

at

the

What

harmonious

the

revealed

of

PRIMITIVE

of

no

the

chosen

who
what

laid
we

II.

THE

HINDU

MIND.

GREAT

A
"*^-

civilization

Like

great

is

the

it is

not

"

of

mystery

personality.

does

past

'

for,

collective

whom

men,

fc"

account

MIND.

HINDU

THE

and

genius

IJStoty'

We
have

external

such
The

"

word

like

and,
of

widely

race,'*

differing

te

"

that

"

as

Thus

and

on

their

fusion.

of

their

origin,

first appearance

such

of

unity

growth

However
it is
in

only,

but

or

we

certain

history,

in
w

them.

"

origin

and

Aryan"

to

"

and

equal

an

would

or

distinct

Teutonic

differ

which

relation

wholly

as

constitute

Polynesian.

conceived,
of

of

term

unities

again

sense

the

kinds

terms

by

by

limitations

the

prove

the
of

class

modified

quite indefinitely,

to

applied

African,

whatever

to

that

determinative

inexplicable

breadth

by

kind

that

American,
in

but

these

and

from

But,

marks

designated

Hebrew

races

in

not

meaning.

Semitic

extent

is

influences

is used

serves

development.

constantly

yet

are

It

its

note

we

while

moreover,

species,"

substantial

from

forces,

science.

our

these

which,

race,

of

historical

and

Behind

it.

educated

qualities of

climatic

trace

can

conditions

the

report

can

of

d**"

spiritual gravitation.
We

the

at

aces

is

civilization
may

their

we

mentary
frag-

dependent

the

decide

that, when
it is

are

races

question

mark

their

incompleteness

58

AND

RELIGION

that

This

impressesus.

most

LIFE.

embryologicalphase,

just apparent germs of those


entiate
differforces which subsequentstages of growth must
is thus enand develop. Yet, while each race
dowed
with all properlyhuman
elements, it manifests
of all proportion to the rest.
of them
out
some
one
The
however, is both present vigor
very exaggeration,
it is true, combines

and
at

prospect of reaction.

last

them

that is

yet

The

in due
to

of progress

law

energiesof

proportion,in

must

races,

the nobler

and

humanity

come.

Oriental

Special

The

all the diverse

bring out

blend

The

the

without

races

in

mutual

antiquity,
though by
intercourse, did

not

means

no

attain real

matic
Owing to peculiarcircumstances, cliand other, they have
not
yet attained it. They
still isolated columns, awaitingtheir place in that
are
and culture,which
universal templeof religion,
politics,
widest experienceis as yet inadequateto design.
our
from
the physical world
I venture
to borrow
an
which
the general
to indicate
illustration,
serve
may
result of their ethnological
qualities.It is, I need
hardly say, symbolical merely, and not to be taken
either in a materialistic sense,
or
as
definingimpassable
limits ofjace capacity.
Hindu
is subtle, introversive,
mind
The
tive.
contemplaIt spinsits ideals out of itsbrain substance, and
The Chinese
busy
may properlybe called cerebral.
with
plodding, uninspired labor, dealingwith pure
ideas to but little result,yet wonderfullyefficientin

Types.

fusion.

""

the world

of concrete

muscular.

And

facts and

uses

"

the Persian, made

may

be defined

mediating
between
thought and work, apt alike at turning
lation
specuinto practice, and
raising practice to fresh
so
speculation,
leadingout of the ancient form of civilas

for

THE

into the

ization

HINDU

modern,

59

MIND.

plainlyindicates

less

no

type.

nervous

We

observe

therefore

that in the

dawn

of

history,

through its later periodsin the East,


the brain was
dreaming here, while hands were drudging
there; and yet again,elsewhere, the swift nerve,
brain and hand, was
made
to ply between
unduly preponderant
Here
both.
over
are
great disadvantages
for the growth of ethical and
spiritualcapacity,the
of due
standing
natural
bloom
proportion and right underand

more

less

or

not

faculties.

the

between

little encouraging to

So

students

as

us

that it would

be

of universal

its promise,
and
and lovers of its progress
religion,
if these imperfectsocieties should reveal even
germs,
familiar appliancesmight seem
which
competent to
of
forms
expand into noble
thought and desire.

still,if these

Better
have

spontaneouslyarisen

Our

firststudy is of the
of this race,

mind

Aryan portionof
Brain

of

not

absent.

which

in such

found

are

races,

or

the

Hindu.

to

despiteof

in

mean

called

I have

properly of
populationof India,
more

East, isolated from

the

this I do

was

themselves

conditions.

the adverse

By

forms

muscle

the

the
Hindu

The
Mmdg

the
and

nerve.

that either of the latter elements

On

the contrary, many


of the tribes into
and
the
'these Aryan Hindus
divided,
were
"

have shown
tribes generally,
mountain
"""flw-Aryan"
tendencies; while the race, as a
Very decided military
and nowise wanting in industry
whole* is agricultural,
their development of the physical
as
or perseverance,
"

of

resources

the

country

and

the

wonders

of

their

architecture

amply prove.1
Nevertheless, the contemplative
facultyseems
1

See illustrationsin Crawford's A ncitnt

nd Modem

India, ch,

com-

x.

60

RELIGION

petent

to

AND

the control of these

LIFE.

shaping them

and

all other

tendencies,

in the

rather than
long run to speculative
material
most
or
practicalresults* The
impressive
works
of Hindu
genius are modes of celebratingthe
of meditation.
The
Rig Veda
sings of the
power
And
it has been finelysaid that
deep sea of mind."
"Father of gods and men," which the Greeks
the name,
loved
would
well apply to India,
to give to the ocean,
that immeasurable
of dogmas and beliefs.1
sea
latest philosophicaland
The
religious'
systems lay
Brain.
prefiguredin the depths of this Hindu
ProducuvityIt exhausted
forms
of devotional
most
cism
mystiand subtle speculation. In these spheres "it left
its pupilslittleto learn from Zeno
Aristotle,or the
or
of later theology." It created
controversies
of
one
artistic languages, and
of the richest
the most
one
It compiled elaborate Law
literatures,in the world.
"

Codes

in great numbers,

Bibles, gathered immense

prodigious.

of

treasures

ritual, philosophical,devotional.
was

its voluminous

and, besides

Its great

Its

sacred

lore,

poetic productivity

epics,the Ramayana

containing the one


50,000, the
lines,glow with a luxuriance of imagery

Mahabharata,

and

other

200,000

which

-contrasts

with

Iliad

the

stupendous vegetationof India


All that this
Italy or Greece.

^Eneid

or

differs from

as

the

that

of

people have
dreamed
done, in philosophy,mythology, ethics,
or
didactic thought, is here transmuted
in imaginative
or
Hindu
alone has
The
into song.
and experience an
epic. These

rhythmic lore represent


such
expressionin all ages
of

B(il"a"chti
quoted

p. 113.

Laprade'sSentiment

colossal

his whole

made
two

great accretions

constant

of
tit la

Hindu
Katvrt

life

necessityfor
history. In
avattt

It

THE

substance

their main
fifth

or

referred

their relations
this

at

each

it could
From

kingdoms

largo

as

with

build

each

brilliant

then

all of which

disappear,like

has

been

cirrus

little

and

then

last

the

Mahnilta,

for Hindu

movement

streamers

now

The

neighborson every
dynasty, like the

later times

would

united
Disunity.

and

his

master

some

up

other

Maurya or the Gupta, or in


and perhaps organize a wide
:

worked

one

of distinct tribes.

multitude

warred

side, and

hurope,

as

greater chief would

some

been

penin-

vast

among

have

organize itself into


this
In'iHnninur
rt

the

one-third

divided

Many of their legends


earlier period. And, while
not very clearly
settled,
are

the race.1

never

...

sum,

the fourth

as

Vedic

imaginationof

far

myths from age to age, in the


experiences, all taken up, as they
Such
the creative
epic.il
transfiguration.

into this

nation.

as

that in both

"

very ancient
interest of fresh

Yet

other

least is certain,

over

came,

back

era.

much

to a

to

our

6l

MIND.

they go

century before

be

may

HINDU

dependenc
in-

littlewfKtc,and

in the blue

deeps

of the Indian

sky, or fleeting
thoughtsin the heaven of
Hindu
It was
dreams.
the mutual
strife
v and
jealous
of the Hindu
kings, not the lack of militaryspirit
of military
that made
this great people
nor
resources,
from the eleventh
to
a prey to the invading Moslem
A glut of food
the fourteenth centuries of our
era.
in one
English province of India has often occurred
time with a famine in an
at the same
adjoiningone ;
yet the intercourse

the abundance

to make

The

Fauche.

between

R"tntiyana
Monier

been

course

found translated

in

of the

one

has been

supply the

translated into Italian by Gorresio, and

has given

insufficient

careful abstract of it,as

lack

into French

afco of the

of

by

MnfhtblrfraU,

Indian
on
Epic Poetry^and a ntrw Kn"li*h rhymed version
will be
in both }"oem"
publication.Many of the finestepifeAdets
Orientalised
/Vr""*.
Jolowicz's

httle volume

in his admirable

by Griffithiftin

has

Williams

them

of

62

RELIGION

AND

LIFE.

this very day, it is


distinct nations in India, each

the other.1

There

twenty-one

at

are

estimated,*
of

which

a
language in many
respects peculiarto
possesses
itself. "Villageslie side by side for a thousand
years,

without

in the
between

in the north

Hindustani

tongues."

intermixture

considerable

any

of these distinct
of India

and

mil
Ta-

south, represent, generally,the difference

the

of

great classes

two

languages derived
the indigenous,perhaps

from the Aryan and


respectively
ever
Negrito, perhaps Turanic, tribes. But, howwidely diffused, these two types but feeblyexpress
render
the writingsof
the diversities of speech which
Hindustani
schools in Bombay unintelligible
to races
in the

educated

an

from

one

other

India, and

native of that

Bengal

tongue.

The

of

north-west

had

tlon'

for the wise

of

wants

English

than

for
with

in any

supplied,and

well-organized
governments,
writers,

earliest reliable

our

owe

and

the interests of trade


the

easy

hold intercourse

byJ the Greek

lauded

much
Political

we

in

it more

!j

earlier Hindus

orgam/a-

cityto

Madras

or

make

and

strangers,
the defence

notices of

thoughtfulmanner
were
agriculture
of

as

the

to

sick

of the state

whom

India,

in which

protected,
and needy,

secured.4

The

regulationsfor freightsand
and organizamarkets, and justrules for partnerships
tions
atid
in trade, for testingweights, measures,
and punishing dishonest
dealing/ And the
money,
throughout
organizationof the villagecommunities
contain

law-books

Westminster
Mack

ay '"

Pen yon

fttvitw, July, 1859,

Reports

the

minute

on

li'islern Indin^ p. 09.

Distribution of the Language* of India,Joxma!

(Bombay branch), for January, 1853


See eHpecially
M"ga*thene*, in Strabo,De
See Ussen,

in Zttchr.

"

M.

Sit*

G. (1862).

0r"r, B.

XV.

tf Roy. Asiatic See*

THE

HINDU

63

MIND.

India, from very earlytimes, was

Northern

elaborate

an

how
self-government,that showed
could
of personal and social freedom
large an amount
of
under the depressingshadow
be maintained, even
science never
led
But these steps in political
caste.
form
to
onwards
to
nor
unity and nationality,
any
of constructive
mon
policyon a large scale, or for a com-

of

system

local

end.
India

has

and
the

foreigntrade.
Roman
Empire, it

cial centre

earlier

much

at

from

Phoenicia

In

the

was

record

oldest codes

great

of

period

in the West

very

to

for its domestic

early days

for the merchants

was

famous

been

all times

at

of

K0roiffn
R^tio"s-

commer-

Italyand Egypt,
for all Asiatic

China

system

it

races,

in the East.

advanced

as

of

The
mercial
com-

the Hindu
tribes, regulated
exchanges among
by wise and just provisions; and a high respect for
trade is shown
by the permission granted the Brahof caste, to earn
in violation
their support by
mans,
assuming the functions of the Vai^ya,or mercantile
than
class.1 In more
of
one
epoch, the resources

India, natural
have

and

industrial

the wealth

made

as

well

as

intellectual,

of great

empires.2 Its delicate


colors and dyes, its porcelains,
tissues,its marvellous
in metals
and
its work
precious stones, its dainty
and perfumes,have not only been the wonder
essences
and delightof Europe, but in no slightdegree helped
in the revival of
shown

art.

But, after all, the Hindus

littlepractical
and
enterprise,

there

was

have
certain

in their best performance; even


in that
passivequality
fine manipulation that wove
fabrics, and
gossamer
wrought the preciousmetals with such eminent sueu"

X* 83 ; Y"Jnavalkya, III. ; Lassen, I*d. Alt., II. 571-576.

See Craufurd,Ancient

And Modtr*

India, ch. xiu.

64

AND

RELIGION

LIFE*

they could have taken


little pains to export these products,since the sailor
held in slight
was
respect by their laws; that most of
carried in foreignbottoms ; and that
their trade was
first introduced
the Mohammedans
coinage among
them, their only previous currency being shells.1 We
in their dramatic
of wealthy merchants
indeed
read
and

works,

found

are

believed

It has been

cess.

of their mercantile

traces

far

the

to

that

and

east

west

establishments

of India.

Yet,

on

it is

probable that other nations had to


to them.
come
They have always been mainly an
people, the whole population averaging
agricultural
hundred
mile.
Their
to the square
only about one
the

whole,

scholars

did

travel.

not

Only

great religiousand

like Buddhism,
Hindu
could rouse
inspiration,
thought to seek geographical expansion. Only here
moral

and

there

find

we

of

traces

embassies

; and

these,

of China,
political
objects,to the courts
and
Rome,
Egypt. Yet the intellectual life of India
was
profoundly felt throughout the ancient worlcf*
to sit at the feet of
went
Greece, Persia, Egypt even,

mainly

these

for

dreamers

serene

banyan
;

shades, from
and

there

to achieve

the

on

time

the

they

Indus

marvelled

ideal

virtue.

and

of Alexander

wards
down-

the power
of philosophy
And what treasures

at

European fable, legend,and mythic drama


of our
indebtedness
to the extent
to
testify
the sphere of imagination and
fancy, down
magic mirror, the golden egg, the purse of
!
tus, the cap of invisibility

further

of

The
Sciences,

Hindus
flash out
"
"

reasoned
of the

Journal Roy

As.

of

war

the

under

itself

as

India
to

in
the

Fortuna-

if it

were

brain, a piece of metaphysics.1


See. of

1867).
Bengal (Philolog.,

HINDU

THE

They

loved to press

beyond

65

MIND.

successions

material

ditions
con-

or

generalforms and essential processes ; pursuing


those studies that afford the
with specialsuccess
the
largestfield for abstraction and contemplation,
of the stars, the laws of numbers,
orderly movement
the structure
of thought.
of language, the processes
much
They made
progress in analyticarithmetic, and
and
not only applied algebra to astronomy
geometry,
but geometry
of algebraicrules.1
to the demonstration
invented
numerical
have
to
signs and
The}r seem
the decimal
itself being of Sanskrit
system ; the zero
descent, and the old Hindu
figuresbeing still clearly
in those
of the later Arabic
traceable
digits. The
to

"

of

introduction

numerical

these

signs

in

place of

used
before
by all other
alphabetic characters
nations of antiquity a change ascribed
by old writers
to the
Pythagoreans, those Orientalists of the Greek
world, but probably an importationfrom India through
of Bagdad
the finest ideal impulse
the Arabians
was
ever
given to arithmetical studies. The decimal
culus
developed in India as a speculative calsystem was
so
were
earnestly,that special names
given to
in an
reach.
ascending scale of enormous
power
every
of ten was
The
taken
as
a unit, and
fifty-third
power
the

"

"

on

this

base

new

reached

figure was
four hundred

"

as

limits

and

the

of the

world

numbers

And

these

the

zeros.

solution

of

as

fixed

Colebiooke,Hindu
Woepcke., Mem.

Algebra* Tntrwl

surks

pp

Chijfres ludiens,

in

dimension
the

The

less

ments
ele-

the
"

for

Arabians

xiv.,xv
in

by

problems,

containable

atoms

taken

of ideal

representingmathematical
realitynone
being so utterlypast conception."

till a

rose

followed

twenty-one

number

of

scale

consistingof unity

applied to

were

such

another

Journal A iiatique(1863).

66

AND

RELIGION

called

Indian

the

LIFE.

arithmetic

the

"

sandgrain

lus."
calcu-

had
ago at least, the Hindus
based
of arithmetical
mnemonics,

Eighteen centuries
elaborate

systems

numerical

on

"

reached

They
"

Weber,
close of
known
created

letters of the

to

bet.1
alpha-

science," says
stage of algebraic
in

Europe tillthe
had been
the last century ; and, if their writings
a
certainlyhave
century earlier,they would
a
new
epoch."2 Aryabhatta, their greatest
which

astronomer

and

determined

very

of

to

attached

values

circle

was

not

arrived

mathematician,

the

at

in the fourth century

relation

closelythe

circumference, and

of the

of the

diameter

appliedit to

the

earth.3

They invented methods


ali"o for solvingequationsof a high degree.
In the time of Alexander
they had geographical
charts ; and
skilful enough to
their physicianswere
win
of the Greeks.
the admiration
Their investigations
have
in medicine
been
of respectable amount
thers
and value, lendingmuch
aid to the Arabians, the faof European medical
in the
science, especially
of minerals
and
study of the qualities
plants.4 In
much
of their astronomy
the Arabians
they anticipated
the
; their old Siddhantas, or systematictreatises on
ity
a
indicating
long period of previousfamiliarsubject,
in such honor did
with scientific problems. And
they hold this science that they ascribed its originto
Brahma.
bers,
They made Sarasvati,their goddess of numthe parent of nearly a hundred
children, who
musical
celestial cycles,6
modes
and
at
once
were
to the great constellations, and
They gave names
of heavenly bodies three thousand
noted
the motions
measurement

Lnssen, II. 1140.

Lecture

Lassen, II. 1138-1146.

on

India.

Weber,

Creuzer, Rtlig*de PAnti?., p. 261.

HINDU

THE

The
Greeks
appear
years ago.
aid from their observations
of
have

been

in

Lassen

mentions

the

the

as

and

The

sufficient

last

of thirteen

its inherent

supposed

to

series is

why

reside

stands

Siddhanta

unsupported

rejectedfor good

in

power,

annals.

astron"

the tortoise, is

reasons

of the

term

to

as

foundations, such

absurdityof

the

well

of successive

myth

elephant under

much

their teachers.

matters

declares that the earth is round, and


in space.

derived

as
eclipses,

names

their

distinguishedin

omers

have

to

astronomical

some

6^

MIND.

in

of these

one

supposed

same

as

"If

remain

to

the

not

may
the

series.

endless

an

works,

firm
power

volving
inthe

by
be

first,that is in the earth

itself?"1

Aryabhatta
observations
on

science

to

appears

its axis

the
;

reached

knowledge

and

to

in

of his time

have

the

have

of the

availed

by independent
earth's
himself

ment
move-

of the

calculatingthe precession of
length of the orbital times of

equinoxes and the


planets.8
Grammar
Especiallyattractive to Hindu geniuswere
and Philosophy. They alone among
nations
have
paid honors to grammarians, holding
them for divine souls, and crowning them with mythical
posed
glories.Panini in the fourth century B c. actuallycomfour thousand
sutras, or sections, in eightbooks,
of grammatical science, in which
nology
an
adequate termimaybe found for all the phenomena of speech.4
Siddk"nta.

Sirematti, quoted by Muir, IV. 97.


Colebrooke(Essay HO quotes his words.* *'The starry firmament is fixed: it is the
earth which,continually
revolving,produces the risingand settingof the constellations "
*

See

Lassen, II. 1143-1140.

Also, Craufurd, Ancient

and

Modern

India, ch. viii.

views
age of Hindu astronomy are criticised
entitled
whose
These criticisms,,
however,
to very high respect
opinionsare
by Whitney,
do not affectthe substance of what is here stated.

The

of Lassen and Weber

11.479-

as

to

the oiigiuand

68

RELIGION

His

works
of

have

been

AND

the

commentation,

LIFE.

of

centre

immense

an

ture
litera-

in this respect

surpassed

by
No people of antiquity
the Veclas alone.
investigated
so
fullythe laws of euphony, of the composition and
It is only in our
derivation of words.
own
century,
and
incited by them," says Weber, "that our
Bopp,
have
advanced
far beyond
Ilumboldt, and Grimm
"

The

them."1
world.

the
on

the

Nirukta

The

seventh

Grammar

Hindu

century

of

Yaska

B.C.,

and

subject.2In

same

is "the oldest

in the

belongs probably to
quotes older writings

whatsoever

the

concerns

study of words and forms of thought,the Hindus


the Greeks,
always been at home ; anticipating

accomplishingmore
the Semitic
Yet

lsory'

not

did in

race

than

more

of

the outset

at

two

thousand
Semites

the

their

have

and
than

career

years.

they

are

inclined to

it should
are,
seem,
pure history. There
The
annalists.
reliable Hindu
only sources

no

of

importanthistorical information are the records of royal


endowments
and publicworks
preservedillthe temples,
and on coins, fortunately
and the inscriptions
monuments
on
in

discovered

periods otherwise
Brahmanical

largenumbers,
wholly unknown.

Chronicles

dynasticlists

and

and

of several

meagre

The

scattered

kingdoms

allusions.

The

are

but

Buddhists,

reallyserious study
of history,
though even they have not had enough of
fact from legend. It
the critical facultyto distinguish
is only by careful study,and comparison with Greek,
Chinese, and other testimony,that their voluminous
of
records can
be made
to yieldthe very great wealth
in fact
There
historical truth they reallycontain.
are
on

the

other

hand, have

India

Lecture

Kenan, Langues

on

made

coveringmany

(Berlin,
1854),p
ShnitiqHcs,365.

28.

HINDU

THE

69

MIND.

only two generalhistories of India from native


one
quite recent, and the other datingfrom
century. A most
the Buddhist
however,

complete

more

reaching

from

century, than
are

with

earliest

the

times

; both

landmarks

making free use of sacred


whose
multiplesthey strive
interminable

of

sense

of
to

the

last

and

hists
Budd-

and
to

mysticnumbers,
a haunting
express
But though
time.
in

extravagances

the Brahmans

surpass

in

of human
in observation
purpose,
for recording actual events.2
in the taste

historical

affairs,and

earliest

of

an

Sutras

are

epoch

of

in the

of great value
which

we

have

record.
other
This
superiorityas
any
from caste
is due in part to their freedom

theoretic

whose

is,

gives a
Ceylon,

Brahmans

deals

mythology of the latter


they far
beyond all parallel,

Their

which

down

and

space

the

serious

the fourteenth

State
possess of any other Oriental
For
determining chronology, there

we

yet few

as

Mahavansa,

chronicle

trustworthy account

and

China.1

except

Indian

valuable

sources

growth of

historic

also in

scarcely
chroniclers
;

lack
immobilityand practical

either for the backward

or

sense.

deeper

the

forward

They

tigation
inves-

system

of motive,

look, forbid the

differ from

interest in the human

mans
the Brah-

for

its own

which wholly absorbs man


in Deity
philosophy
allow that independentvalue to the details of
cannot
the recognition
of which
is an indispensable
tion
condilife,
of historical study. How
the flow of
to escape
transient events, and know
only the Eternal One, was
the Brahmanical
quite
problem ; and it would seem
with even
incompatible
observing the details of posi-

sake.

Lassen, It'

Of the services of Buddhist

India,we

13, 16.

justrecognitionin

literature to

the geographicaland

St. Martin's Gtographie du

Veda

historicalstudy of

(In trod ),Paris, 1860.

LIFE.

AND

RELIGION

70

tracingthe chain of finite


that the
effects. It is only remarkable
and
causes
should
have shown
Brahmans
any capacitywhatever
in this direction.
Especial notice is therefore due to
scholar that
the opinion of a thoroughly competent
they have not indulged in conscious invention, and
live fact, not

speak

to

falsification of

the

of

facts,

writers in

justify
European

such

to

extent

castingstones

as

would

at them

on

this account.1
historic

The

least in certain

at

"

Herald's
who

of

of

We

directions.

means
are

wanting,
told that, jn

therein since its foundation,

held land
of years
is

and

ago,

capable

of

that the correctness

demonstration.2

It

becoming, in the present


have
of Sanskrit studies,to deny that the Hindus
written
genuine history. The destructive effect
in

would,

ever

no

the

records

these

state

has

hundreds

many

by

fills in
Panjab, the bard, who
in Europe is taken
which
by the
of every proOffice," can
give the name
prietor

villageof
the
place

every
India

is indeed

sense

fact,be

of

climate

the

far from

India

on

written

documents

is of

and to the
pursuits,
discouragementto literary
of records.
preservation
Yet w e cannot
overlook their natural propensity
to
itself

reluct

at

limitation

,
f
Force of the

positivefacts,and
by
J
.

to the

not
authorityof details. This was
objective
tivetkment.
owjng" as in a great degree with the Semites,
cratic
to
intensityof passion and the worship of autocaprice,but to a stronger attraction towards
-pure
thought. Whatever
they may have accomplished
ideal generalization
in astronomy
and
medicine, an
The
was
always easier to them than observation.
comempia-

Lassen, II. 7.

Griffin'sRajahs of the Panjabt p. 494.

HINDU

THE

71

MIND.

has, after all,effected littlein the purely practical

Hindu

sciences

almost

Hebrew

the

little as

as

in

did

Semitic
distinctively
ity.
capacof
But while the Hebrew
failed here by reason
his defective
appreciationof natural laws, and his
appetitefor miracle and sign, the Hindu, belonging
the scientific facultyis supreme,
to a familyin which
failed for a different reason
; namely, his excessive
bled
love of abstraction
and
contemplation. This enfeethe sense
His imaginationspurned
of real limits.
It dissolved
life into
the paths of relation and
use.
ancient

in his

times, and

intellectual nebula, and


ideal

weaving

anew,

flow,

of

out

Its boundless

then

shapes

tried
and

create

movements

this star-dust

desire to

to

bring the

of

the worlds
in

tasmal
phan-

thought.

universe

under

one

and make
it flow forever from Mind
as the
conception,
plines
perfectunityand sole reality,by contemplativediscialonC)
though one-sided and ill-balanced, was
practical
yet a magnificentaspirationin days when
and social wisdom
in its infancy. Limit, the true
was
"

balance
and

of ideal

human,
and

"

and

actual, fate and

limit, which

order

is not

freedom, divine

limitation,but

mony
har-

of the parts to the whole,


justice
of Greek
this,the inspiration
genius,the Hindu
did not know.
Compare his art with the Egyptian and
the Greek.
Egyptiansculptureis a plainprose record
and

"

of actual

life;

types, which

or

else it binds

the

conventional,

idea within

fixed

though often
grandly serene,
everywhere mechanically repeated
and allegorically
defined.
Greek
strates
sculpture demonForm
the capacityof the Human
for every
aesthetic purpose,
embodying divine ideas therein
with pure content
Here CEdipus
and noble freedom.
has solved the riddle, and pronounced the answer,
are

and,

"

72

RELIGION

Man.

But

in Hindu

overpowering
human

form,

real

AND

Art

you

LIFE.

mythological
fancy

see

life; and, instead

of

the

actual

boundless

tion
exaggerationand reduplicaof its parts, a delugeof symbolicfigures,
gathered
from every quarter and heaped in endless and stupendous
combinations, the negationof limit and of law.1
This
Every thing here is colossal.
aspirationto
enfold the Whole
find images vast enough to
cannot
It excavates
satisfyits purpose.
mountains, piling
chambers
chambers
upon
through their depths, for
mile after mile of space.'2 It carves
them
into monstrous
a

monolithic

of

statues

animals

and

gods.

It

bringsthe elephantto uphold its columns, and stretches


their shafts along the heavy vaults of Ellora and Karli,
like the interminable
spread of the banyan trunks in
its tropical
forests.
Its temples represent the universe
itself;gatheringall elements and forms around
tral
cendeity,yet seldom pausing to bring out of these
forms
the artistic beauty of which
ually
they are individof mind
capable. Intellectual abstraction
as
fascinated by the vague
of cosmic' wholeness,
sense
and
not
constructive
excluded
yet definitely
Art,
form of Architecture.
except in the one
grand, all-enfolding
And
here
sculptureis involved ; yet not as
"

"

with the Greek*


the whole
instances
The
isMgn.ficance.

See

few

absorbed

special forms

KugleTs KnnstgeschlcJtie,
p.

There
more

it, save

in
of

to

in the

statuary.

contemplativeelement did not fail at last to


human
engulf outward forms, and even
perto
sonality, an extent elsewhere unparalleled.

Ramee, Hist
extends

edifice, and
of

freedom, but adherent

in separate

de
are

121

Renan

in Nott's Indigenous Races, p

103;

I"Architecture,vol. i.

fortyseries
than two

of

miles.

caves

in Western

India ; and

at

Ellora the

architecture

THE

But

we

their

HINDU

MIND*

73

say that these facts had not yet reached


for the mind, rather than that the
real values
should

values

themselves

denied.

were

At

the

least

we

are

allured
these

of an
immeasurable
in
by the sense
scope
to unity with
God, which
mystical aspirations

bears

witness

of

genuine

illimitable Whole,

special faith* that


sharper Western
and

hostile

even

instead
have

intuition.

of the manifold
stand

to

come

abides

an

symbols

of

out,

for

our

understanding,in mutually exclusive


attitudes, plainlyenough needing to
higher unity,even
though it were
by

recognizesome
suggestionof the Hindu dream.
To
appreciatethe results of
tendencies,

Here

recall the

these

contemplative

Aryan worship of
It seems
the clear Light of Day.
have
to
given
place, in the development of Hindu
thought,to its
of which
the gloom of the Forest
exact
and
opposite,
the Cave
would
be a truer
symbol. But it is in fact
not

Light

must

It is transformed

lost.
and

we

into

analogue,becoming

of Meditation..

full confidence

old

an

inward

worship

tive
representa-

of the

serener

It is this

in its power

to

which
divinity,
pass through and

with
solve
dis-

barriers, is here invoked to illumine


possible
mind, which the
or
mystic depths, whether of matter
duism
outward
pierce. This aspect of Hinsunlightcannot
be forgotten,
must
not
when, in order to see
endeavor
to pictureto ourits true
embodiment,
we
selves
of Ellora and
those sunless caves
Elephanta;
dim
and
columns
and symbolic statues
loom
where
colossal through a silent abyss,and only the mystical
ing
hoverimaginationfinds play,losingitself in its own
bound,
phantoms ; those deeps where all shape is spellall

and
men

all action dream

lightup

some

where

puny,

awe-struck

little patch of lifeless wall

with

74

AND

RELIGION

feeble torches,

or

wake

LIFE.

little space

some

with

around

them

wizard
a
half-whispered words,
gleam, a
and all is dark again and still. To
stealthysound,
make
of nature
these profound sepulchral recesses
and
have
shone
art
endurable, light must
through
"

"

from

them
The

Invisible

an

Hindu

thinker

Sun.

found

Person

Deity

most

to

near

him,

Shape, but as
guage
Word, the symbol of pure thought,in his own
It was
Sanskrit.
in language, the most
marvellous
of all human
purely intellectual, most nearly spiritual,
products, and we might almost say it was in language
absolute mastery hi constructive
only, that he showed
With
work.
pious zeal he perfectedand transmitted
this, the express image of his ideal life. He wrought
in the depths of
it out in love and faith and patience,
without aid from
abroad ;
mind, far back in antiquity,
and
then
slowly developed or decomposed this divine
"Word"
into many
popular dialects, still holding
inviolable.1
its purest form
and
sacred
"Speech,
of
melodious
Vach," says the Rig Veda, "was
queen
the Gods ; generatedby them, and divided into many
if not
portions."2 So grew up this typicallanguag'e,
of Indo-European speech, yet the
the norm
centre
n"t

ihei,an-

as

visible

as

nor

"

"

"

of

hearth

and

this

their several

of

brotherhood

tongues

ing
reveal-

through the wealth of its


structural
radical
forms
and
aptitudes. Its rich
with unequalled
grammatical elements are combined
of law.
It is pre-eminentamong
simplicity
languages
1

to
it

The

die

out

became

Sanskrit

sacred

throughoutIndia.
traced

R.

V, VIII.

the vernacular
cent

my

c.

tongue of Noithern
In

the

sixth

it was

India
no

in

early times.

longer spoken.

In

It

began

the third

and
by the fifth of the Christian eia was established as such
(See Benfey, in Muir's Sanskrit
Texts* II. 143 ) Muir has carefully

language ;

it back to Vedic

every-dayspeech
"

was

in the ninth

resources

times, and

of their author*.

89, I0;

125

shown

that

the

oldest hymns

were

composed in the

in creative

MIND.

HINDU

THE

faculty,in

75

flexional and

verbal

ment;
develop-

descriptiveof intellectual and


late
respiritual
processes ; deficient only in those which
The
details.
to practical
profound thirst of the
in its wonderful
Hindu
mind
for unity is indicated
of fusing radical words
into composites
syntheticpower
of thirty
verse
; so
great, that a Sanskrit
syllablesmay be made to contain but a singleword.
which
it a name
Its makers
means
perfected^
gave
and
not
perfectedonly, but adorned; for to them
of the Mind, not
in the Word
the Work
Beauty was
of the Hand.
their Kcsmos.
This was
They created
force of native genius, and as in sport;
it by pure
We
not.
when, and in how
long a time, we know
know
and too dear to their
too
near
only that it was
full of

hearts

to

need

terms

letters for its transmission.

it in the oldest

product when we first find


which
wrere
preserved without
in the
as

memory

sound

the

had

and

been

the

for thousands
laws

this fine and

of

ture
ma-

Vedas,

for ages,
writing. Then

came
so

Sanskrit

Infinite

alphabet

music,"

but
picture-signs,
intellectual.
They

grammarians

an

last

The

of articulate sounds.

from

At

"God's

thereof.1

chords

transformed

alone.

It is

letters became
letters

are

not

stract
absomething more
are
phonetic, symbols

was

the

toil the

Hindu

of years

veloping
expended in deeuphonic structure ; drawing

facile

tongue of theirs

as

from

found
perfectinstrument, with what has been called a "promusical
assonances
more
feeling,"harmonious
They referred
regularand delicate than the Greek.
the organs
its primal sounds
to
by which they were
entific
severallyshaped. And, with a presentimentof scitruth, theysought to divine an essential relation,
1

Karma

Mi

76

AND

RELIGION

existingin

LIFE.

of

the sounds
things,between
the objectsthey represented.1They
of words
and
the whole
far as to trace
back
went
so
language to
about fifteen hundred
root-words, to all of which they
Eichhoff
ascribed
distinct meanings.
enumerates
in his Indo-European
of these
nearly live hundred
the clear lightthey throw
Grammar,
fullyillustrating
family
upon the comparativeetymology of this whole
of languages.2
But

it

of

uses

the

nature

diffusion of truth.

of the

of

their

Was

fact of its democratic

the

on

this

of

contempt

Christian

Church

that

instrument

for

oppositionbased
tendencies,

afterwards

the

Brahmanical

The

recognized.

writing were

indicate

laws

reaction

Buddhist

till the

not

was

the

to

partly
that

was

as

the

invention

printing?
Recent

writers

described

have

wasteful, careless

and

Hindus

the
to

rant
igno-

as

better their

con-

Pt.utcil
m

nmi

dition,

physr

comprehension of the uses


tive
They have pointed to the primi-

lacking

cainucss'of money.
and
and

almost

other

varietyand

of their

structure

the

; to

their earlier attempts

ingenuityin

in the useful

ploughs
comparative

arts ; to the

imperfection
of their qiaterialsfor dye-work, glass-blowing,
all chemical
their disabilities
operations,and especially
in

from

art

provision in

labors.

their laws

for the

substantial
and

Much

this is the

Karma

of

historyof

many
Mim"nsft.

the

to the

wares
stone-

lack

protectionof

literary
genius in

certainlyin
1

of

want

artistic,
or
in the

causes

the

fire-bricks for furnaces

and
all

worthless

construction

at

and

in

implements
agricultural
of

absence

depressing

centuries.

respects in strikingcontrast
*

chanical,
me-

the fruit of their

result of

last few

of

Eichhoff,pp.

21, 29,

162.

It is
with

HINDU

THE

the

of the

state

in the

described
the

fine

tax-free

lands

quite equal
do

we

the very

use

working

up

air," with

woven
a

call

they

roller,and

hand

shell, is

at

all

events

The

materials.

exaggerated.

the

of

most

enough

this

steady progress
impulse from abroad.

was,

on

the whole,
His

for material

His

was

an

favorite

with

having

games
invention, his

are

the

Yet

labor

and

chess

he

unsiiiled

The

nature.

"ns,

of developing

was

of his dislike of
dice

it to

of
qualities

little curiosity
and

reluctant

exponent

nearest

in

physicaluses.
to

the

with

practicaldirecti

passive temperament

progress,

for conflict

system

many
disinclined

bit of

relnains

in the

in

mastered

them.

zeal

drawbacks

are

to

Hindu

The

fish-bone,

report is certainly

of truth

that there

without

simplestand

unfavorable

of

"webs

or

artist, endowed

indicate
race

able
incompar-

than

instrument

an

above
But

waters"

woman,

little spindleturning in

giftof making

rare

"running

other

no

Hindu

for the

into thread

cotton

raw

itself in

show

may

The

conditions.

of crude

muslins

genius that

the

to
injustice

of the

many

skill
agricultural
Europe.1 Nor must

of Western

those

to

the

of

marks

showing

as

Pilgrim,"in

officials describe

British

fifth century.

as

epics and dramas, as in


hist
specialreference to Budd-

the "Chinese

Fahian,

givenby

useful arts,

of the

as

national

old

of India, with

account

art,

well

as

77

MIND.

little
caste-

movement.

the latter his

typicalgiftto all civilized races;


and both answering to the combination
of a passive
The
body with a speculativemind.
pivot of most
Hindu
philosophy has been the pure unrealityof
It was
if this busy brain, debarred
as
phenomena.
social construction, teeming*with
from
thoughts it
own.

Speechesbeforethe British India Society(1839-40).

78

RELIGION

could

liberate into

not

And

historyof

the

in many

clined
de-

validitywhatever.

live

by Thought alone.
tendencies
shape the

cannot

man

implied that

It is not

of

tests

action, had

its metaphysicalspeculation
proves

that

ways

of

world

the

accept all external

to

LIFE.

AND

these

thought. We do not forget


the people of India have
how
gloriedin their great
We
do not
forget
epochs of wide literaryculture.
that twice
at least, in their
history,all the rays of
Oriental learning,science, and
were
gathered
song
whole

into

of Hindu

current

focus

of free energy,

Vikramaditya, the
ff

the

at the

"

companion

of Mankind."

Guardian

brilliant courts

Akbar,

of poets, and
We

do

of

forgetthe
great mustering
not

opportunityconstantlyopen, on this
and
the
ground of nations, for the friction of races
overlook
that
we
sympathy of religions.Nor can
passionatelove of the Hindus for dramatic personation,
the sign of a wide
of the imaginativeand
scope
such
sympatheticfaculties, which has shown
ductivity
pro-

"

"

in

delight of
The

villagein

every

the

results of excessive

in India,

even

the

literature, and

their

of

noble

involved

were

the

"

both, since

or

substantially
one,
endeavor

live

to

It should
Force of

tion,
contempla-

encouraging
habits

mental

reactions

in their natural

social

to

are

realism

void
dethat

of

development
admiration.
our
are
especiallyto
splendid capacity,philosophicaland religious,

will claim

study

The

uses.

and

from

equallyfar

are

the

land.

abstraction

belief that these

widely held

makes

seem

to tne

"

the

which

processes
And
we

Oriental

two

in

was

brought

by Thought alone.
that personal energy

Hindu,

as

member

out

life
in

are

the

belongs of right

of that Indo-Eim*-

Physical
Nature.

pean

family of nations, in

whom

vigorous

THE

HINDU

MIND.

practicalgenius, whether
Teutonic,

or

How

as

to

appears

79

Persian, Greek,
inherent

be

is it that, in his

and

the old

case,

man,
Ro-

pressible.
irre-

Aryan

vigor have yielded to enervation, and


the instincts of libertyand
comparatively
progress
failed?
of this failure has been
Though the extent
greatlyoverstated, there is truth enough in the prevailing
mark
estimate
to
an
exceptionalfact, which
tration
illusrequires explanation. It is doubtless an extreme
manliness

and

of the power
other instance

of

passive

the tribes had

Northern

settled

in this alone

and

dreamy

only after
in

conditions.

India

it has

element

been

Indus

the

southward.

obtained

penetratedthe

from

In every
westward
or

been

Aryan migration has

north-westward
The

of climatic

mastery

whole

breadth

eastwards,

and

the

sultryvalleyof the Ganges ; where


children
to this day it is scarcely possible to
rear
annual
of English blood, without
migrations to the
cooler hills.1 Montesquieu has
suggested,2as one
of the general absence
and
of practical
cause
energy
has not, like
a

temperate

of

equal

whether

Asiatic

the

in

free progress

Europe,
zone

force

and

"

may

add

that Asia

America,

into free mutual

enter

of collision

we

fact

in all directions, where

open
can

the

races,

races

relations,

of combination.

or

"

Her

tribes

brought together only by sharp transitions of


.climate ; and
conquests by superior physical
easy
querors,
vigor are followed by rapid enervation of the conare,

whose

from

usuallybeen

the

from

mountains

obvious

causes,

to the

plains.

Aryans into a tropicwilderness,


and
alternations of summer
invigorating

descent

the

movement,

of the

British Army
See Jeffrey's

gspri*"*

Loh, XVII.

in
3.

India, Appendix.

has
The

where
winter

8O

AND

RELIGION

wanting, and

were

renewed

day

every

luxuriance

LIFE.

the

wildering
be-

same

of

leafage,blossom, and fruit


throughout the year, was subjectto these transforming
We
conditions.
should
naturally expect that these
from
their cool
hardy mountaineers, sweeping down
and
Kuh
into a land
Kashmir,
eyries in the Hindu
wherein

languidair did swoon,


Breathing like one that had a heavy dream,
the same,"
all thingsalways seemed
A land where
the

"

"

lose intellectual muscle

would

world

simplicityof

and

unity

would

reflected

be

and

The

nerve.

in the

movement

in their mental

sal
colosnatural

processes

atmosphere heavy with perfumes would


in mystical reverie.
them
to rest
We
easily exaggerate these forces, as
may
them
adduce
the enervation
to explain.
we
as
and

and

India

have

well
tions
Por-

and

bracing atmosphere ;
the higher levels are vigorthe tribes that occupy
ous,
active, and enterprising. But the climate of the
where

Hindu

although

modified

by

culture

A
tropicalheats.
alluvion, through

Himalaya
ranges

south.

An
held

on

to

almost
the

rain

of the

rivers

enclosed

north
vertical

Hindu's

its centre,

vegetationcovers
enormous

the sea,
the

and

had

respects determined

colossal
which

has

wind

the

is in all essential

season,

ever

cool

lowlands,

the

lull

an

of

love

and

between

by

whose

and

awe,

"

the

this rich
flow
vast

from
tain
moun-

loftyplateaus on

Sun,

wet

beams
all the

the
have
more

stronglybecause relied on to smite the sensitive head of


the invadingEnglishman, while they have been slowly
of his own
dark skin till it
transformingthe texture
ceased to suffer from their shafts,
has proved master
"

THE

of the very

languor of

the

to

movement

HINDU

8l

MIND.

of his

thought,and disposed it
contemplation and the meltingpassivity

of dreams.
Yet

that

which
Aryan vitality,

Teutonic

sinew

Hellenic

nerve,

here

even

tropicalforests

Persian

to

and

and

under

vigorousraces

nevertheless

became

the fact tends

an

to

intellectual

in

"uit".

all-masteringheats,
from

to

its special |^ct"*

wrought

the fine stimulation


of

And

in the West

and

turned

Its brain, self-centred, enclosed

wonders.

without

in the North

climate

and

and

the intermingling

the Greek

which

enjoyed,
immensely productive force.
that, while

show

climatic

other

or

conditions

modify originalspiritualforces,
they are not adequate to explain civilizations,nor to
which
sustains and directs them.
supply the inspiration
which
the later developThe
elements
characterize
ment
physical

of Hindu

mind

its infancy. The

as

were,

we

solitude and

shall

heat

present in

see,

of the Indian

forces, but subserved


gave it no new
its special essence
originalethnic personality,

derness
wil-

certain
; some

qualitiesindeed they forced into excessive


action, thereby provoking the others to bring out their
Such
historical
latent strengthin energeticreactions.
results as these have an
importantbearing on the philosophy
of development, by which
science
modern
the growth of man.
seeks to interpret
They illustrate
of whose

the truth which

all evolutionists

changes requireto
with

the

be

explainedby

natural

order.

against the tendency which


of this class,to mistake

phenomena

for their

But

step of the process,


6

ical
histor-

no

ference
creative inter-

they

also

tell

tists
scienmany
the physicalconditions of

prevails,in

productive cause,

forces, inexplicable
by such
in every

affirm, that

and

to

conditions, which

involvingthe

ignore
work

-precedence

82

LIFE.

substance;
creativityof mind^ and constituting
spiritual

and

enduring forms of which


and in the constancy
personality,

more

in

AND

RELIGION

race,

less

or

in

of natural
As

it is

so
incapacity,

that

It is rather,

inclination towards
rest, alike in

to

coming

as

the consummation

by no means
passivequalityof

in the

note

we

temperament.
an

of

dom
wis-

"

constant

repose

thingsmaterial
and

of endeavor

of

compatiblewith
The
religionof Brahman
aspirationto repose ; yet
with incomparable energy
"If the Hindus

and

it,

reference

spiritual,

the end of strife ;

sultry,
relaxing

the climatic year,

salient fact of its monotonous

course

pure
Hindu

has well defined

one

as

in part by the recurrence


explicable
end of
as the predestined
season,
the most

and

law.

it is not

enervation

appear

round.

and

This

is

degree of

active energy.
alike was
Buddhist

and

its disciplines
were
and

pursued

zeal.

enterprising,"
says Lassen,
"they are industrious,wherever
they have real labors
much
of endurance,
to perform. They show
power
bear
with
and
patience. And
heavy burdens
they
from a dislike to have
avoid toils and dangers more
from want
of courage ; a
their quietdisturbed, than
to be
in no
they are well known
qualityin which
way deficient."
The
freedom
could

are

not

and

hardly be

force

of self-conscious manhood

expected of

giatingfurther

and

further into

wildernesses.

The

keen

goads

people who were


tropicallowlands
of the

mountain

miand
air

laxed
forgotten.Lassitude crept over the will and retill they seemed
the practical
to
understanding,
lie buried in the helplessnessof dreams, confounded
with this overwhelming life of physicalnature
; and
were

Lassen, I. pp.

411, 41*.

THE

their

place

that

in

knows

the

facts

and

that

the

from

reacts

the

them

it,

of

soul

also,

dreamers,
few

of

those

who

at

faith

have

least

heedless

world

the
hath

Holy
never

far

here

as

force

from

listen

the

tively,
atten-

somnambulism
from
in

accents

of

is

not

help

hearing

find

seemed,

living

as

we

the

even

inspired

"

The

if

And,

be

may

little

with

that

is

but

nature,

though

assured

become

have

man

he

shall

formula

since

yet

which

we

Hegelian

as

as

in

world

they

as

the

womb

man

closely,

wholly
of

severity

the

more

not

philosopher

where

than

understanding.

the

other
look

we

upon

we

not

is

are

in

embryo

the

by

development

representing

fairly

practical

of

if

But,

that

that

he

that

not

dwells.

an

human

83

MIND.

defined

be

to

came

stage

HINDU

Ghost

lost."

their

these

dream,

III.

THE

RIG

VEDA.

"

art

us.

mttnt.

of

have

old.

The

proclaimed,

These

Sacred

these

libations

great

Fire

Agni,

ha"

been

thy

have

kept

from

ancient

been

hymns;

made

generation

to

to

and

Him

new

who

generation."

hymns

showers

"Hymn

for

thee

benefits

of

who

upon

Viiv"-

HYMNS.

THE

TT

is not

yet determined

"*"

descended

into the

moved
of

by

immigration

desire,1

hand,
the

earliest

of

means

men

The

etymology
of

the

destiny

however

trace,

labor

with

name

assumed

dignity
for

Lassen,

I. 129;
8

Maine,
Mutter's

I. 352.

Pictet, I.

Rig

Schoebel

29.

Veda" V.

See

I. 515

in the

of Language,
considers

the Lexicons

2, 6 ; II.

n,

19.

and

In

to

East

238;

Btit.

and

We$t}

Lassen,

Roth

and

I. 5;

(ar,

p.

too

of

that

note

the

for themselves
it

times
who

Philos.

was

consti-

of History^

I. 37.

176.

Pictet, I. 28;

Weber,

Indisch*

family chiefs,or patriarchs.

Burnout

ri)

or

association

caste,

India,

earth.3

pleasant

Mailer, in Bunted

it the titleof the


of

later

third

or

Textst vol. ii.; Ludlow's

Village Communities
Science

primitive

name

finely suggestive

It is

race.

gods.5

Uertkumskunde,

Sanskrit

Muir's

ten,

Indische

point

to

the

of

vigorous people

Vaisyas,

of

Himalayas

roots

least

at

success,

their

the

applicable to

and

this

by

also

served

dimly,

other

their

tillers

it from

their

the

of

whether

or

is

of

the

supposed

base

derives

signify movement,*

that

Stud

the

race

which

indicate

peaceful colonization.2

"

noble

or

organization

been

doubtful

even

Hymns-

disaster

by

agriculture, on

have

is

the

waves

extensive

the

footprintsat

of

those
in

It

Antiquity of

religious traditions

probabilityto

effaced.

to

impelled

communes,

greater

are

whether

embodied

village

Their

in successive

their

whether

or

conquest,

as

with

While
of

march

plains of India

impulse

one

Aryas

period the

what

at

88

RELIGION

tuted the

of the

mass

in this

remote

AND

LIFE.

community.1 Dates
antiquity.There are

are

tain
uncer-

signs that,

Aryas
not only a powerful people spread along the
were
banks of the Indus, making obstinate resistance with
trained elephants to the Assyrian invaders, but had
reached
the mouths
of the Ganges on the extreme
even
of India.2

east

before

The

of epic and

doubtless

our

heroic

historic

the

era,

intermediate

whole

of
half-light

in the

us

centuries before

twelve

earlyas

as

country lies
the

age,

scene

of tribe with tribe

wars,

dynasty with dynasty.

and

But

have

we

record

preciousthan

more

many

We
have
the sacred song
precise facts and dates.
(Veda, or wisdom*) of these otherwise silent generations.
The Rig Veda, oldest of the four Hindu
Bibles,
the oth^tvthree are
ment,4
developmainly its liturgical
is a collection of about a thousand
Hymns
(" Mantras," born of mind) composed by different
of which
have
not
Rishis, or seers
one
can
inated
origlater than
twenty-six hundred, and few of

"

"

"

them

later

initial

three

than

of
syllables

thousand

Hindu

faith

of stillearlier times.6
in

composed
called

the

that

the

always famous

land
1

St.

Ktesias:

From

are

They

These

ago.

probably the

tions
devo-

have

been

appear

part of north-western

to

India

now

wide

ward
slopes descend seaIndus
and
the Jumna ; a
upper
for the spirit
and grace of its free

Panjfib,whose

between

years

Martin,Gtegrapkie du V"da, p. 84 : Mil Her,at supra,


Duncker, Grach d. Altfrth^ II. 18.
the

vid,

root

to

know

Greek, olda ; Lat.,video

Germ., wissen

Eng

"///,

wisdom
*

"The

the Sama,
tn

Rif Veda?
to

the

manes

says

Mauu,

"

of ancestors."

is sacred
The

to

the gods: the

Atkarvn

Yajvr

relates to man;

consists,
mainly,of formulas for

use

incantations,and other rites.


expiations,
"

Miiller'*S"**k.

/M/rW.

to

Z//mt/.,48i,S7"l Whitney, in Ckr. E.r"t"t., 1861, p, *s6; Wilson'*


Ktf yfja; Duncker, ll.it; Koeppen, Rtlig.d. Buddka, I. la; Colebrooke'*

Essay s" I. 129

Lassen, I.

749.

THE

tribes,having its outlook

on

limitless snow-reaches;
of

ranges

and

waters

these

in their sacred
We

down

loved

celebrate

to

and

verses

before

preciselythe
in
syllables,

in

state,
which

It

the Christian era,1

ably
prob-

expressed phase
distinctly
is
to history.2There
known
sentiment
religious
the slightest
sign of a knowledge of writingin the

whole

earliest

In

collection.3

regard

such

be

more

may

Bibles, than
And

transmission

with which

the veneration

text," and

protectionfrom
justlyclaimed
for any

deepens when

the respect

men

of
are

"

sacred
wont

to

vicissitudes of time

the

for this the

in the

other

is

literature,there

all ancient

this inviolable

to
parallel

no

Veda

of

represents the

not

Nature

of

Rig

to the number

it Existed centuries

of

and
soaringmountains
of picturesquehill
land
whose
streams,
rushing

songs.
this

possess

redundant

children

89

HYMNS.

oldest

of

world.

we

reflect that these

Past ; Prc Vf,dic


of a yet remoter
Hymns are outcomes
R^IP""that they point us beyond themselves
to marvellous creative facultyin the imaginationand faith
of what is otherwise wholly inaccessible,
the childhood
of Man.
They present a language alreadyperfected
the aid of a written alphabet;4 a literature
without
already preserved for ages in the religiousmemory
alone I They sing of older hymns which
the fathers
of "ancient
and elder gods." They
sang,sages
"

Mttller and

Whitney,

Craufurd's A Hciettt and

Modern

Mttller (497,538)finds no

186*) think* itmay

Amer.

VIU.

481;

vni.

language of

The

the

signof writingin ancient Hindu

of

common

Oruntal

history, Whitney (Ckr.

have been employed, though not for higherliterary


purposes.

Rig Veda differsin

learned language of its commentators.


those

India, ch.

Research^

tiller,
557.

Exam.,
"

ntftra; Colebrooke, in Asiatic

ut

"

many

Its freedom

usage." Muir's Sanskrit


Society,III. 396.

the
respect* from the later Sanskrit,
is untrammelled

Texts, II.

223;

by other rules than


Whitney, in Journal of

pO

AND

RELIGION

old at the earliest

themselves

were

LIFE.

epoch

which

to

we

Their

like their language,


religion,
born.
when
Do
not
was
already mature
they were
seek in them the beginning of the religious
sentiment
the dawning of the Idea of the Divine.
Their deities
all familiar and
ancestral.
It is alreadyan intimate
are
them*

trace

can

household
"This

is

thers."1

our

we

can

the

prayer,

"Our

discovered
rise

faith,which
fathers
hidden

the

centuries

have

old, the prayer

resorted

to

lightand

endeared,
of

Indra of old

caused

the

fa*

our

they

dawn

to

showed
the road, the earliest
us
they who
guides." "Now, as of old, make forward paths for
the new
hymn, springingfrom our heart." * Hear a
bard."2
As far back as
hymn from me, a modern
the

trace

life of man,

find the

we

river of

praiseflowingas naturallyas it is flowing


We
find its beginningbecause we
cannot
now.
not
canfind the beginning of the soul.
is one with the maturest
in this
The
earliest religion
and

prayer

The

respect

Ved"c

People.

i;fe.

called

the

that it records

And

these

"historical"

itselfin the details of

primitiveHymns

Veda,

real

so

have

is the

been

picture

they give of the Aryas after their descent into India.


extent
They are described as a pastoraland to some
divided into clans, and often eit*
race,
agricultural
gaged in war" of ambition or self-defence,8 Their ene?
mies, designatedas Dasyus, or foes,4and Rakshasafy
the aborigines
of North*!
are
or
unquestionably
giants,4
India, and are described as of beastly
ern
appearance.
1
"
8

tf

V,, III.

10, 2;

1.4s

and

warlike element

and soldier castes,


priestly
4

U.

Sanskrit

Tfjrts,III. 230-330.
It has been suggested that the hymns contain
Muir's

Muir

traces

of

an

between
opposition

ful
peace-

community, ancestors
perhaps of the
respectively Wheeler, Hist, of India, II. 439.
within

See also Bunaen's

the

old

J'Jtifas.of

Aryan

History ', I. 343.

THE

every

abominable, and

way

sometimes
the

HYMNS.

represented as

rain in the

mountain

pi
mad.

even

They

are

magicians, who

withhold

fastnesses; and

identified

with
and
darkness
drought. They
mythologically
without
declared
to be living
or
rites,or
are
prayers
faith ; charges which
go further to prove
any religious
the devotion of the

invaders

to

their

own

belief,than

they despised. The extreme


sensitiveness
of the Aryas is attested by the
religious
frequencywith which these charges of godlessnessare
as well as
repeated,in the strongestterms of indignation
point perhaps to barbarous
contempt ; feelingswhich
Their
practicesabhorrent to their own
purer faith.
social ideas indicate primitiverelations and pursuits.
institutions very closely
those
Their political
resembled
Their names
for king meant
Greeks.
of the Homeric
the atheism

of the tribes

father of the house

and

desire of

they called ccfwpens,"and war was


cattle." They prayed for largerherds, for

fleet horses, broader

nourishingfood
and

abundant

pastures, and

rain ; for

for valor and

children

many

Their

tt

publicassemblies
w

of the tribe.

herdsman

for

strength; for long life


protectionagainst enemies

and the beasts of the wild.

This infantilehuman

nevertheless

nature

adored

dawn
of
TheWorand
the decline
Light* The
Day, and the starlit Night that hinted in its "j,pht"
an
unseen
sun
returningon a path behind
|plendors
dear to its imaginationand its faith ;
the veil, were
and Fire, in all its mysteriousforms, from the spark
that lightedthe simple oblation, and the flame that
the

rose

which

the

from
the

long ago,
*

domestic

hearth,

to

that central orb, in

prescienceof their active instinct


cosmic energy,1
an
was
all-productive
See Hymns

quoted by Burnouf,

Essai

tur

le Veda^ ch. xv.

saw,

so

every-

92

AND

RELIGION

where

and

one

the

alike

same,

this vital fire of

An$

the

will

and

the seeker

; at once

would,

waitingthere
rubbed

he

to

the

his fire-churn,

"

of dark

kindle

wood,

or

and

of his hand,
turned

the

central
"the

prayer,

and

truth that he makes

must

of

when

flame.1
ten

of

brings

forth

with

and

In

brothers,
the

power,

disperses

early in the historyof religionthe


with a sense
of
is blended
its creative worship
is here
dimly aware
faculty. Man
a"heiic'"
ception

tree ;

the wheel

Thus

meaning,

when

of darkness."2

delusions

the

born

in herb

worshipper, plying them


eye of Surya in the sky,

god." The
"plants the

busy fingersreached through


high, and brought life at their

with

one

within

ever

child

wombs

bright deeps on
life,fresh from the
tips,kindred
the imagery of the hymn, they are
work,

divine.

if his

as

the

whose

was

at the touch

bits of

two

universe

father and

out

mysterious,alike

conditions,respondent to then

call, stoopingto human


need

LIFE.

the
in

come

divine

that

natural

the

remakes

his

act

of

creative

own

of

the
con*

revealing of deity
activityof his human
the

powers.
This

propheticinstinct thrilled within him, at each


cleft to kindle his
spark he drew from the splinter's
altar-fire,
so^long before science had secularized his
in lightning-conductor
and electric jar.
mastery of nature
in this delightthan the mere
There
faction
satismore
was
of physical necessities. With
upwanj
every
from the dark wood, the god was
dart of flame
new
of answered
and expanded
born ; a mystery
prayer
So the omnipotence of the child's dre"in
oblation.
1

So the North-American

Shawnee

hearth
"

are

tf.

tribes.

prophet as saying:
one,

K,V.

and
40;

both
X.

6a.

from

"

Brinton

Know

the

same

(Myths of tkt

that the lifein your


source*"

World*

p. 144) quote*
body a/id the fireon yew

JV*w

THE

HYMNS.

93

the first regenerator of the heavens

was

the earth.

and

out-goingsof the morning shone with the


and strengthof his inward
day.1
rite of the old Vedic
Such was
the religious

The

Each

its sacred

its altar and

had

age
cour-

lies.
fami-

Fire.

The

the first "holy of holies ;" and the


familyhearth was
flame kept burning in every household
the sign
was
in social
that bound
of perpetuity
for all powers
men
And

relations.
Romans

and

not for the Vedic

Greeks

the

The

families alone.

also

made

hearth

the

the

religiousfaith and rite ; and so the word


Hestia, or Vesta (the altar),
originally
signifyingthe
to repjixcd $lace for the familyhearth-flnme, came
resent
of

centre

divine mother,

the

with the old filialreverence

knee

of the world.

hearth

all deities bent

to whom

for that flame,

Vesta,

womanly

or

fire,"which
worshipped in the ever-living
the sacred
of the family, and
inviolability
of

its transmission

at the

purity,was

that invests

the

the

meant

meaning

life.2

human

Hindu

epics,the rites of a
whole peoplein honor of their king are stillperformed
instruments of these joyful
oblations :
with the primitive
and
not
pestle for crushingthe Soma
only mortar
plant,but the two pieces of wood for kindling the
In

the

later

age

of the

altar fire.8
This
*

originaldelight in producing

Pillon (Lfs Religions de PInde, in L^ Annie

Philosophise

tyranny of the priesthoodin later times

to this Vedic

sacrifice to bring forth and

god.

the divine, in those

sustain

the

earlysacrifices;

"It

is

faith
not

man,

the
but

the
for
power
the

element

1868)

traces

the

of prayer

and

priest, that

thus

developed itself into the


naturally
a* a distinct
forgetthat the priesthood,
of this simple rite. And
the feeling
of creative
class,was not then conceived of as masters
it
involved
in
the
to
of
the
self-confidence
its
belonged
s
entiment,
was
religious
power
its prestigecame
of its own
at the work
That
natural faith,its wonder
hands
to be concentrated
in the worship of the priest
such was
due to other causes, tending to narrow
a"
life of the Hindus;
and ritualize the religious
to such, among
others, as ecclesiastical
of temperament.
climate,and, later,
passivity
organization,
*
*
Cicero,Pro Domo, $ 41.
Rimtyana, II. ch Ixxxiii.
creates

of
divinity

the Brahman."

But the writer

this

and

seems

to

AND

RELIGION

94

LIFE.

preservingits pure
of the
and, helpfulforces, is retained in all religions
in myth and
It is consecrated
Indo-European race.
in the legend
rite,and fable and spell. Its vestiges
are
of Prometheus, civilizer of men
through this secret of
Vestal
Fire ; in the lighting
power ; in the Roman
which

of the sacred
"need-fires
the

to

World

"

lamps

in Christian

to remove

evil and

tribes.1

Germanic
also

and
loyalty,

churches

the sacred

renewed

it by the

races

element
same

Aryas of the
could not forgetthat pregnant
the discoveryof his own
power
the

in the

and

disease,familiar

cure

The

guarded

of friction which

Man

in

the world, and

animates

of

the

with

the

New
same

primitivemethod
Veda
employed.2
dawn

of revelation,

rekindle

to

the

life of the universe.


From

first

to

he
significance

last,what

Prim.tivc

Light ;

as

Symboiwm.

sou\ j

The

element

of nature,

symbol

is for

as

has read

vision of the
dear.

ever

in

And

material
element,
symbol, not as mere
It is
that it had religious
homage in the earlyages.
the separation
true that developedsymbolism requires
of the thing from what it represents, and the choice of
this can
it as
representative
; and
hardlybelong to
that there
Vedic
experience. But we must remember
be an
must
earlystage of unconscious symbolism, a
in the elements, already
of help, beauty,power
sense
obscurelysuggestingthe intimate unityof nature with
and the germ
of all later developman
ment
; the condition
it

as

was

"

in this direction.

And

this is what

we

find in

the Veda.
From

the. first stages of

its

Kelly'sIndo-Eurtfxan Folk-Lort, ch. H,


Compare Brinton,p. 143 ; Prcscott'a /Vrw, I*
America, II. 418.

growth onwards, the

*
*

107 ; and

Domenech's

JDtstrU

qf

THE

thus
spirit
for

its

weaves

own

95

environment:

reflex of its life.

the

ever

HYMNS.

And

is

nature

but

what

an

quenchable
un-

made
it
truth could have
to
aspiration
ing
Light as its first and dearest symbol, reachand claspit,with the
child's hand
to touch
a

choose
out

"This

joyous cry,

mine, mine

is

to

create,

mine

to

!"

adore

predictsnot only the whole


light-loving
mythology of the Indo-European races,
and the earth,
and its free play through the heavens
of the ripestintelligence
but the concentration
on
Light in all forms and in all senses, physical,moral
and spiritual.That
primitivepursuitof a cosmic
That

instinctive cry

fire centred

in the

sun

indeed

was

divination

natural

path which science was ever afterward to


and processes of force,
trace through the subtle forms
paying an ever nobler homage to solar lightand heat.
It is interpretedacross
thirtycenturies by Tyndall's
and
of living
source
song of science to this centre
powers.1 That wonder and joy over the firstkindling
it struck

of the

the

flame

is

celebrated

That

infantile

germ

rapture which

has

resurrection.
Light as type of spiritual
thrill at generatingthe "eye of Surya"

ever

is

of the

earnest

an

of man's

And

is power.

consciousness

mature

that fearless

that

clasp

fires

on

edge
knowlthe elemental

predictsthe full trust in Nature, which


all implications
of dogmatic
at last affirms her, against
to be not the spirit's
darkness, but its day.
theology,
in that primal attraction to the
Such prophecy was
ing,
Light. Well might its priestand poet singat morn! the breath of
his face to the risingsun
: "Arise
I The
darkness
has fled. Light
life has come
our
*

fftat

tu

Mod*

of

Mot

ion t pp. 455-459.

96

RELIGION

AND

LIFE.

advances, pathway of the Sun


consciousness
his

to

work

own

of pure

she

treasures

and

Day

follow

each

and

path of
by the gods.

that

; makes

praisesof

the

other

The

dead.

all doors

heavens

the

the

arouses

opens

receives

they^traverse

she

quickens the

voices, she

the

for

men

brings
living,each to
Brightleader

It is Dawn

efface

kindred

men.

each
to

one

manifest

Night
other,

as

another

sisters is

the

manded
unending, comOf
one
they strive
purpose,
will, though unlike.
not, they rest not; of one
They
have
Now
who
first beheld the Dawn
passed away.
her ; and they who
behold
who
shall behold
it is we
of the
her in after-times are
coming also. Mother
gods, Eye of the Earth, Light of the Sacrifice, for
ever.

shine !

also

us

old Vedic

The
Iranian

and

Indian

deities all

centre

in this purest of the

In this, as

in man}' other respects,


with the Avesta-deities
of the Iranians
their affinity
elements.

is
doubt

"

so

strikingas

that the

two

races

primitiveunity we
discordance

have
to

seems

beyond reasonable
Of this
one.
were
originally
already spoken.2 A sharp
to

have

prove

struck

into it ; and

the

two

tions,
Aryan family,moving in different direcin
found using the same
are
mythologicalnames
oppositeand hostile meanings. The gods of the one
of the other.
But the antagonism
the evil spirits
are
the names
touches
only. The worship of the Light
stands unchanged for both.
Yet there was
a difference
Unchanged in essence.
of this common
in the application
symbol to express
the inward
experience. While the Iranians converted
sections of the

Rig Veda,

"

Lassen,

I. 113;

I. 527,

Religion Premiere

Muir.

529;

Bunsen, Pkilos.

de la Race

Hist., I. 130;

Indo-Enropttne, Paris, 1868.

Schoebel,Rtcherchcs

M*

la.

the

phenomena

the

Indians, on

of

97

HYMNS.

THE

into

nature

signs of

the other hand, made

reflex of
We

see

It is coextensive

trust.
;

in this

and

simple social instincts


here a happy confidence
of experience, rising to

and

there

was,

primitivesense

with

them

the

form

of

tasks

and

sufficient

of natural

order

interests the sanction

to all vast,

unfathomable

of

to

religious
the

sires
de-

self-respect

claim

ffeely

intimate relation

an

in the

forces

ments
ele-

nearest

moreover,

for human

the divine

practicalpursuits.

in these

the

conflict,

moral

So

Universe.

in its
the purport of nature, at home
man,
early was
have
mysteries. Titanic Powers
tenderly waited on
of his growth, and
taken
the signifithe processes
cance
his childish
manor

The
and
his

rules

it from

Horse

and

craved.

purpose

lord

This

of the

his birth.
the

Cow,

the earliest

sustainers, are

poetic faith.

clouds

The

earliest

the nomad's

are

of

symbols
the

"

ers
help-

ThePasto.
ral

herds

symbols-

sky;" "the many-horned, moving cattle,in the


loftyplace,where the wide-steppingPreserver shines."
"When
the dawns
bring rosy beams, then these ruddy
in the sky."
advance
cows
Ahi
Vritra (the enveloper),or
camped
(the serpent), enthe mountains, withholds
their bounty.
on
his
Indra, as the lightning,pierces this foe with
gleaming spear, and milks the nourishers of man.
"like kine."
Ahi lies
Down
go the drops to the sea
like a dead cow
felled by the bolt, under his mother,
the floods go joyfully
her calf, and
him."
and
over
of the

"

The

streams

are

drought
the mountain

is Ahi's
caves,

follows, and

Indra
"like

the "herds

cow

of the earth."

work,

or

has

castles,and

sets

lowing for

who

them
her
7

driven

holds them

free.

calf."

The

His

Swift

mer
sum-

them

bound.

thunder
as

to

is

thought,

98

RELIGION

(Maruts),"born

the winds

milk,'1 attend

with
make

the

woods

,*

they

rush

men

with

on,

kine, strengthened

among
"With

him.

their

tremble, they rend

rocks

and

LIFE.

AND

hear

their

talk

The

awe."

roaring they
kings of the

the

each

to

clouds

are

their brightlances
deer, the lightnings

"heroes,
smites

that
young,
Vritra as
an

ever

bring help

"

to

other,

their
"

as

ted
"spot-

they are

Indra

man."

fells the woods

breaks
rivers

therefore

(of cloud); hollows out the


in pieces like a shard."
mountain
the singers"bring their praisesto

Indra,

cows

down
the

down

splitsthe
as

axe

castles

come

home

And
heroic

the milker."

to

like
a "maiden,
morning light,is now
twin youths,Asvins,2 on
fleet
the dun
heifer;" now
ening
steeds ; now
a
statelyspouse, who steps forth,awakall creatures,
and
stirringthe birds to flight,

Ushas,1

the

"

man

to

his toil."

Sarama,

the

dawn,

creeps

up

the

sky, seeking rightand left for the brightherds, whom


in its caves.
"As
the night has stolen, and hidden
foals,so the gods bring,
mares
bring up their new-born
Savitri 3 is the risen sun.
"Brightup the risingsun."
haired, white-footed steeds draw him along his ancient
paths, the paths without dust,
upward and downward
ous
and built secure
; the wise, the golded-handed,bounteJle is himself

Sun."

wa

steed, whom

the other

gods follow with vigoroussteps."


friend,brightin the
Agni,4 Fire, is the "herdsman's
He is the child
sacrifice,and slayshis foes."
Agm'
of the two
pieces of wood rubbed
together,
them ; brought to birth by
in the cleft between
hidden
*

From

wJ, to burn ;

From

as,

"

From

*w, to

"

From

ag%

to

Gr.,^WJT
; Lat

vro

penetrate; the swift ones

produce.
to move
; Lat,,ignis*

;
'

Germ.,

cst ;

Gr.,"*t"$

Eng., east

Lat.,equut*

THE

and

trees

HYMNS.

99
and

clouds

shrubs, by the

the

He

waters.

god of the hearth, "born in the house, gracious


a
as
dwelling,bringingjoy." He is the "son of
neighinglike a horse when he steps out of his
power,
the earth in a moment
strong prison,spreading over
when
he has grasped food with his jaws, devouring
and
the wood, surrounding his path with darkness,
sweeping his tail in the wind, as, in the smoke column,
illumines
the lightning
When
he ascends to heaven."
is

the
who

impregnates

in

dwelling;

"

son,

of

wealth

means

like

milch

He

heaven."
to

cow,

the

like

is

man;
herdswomen

"

lightof the sun ; "the soul of


rests
a
deity pervading the world,
;
bearing giftsto the gods from man,
"the

"

what

or

moves

is at

who
and

good

herds

whatsoever

"wealth," and
"like

the

of waters,

in the bed

is the "bull, born

he

storm,

once

coming on

the earth

to bless him.1

accessible to students
Rig Veda, passim. AH versions of the Rig Veda Hymns now
consulted.
been carefully
They are : i. Prof. H. H. Wilson's English translation,
since his death, RO
made under the auspicesof the East India Company, and extended
1

have

that it now

collection; and this,faithful as it is,has the


original
of
twofold disadvantageof not discriminating
the original
text from the later commentary
of style. 2. The
Sdyana, and of being deficient in poeticappreciationand simplicity
French version of Langlois,which evidentlyerrs in the oppositedirection of too great
imd poeticfreedom.
admirable Latin version,
of the highest authority
liberality
3. Dr. Rosen's
with all scholais,
close
and
but unfortunately
his
to
a
ing
coverbrought
earlydeath,
by
onlythe greater part of the First Hook. 4. Translations of a laigenumbet of Hymns,"
Oriental scholars like Benfey, Aufrecht, and Roth, in the Gerinto German, by accurate
man
Oiiental Journals; and into English by Max
Muller (Sanskrit Literature) and by
Dr. Muir, in his invaluable Sanskrit Texts,
Englishversion,of
5, Midler's long-desired
which only the firstvolume has appeared. The quotationsin the present woik have been
with preferenceof Benfey and Rosen
the three cover
the same
made
to Wilson, where
and
different
of
the
less
to
A
text.
give
renderings
ground,
scrupulousregard
accuracy
would have greatlyenlarged,and in the view,perhaps,of many
readers,greatlyimproved,
of the Rig Veda, by a fulness of quotation,which, however
this account
tempting,the
of
the
I have, in
does
in
o
n
scholarship
state
warrant.
subject
judgment,
not,
present
my
avoided quoting texts for
general,often with no littlesacrifice of taste and inclination,
which there is.but one authority
; except such as are furnished
by Muller and Muir, whose
versions have, in general;been adduced without hesitation. Quotationsfrom the Vedas,
in popularworks upon ancient religions,
be received with great caution,
must
being often
from very imperfectversions. No
drawn, without investigation,
one, at all acquainted
on
with the materials now
our
hands, would quote the best version of a Rig Veda Hymn
With the

covers

same

more

assurance

than

half the

of minute

accuracy

with which

he

adduces

translations from

the

TOO

RELIGION

These

AND

other deities

and

invited
Kusa

and

plant,1expressed

in

with

are,

to descend

grass,

LIFE*

simple confidence,

recline

and

the

on

quaff the juice of


mortar

or

sacred
tain
moun-

between

stones,

ter,
through a goat'shair sieve into clarified butExhilarated
and sprinkledon the grass.
by this
draught of vital juices,they are nerved to supreme
of their worshippers. Perhaps the
labors in behalf
mingling of these elements symbolized the propagation
and beast, to these primitivetribes
of life in man
the holiest mystery and the dearest hope.
doubtless
this beverage, though a mild acid of no
And
great
thoughthelpfulto the lyricalpowers of
potency, was
like the sea, has
the psalmiststhemselves.
"Soma,
and hymns and songs."9
poured forth|||houghts
But the language of the Hymns
shows
that
to Soma

strained

its virtue

was

associated

with

the idea

of

The

life,given through voluntarysacrifice.


the

mountain

became

the

gods;"

"its

plant,slain

and

new

purer
sap

of

brayed in the mortal^


father of the
"all-purifier,
all-generator;
and

the

transcends

ocean

worlds," and

its

support."3 Both Soma


(Hindu) and
Haoma
(Persian)are "healers, deliverers from pain.0
The
Veda
Sama
submits
to
says of this god" that he
filteris their

"

and
birth*,

mortal

be saved."4

may

is bruised
This

and

afflicted that others

is the rudest

type of mediation

through sacrifice,of strength through weakness, of


A later hymn has been thought to
life through death.
himself,to
represent the Supreme Spiritas sacrificing
the world.6

create
Greek

or

Latin classics. Yet

cleared that

we

the

path throughthis difficultliterature is Alreadyso well

need not misconceive itsbearingson any importantquestionof Comparative

Religion.
1

*
*

Asclcpiasacida.
See texts in Muir, vol. iv. Soma
Stevenson's TransL Ft. J.I.,
x. 2,

The

means

X.

V^ IX. 96.

"extracts"from

6 ; vi. 4.

sn, to express

tf. V^ X, 8x.

But

see

or

beget.

Muir, vol. fa

THE

surelyis

Here
been

wont

"

in bonds

man

philosophy have

of

,.

rudimentary,

man

IOJ

religionand

what

call

to

HYMNS.

"

;
SpmtuAlity

"

-I

absorbed

instinctive,

"

nature

in

"unaided
objects,

by revelation," dependent
and necessity
in the
structure
what comes
mere
on
This
is that "natural
of his faculties.
incapacity,"
is believed
which
to require"supernatural grafting"
And
truth.
in order to the generationof spiritual
yet
The
tensely
what
do we
find here?
religioussentiment inconsciousness.
active, indeed an all-pervading
These
Hymns are full of implicittrust, of childlike
awe*
They are addressed to deities, not arbitrarily
fashioned in human
shape, nor out of any material
of human
device, nor yet enclosed in temples made by
hands ; but felt directly
instinct, face
by the religious
material

"

"

to face with

diverse

It

nature.

not

was

sense

of

much

so

of dependence and divine guardiandeities,


as
ship,

and

of

closer

relation.

Prayers were
espousalswith deity,and the very car itself by which
the blessing descended.
They even
uphold the
No
sky." He who asked devoutly,received.
god
even

"

resist constancy

could
he

needed,

in one's

Whatsoever

prayer.

would

bring, food, healing,


riches, victory,knowledge, dailyprotection. Strong
in the force and promise of nature, the instinct knows
distrust of itself or its object.1"My
no
fly
prayers
to Him
"

prayer

is

who

harm

the
us

be with

friend but
"

J?.

to

their pasture

to win

us

(nigh; so supported, we
other

herds

as

highestgood, as birds to
"Indra, preserver, refuge,leave us not
evil disposed; let not the secret guiltof

their nest."2

men

of many,

seen

"flyupwards,

subjectto

"

Vn V.

thee,

44, 8.

when
shall

no

afar, be with
not

other

fear.

We

us

have

happiness,no
*

Ibid.,I. 25* "*" 4-

when
no

other

IO2

There

father.
O

sons

we

are,

Give

let not

the

who

go

we

"Thou

whose

this my

hymn."1

on

who

tread

our

father
Thine

down.

us

earth,

upheld by thee."
thee
things,keep near
teous
harm, we
praisebounway

all

hear

from

"Free

or

understanding,as

us

wicked

ears

Vishnu

like thee, in heaven

none

One.

mighty

his

is

LIFE.

AND

RELIGION

harmeth

self-

Listen, O

none.

earlyhymn."2
Agni, guardian of the dwelling,observer of truth,
of diseases, ever-watchful, and providentfor
remover
3
dwell in the
beams
us, life-giver." As everlasting
Men
in thee, their king."
Sun, so all treasures
are
find thee who
sing the words made in their hearts."*
:
approach thee with reverence
Day after day we
take us
into thy protection,as a father his son : be
Break
not the covenant
ever
present for our good,"
fathers.
with our
Decay threatens the body like a
From
this ill be my
art
cloud.
guardian." "Thou
in the desert to the man
who
like a trough of water
O Agni, in thy friendship
I am
at
longs for thee."5
moved

Deep,

to

our

ff

"

"f

home."6

the

healingstreams,
Asvins
doers

are

of

invoked

all noble

"

"
"

T.t I. ii,
Ibid.,I. 12.

/?.

Ibid
Of

; II. 32,

I. i, 7, 9 ; I. 7'.

the richlywatered

theirflowingspeeds onward
"

of old.

men

the herds

generous

32 ; I. 10, 9-

"

with their

grant lengthof life."*


of

night,

to break

deeds,

their wonder-works

; VII.

; X.

to

to continue

in the last watches


and

with

forth in the dawn

"

invoked

are

the

on

refresh

Rivers,7 that

divine

The

bestowed

he

care
protecting

The

as

is invoked
(food-giver)

wise Pushan

The

of

Ibid.,VIII.

"

Ibid, I,

35.

59, 3 ; t 60,V

Ibid.,V. 44, 14 ,(W"W"


PanjAb they might well have been the gods. In tta Veda

10

4,

"

i.

the

hymn

and

rite. More

than

thirtystreams

are

mentioned

0 Sindh, the rivers bring their tributes to thee,as cows


their milk td
the milker ; thou movest, like a king extendinghis wings for battle,
at jhe head of thy tttn*

in a singlehymn.
pestuous waves."

IO3

HYMNS.

THE

tion

is
rain-giver,

invoked

rejoiceand
"

Preserver,"

be

"cry aloud,

to

"

pied love."3
May the opening dawns,

the

ff

us
preserve
mind ; may

for

us

ancestors

May

we

behold

ever

thy best

with

rays, thou

of life,giverof food and

unfriendly;

make

all

our

are

not

the

"

an

unpreoccu-

at

the

invocation,

this
be

of

sound
"

Shine
risingsun."
brightDawn, lengthener

the

Drive

far away

pastures wide, give

prayers

to

of Vishnu, "the

seasons

wealth.

All ye divine Ones, protect us


These

thunder,

to

swellingstreams,

present
at

we

Parjanya,

"

all that is therein

all mankind,"

embraces

firm-set hills,the

blind.

impregnateit,that
glad." The love

flood the earth and


may

the

lame,

sick, the

the

on

us

the

safety.

always."2
of slaves,

nor

even

of

suppliants. They incessantlybreak forth into


Indra, gladden me!
Sharpen my
praises. "O
I, longing
thought like a knife's edge; whatever
for thee, now
siasm
utter, do thou accept."3 A poeticenthuglows in these earliest matins and nocturns.
and the orderly
They exalt the splendorsof the Dawn
paths of the Night. They dwell with joyfulwonder
the sky and the earth,
the changes which
on
pass over
beneficence
that
tracingstep by step the marvellous
follows the paths of the Light. All this is not mere
"meteorolatry." Man is not prostrate here before the
material universe, but erect, greeting the sublimity
tokens
of a divine
atid magnificence of nature
as
stantly
good-will. The sense of physicaldependence is conless absorbed
in the delightof this
or
more
be doing great injustice
to
recognition. It would
Aryan pietyto overlook this fine freedom of
primitive
mere

From

JR. K, I. 42, 55 23, 18; 112;

"

Ibid,VI.

r*V,to hold,or maintain.


47,

10.

V. 83;

VII.

100;

VI.

52, 4, 5!

VII. 77-

AND

RELIGION

104

exultation

imagination,this
the bounty of the

the
as

affords

that

of

harmony

with

and

life and

mean

nature

heavens

and

to benefit

with

their

universe,

the

that the world

desire

in the

beauty as well
visible world, and
the proof it
here something quiteother than
have
we
visible things. It is the happy sense
of

adoration

the

LIFE.

man

"Surya

good.

earth, beneficent
he

men,

undecaying supports.

other, that

has

from

the

the worlds,

out

Him

To

produced

all :

to

measured

has

confidence

for each

made

are

his

healthful

we

render

praises."l
The
spontaneity
of

tf

rishis

were

the hidden

associates

light,and

of the

gods ;

brought

found

forth the

out

dawn

singers "seek
ion
the thousand-branched
out
mystery, through the visof their hearts."3
Their
hymns are "of kin to
self
his heart;"4 for wAgnt is himattract
the god, and
6
The
a
thoughtfulgods produce these
poet.
hymns."0 The rishis "prepare the hymn with the
the understanding."7 They
heart, the mind, and
song.

"wii\i sjncere

as

as

beautiful
"

They
a

it

cloud

"

"

send

"

the cloud

skilful workman

garment,

generate
;

The

"

"

"fashion

hymns."2

"

as

it from

the

it forth from
it with

kunch

car;"

bride for her


soul

the

as

"adorn
husband."8

rain is born

soul, as wind

as
praises,

it

from

drives

ship on

the

sea.""
These

is

not

maturer

"

/P.

analyzedtheir consciousmaterial
and the spiritual
still
ness
: ^ie
are
blended
togetherin their conceptions. This
find in the
the anthropomorphism which
we
faith of the Greek, a clear full disengagement
rude

/I, I.

"

Ibid

Ibid

VIII.

12, 31 ; 13.

"

Ibid

I. 61,
VII.

36.

B
"

2.

94;

have

ifio.

bards

I.

116; X. 116.

not

Ibid.,VII. 76, 4.
Ibid.,VI. 14, 2.

"

Ibid.,VII. 33, *
Ibid.,X. 6s,7-

130, 6; V. 29, 15 ; X. 39,14.


Muir, HI. 220-240.

Ibid.,I.
bee

"

HYMNS.

THE

personaldeity from

of the

in which

form
and

awe

present.

analyzers nor

definers

to

For
of

or

wonder

thought:

and

finite,man

infinite and

the lines between

05

physical element

the
be

is felt

he
not

are

nature,

drawing. But
neither is this Vedic worship the mere
"personification
of the elements," the mere
callingthe thing fire,or
cloud, or moon-plant,a god. What we do in fact note
spiritand

matter,

here, in the

of

not

are

their

instinct,is

yet differentiated

not

dominance
pre-

element ; and this not only


spiritual
as
recognitionof intelligence
where
every-

of the
in its constant

of

substance

the

tion
in its admira-

and

nature,

energies and volitions,


the prayer, itself meaning thought, but even
of beauty and
decisivelyin that open sense
of

conscious

"

mantra,

"

of

I have

which

in

invitation even,

justreferred

the

life and

tality,
hospi-

world

the

prelude,we

; a

more

may

call

to

it,

aesthetic grace
and
It is indeed
what
Quinet

to

meaning of
by Light."
It is
to

the whole

not

the

the

senses

genialityof the Greek.1


finelydeclares to be the
Vedic
religion, "Revelation
"

worship

mere

will

of

the

age
Bond-

elements.

explainthis spontaneityand

not

joy ; these cordial relations with the universe ; this


home-feeling so assured and fearless as to permit
undistracted contemplationand livingpraise; this creative
force of imagination
of beauty and
; this feeling
1

but profoundlypsychological
and moral
not
Very close affinities,
only etymological,
divinitiesof the Greeks,
Zeus, Dionyalso,have been traced between the three principal
sus,
"

Heracles, "on

and

SavHri,"

on

the other.

the
The

one

hand, and

relations between

of
and Rome, and the close affinities
matters

found

the
the

three

gods

Vedic

gods,

of the Veda

"

and

I mini,

those

Agni,

and

of Greece

a
are
common
origin,
inquirywhich lie outside the direct line of our purpose.
literary
They will be
fullytreated in the writingsof M tiller,in Lassen's Indische AUerthum^kunde^

and

name

function,pointingto

of

I* 75$; *"d in Mr. Cox's


Mythe des Jlibkavtts ; and

new

volumes

on

Pococke, India

Aryan
tn

Mythology (1870). Also

Greece*

by NeVe,

IO6

AND

RELIGION

full

play, neither

animal

instincts.

in
benignity,

enslaved

by

LIFE.

repressed by fear, nor


It is very

refreshingto
recognizingthe aesthetic

religioussentiment
the guarantee of all liberties,and
faculty,
ing
pronouncIt was
it good, in the morning of time.
a great
the

see

inattentive

be

to such

rightsof

and

of intellectual life.

evolution

step in the

an

We

assertion of inherent

cannot

ties
capaci-

the soul.

velopment
infancy of Indo-European dethat innate
to accord
liberty
disposition
to every faculty,
welcoming all to their owrl several
and
uses
delights,and acceptingthe world as, their
and
has
natural furtherance
plasticmaterial, which
given this ethnic familythe leadershipof intellectual
and
The Vedic
religiousfreedom.
Hymn
progress
of these
is the primal guarantee, the infantile presage
It shows

us

future

powers.

Vedic,

wrote

in

verse.

in the

The

Greek

oldest

their wisdom

under

Solon, Thales,

and

sages,

like the

and
poeticinspiration
the

rest,

were

called

; a word
having nearly the same
Sophoi) or knowers
rishis." Their cosmogonies,
meaning with the word
all thingsto fire,or water, or their intermixture,
which
trace
tf

worship,
and

like

and

clearlyindicate

mind

This

ihe

as

is the

AiiReiigin

of

of

the

of

essence

we

element-

mere

recognitionof

these

of all

child that

outward

life

forms.

earlyAryan thought
are
exploring. Alt

"

"

capacitiesof
primitiveimpulses from
the

evolved

Vedic

But
is yet indeterminate, vague, instinctive.
for that very reason
the better recogwe
can
nize
/"

germ.

the

characteristic

It is the mind
ions

faith, no

are,

such

human

religionpresents. The
exclusively by any one

observingthe
its laws of growth have
revelation as the history;
nature,

which

diverse forms

"

of

Veda
of

the

cannot

great

be

claimed

theological

THE

HYMNS.

07

by monotheism, polytheism,or pantheism;


of them all,the
but it contains the common
principle
of which
the highest is but a natural development,
germ,
the consciousness
of deity.1
this
This nebulous
of the Rig Veda,
universality
of all religions,
this propheticstar-dust of
potentiality
historic systems, may well enough be called pantheism.
Yet in no exclusive sense.
It is not philosophical
systems,

"

"

abstraction,but intense realization


awake

and

intent, in eye

It
-finger-tips.

is the

and

it is

and

ear,

rounding

to

continent

wide

man

the

very

of his

religious
and holds a wealth of imaginationthat
instincts,
suppliesprototypes for the mythologies of India,
Persia,Greece, Italy,Germany ; and a genialityin
its love of personification,
that endowed
witli living
sympathies each and every phase of the elements,
every metamorphosis of fire,and the very sacrifices
and prayers of the worshippersthemselves.2
Its polytheism,like its pantheism, is in the free,
plasticstage, and clearlydiscloses its depend- jntultion of
theistic instinct,
a
ence
on
deeper than itself,the One-

in the constitution of
I do

calls

not

intend

to

"monotheism

of the Veda

through the
"antecedent

man.

the idea of what

convey
which

precedes the polytheism


of One
God, breaking
\ a remembrance
3
mists of idolatrous phraseology,"
Such

revelation

does

not

appear

to

is,also,a hint of dualism in the fact that twin deities are


antagonistic.Muller,Science of Language^ II. 585. There u"
forms of deity,
pointingto later conceptionsof a trinity.
triple
*

For

an

tt

itsaffinitieswith other religions,


see

ttigtnde* aft PAntiquiit.

Sanskrit

Texts, vol. iv,,and

On

Stevenson's

p. 559.

Alfred

of Soma^
the personification

in the Atlantic Monthly, trace many


,

invoked,yet

tendency to

of Vedic worship,as regardsthe illustrationof its vigor and

excellent rhumt

and
wealth of imagination,

often
even

be

to

me

There

not as

Muller

S"ma

Veda.

Mr.

of these relations.

Maury's Ctoyances

the sacrifice

Pake's

see

article

Muir's
on

thology,
My-

IO8

AND

RELIGION

LIFE.

profound theistic instinct,the


intuition of a divine and
livingwhole, is involved in
here studying,
the primitivemental
are
processes we
I hold to be beyond all question.
these
much
in reality
For
the
not so
are
Hymns
deities, as the recognitionof deity
worship of many
wonder,
everywhere ; the upward look of reverence,
all aspects
and trust, from hearts to which
gratitude,
guage.
lanthe same
and powers of nature
spoke in essentially
But

proved.

that

is manifold

There

revelation

but there is also

tations
unityof impression. The response to these divine invitakes outwardly different directions,is addressed
it is seeking the
to different objects
; but
intrinsically
same
spiritin all. In no other way can we
explain
fact

the

Vedic

these

that

deities

from
respect distinguishable

are

each

in

no

other.

essential
It is not

mostly forms of lightor fire:


of unityin the symbol pointsback to
this recognition
and moral oneness.1
the intuition of a deeper spiritual
All are truthful,
They are all described in the same
way.
beneficent, generous, omniscient, omnipotent. All
of knowledge.
bestowers
of life,inspirers
are
They
alike immortal; creators
alike the refugeof men,
are
merely

and

they

that

are

of the

measurers

world, for the benefit of

man

with

all-searchinglight,transcending and
pervading all worlds.
"Among you, O gods,there is
radiant

that is small,

none

great indeed."
invoked

Even

revert

brethren
XXIV

They

for the

to

all
are

an

same

oppositionof interestsis

contend with the Maruts

about

the unityof divine interests


"

that is young : you


are
have all equalpraise. All

tually
mublessings.They are even
interchangeable."Thou, Agni, art Indra, art

where

supposed

none

A'

p. 30.1.

V., I.

170,

2.

for

moment

conceived, as where

their respective
this is but
rights,

positively." The

Maruts, O

India it

in order

Indra, are

to

thy
See Roth's tiauslation of I. 165, in Ztitsckr. d* D. Jlf.Gn
more

THE

Vishnu,
Varuna

art

HYMNS.

IOp

Brahmanaspati." "Thou,
Mitra

; becomest

Agni, art

kindled

when

in

born

thee, son

gods." And all alike are


Soma, the sacrificialplant,itself generates
supreme.
The fact now
all the gods, and upholds the worlds." *
Each
before us has been admirablystated by Miiller.
god is to the mind of the suppliantas good as all the
of

are
strength,

all the

"

gods; He is felt at the time as supreme and absolute,


limitations which
in spiteof the necessary
to
our
entail on
of gods must
minds
a plurality
every single
of this can
only be that, in
god/?2 And the reason
all these diverse directions,the act of worship was
and the same,
and gave its own
less
boundone
essentially
meaning to all its instruments, forms, and objects.
A like assignmentof equal and supreme
authorityto
different deities is found also in Egyptian polytheism
many
;

the trait has in this

and

indicate

case

been

admitted

to

approximation to belief in the Unity of


God, even
by those who can find no other evidence
of the theistic bearingsof that primeval faith.3 The
an

fact has

same

to
applied

such

"

as,

noted

been

their deities
Maker

"

One

monotheism

by

in

respect

the North

"

of all," Father

and

to

the

names

American
Mother

tribes,
of Life,"

ble,"
perfectGod/' "endless," "omnipotent,""invisiand the like; all of which, according to the
the myths of the New
latest and best researches
on
familiar terms
of homage for what was
World, were
and
felt to be higher than man,
clearlyindicate a

R. V.t VIL

Ancient

30,

which

Sanskrit

is

II. x, 3: V. 3,

ever

; IX.

present,

not

in

con-

86, 89, 109.

instinct and profound


Literature^p. 532. Muller's fine spiritual
of
combine
text
the
Vedas
make
original
to
him, on the whole, our

acquaintancewith the
best authorityfor theirverbal meaning.
,

I. 367.

AND

RELIGION

IIO

LIFE.

polytheism,but in livingintuition,in the


religioussentiments." 1
not to discern in the Vedic
It is impossible
passages
been quoted,and indeed in Vedic forms
have
which
of worship generally,the presentimentof that profound
unity into which the wisest pupils of ancient
polytheismresolved the gods of their fathers,and
Maximus
which
Tyrius expresses in terms that strik*
Men
make
distinctions
inglyrecall our Vedic texts.
that all the gods
the gods. They are not aware
between
to

trast

"

have

law,

one

one

life,the

same

ways,

not

diverse

nor

mutually hostile ; all rule ; all are of the same


age ;
all pursue
our
good ; all have the same
dignityand
authority;all are immortal; on" their nature, under
3
And
names."
the Greek
as
philosopher,so
many
conscious of a still deeper
also the Vedic
seer
was
unitythan this.
of religiouswonder
In these vague
embodiments
and
"

there could

awe,

Mystical
sense

of

of

ness

umty*

flective

Doubtless

Vedic

as

facts which

later and

distinctmore

re-

its separate deities.

translated

terms

reallymeant

natural

record

of that

none

which
individuality
polytheismgave to

many

were

names

be
"

as

proper

appellatives
only,or
not

were

intended

else

to

be

at #11,so that our


ing
ignoranceof their meanpersonified
greatlymultipliedthe distinct figures
may have
of this older Olympus, as well as exaggerated their

distinctness.

Miiller

has

called

attention

to

the Semitic
and
Aryan
strikingdifference between
tinctions
dislanguages^in the tendency to invite polytheistic
In the
former, the originalroot-name
always remains unaltered in the body of any word
1

Brinton,p, 58.

Dus.t XXXIX.

5.

THE

merged

and

Ill

it ; while

from

be formed

that may

HYMNS.

lost in each

fresh

in the latter it is

combination,

that

so

tends to independentmeaning,
appellative
and starts a specialpersonality.That these linguistic
of the
explain the intenser monotheism
peculiarities
one
race, and the freer polytheismof the other, seems,

every

new

however,

to

common

the

two

alluded

can

we

constitutional

the

Yet

races.

process

And

in

cause

infer,

influence

the
to

from

even

of individual
multiplication
in the Aryan religions,
by
into personal forms
many

names

to

which

deities
the

of

of qualities
that
simplyexpressions
first attributed

to

the

Sun,

and

are

of

gone

on

latives
appela

addressed

became

this

how

mere

Thus

were,

of

great.

very

have

must

ing
transform-

the

Veda,

change
deity.

prayers

arise from

been

the

the

unlikeness

of

have

must

both

that

religiousdifferences

the

and
linguistic

than

less conceivable

be

great
are

undoubtedly,
distinctive

obscuration
described
above ;
linguistic
could
find ready to hand quiteample
until Macrobius
for proving his great thesis, so often repromaterials
duced,
that all ancient
resolvable
into
worship was
alone.
heliolatry
But at so earlya stage in the observation of nature
this process
could hardly
as that of the Vedas,
even
time to produce very clearlymarked
had
have
tinctions
disin the objects
of personality
of worship.
Those
mysterious forms and processes of Light,
diverse names
to which
attached, reallyflowed
were
into one
another; sometimes
by imperceptiblegradations,
sometimes
by instantaneous shift,as of feeling
Whether
mood.
the face of the universe changed
or
before the eyes of the worshipper,or showed
behind
heaven
and earth, it was
the change an
ever-abiding

through

the

RELIGION

112

stillthe
not

AND

LIFE.

face of the universe, and

same

held apart from


definitely
the
of worship,too, was
ever

be

for the

it turned
in the

moment,

power
The

power.
same,

could
ment
senti-

whithersoever

going forth

to

every name
faith. It was

natural that
yearning and
in every moment
of deeper thought the poet should
these names
interchangeably.It was not
pronounce
their individuality
that impressedhim, but the common
fact of their power.
lie would
feel that
instinctively
unitywhich these experiencessuggested. It was the
perpetualneed to find for every act of prayer and praise
the highest-possible object
which
of prayer and praise,
him
caused
preme
perpetuallyto regard that deity as- suhe was
for the moment
to whom
addressinghis
thought. This is the very germinal principleof
Theism ; for it is the instinct of undivided
homage*
And
of

same

if this

worship

allows

claim

with

the

hold

communion

in

every act
highestsovereigntynevertheless

to

different powers

to appear
successively
inference
yet draw the logical
can
aspiration
only be unity,it

many

if it does not
highest,
of such
that the object
the mind
is not
is simply because
yet introversive
enough to recognizewhat is reallyinvolved in this
It can
spiritual
requireno aid from
process.
natural
superas

*r

intervention," whatever
the

that
perception

that may

mean,

to

vance
ad-

cannot
sovereignty
Given the impulseto rise in
be divided among
many.
conception
every act of worship to the highestknown
there can
be need only of a deeper
of the Divine
tribal deity,
one
as with the Hebrew
absorptionin some
habit,as with the Greek
prophet,or a finer speculative
philosopher,to develop it into a clear and positive
to

supreme

form

It

of Theism.
was

not

that
requisite

some

specialrace

should

THE

be

HYMNS.

113

"

with the vision, and


trusted
insupernatural
ly gifted
with the charge" of this indefeasible
truth,
It was
Deity is One.
requisiteonly that the

that

of

religiousconsciousness
concentrated

Roman,
show

that this

long

before

The

whole

Veda

fowl's

hovers

flightby

well

as

experience of

the Christian

thoughtful

era.

of this

the verge

on

Greek,
Hebrew,

as

all

tently
in-

higher

guided like the wild


mysterious instinct of natural
wings from time to time in

Its free

experience.

become

deeps.

own

literature,

the

was

minds

its

upon

Oriental

and

should

man

devotion,

the

desire, steeps unwearied


this purer

light. There are hints of a Father of all


the gods, in Dyaushpitar; l of a Lord
of Creation,
lord of all Prayer,
a
; of
Prajapati
generator and
is
wise and
Brahmanaspati.2 Visvakarman
ing,
pervadfather,highestobjectof vision."3
creator, disposer,
Varuna
is "King of all,both gods and men."4
Surya
"

of all powers

is the concentration
host of
of

"soul

the

all the

gods, as
spokes."6
Even

Light ;

the search

wheel

of

the

in the adoration

vital fire in the Universe,

the

; in

soul

that desirable

and the recogthrough all disguises,


nition
all visible powers.
The
Gdyatri, or

of the

verse

our

contains

surrounds

contained
religion
sense

Agni

for this

of it in

governs

felloe of

in the

the wonderful

"Indra

with the life that stirred within

one

holiest

rests."5

or

is this whole

so

of

moves

"

one

of Mitra, Varuna,

rays,"the "eye

all that

in

Veda,

lightof the
holy rites." 7

It

this

was

Zfi)f7rar%",
Jupiter.

R.

"

Ibid.,X. 83,

"

Ibid.,II.

"

Ibid,,I. 39, 15.

"

Ibid.,III. 62,

V
,

I, 40, 5
27,

meditate

Savitri, the Sun

divine

i.

"We

reads:

verse

II. 23, 1:24,5

10.
10.

"

on

who

the

which

1 25, 5-

Ibid.,I.

115,

t.

RELIGION

later

affirmed

worship

Brahma

the

as

all the
freedom

of

The

AND

LIFE.

been

have

to

substance

the

of

milked

Veda, and

with
gods," being interpreted
spiritual
meaning.

Veda

these vague

beyond

goes

by

out

"to

the

tain
con-

largest

intimations.

It

the unityof the religious


announces
ment,
sentidistinctly
and
anticipatesphilosophy in referringmonotheism
and
"That
root.
polytheism to a common

which

is One

it Indra,

call many

Agni,

They call
winged heavenly

ways.
the

lightof

the

greater

wise

Mitra, Varuna,

Garutmat."
In

the

less

or

this

extent

mysticalinstinct,which to a
pervades every Vedic
Hymn,

interpretthe fact that all these, so-called,


of the
creators
-gods are
freely declared

must

we

nature

It

world.

within

each

makes

the

vivid and

absolute

as

abundant

passages

fulness

as

the

concentrates

even

in

whole

with

turn

such

personalityof

of this

and
intensity

the Vedic

that of the Hebrew.

descriptiveof

the

God

much

Psalmist.
obscured

more

in the
"To
his

Nor

one

Indra

by
than

case

the heavens

thunderbolt

he

looses

is the

as

There

are

all-creative and

of Indra, in which
it seems
all-mastering
energy
were
we
listeningto the praise of Jehovah
Hebrew

scendence
tran-

as

if

from

of deity
spirituality
and

outward

gery
ima-

sensuous

in the other,
and

earth bow

the waters.

down.

At

With

his

might
the mountains
afraid.
He established the quiverare
ing
earth ; he propped up the sky for the good of all
creatures, upholding the sjcywith its golden lightsin
void space
1

R.

he

spread also the green

V.,1. 164,46. There

Egyptian deit.es

"

Rfv

appellations.So
Sec Rawlmson's

He

Let

us

similar hymns to Osiris,


in which he is identifiedwithothel

are

Archiolofiqne,1857.
the Greek

rodotus,I.

earth.

Zeus absorbed

555.

The
a

Book

'most

of the Dead

every

name

dear

giveshim
to

dred
hun-

popular faith.

THE

worship him
ing, the ever
his

with

and

the dawn.

He

of all

elsewhere

"

that

the

universe

tect
; archi-

Supreme Aryan Jehovah

it is said

lord of

divine

and

like the

him, when
2

worlds."
adored

And

he is not

of old, but "for

And

when

the

all."1

mother

gracious

poets

dawn

Hymns
many

of the

be

turn

to

Savitri,
same

but
birth

or

deity*

Soma,

to

of

parentage

or

vividness

in the

the

rence
recur-

same

and

beginning.

that, after all, the Vedic

remembered

belong to
changes in
gods ; and

filled the

he

Agni, there is not only the


of sovereign power,
description
to this limitingfact of
How
shall this be explained?
to

Birth, andJ

only undecaying,and
ever
young."

to

It is

and

sun

bore

all the

not

established

who

produced

the whole

transcends

of this

measured

not

works

of Him

the earth, and

thingsand

even

have

his excellent

Many

the heavens

exalted, the undecay-

worlds

The

frustrate the counsels

gods can

Yet

the

reverence,

young.

greatness.

HYMNS.

different

represent

the

with each

epochs, and must


specialideal associated

that

every

fresh

form

would

rally
natu-

of the last.
Doubtless, too,
offspring
these images of birth and youth in part refer to natural
transitions or phases of the heavenly bodies, the visible
; and
symbols of deity
report the ever-fresh productive
vigor of their outgoingsand renewals.
They
which
indeed the natural play of the poeticfaculty,
are
recognizesthe lifeof the universe as for ever new, and
creation as an instant fact,
long before science learns
in natural laws.
to find the same
significance
But the root of the idea that the gods are
subjectto
birth and parentage probably lies deeper. While
the
be held the

"

Other examples

may

be

found

in Maury, Ltgendes et

See text* in Muir, vol. iv.


"

X. V., X.

134,

i.

S"i**, Pt II. vii 16.

Croyances^ from

Langlois.

Il6

LIFE,

AND

RELIGION

imaginationwas busied with bringingout the


religious
rally
natuof deityin ever-changingforms, there was
sense
constant

as

these

definite deities

could

satisfythe

These

creators

They

and

them,

Is science

elsewhere,

it

ever

the

deity,but

foreshadow

the tenderest

went

deep

heart

gods ?
than song?
found

was

us

this endless

into

powers

is this but

It finds

way?

the sacred

This

of what

faith in birth

Vedic

else does

only

originof

power.
before.

is behind

beyond
divine

say, "God

to

is,

"

our

wiser

any
has

for the

of them

ancient

the

What

after all,beyond all

of divine

and

them."

bore

mother

None

the

reach

to

outbirths

but

are

in which

eye still pierces,the soul presses,


"A
end
the series.
finds no
to

The

them.

thirst

limitations

involved.

were

"young;"

are

of the

sense

rest

of
syllables
not

to

be

protoplasm,or

beginning?
and

What
of

parentage

inadequacy, and in
by resolvingits series
a

word

whose

fathomed,

of motherhood

name

In

ing
mean-

life which

could

express.
of life,out of which

unfathomed

background
each
and
have
born, must
god was
every
The depth
of Deny,
the religious
consciousness
haunted
a
as
stant
consuggestionof unity beyond all these changing
But it was
ing
forms.
a
unity,which so far from insiston
being"represented in one way only, inspired
with the intensest desire to multiplyforms and
men
this diversity,
bearing witness
symbols of it. And
have
of its productiveresources,
must
prompted it,
in

turn,

to seek

ever

more

and

more

stars

in

this

shut
all-enfoldingdepth of spiritualspace, which
doors
of dogma, and
no
spread no mythic firmareligious
ment^ to stay the wings of thought. The
cessant
imaginationwas not only left free, but invited to increation of mythical names
and forms, ever

THE

promising

HYMNS.

embody

to

and

more

for progress,
religiousforces. This

an

f^th

open

on

It

mortgaged
unwas

progress depends
the old Aryan mythologies

as

made

full.

and

rich

so

far

so

Here

all.

them

that welcomed

ideal

fullythe

more

in this way

was

that

that besets
polytheism, free from the exclusiveness
real
the
monotheistic
conceptions, became
strictly
parent of aesthetic and scientific liberty.
that all these definite conceptions
It is to be observed
of

interfused

deity are

with

of man's

sense

Recogmm

relation

harmonious

what

to

lies

beyond

all

uonofthe
Infimte*

and
content
conception.1And of the spiritual
tration,
cite in illusconfidence
we
hereby made possible,
may
first,a hymn to Hiranyagarbha, or the Light
as
embryo, born in the waters.
"In

I.

the

beginning there

the

arose

of

source

golden light. He

only born Lord of all that is. He established the earth and
shall offer our
sacrifice ?
the sky. Who
is the God * to whom
we
** He
who
2
gives life ; he who gives strength; whose blessing
shadow
all the brightgods desire ; whose
is immortality,
whose
the

was

is death.

shadow

3.

"

who

He

through his

awakening world ; he
He through whom
4.
measured
out the lightin
and

"

to whom

5. "He

power

who
the

sky

is

only King

beast.

and

man

brightand

Who

of this

Who,

"c. ?

the earth firm ; who

is,"c.

and

heaven

breathing

earth,standingfirm by
whom
the risingsun
over

his

will,look

shines

forth.

is,"c. ?

Who
6.

"

Wherever

seed

the
the

is the

governs

the air.

tremblinginwardly. He

up,

"c. ?

God,

is the

Who

and

the
lit the

mighty water-clouds went,


fire,thence

Who

brightgods.
He who by
7.

arose

doee

his

I do not here employ the term


not

convey

my

who

is the

they placed
only life of

is,"c. ?

might looked even


clouds which
gave strengthand lit the
above all gods. Who
is,"c. ?
"

He

where

"

sacrifice.

unknowable," which,

meaning.

Langloistranslates it," To what other god."

the

over

a"*

used

the
water-clouds,
He

who

is God

in scientificparlance,

Il8

RELIGION

8.

destroy1us.

he not

"May

who
righteous,

AND

created

Who

He

of the
also

who

is the God

is this that is "born


"

light ?
lightare but
brightgods ;
of

the Creator

whom

to

earth, the

created

the

shall offer

we

sacrifice ? "

Who

He

heavens.

the

brightand mighty waters.


our

LIFE*

Even

He

the
"

in the

of

garment,

whom
"

the

only life of

the

embryo
and

waters

///%,not apart from them

their

waters," an

the

all these

only,but

in them.3

And

is

here

farther

finite so

consciousness, where

the

darkness
its very
deity,felt as mystery

conception,
yet

is also

with

blends
into

deepens

that

abysses of

into those

venture

infinite,
where

light;

forms of
or
beyond all names
and instant
highestpersonality

life of all.
"There

1.

2.

Death

covered

therefore

not, nor

was

entity;neither

nonentitynor

What

sky beyond.

nor
"

neither

then

was

all ?

immortality;

day

nor

One

has

3.
4.

The

"

Then

covered

first came

forth

buist

germ

Love

upon

The

"

There

ray which

shot

across

between

This

the

being and nought.


it above

these, was

mighty productivepowers,

were

[or

was

heat.

it,the spring of mind.

poets in their hearts discerned, the bond


5.

mental

by

night

nor

breathed,breathless,by Itself [inessence];there


been] nothing different from It,nor beyond It.

That

phere
atmos-

beneath

nature

or

below

and

energy

above.
6.
7.

Who

can

"

Who

then

And

"

"

R.

knows

rules it in

who

He

declare whence

"

in the

its source,

highestheaven

or

knows,

or

followingpassages

The

whether
He

we

later.

gods came
created

or

knows

not/'4

mark

the

not?

pro-

Injure,"accordingto Muir.
V

X,

121.

MUller'a transl. is in Sansk.

the
iv.,is essentially

vol

what

this creation ?

Lit

p.

569. Muir's,in Scuuk-

Texts,

same.

8 Of the
and
monotheism
of the Hindus, recurringat every stage of their history,
independenceof foreigninfluences,see Lassen, II. 1105.
*
*'

none

K, X.
other

can

129, translated

know.'1

by Mttller and Muir.

Colebrooke

its

translates the last clause,

THE

found
the
a

fiat :

That

assembled

were

did

embryo
?

else is within

Something
enveloped in mist, and
Who

"

has

the soul of the world

you.

Who

who

with
?

Beyond

of

these

hymns

gods

things.
about

go

idle talk.1

Where

the life,the blood,

was

it of any

theyshaped heaven
what

on

ere-

P"wer*

all the

produced

to ask

went

in which

chanters

The

unsatisfied

hold,

Him

not

of

sky,beyond gods and spirits;

waters

indeed, in your minds,

ask

men,

the

the tree from which

What

"

to

"

the First Born

seen

it

ascribes

atlve

know

Ye

imperfectsolution

that

is beyond the earth and

which

earliest

lip

which

of existence

specialcreative

what

transcend

yearning to

mystery

"

HYMNS.

He

that knew

it.7

earth ?

Wise

and

stood

when

held

He

the worlds."3

It is the
Cause

definite form

as

from

sprang

is but

There

moral

through the
Every one
and
the

ever

obtain

us

us

existent

mysteries,and

human

and

divine

deities is

moral

dian
guar-

ye gods, with
sin."
"What-

day,
from

The

moral

*Je'"enti
Vcdic
wor-

have

may

"Thou

let

not

"Preserve

us."

sin

Indra, let

committed,

lightof day

upon

life."

our

"This

deliver

knowledge,from
for

"The

'

the safe

come

unityof

the

of these

one

being.

saviour.

we

that

of these

of these Vedic

risingsun,
sin

of existence

solution

one

is for all time

that

conceptionsof Original

he
when
express
says,
exists not."4
that which

would

poets

of all

inadequacy

and

liftus up,

leadest the

man

the

us,

for

ness
long darkAgni, by
work

our

who

ship.

and

followed

has

from
"Deliver
us
paths to acts of wisdom."
is the constantly
evil
recurringprayer.6
"The
gods are not to be trifled with."
"They are
in their hearts."
with the righteous
: they know
man
wrong
"

Y." X. 8a.

"

R.

"

Ibid

I. us*

"

Ibid.,I. 164, 4.

6; II. 27, 14:

Ibid.,X. 81, 4.

#, 14: I. 35-

"

Ibid

X. 7a,

a.

AND

RELIGION

I2O

wicked."
so

to

as

do ye, O
Far
son.
ill-behaving

of

from

self-examination, may

to

have

of the

prayers

committed

correct,
be

me

have

as

many
father his

bonds, far be sins."

"repented

or

What

hymn.1

whole

gods,

removed,"

sins be

our

"I

I"

faults,which

burden

no

Rudra,
6'May I, free from sin, propitiate
attain his felicity,
distressed by heat
one
as

finds relief in the shade

"May

hear

things,and

all

behold

"They

LIFE.

rude

tribes,unused

by

meant

is the

of"

the terms

here

"sinning" and "repenting," may not be


We
mate
readily overestimay
easy fully to determine.
their moral
aspirations. But we shall err even
if we
more
recognizein their hymns nothing
seriously
better than the desire to buy material
advantages from
their deities,or the fear of losingthese advantages,or
It is
of suffering
outward
penaltiesat their hands.3
of wrong-doing from
which
the
very clearlya sense
that
worshipper is seeking relief. It is conscience
pricks him, the rebuke of his moral ideal. Because
the evil he thinks or does offends himself, therefore
Its penalhe holds it an offence to the All-discerning.
ties,
translated

inward

whether

and

loss,
"

both

confessed,

are

to

"

distress

kinds,
he

rectitude

which

to

with

Their
pursue.
prayers
and
ness
ignorance are
"

I do

not

recognizeif

in mind."a

the desert, to
i

For

V, VII.
this kind

Wilson's Lectures
"

R,

one

32, 9;

at

VIII.

"O

13, IS!

Oxford (\^},

y.t I. 164, 37"

as

he
the

am

signs of
aspires.

noticed,

its
It

opposition
is purity

conscience, that these

simple
laden

be

"

confessions
with

like this

earnest

of

weak-*

feeling.

I go on
plexed
perlike a trough in

Agni, thou art


longs for thee."4

who

criticism,
see

of

will hereafter

construes

heart, it is peace

of

as

failure and

outward

or

II. 33, 6} II. 34,5:

Hardwick, Christ and


p. 9,

*" ""
other

Matters^ I. iSa,and

10,

X,
Ibid.,

4t

""

even

THE

The
His

Varcna

Zend

the

and

surround

the

it from
of

farthest

man's
that

all

the

Ouranos
to

zw,

veil

vawnajtu
or

"""i

limn,

confines

outermost

which

of
folds
en-

simple natures, and protects


and oppressedby the mysteries
is the measurer
of depths,

round

them

His

in.

world

is

is
unswerving legislation
forms.54
His worship expresses

calm

beings and

instinctive

cannot

sustainer

and

of these

His

space.

in Varuna.

the Limit,
essentially

ordinances

safetyof

bands

is

being bewildered
immensity. He
wise

whose

the

thought

to

us

He

the universe.

Greek

from

"

remands

"

the

with

kindred

name,

121

eminentlyembodied

is

law

moral

HYMNS.

of natural

sense

He

be loosed.

is

adored

law, of the
as

framer

of the

order of the world ;


everlasting
who
appointed the broad paths of the sun, prepared
from of old, free from dust, well-placedin the firmament;
holds the stars from wandering, and keeps
who
from overfilling
"The
the sea.
the streams
tions,
constellavisible by night,which
by day,
go elsewhere
his inviolable works."
Wise
and mighty are his
are
"

deeds

who

lifted

He

has stemmed

asunder

the wide

firmaments.

high the bright heavens : lie stretched


apart the starry sky and the earth, and made
great
for the days."3 He is calm and immovable,
channels
the Aryan Fate : inevitable things are
his bonds." *
Night,with its mysteriousdeeps and steadfast orderly
watches, is his specialrealm ; and he it is who brings
back
the sun
after passing
to his place, to reappear
Thus
the world was
invisibly
through the heavens.
felt to be stanch with orderlycycles,long
instinctively
before the conceptionof law could be fullyformed.
on

"

Lassen, I. 758.

JK. P., VH1.

Roth,
,

Die

4*.

fochsten

VI. 7a).

GMttr

Ibid

d. Arisclun

V. 85 ; VII. 86, 871 I. 24, "".


d. Deutsck.
V'olker (Zcitschrift

Morgenl.

122

AND

RELIGION

in

But
divine

this

physical order

which

law

LIFE*

in the

shone

eternal

decree

reflected also the

was

conscience, and

against moral

claimed
pro-

disobedience.

"

By day, by night,there is said one


thing. The
is spoken to me
conscious
heart." !
same
by my own
This unseen
Eye of the Night beholds all that has
"

been

all that

and

darkness

shineth

sin

is put

ask

what

"

away.

what
He

Veda

A
w

him,

great Lord

should

Varuna.

He

flee
hath

If

sees

is offended

who

if

near

is there

he

the

stand

one

as

the

beyond

counted

It is he

the

only when the


of beholding thee, I
later hymn from
the

Desirous

of

says

Varuna

To

is satisfied

whisper together;

two

who

light.

offence."3

is my

hide, the

or

the

as

the evil-doer, who

at

Atharva

done."2

will be

or

he

walk,
knows

the

third.

sky would not escape


twinklingsof the eyes

of men."4
He

"

is

merciful

from evil,

and

Let

"

mercy,
3.

"

4.
Have

"

yet, O

Almighty, have
Through want

the wrong

shore.

away

its bonds."6

the

Varuna,

bondage
blind

the

divine

enter

Almighty,have mercy !
like
go along,trembling,

If I

takes

This

of

exorable
in-

an

fear of

compassion,

restores.

not

ma

mercy,

2.

from

physicalnecessity,nor
judge. It has sightof

that spares

Have

evil-doer, and

moralityis plainlynot

wrathful

"

the

sin" extricating
man

Deliverer

1.

to

mercy
of

Have

the house

into

cloud

driven

of

clay.

by wind, have

thou Strong One,


strength,

have

I gone

to

mercy, Almighty,have mercy !


the worshipper,in the midst of the waters.
.

Thirst

came

on

Almighty, have mercy !


Wherever
we
men, 0 Varuna, commit

mercy,

5.

"

"

*.

Muir, V.

K., I.

24,

"

".

p. S3

Ibid.,I as,

n.

Miiller,C*ifa I. p 41.

"
"

an

offence before the

Ibid,,VII. 86.
R.

r." VII, 87} I. a$, "t.

HYMNS.

THE

heavenlyhost
have

mercy,

Similar

in

Vedic

Saviour

names

It has

we

break

Almighty,have
trust

all the

to

; wherever

been

mercy

123

thy law throughthoughtlessness,


!"

forgivinglove inspiresthe
gods. They are all called

and

prayers

by

the

Father.

said that

"

we

look

in vain

in the Vedas

for

psalms, or hymns commemoratpenitential


benefits."2
ing the descent of spiritual
is

only

true

their Semitic
sentiment

of

if

we

take

these

Ar

This

expressions
Hebrew
most

in

anseng

of moral
cvlL

piety,the
meaning. In
fruit of
moral obligation,
yieldingmuch

less an
or
over
sublimityand tenderness, is yet more
bearing despotism. Its austere and jealousGod tends
with dread
of
to paralyze the worshipper's freedom
having done, or of being about to do, something that
Hence
trenches upon exclusive and sovereignclaims.
of contrition, and
a
an
dispositionto dwell
intensity
what
is called the "malignity" of sin, amounting,
on
in the ultimate
ology
phases to which Christian thefor self-contempt
has developed it,to a demand
and

self-abhorrence

even

as

first condition

the

of

nothing like this will be


in the Vedic
other religionof Aryan
found
or
any
origin. But it is not to be inferred that such religions
foundations.
If they
do not rest on moral and spiritual
know
nothing of these moral agonies, so liable to
and
enslave
the mind, they are
for this
not
narrow
reason
incapableof recognizingthe inevitable penalty,
piety!

Now

the need

and

of divine renewal, involved

in evil thinking

ignobleliving.

and

On

it is certain that

the other hand, the

gods are not jealousof the


beckon
libertiesof their worshipper. They cordially
the world
a
on
genial
every side, and make
*

"" K, VII. 83.

"

Hardwick, I. iSz.

RELIGION

124

AND

LIFE.

energies. If there is danger lest


this entire spontaneityshould
relax the authorityof
conscience, there is at least impliedin it a guarantee
of freedom
and progress
indispensableto conscience
itself. It does not
dwell mournfully and
hopelessly
the enormity of offence; but passes
the past, nor
on
on
readily on to greet fresh opportunity,
accepting the
future as still its friend.
This
and
moral
elasticity
standing
ready recovery of self-estimation, this good underopment
and a happy develthe conscience
between
climate

of

for all his

of all human

powers,

despotic moralism

in

Semitic

to the inward

The
The

are

culture, which
its better

gifts

man.

Varuna,

which

have

suggestedthese

criticism upon
concerninga common
religionsof non-Semitic
origin,are not the

tyas.

is

to

corrective

remarks

Adi-

only

life of

Hymns

and
religion
mingled with

has

earnestness

is the needful

illustrations of
of Seven

one

Immortal

Vedic

Varuna

conscience.

Adityas,or EverlastingOnes.1
of Aditi," who

"Children

the

the

is "The

These

Unlimited,

Light Beyond."

Sleepless,beholding all
evil and
things,far and near,
good, the innermost
thoughts of men,
irreproachableprotectors of the
universe, haters of falsehood, punishers of sin, yet
toa, and abandoning none,
forgivers
they "bridge the
and uphold the heavens
for the
paths to immortality,
sake of the upright."2 And
the herdsman
to them
like
prayed that he might escape the vices that were
in his path;" calling
them
to spread their
on
pitfalls
birds spread their wings over
as
protectionover him,
their young."3
Of these the nearest
to Varuna
ja
"

Mitra,
i

Roth,

R.

"

ut

the Friend."
sup* a, Zeitschr.

K., II. 27.

d. D.

Af.
"

"., VI. 69; Mutter's Rig Veda, \,Nott^

Ibid, VIII. 47,

a.

See Muir, V. 57.

9.13*

THE

Neither

is the

125

HYMNS.

the left hand

rightnor

known

to us,

is behind.

giversof
and afraid, be guided by you
homes, may I, weak
our
Far or nigh,there
fear.
to the lightthat is free from
l
who
is in your leading."
harm
to him
can
come
no
mortals
Imthese
of the light,"
Though called "children
neither what

is before

with

confounded

be

to

not

are

what

nor

the
.

Their

heavenly bodies:
Sun,

the

as

they

not

are

phases

mere

been

have

the later Puranas

spint-

ofuaimeanIns"

sup-

conceived
as
They were
the unseen
support and background of his radiance.
have
of the spirit. Their
Their lightwas
very names
moral and religious
import,born of the conscience and
the heart.
Friend, Protector, Beholder,
They mean
Sympathizer,Benefactor, Giver without Prayer.2They
from
the evil spirits,
druhs, that follow
or
preserve
in
the sins of men."
oldest Aryan faith centres
The
The
these Shining Ones.
Adityas are, in fact,radiant
have
that the visible heavens
witnesses
always been
recognizedas the symbol of a Higher Light,through

posed

to

which

the

soul

and
justice,

pay

reverence

divine.

To

in

Max

unbound,

one
1

place

"

the

/?. V., II. a;, ii, 13.

but
Dawn

deities

Miiller, "is the


"

say, the Absolute.

Themother

more,

Beyond

is called
"

the

earliest

one

might

for the

name

derness
ten-

the visible infinite,

unbounded,

It is

oflhcs"ds-

conception of

the Infinite,

to express

"

its infinite

ot

his whole

refer

is the

"mother

bosom

teresting
in-

more

name

no

maternityall

the

to

East, the Dawn,


and

is

Aditi, the

Aditi," says

A-diti
almost

and

must

invented

name

of

that

man
*

infinite wisdom,

to

open

religionthere

Aryan gods.

the

ever

care.*

than
of

lies for

all ancient

In

them.

represent

tant
dis-

the Dawn;

the 'Face

Roth, ut su^ra.

of

126

Aditi.'

In

realm

unbounded

Aditi, however,
O

"She,

was

Daksha,

Aditi.2

And

here

does

that

equal truth,

indicate

not

light

said

noted

be

relation

ideal

but

is also

it must

of descent

she is The

order

Daksha

Yet

gods."1

the

Beyond, the
beyond earth and sky." Beyond
"the powerful.'*
Daksha, literally
who
is thy daughter; after her,

cosmic

her

LIFE.

AND

RELIGION

that this

we

may

child

is the

born

of

ology
phrase-

cession,
chronologicalsuc-

just as

be

to

of

say, with
and
power,

offspring of light. Yet there


all*
doubt
be no
that this reaching forth to an
can
embracing Life beyond and behind specialforms of
the two
conceptionsof
deity, an ultimate in which
under the symbols of male and female,
love and power,
in the interchangeableness of Daksha
combined
are
of being,
and Aditi at the fountain
is but a typical,
expression of the whole
religiousexperience of the
that

is

power

the

"

"

Vedic

For

poets.

in each

invoked,

beyond itself,with
absorb

^act

^iat

of
had

work*.3

duct.
act

the

of

to
typical,

that should

has

revealed

the

apotheosis of which

their

MUrer*s

"

R.

Ne*ve,Myihe des Rfrhava*

Rig Veda^

homage
to

to

we

virtue.

deified

divinitythrough

the

men,

beneficent

"dexterous, humble-minded
The

miracles

ascribed

to

restored

thought godlike in cott*


their parents to youth ; an

Oriental

mind, of all social virtues.

what

the

of

addressed

are

gods."4

had

form

was

are

Ott., I. 76.

earliest

^ie

hymns

the

They

r., x

power

Veda

Rig

the

attained

indicate

them

out

'

record

They

artisans

reach

deity,to

and

ity
capac-

apotheosis have

Some

unlimited

same

every

care

of

study

easiest

who

and

all the rest.

The
The

find the

we

was

I. p. 230, 237 ;

then

Muir, Sanskrit

TVjrfr,IV.

10-13.

7*" 4, 5.
I

Roth, Brahma

und die Brahmantn,

in Zcitsck.

THE

HYMNS.

chariot for the dawn, that daily


a
They had made
They had
blessingsmight be brought to all men.
multipliedsacred vessels for the service of the gods.
They had created, or brought back to life,cattle for
the poor.1 Their
from
that
Ribhavas, formed
name,
indicates upward
fruitful of Aryan roots, which
most
movement,
points to aspirationand growth. It is
closelyrelated to the Greek Orpheus, both names
bolizing
symthe arts of orderlyand rhythmic construction ;
and to the German
able
Elfen, denoting the busy, serviceelves.2 To
to
these divine
seem
helpers,who
have
in some
been
respects identical with the p/tris,
ancestral fathers of families, especiallyin their
or

beneficence, prayers

addressed

were

for

the

same

Thus
the
older deities bestowed.
blessingswhich
and
ascends
stands among
the good man
to heaven,
in the
shine
the gods. The
of the generous
stars
firmament:
they partake of immortality.3They are
who
like the Asvins, those divine physicians,
enabled
the lame

to

aged

youth,

weak,"

to

relieved burns

instinctive

shape

gave
The
Life.

to

with

snow,

sailors from

recognitionof

to

first man

; who

see

the Vedic
who

cured

slow

the

and

cattle,sowed

storms.4
the

divine in the human

idea of

had

restored

"the

of

guardians

were

fields,and delivered
This

blind

walk, the

Future

passed through

The

Futurc

Llfe-

"

X.r.t IV. 33, 33, 36; V.31,3See Kelly'sln4o*EuropfaitFolk-Lore, p. 19


" X.
V.t X. 88, 15 (See Maury, Croyances,"c., 147.) Even if,as N"ve suppose*, the
of the gobletsfor worship,as well as the other seivices
to the gods ascribed
multiplication
"
that they
nnd importance of the religious
extended the pomp
to the Ribhavas, signify
and represented the tendency to priestly
in those earlytimes, itwill be
ritual,"
organization
the less true that they were
exalted to divinity
for acts held in gratefulremembrance
none
That they were
beloved
for merely vicarious and
or
as serviceable to men.
merely priests,
"

official
acts, the whole
4

and

See Muir,

Pitris to the

Folk-Lore*

account

V. 242, and

R.

of them

in the Rig l"eda disproves

V.^ 1. 116-120.

elves of the
or
brightspirits

p. 19.

For

remarks

Teutonic

on

the relations of the Ribhus

mythology,see Kelly'sIndo-Eurof"

128

RELIGION

death
the
and

into his

Yamn's

before

gone
be

not

taken

of

na's world

This

needs.
"

"Assembler

lifehad himself

all human

prepare
from them."

It

man,
huthus

was

to the

homes

and

which

for them,

to

been

Death

bring them

to

welcome

to
light,

joy.1

in another

kindlymessenger,

had

could

"

knew

of

kingdom

of Men

King
and

he

in immortal

waited, enthroned

good

LIFE.

AND

far in Varu-

was

in
perfectand undying light,

"

the

third

very "sanctuary of the sky, and of


great waters," and in the bovsom of the Highest

heaven," in the
the

Gods.
the

Thither

air, and

thither the

the

sky

children

appointed path.3
of

attainment

behold

were

were

That
in

good

their parents

and

"

the earth,
gone, and
underneath
them ; " and

had

the fathers

each
following,
which

his

desire

men

where

world

the

on

abide, free from

own

is the

they

may

infirmities,

Being dwells beyond the stars."4 The


the gloaming %in which
morning and evening twilight,
darkness
the
outstretched
were
mingles with light,
watchful
of
arms
death," the two
dogs of Yama,
The
evitable
to their rest.5
guiding men
poet sang the inthat has for ever
longing,and the assurance
"where

the One

"

with

come

action

it.

is free, and

And

while

the

of

symbolism
between

Roth,

the

Hymns
jR.

ney, Bib.

where

fulfilled."6

are

And

and

feet that
M.

faith
the

G., IV. 426

and

fear, set

grave,
to

were

dead, in their rude

the

move

and
no

stone

placed
more,

th"

and

It. V.t X. i, 14.

113,7-

in R.

V,X.

V, X. 82, 2.

Muller's Science

Rig

for

mingled

in Zeitst.hr. d. D.

V., IX.

immortal,

me

all desires

mourners

themselves

clog upon
R.

make

age-the simple tribes repeated the Hymn.

after

age

"There

of Language, IT. 496.


Hymn** translated by Muir, Sttnsk. Textt, II. 468,and ty Whit*
Sac., 1859; Roth, D. M. G., II. 225; IV. 428.
Veda

Burial

THE

took

bow

the

them

portionsof

"

trustful
him

kindly,and

bounty

body of
appeal to

the

him

cover

child

"

placing in
protecting

hands,

Nature's

the

ritual made

I2p

nerveless

the

of

in token

"

care

from

HYMNS.

and

goat
Earth

the

with

her

their

cow,

or

to

"

receive

garment

as

"

warm
Fire-gods,to
by
their heat his immortal
part;" and to the Guide of
him
to bear
Souls,
by his sure
paths to the world
of the just," To the body it said, Go to thy Mother,
I lay the
the wide-spread,bounteous, tender Earth.
feelest
; thou
covering on thee : may it press lightly
it not.
Pass, at thy will, to the earth or sky." And
thou home
to the fathers, on
their
to the spirit, Go
is evil in thee : guarded
ancient paths : lay aside what
his sharp-eyed sentinels, by right
from
by Yama

mother

her

the

to

rf

"

"

ascend

ways

the

to

it, and

farthest

dwell, in

heaven,

if thou

hast

served
de-

shining body, with the


gods* May the fathers watch thy grave, and Yama
him
"Let
times
depart," it is somegive thee a home."1
added, "to the mighty in battle; to the heroes
laid down

have

who

bestowed

have

who

feet of

the

"Wash

Atharva;

the

says

their

lives

their
him
"let

who
him

for

goods

others,
the

on

is stained
go

to

upward

those

poor."2

with
with

sin,"
pure

feet."
And

amidst

so,

purifyingfires,the
Way

and

death

Nature,

was

libations of water, and


prayers,
loved were
sped on their unseen

conquered, in

these

rude

children

unquestioningtrust in the eternal


of virtue, in the fidelity
of the departed, in
validity

of

Mttller's

Whitney,

Trans

irf tupra.

riteof the Greeks


"

by

and

an

Hymns, in Zeitschr d. D. M. "?.,IX. \.Aff"endix\ and


"
The tender invocation,
a part of the burial
was
may it press lightly,"
Romans
also.
Eurip.,Alcest.,463 ; Juvenal,VII. 207.

1. of Burial

*. P., X. 154.

AND

RELIGION

I3O
the

of

care

trust

bond

and

world

unseen

the souls of

to

natural

the

their

as

thought of

Sr"ddha,

it has descended

and

their graves
tribes with an

is the
spirit,

his father's

to

son

simple
The

life.

tude
grati-

at

parents

of these

future

of rice-cakes
of the Hindu

childlike instincts of

such

paid by

honor
and

was

wide

as

their need.

being, or
The

Providence

LIFE.

ing
offer-

or

first duty

from

remotest

religionof filialpietyappears
in all branches
of the Aryan race.
So great,"says Cicero,
is the sanctity
of the tomb.
Our
have
desired that those who
ancestors
departed
antiquity. This

oldest

"

"

this life should

be

fear in the

men

of the

souls

"

first

dead,
have

belongs to
Latin

held

"

their

watch

tribute of

fathers
those

of

rites.

holy

Whethe"r

the

"f tne

spirituaibody.
of

The

the

of all law

the

inities
div-

expect
in

were

"

fact

religionof
family,isolated and
the

social life and

the

rite.

and

buried

body was
spiritwas

Pitris,blessed

of

centre

it

nature

Chthonioi

Theoi

represent

when

patriarchaltimes

of

Pitris

The

Let

next, the

descendants, and

their

over

self-sustained,was

Vedic

the

"

offspring."2The
"

the Greek

and

above

course

their

of

care

Plato says

gods

in the

families, and

foundation

the

place

to
correspond perfectly

who

deities." l

to whom

Dii Manes

as

or

burned, the garment


"

fire, the brightarmor

to be

it cannot
here receive the
Agni."3 Of course
ious
religsymbolic meaning which it holds in the mature
in the poetry of the later mystics.B"ut
imagination,
to take it in a merely gross
it would
be equally wrong
material

and
i

De

XI.
/,"?";*,

cast

;?.

Ltg-.,II.
K., X.

So Eurip.,A lent.

*a.

"

detect in itthe natural

Slant manibus

arae

"

(HL 64).
Virgil

8.
14, 8 ;

16, 4

off their old bodies

of fire.

In fact,we

sense.

and

So, in the later epic belief,the perfectmen*


ascend

new

ones

of

splendorlike the

the great cages,


hi chariots

sun, and

THE

HYMNS.

of all ideas, Christian

germ

13!

or

other, of

spiritual
clingingof
a

and soul; a
body; a blending of sense
the
affections to the familiar
the imaginationand
through which life has been manifested, as
organs
if still existingor destined to resume
existence, even
after they have
Vedic
turned
to dust.
Hymns not
only exhort the fire not to burn nor tear the body,"
but even
in heaven
with
invoke the fathers to
rejoice
Even
all their limbs."
the gods themselves
have
material enjoyments. Here it is the deep natural instinct
^

"

"

of respect for
and

But the

death

over

power

life,that attributes permanence


its corporeal exponents.

to

even

doctrines

of

spiritual
body
glorified
from
and a corporeal resurrection spring originally
confused
instinct. They betray the same
the same
perceptionof the relations of the physicalwith the
maturer

Christian
Of

the

gross materialism
neither is it so in the Vedic

if this is

And

moral.

dogma,

nature,

same

in the

not

and

hymn.

equally common

among

tency
earlyraces of the Aryan stock, is the apparent inconsisof treating
if shut up under
the departed spirit
as
ground,and dependent on food providedat the grave
time invoked
by livingrelatives,while it is at the same
as
moving in a freer sphere,and addressed as con-

fcciousof their veneration

The

moral

aspect of Vedic

same

respect for life and

jh his

armor

was

to

as

Juvenal,VII.

not

was

to

live for self: he

Such
intimated

207 ;

is the
in

the

immortal

hymns,

Life"

function
which

Euryd.^
15.

X.

85

to

of

be
the

represent

Mn^
Alcest.,
Eurip.,
463,993-1003 ; Helene, 962 ; Vii^il,

I. 16; Ovid's Metam.

{Orph. and
Roth in D. M. G.t I. 76? IV. 428} R. K, X.

Cie. T**c*Qws^
"

of fire

immortalitypointsto the
The spirit
its uses.
jmmortai

protectthe good, to attend the gods, and

like them.2

love.1

and

III. 67;

AND

RELIGION

132
them

sky with

the

adorned

nightand lightin
thirst,they

"On

the

who

other

none

in the

darkness

when

drinking up
if to satisfy
physof guardianship.

offices

fathers,there
back

turn

it."

succor

who

"He

of the

path

to

in

busy

are

have

"They

life

actual

the

than

men.

patriarchalmen,
and

placed

stars,

day." Even
worshippers,as

life is

immortal

of the best

the

of their

the libations

Their

therein.

altogetherhappy

as

ical

LIFE,

eightand eightythousand
ness
earthlylife to sow righteous-

are

to the

gives alms

the

to

goes

highest heaven, goes

to

the

gods/"
"To

be kind

We

find the

belief among

same

the great there."3

is to be greater than

the poor

to

the

"The

Greeks.

souls of the dead," says Plato, reproducing the oldest


faith of his race,
incline, like the gods, to the care
"

of the
those

who

destitute

the

and

orphans

but
justly,

act

angry

they

with

are

those

kind
who

to
act

otherwise."4
Vedic
NO

its heaven, but

futurityhas

inferno,

of

traces

hell.5

penalties.This
"

world.
of

The

Druhs,

Not

would

that sins
be

powers

the

R.

A\

Sec

V., X.
V., I.

The

15 ;

But

these

simple

trust, rather than

R.

hates, of the poet. Their

III
Yfkjna-valkya,

186.

5. 6.

125,

XI.

same

8.
is

true

three intimations of
"

their

Miiller,C7///J,I. 46.

*-"""",

or

without

is merciful,
divinity
and loves to efface the marks
of transgression.
the yearnings of the heart to brightenand warm
shadows
leave no room
of futurity
for that sternness

distinct

of evil,'follow the sins

binding as with cords."6


hymns are natural outpouringof the

And

are

very

impossiblein Varuna's

men,

of the i'ears or

no

y., VII.

61,5;

of the
an

oldest Chinese

abyss of
59,8.

daxkness.

or
Scriptures,
"Kings.1* The Veda has

Muir

V. 313.

two

HYMNS.

THE

judgment which
of avenging
spirit
of

civilized

blacken

would

wrath.1

with

them

The

worked

has been

races

133
its

own

theologicalhell
up

with

refined

of

vin-

exaggerationof moral evil


of organic sin," that does not shrink
under the name
ble
from staining
the eternity
of God
with blind inexoraBut this systematizedferocityin judicial
hate.
and
from the perversiontf developedmind
logiccomes
clictiveness,and

morbid

"

conscience.

of rude

familiarities

childish

The

races

gods are not so audacious and irreverent as


if they lack the constraints of its infernal
this ; and
also their fearfully
demoralizing
terrors, they escape
with

their

power.
Here

perience,
spontaneityin man's exbefore he had
begun to brood over
Sponta.
the hideous
fantasyof everlastingwoe ; and UCltyfar the good impulses of
we
are
glad to note how
Nature have sped him without the goads of that dismal

is

period of

pure

lore.
We

hail the

of
simplicity

instincts,so frank
a

child,

the

or

in the

trust

filial and

"Give

from

dales and
*

who

X.

It associated

firm belief
had

This

itself with

in the continued

entered

Varuna's

world

death.

me,

Agni, lo

my

the great

mother."

intensity of
the North

V., I. *4,

sympathy and

American
2.

Aditi,that

I may

again behold

In the earlyteachingof Buddhism, there


the

play.

at

based
tive
intuiwas
on
an
immortality
of life,and in destinyprocontinuity
portioned

parentallove,

father and

my

spiritual

in

interest of ancestors,

beyond

and

of his limbs

the best desires.

to

moral

direct, like the opening eyes of

and

movement

entire confidence

these

pity.

seems

Among

Indians, there

is

no

to have
cei

been

tain savage

definite rdea of

similar

races,
a

hell.

as

effect,arising
the

Kamska-

AND

RELIGION

134
Such

reliance

its

prophetic of immortalityin
too, with

comports,

the

predominates in

which

qualityhas perhaps led


faint belief in

hut
tributes

to
as

It

highestmeaning.

of present realities
genialsense
Yet
this very
these Hymns.
cate
to an
impressionthat they indiThe

existence.

ajuturc

constant

been
for example, have
pitris,
sented
reprebrance."
"merely an expression of gratefulremem-

estimates

Such

of continued
a

and

healthful

deep

that it is

so

and

fail of

naturallybe

veloped
de-

in life itself. It is

confidence

in the Vedic

that instinct

justiceto

would

which

existence

by

Every god

is

the

earnest

affections

of the

demands

the

on

LIFE.

poets, for the very

closelyassociated with
every good act, it would

son
rea-

affections.

the

was

seem,

the

of

"immortality."
The
of living,
the feelingof real import in
sense
been very
have
actual, present experience,must
tense
inthe Vedic Aryans. And
this
in such
a
race
as
and
the
the germ
is ever
guarantee of all genuine
sightin the direction of a future life. In the Rig Veda
it is perfectly
pure and simple : it has not a trace of the
of transmigration,
later schemes
with their elaborate
ingenuityof fear ; nor of ascetic disciplines
bartering
in this life for bliss in another.
comfort
This religion
is just"
the inborn
impulse to believe, .to aspire;
promise

the natural

that finds the hand

search

it is this very
belief
"

not

in the

naked

even

now

and

in India
rests

on

that

immortalityof

it was

similar
1
*

the

soul," says

Wheeler's
Le

for
interrupted

never

what

it to feel.

moves

inactive, but livingand

gloriousbody, was
is

hand

it feels after,because

in those

moment:

ancient

metaphysical basis."
History of India,

^eda^ p. 186.

II.

436.

Burnouf,

clothed
a

"The

with

it

times, and
2

HYMNS.

THE

Here

is

yet

as

organized priesthood,

nor
idolatry

no

authority. The

nor

mediatorial

risen

the

fetichism

to

be without

ecclesiastical

no

135

Aryans

had

is found

in the lowest

elements,1

to

beyond
races

which

stage

Simplicity

which

Of life and

worshlp-

these

them

with

dispensed

through higher insight. The parent, as transmitting


of religion.
the mysterious
life principle,
the centre
was
ate
Each
householder
was
as
Arya, capable of immedithe family deities ; was
relation with
priestand
psalmistin
is

of

their

castes.3

no
tion
prohibiburning of widows,
filial instincts
marrying again. The

of

polyandry, which
epics,and of which

of

of the

sense

which

words

of
testify

to

in all

the

on

are

instances

See

Wilson's

Haug,

in Lubbock's

Intrvd.

viable

one

the

in

the

II. 457.

in

Muir's

Wilson,

R.

idea

of that

us

tribes.7

The
the

Origin of Civilization.

an

oigamzed form

in

only that

piove

to

the

the oldest Vedic

geimt*

ol

early rituals. His pnncip.il


.uuhouty, K
See

the Vedic

walking round

Buinoui, p. 426,
Brakmanen,
Affirms,continry

to

Muir, V. 457.
Burnonf, Le Veda, ch
Web^rW;;*/.

and

race.6

die

seem

of the

Germanic

scxes

equal-

to

strongly reminds
old

The

is

Veda

Rig

existed

his* illustidtions

of late origin.

to

und

Brahma

that the castes

"

in but

represent them,

level, and

same

relations

prevailed in

Texts,

custom

distinctly in the

Aryan tongues

marriage rite by joininghands

as

the barbarous

this fine instinct in the childhood

sexes

which

were

tional.4
excep-

of family ties
significance

chosen

remain

of their mutual

was

hymn.5
delicate

The

absent,

is discovered

trace

its sacramental

had

more

appears

indicated in the words


"

from

stillfarther

are

of

yet innocent

as

marriage relation
polygamy, though not

We

Vedic

order

social

The

rites ; and

There

stilldomestic.-

the

basis

the

rites were

and

of

trace

no

were

one

these

tunes.

distiiut

lr.,X.

90,

effective replyto this theory of Haug

V., II.

opinion of
At

most,

otdeis

Wheeler's

Hut.

Pictet,Orig. Indo-Eioop., II. 338

ever,
how-

grntMallylegarded
Kein,

in

of India, II.

vii.

ars,
schol-

of .society

Sanskrit

xu
"

Stud** V. 177:

is

and

most

503.

136
hearth
"

does

Husband

wife

and

the

There

mother

of the

and

holds

it in her
who

mothers,

the

hymn."
; and

'*

As

The

sun

the

dawn

loving wife
her

their labors."

"

religionof
the

humor,

that it is

"the

not

at

hymns

forth

as

in

by

man

bride."

husband,

to

band
of hus-

of Indra

radiant

does

so

she,

all creatures

arouse

thee,

Dawn,

to

thou

as

Pictet, Ortg-.hido-Ewo/".,

Weber,

A', r., V. 2,

Rig

r., X.

i,

11
97.

the

thingto

vicious

II.

37,

Roth

I.

;
,

x. 23

iu D.

sick, and
instinct

functions, in which

of

pasture flocks, as

or

the sacred

fire."7

purport, and

record

personal and
which
have
descriptions

38, Muller, Sansk.

X.
,

M.

of

touch

on

338.

democratic

habits

"

3),

physician

the

cure

kindle

or

The

hints, with

and

tillthe earth

of

hymns.
ploughshare may

fortune."

happiness,in

/V//ci7///4,v//f
pp.

in harvest

serious moral

/ W"f,

"

community

have

domestic

A'

union

dawn

her

There

affection, and

The

the

stroke.6

one

effects

^le

Ethics.

sky.4

embrace

to

that

bad

the Soma

crush

as

the

is honored

good

play in this Vedic


purohita could

Some

"

moving

healing herbs,

money,

well

the

herself

with

earth
his

has

sacred

of

is like "a

prays

blesses

make

to

labor

husbandman

cut

the

to

Rise, daughter of heaven, with blessings! "6

ascendest.

The

"

follows

Soma,

domestic

all breath, is
life,

All

cred
sa-

the

of love.

shows

form

the

gathers
babe

child

this

sentiment

smiling,reveal

The

as

wife is likened

and

woman

bosom

descriptive of

breathing
the

lire, who

altar

adorn

hymns

are

for

cares

the
oblation, often composes
to
references, perhaps symbolical,

are

the

household, and

the

vessels, prepares

hymn.

or

female.1

the

over

Woman

"

natural

in the

equal

were

sacrifice.2

of

altar

male

of the

supremacy

ff

either

imply

to

seem

"

ordained

at

not

LIFE.

AND

RELIGION

4).
,

i ;

XXV.

I.

Lit., p. aS.
Ibid

R.

K., IX. 96.

II. 33, 5.

48, 9^.
7

Burnouf, Essaisurle

Veda,

p. 227.

THE

lost
of

of their truth

none

three

thousand
in his need

ruin

winner

the

the wives

and

entreated

not

he

makes
Here
"

"

too

wise

The

"

an

Let

to the
"

with

meets

such

the giving of

bounty rolls
who, provided with
his

house

is

one

the

powerful be

of his

r^

milk, when

"

largesshis

gift."

breastplate."

pain."

nor

wheels."

easy

food, hardens

his

heart

Let every

him.

cheer

to

none

on

trade

first presented

want

is

Rudra

mind."

one

who

suffer neither

wife, and

Savitri with

of

him

men

of

car

"He
poor,

wife

no

gifts,and

own

lapse

finds

men."

of other

anoint

makes

man

bountiful

*'The

his

see

philanthropic
sayings:

are

regard as king of

The

"

Men

"

transient

advantage, like

and

man

to

homes

to "take
"

gambler

give

is vexed

he

the

by

nature

The

his dice

happy

worshippers."

for human

years.

comfort

137

HYMNS.

one

the

against
depart

from

let him

look

home."

no

the

to

generous

suppliant:

long path."

For

riches

revolve

like wheels

they

to

now

come

one,

and

to another."

now
"

He

who

And

"

Atharva

Veda,

simpler

domestic

perform

with
Let

delightin each

Of

the Vedic

-Yet, so

as

other

in

highest to
form, in
and

dearest
"

V.% X.

other, as of
nor

far

as

we

of

echo

an

the

(Muir).

the

house.
a

to

cord,
con-

you

at the birth of her calf.

cow

sister sister."

speak

cannot

can

impart

there

see,

was

tively.
posi-

so

Meaning

of

SAU"lflce-

simplicityin these
Sacrifice
is always from

possession to
107, 117

from

and

lowest, from
sense

also."

"

in your

matters.

the

some

age

like

sounds

sacrifices,we

frankness

same

which

hate brother,

his sin to himself

has

quaint benediction

incantation

an

brother

not

the

his food to himself

finallyis

here

later
this

keeps

the

earliest

consecration
his

ideal.
"

Ath.

to

of

the

the

latest

one's

best

Even
Ved.t III.

in
30.

the

138

RELIGION

lowest

tribes this

of fear, or

AND

be the

cannot

of sin

atonement

LIFE.

reluctant

mere

service

trust, and love,


gratitude,

mingle in these primal relations with the invisible.


And
the very sincerity
of the instinct involves searching
for the mysterious and
the noble qualities
even
of things,beyond their mere
barter price; an
effort
must

their

discover

to

words,
And

an

ideal

so

the

values;
representative

in

other

aim.

offered

Aryan

these

three

:
gifts

the

life to all
juicespromised new
ficcs.
inactive
butter, as choicest
; clarified
powers
brew
giftof his herds and his simple art, just as the Heand wine;
red his corn
and, above
all,fire^
o fit1
the purest of elements, the lightnncl life of nature
as
These
his best he brought with awe,1
of man.
and
not
choice, but as themselves
only as his own
taking
parhe yielded them
of the divinity,
to whom
to
as

plant

Vcdicsacn-

their natural
because
than
act

he

their

he

god

and

source

in

divineness

saw

could

life.

inmost

It

was

his

meet

that

; to

and
own

nestled within

chosen

for

nothing less

further,not

only

them

In the sacrificial

to

himself, but also

towards

joy of finding his

them

had

desire.

not

meant

purpose,

He

home.

stood their ministrant

saving power
own

whose

to

destroy,

effectuate
to

second

their
their

inspirethe divinitywith the


speeding the inherent goodwill
them

to

its fulfilment

in the

The
offering,this
bright track of the altar flame.
swift to
brightAgni, was thus a radiant messenger,
and
bring the earthlyblessingand the divine society,
and
winged with freedom
delight. Do we not note
that intuition,which
makes
here in its early form
the
his own
saint or martyr see
transfigured,
by
powers
the ideal to which
they have been dedicated, as his
i

Rig Veda,

I. "ji ; VI.

47 ; VI.

16, 42.

THE

139

HYMNS,

gift? Such meaning was hinted in Soma, symbol


of life given for the good of men,
to quicken them
to
"immortality." It is the vital fire of the universe
best

poured

through

out

to resurrection

the

in the

flame.

in the

of death

mystery

"It

plant,

generates the great

to all mankind."1
lightof day, common
This covering up of destruction
by consecration,
involved in sacri- Human
this absorptionof the death
fice by the life it is to effect,this belief in the s-lclifi^
all loss, through satisexaltation of the victims above
faction

divine

of the
the

fact
significant

whatever

key

our

form

some

almost

of the

of men.2

race

regarded,to

greater

victim,

at

the

as

of his best

in

or

of

custom

been

everywhere

less extent,

or

time

some

been

It has

fulfilment

that

sacrifice has

human

every

is forever

"

in the sacrificial impulse,under

painfulfact

the

to

them,

Even
it appears.
its darkest
forms
with this redeeming instinct. This is

name

interwoven

are

affinities within

exaltation

an

desire

as

his

opportunityof representingthe affections of


of their sins, or
the worshippers, the atonement
the
Thus
the
of their hopes.
assurance
Nicaraguans
offered themselves
believed
that only such
the
as
on
funeral piles of the chiefs would
become
immortal.3
sublime

The

Aztec

victim

was

held

to

be

favorite of the

the

god ; and every giftand honor was lavished on him in


preparationfor his exalted destiny. We are told of a
Mexican
king who devoted himself with many of his
lords

to

sacrificial death,

insult!4
victims
1

Khonds

The
as

divine, rear

to

efface

regard
them

their

with

dishonor

the

chosen

of

an

human

tenderness,

utmost

Xtf Veda, IX. 61.


record

summed

in Baring Gould's

woik

the

Origin of Relifhut
Btliufich. xviii. See also Mackay's Progress of the Intellect,vol. li.
4
* Brin ton's Myths, "c.,
Prebcott'b Mexico^ I. 84.
p. 145.
*

The

sad

is

up

on

RELIGION

140
and

teach

The

choice
well

as

beast

of such

LIFE.

.noble

victims

and

that

free from

honored,

in the rites of Baal,

sufficient evidence

fate

the

them.1

destiny awaits

were

as

precious

most

man,

or

that

them

as

AND

of

whether

Moloch,
was

blemish,

or

Zeus, is

believed

be

to

the Ramayana, the hermit


a blessing. In
essentially
for
Sarabhanga, believinghimself desired by Brahma
his heaven, only defers self-immolation
till Rama's
coming. Having seen this incarnation, he is content,
and
off his body as
hastens
to cast
a
serpent his
funeral pile,enters the fire,
a
slough." lie prepares
and
being burned, arises as a youth from the ashes,
brightas flame.2
The
burning of widows with their husbands, practised
Brahmanical
under
not
rules, and
yet quite
not
extinct, was
joining
by the hope of reonly commended
desired as a crown
of glory
the lost,but even
in the eyes of the assembled
also a
people. It was
deliverance
from the doom
to solitary
asceticism, or to
ants
new
repulsive relations for securing male descend"

have

It has
who

out

of

under

estimated

been

undergo

it are

that

moved

by

would

alone

stances.3
circum-

these

five-sixths of the
devotion

their

to

spiritof this rite liftsit high


of martyrdom which
have
forms
those
grown
Pagan or
ignorant notions of duty, whether

affections.4
among

attachment

quite natural

sail

made

women

Mutual

deceased.

to the

actual

The

Christian.

Women

have

been

seen

their joined hands


flames, lifting

ordinary prayer.5

Ibn

century, that the


1

Mrs.

See

"

Arnold, II.

Spier'sIndut,
Wheeler's

Hist

314.

p.

21,

was

in
as

the

the
if

at

teenth
four-

usuallysurrounded

RAmfiyana, B. III.
Life of Dalhousu, II. 316.
Life of Eljhinstone*I. 360.

Arnold's

of india^ II. 116,and

calmly

reports, in

Batuta
woman

as

seated

HYMNS.

THE

friends who

by

while
the

to

danced, down

laughed, played,or
And
of being burnt.
considered
not
rightto

it is

departed,
spirits

to

she

moment

tells us

commissions

her

gave

14!

Dabistan

the

force

woman

into the fire/'


In the
for the

Mahabharata,

that

other

Herodotus

mentions

And

rest.1

their

following
destiny.2
it

sacrifice existed

exaltation

had

can

we

in the

them

it

et

in

assemble

he is made
That

is

by

this, as

Hymns
data

him, and

no

means

well

as

the

and
4

Herod., V.

Keyser, Private

Kahkii

See, on

he

gains the
were

of the

sacrifices

;
M

without

and

victim

all
so

to

deities

the

great

be

sinner

love of the universe."

and

the

Horse
are

Siva,

cruel superstition

the

ever

of

very

by the
supposed

Vedic

offered

ever

clear

more

and

such.

as

rite,which

worship

far

him

notices

Sacrifice," in the
uncertain

destructive

ical
histor-

of life in any

5.

Life of the Northmen^

Punitia, As.
one

tent
ex-

declares

be

Brahmanas,

while

greater

beliefs

Brahma

pure, and
sacrifices

such

Aryans
of

accepted by

been

Siva

was.

himself."

as

even

to

Puranas, this barbarous

surelyhave

than

an

their

Vedic

the

as

on

In the Veda.

; and

still penetrated by such

would

insisted

among

part of the established

widows

to

realize

to

grief

sharing

regarded

been

now

later

become

is found

of the victim

than
Even

have

the

to

refer

and

chief.

Thracians

Baldur,

of

husbands

dead

must
-

first and

Sagas

wife

favor*

the

was

of the

custom

Norse

the

If, then, human


Aryans,

she

the

was

raja dispute

wife for this honor,

the

Nanna,

like

who,

she

the

select the best beloved


of the

of

pleadingthat

one
privilege,

ite wife, the

widows

two

Res., vol.

hand, Colebrooke

p. 42.

v.

(I.61,62); Wilson, in

At.

your., XVII.;

Roth, in

AND

RELIGION

142

form

seldom

nowhere

in the

appear
mention

any

evidence

for

inference

from

an

even

Veda

Rig

to

of

the later form


the

There

sacrifices, in

allusion

afterwards

Sunahsepa,

Veda."1

Rig

human

whole

in the

terms)

of

LIFE.

and

them

old Vedic

one

of this

centre

tinct
dis-

the

rests

is

only

on

an

legend.
sacrificial

tale, is in the Vedic


and

in

Hymn itself simply a prisoner,


who
is delivered
through
deadly peril,

prayer

to

Varuna,

bound
his

And

so

the

hear

us

without

they

say

teaches

takingnot away
day and night ; this

He
Varuna

in

the fettered

whom

allusion

necessary

no

our

life. This

my

own

heart

Sunahsepasought

King, shaljius

our

death.

One,
far-ruling

wrath,

me

me.

of life and

He, the

poet sings,"May

to

prayer,
There
is

Master

as

here

to

also

free."2

sacrificial

for

ence
supposing such referis in the mythic story found in the later Aitareya
3
Brahmana
in which
of a
Sunahsepa is the son
;
and
bought for a price, to be
starving Brahman,
substitute for a certain prince,
offered to Varuna,
as
from
his birth, is taking
devoted
who, having been
rite ; and

the

this method

to

also Varuna

only ground

Weber's
Sansk.
D.

which

not

276)that

On

Wilson's

"

/?.

"

262.

Of the

two

function

of

in old

defers

exacting
Sunahsepa is

Vedic

illustrations to confirm

Hymns
"

them, in Zeitschr,

concerningthe Horse
and

Weber

"one
Sacrifice,

himself has shown

victims in
as
long listoi persons of every class,enumerated
of a similar character.
be, in part if not altogether,
certainly

the

d"
at

(vt supra,

V"Lyasanevi

httrod., xxiv.

V.t 1.7,1, 12; V. 1,2,7.

See Muller's Sansk.


of

but
destroying,

the other,M tiller'sstronglyexpressed suspicions,

additional

the

Sanhitft,must

is his natural

least,"says Burnouf, "is certainlysymbolical;


p.

of

Here

the doom.

again and again he


prince'slife,and when

Ind
Stud.% II. m.
Lzt., 419, and Weber's

J., XVIII.

the

to

part

from

For

faith.

his claim

the

acts

preservingGod,
Hindu

himself

ransom

Purusha,

the

existence of human

The myth of a sacrifice


Lit.,p. 408 ; Weber's Ind. Stud., II. 112.
X.
Spirit,
by the gods (/?. V.t
90),believed by Haug to prove tbj
sacrificein the oldest time,is regardedby Muir as of late origin.

THE

143

HYMNS.

"

bound

in his stead,

in the

at the

his prayer,

altar,answers

as

legend, with deliverance, bidding him


"praisethe gods and so be free."
Here, however, it is plainlyimplied that men
were
older

offered

sometimes
of the

The

Brahmanas.

substitution of the horse


victim

of the

then

same

for

ram

substituted

the

hind

Manetho

relates

substituted

images made
in place of

of bulrushes

as

in the
to

have

intimations

of what
ogous
anal-

that

of the

as

figures;and
thrown

were

the tomb

at

men

Ovid, that

into the Tiber

livingbeings. Many
ity,
abolishingthis barbar-

with

And
to
Cecrops, Hercules, Theseus.
Mahabharata
myth, who punishes it as
offered victims

Mexican

earth

strength from

Typhonic

wax

credited

are

the

Hebrew

the old sacrifices of

heroes

sively
succes-

Amasis, King of Egypt,

that
of

of Osiris, and

Greek

sacn.

fice'

then

of

story, and of
for Iphigenia,by Diana, in the

sacrifices

the

human

sacrificial

races

in the

Records
a

lastlyof

mythic

for Isaac

received

abolished

and

of other

legends recorded

horse

historic fact derive

perhaps

Greek.

as

for the

ox

its products.1 These

was

man

ages
"

record

ages

sheep, the goat,

of the
and

#0s"-Vedic

in these

upr

to

monarch,

Krishna
a

crime

Siva, corresponds the historical

who

delivered

Anahuac

from

similar rites.
These

do

analogies,however,
India

in

custom

back,

went

not

Hau"

as

that the

prove
has

inResults.

Tr

sisted,

to

,.

Vedic

mythologic,may
crueltyof
to

find far back


them.

progress,

but prove
such
in

They
in

even
1

buch

times.

forms

consciousness

of

worship, and

an
antiquity

would

thus

stages of social

itareyaBr"ktnana,

testimonies,

as

.,-

if

of the
the

authorityfor

herent
in-

desire
tinuing
discon-

of
to a germ
testify
decay. That human

quoted by M tiller.

AND

RELIGION

144

LIFE.

"

sacrifices

is certain

there

but

when

earlier age

had

not

they

continent, whose

engulfedin
make

yet

in the

and

as

the Western

on

all

was
simple religion

Aztecs.

of the

of Vedic

character

destruction

Different
forms

of

hu-|e

tion
civilizadence,
of the evi-

state

have

of the evil-doer

who

ftn(j res;stecj t}le;r c]aims

sacn-

man

that itcould

an

mingled immolation
with its simple offerings
of the product of the
of men
dairy and the plant of the field.
the
The Vedic gods were
indeed believed to approve
to

believe

been

existence,

an

hesitate,in the present

us

have

civilization

Toltec

pure

well

sanguinaryinstitutions

the

is much

there
to

may

tory
his-

Hindu

periodsof

there

for that noble

was

And

in later

offered

were

offended
;

and

their

to

slay
J

an
acceptable service.
"godlessDasyus" was
sanction for inflicting
But this desire to find a religious
extreme
penaltieson real or imagined crime is
from the desire to please
to be distinguished
manifestly
him a human
victim purely
the deityby bestowing on
oblation.
The
national gods of the Hebrew,
an
as
the Norseman,
and
the Greek,
were
appealed to in
the same
as
mies,
fullydisposed to destroytheir eneway,
fice.

and

to

accept for service

worshipper chose
the
Substantially
God

to

such

inflictin their
is
spirit

same

in the doctrine

as

revenges
name,

ascribed

on

to

his
the

of eternal

the
own.

tian
Chris-

punishment, which
of the belief that deitywould
is simply a refinement
fain deal inexorablywith its foes, though carried over
into the other life and from
physicalto eternal woe.
It appears
frequentlyin the New Testament,1 and apparently
from the lipsof Jesus,2as well as from
comes
he rebukes.
But incomparably
the intolerant disciple
1

Matt.

xxv.

Matt.

x.

41,

33;

46; Romans

xii. 32;

ix. 17-23;

xxiii.33;

Tim.

xvui. 17, 18, 35;

i. 20;
xxv.

passim.
Apocalypse,
41.

THE

the

form

worst

the

and

of

that God

crime

bloody inquisitions
upon
witches, in which

in Hebrew

-penalties

criminals;

such

"hanging
"before

Lord," and

Christian

on

his

sins; and

is held

they

to

differ very

redeemed;"3

or,

death

sin of the

of

the best

evidence
barbarism

age
of

or

of

Numbers,

those

who

self
had

all these

cruel

ments,
atone-

fcnaltyfor

devotingto

we

may

of Baal
death

add, the

men

tian
Chris-

is of

similar nature,
essentially
satisfydivine justicefor the

to

course

either in

seems
xxv.

simply primitiveclass
abounded

specialcrueltyin

personal
there

lies
fami-

worst.

In the former
the Vedic

pieces,

tyrannical

the abominations

"not

"

in

decidedly from human


such
ing
as Jephthah's offer-

Chcrem^

atonement," which

fact

supposed

kings

\*e paying the

the dreadful

"

in

were

worship,2or
be

or

or

In

sacrifices in the proper sense,


of his virgindaughter,or

to

actual

sword

of God.

victim

the

for

arguments

commandment

were

fices,1
sacri-

simply the earlier


ous
barbarover
rejoicings
in India and Algeria,and
the death
penalty as based

of the heathen

of

human

"consecrating"one's

by putting to the
relapsed into idolatry. They
Christian
analogues of modern
massacres

of heretics

They
hostile

Him,

to

in

have

for

law-breakers

up"

the

on

"hewing"

as

found

certainly
stances
history. Many in-

human

inflicted

pleased by

be

to

ages

this character.

barbarous

is

persons

annals, mistaken

of

were

in

is

the

Christian

others

all

surpassed

and

145

inference

punishment

severest

those

of the

HYMNS.

4,

13 ;

xxi

though

their warfare,

there
or

dealing with offenders, or


Of

revenge.
on

of sacrifices,

the whole
2:1

Sam.

xv.

See Mackay, Progress of the Intellect,


II. 456.
" Psalm
cvi. 38; Estek. xx. 31.

distinctive
to
33

"

be

; 2

no

Sam.

human

is

no

special
in

fying
gratifice
sacri-

positiveproof.
xxi. 9 ; Exod.

Lcvit. xxvii. 28.

xxxii. 27, 29.

146
It is said in

LIFE.

AND

RELIGION

praiseof Vishnu that *men


worship him, offeringhim their libation face
Free bearin* towards
And
to face."1
Agni is ever a companion
with especialinterest
confidant/'
We
and
note
in the bearing of the early
this cordial freedom
Aryans towards their gods. Deity was the gracious,
altar and
well-beloved
guest" of the householder's
there, to give and receive ;
hearth, invited to find home
food and dwelling,"
the people as their
praised among
in

Hymn

"

"

"

"

"

reverenced
Greeks

the

as

addressed

"

kinsman

"

and

gods standing,and

the

friend."

So

times
some-

heroes
Homeric
converse
prayed sitting.The
interests are
freelywith the Olympians, whose human
as
profound and absorbingas their divine ; are in fact
one

and

due

to

the

thing with

same

irreverence,

to

or

this

not

was

ideal of the divine.

low

And

these.

It

partlya form of childlike confidence, and partlya


unknown
slavishness was
to which
manly self-respect,
and impossible. While
sentiment
the religious
is yet
is a strong defence
;
untaught by science, this freedom

was

and

in such

wherever

epochs

it does

exist, there

not

be

grovellingfear before the phantoms of the


religious
fancy ; and thence that blind intolerance and
slave.
crueltywhich befit the spiritual
savage
It is one
of Jthe grand compensations for all erinvolved
in polytheism,that it consulted
rors
Ourdebito
Polytheism, individual
the
than
stern
liberty far more
must

absolute

exclusiveness

and

principlehas

been

finelystated

of forces."3
grow

"

X.

Me*nard,La

K., X.

The

soul

of
to

the

basis
s

i, r

Morale

avant

of

be

Ibid.,IV.
les

i, 20;

94.

own

independence
right to

divine

balance

is in its instinct of

VI. 16, 42;

Pkilosofkes,p.

the

protects its

which

Its

monotheism.

direction, by creatinga

in every

of powers;

will

VI.

a.

7"

8; I. 31,

10.

THE

147

thus while

Semites, wherever

monotheistic

the

And

all.

to
equal justice

HYMNS.

the
it has

religionof
followed

its

native instincts,has

proved ungenialto many forms of


growth, that of the polytheisticAryans has been a
the full expansion of human
heartytolerance, inviting
But for Greek
nature.
libertyand culture, Hebrew
concentration on the Unity of God, descendingthrough
its Christian
modifications, would, with all the purity
world
of its spiritual
ideals, have been to the modern
a
The
legacy of moral bondage and intellectual death.
had
that
its truth, which
saved
from
us
early error
and

one-sided

make

would

view

narrow

it

of

Faith

error.

another

in many

truth, which
in
gods was
of expression

of that manifoldness
recognition
fore,
there; and
by which the divine reallybecomes human
tion,
evoluin the beautiful and orderlypath of human
been
it has not
wanting; so that we know how
in fulness of free opportunity
One
to worship The
The
of culture.
and integrity
keys of progress were
committed
to any singlerace
not
or
religion.Greek
and
inspired; alike heard eternal
Jew alike were
divine messages
to the
truths, and bore
generations
liberal for the mingled
to be
whose
more
day was
The
Semite
has sought
lightof this twofold dawn.
the principleof authorityin the divine;
to preserve
the Aryan, that of development in the human.
Only
fact

the

maturer

of

of

reason

both

these

man

could

learn

principlesand

their

the true

ing
mean-

unity in

versal
Uni-

Religion.
The
are

very

or

unlike

each

praisesof
goes,

Christian, and

Hebrew,
Indra

John, with

Varuna

or

after all,but

other.

The
to

littleway.
all its Alexandrian
a

the

Aryan

resemblance

Bibles
of the

praisesof Jehovah
Even
the Gospel of
is touched
inspiration,

the

148

RELIGION

certain

only at

of

debt

we

owe

and

to

the

or

to

of

historical

But

dark

passages
also, lovers and

Rishis

of Athens,

parent of

sole

do need

we

which
plasticsusceptibility

be reminded

to

affinities.

obligationsand

whether

the

not

has

Light, saw" what they sang. The


to the prophetsand
psalmistsof Jehovah,
Christian
to overnot likely
ideal, we
look
are

monothcist,
was

the

ardor

"

undervalue.

other

imagination
religious

Semitic
of

many
But the

of the

searchers

creative

the
mind.

Aryan

life.

and

nature

LIFE.

illumined

and

warmed

pointswith

the

of

AND

Rome,

The

faith.

it from

secures

Palestine,

or

modern

our

The

permanent

intolerance, opening broad

paths of experience in
far as it depends on the past,
direction, comes,
so
affinitiesand descent.
Our
liberty
polytheistic

every
of

our

and
and
the

science, the

our

Nature

rather

These

Gospels.

Aryan
through their

God

apart from

deityis

not

the free

play of

his

own

at the facts witli their

ban;

no

of

sense

the

with God

ideas, laws,
through principles,

line of the Veda

from

of free communion

sense

natural

the familiar

of the Thora

than

children

feel

thirst

know.

to

but in

man,

no

eyes,

"fall"

sight,nor

not

as

is miracle

facts of life ;

no

the

separation
To

look

them

in

straight

aliens,and under

in between

comes

or

him, revealed

energies. They

own

in

are

"

made

exclusive

to

to

able
dis-

age
dispar-

incarnation

meaning of Nature as a whole ; no


external authorityjudges or supplantsfree thought,
pursuitof truth. The modern
spirit
aspiration,
nizes
recogits own
features here in their infancy. This is
plainlythe inextinguishable
spark that has flamed at
limits the

last into

shines

divine

free

our

with

arts

and

steady radiance

issues in such

diverse

sciences
in

the

and

beliefs, and

civilization that

a"s Goethe
types of universality

THE

and

Humboldt

this

our

and

gladness

his

to

to

courage

whose

is

to

religion

endless

Aryan
beside

is

progress,

herdsman,
him

on

not

are

rational,

and

his

heap

go

his
of

oi

back

Kusa-grass.

paths

to

of

prescription,
but

self-respect

the

liberty

gods

fearless

religion,

of

of

home-born

all

slaves

his

the

open

the

must

inviting

thought

distinctive

or

truth

we

of

of

germs
wisdom

and

home,

and

creed,

"

future

laws;

universal

to

and

we

person,

heirs

as

the

guarantees

and

faculties

all

use

that

whether

life

forces

for

which

present

upon

its

assurance

natural

man's

to

hospitality

And

opportunity,

outlook

genial

the

Emerson.

and

larger

149

HYMNS.

whose

to

sit

the

as

ideal
frank

guests

IV.

TRADITION.

TRADITION.

ND

"**"

Brahma

is

This

us

that

of

the

the

which

The

Aryan

We

bitter

from

the

lapse
human

the

of

We

shall

we

have

to

hierarchy

for

compel,

tread

the

for

the

the

caste

"

now

those
admired

servile

practical vigor yield

fear.
to

as

as

We

only

us

Limits

should

we

further

ever

not

were

every

self-reconery

this

of

the

of

apparent
for

liberty of private

official

but

made

past

Hymns

see

of

sacrifices

which

rebuke,
this

lations,
reve-

mediators

to

shall

priesthood

of

echoes

expiatory

of

dcsenei^y-

re-

led

manly

same

greets

wherein

depth

an

pedantic

regarded

ures
Script-

equality exchanged
;

of

perception

every

being

social

despotism

gospel,
just

for

of

as

coming

this

see

themselves
older

such

as

shows

primitive

morning,

of

nobler

the

inspiration

yet

to

the

guarantee

complex

this

fated

of

path

Parana

faith

from

pass

track,

promise

nature,

worship

to

the

Hymns.

germinant

the

on

ritualistic

three

Veda

strength,

without

not

discouragement,

the

Vayu

were

are

seemed

find

fall.

of

piety along

ligionhas

the

brought

spontaneity

disappear.

is

Veda,

the

the

thing

from

simple Rig

the

Divide

changed;

every

Hindus

later

of

is

passage

causes

out

'

Manu,

to

age

down

gone

decay.'"

to

The

Sage!

fire

said

not

genial
and

the

154
terrors

LIFE.

AND

RELIGION

of

transmigration
; this

to

the
and

banyans

enervation

of dreamers

In

palms.

word,

that

we

of it,we
these

remote

inner

life of

fair

deal

may

shall note

we

to

civilizations,
as
a

At
~.

Onental

the

then, let

outset

Tradition^
of
J

into the

enter

it

do

the past.

for
justice

its

from
else

the

at

was

least

not

be

to

of modern

Veda

Eastern*
form

judged by

lifelessfinalitiesto
a

the

whose
traditional^?;?,

foundation

an

ever-open
of faith,but a form

is

fervent and

faith.

supreme

sentiment
absorptionin religious
the

oC-Qti-

root

shadow, flowingaway
trailing
livingsubstance of worship. But, whatever
wanting to it,Oriental veneration for the Past

the

at

was

lies

preferenceof outworn,
of inquiryis not
spirit
This

appreciatethat Worship

which
It is

patent vices

of unbelief.

us

faith.

ental

wcnship of

of

races.

is

their

for the Eternal

reverence

caves

That

which

we

typicalof the whole mind


Their
was
tradition-worship

cvcrlastingncss.
They
out

of
spirit

sake.

own

in

tion
interpreta-

our

would

we

to
personality,

new

of the process ;

into the

enter

fold
two-

of Ecclesiastical

in

measure

able

be

must

taineer
moun-

tropical

among

degeneracy,caused by the forces


Organizationand Physical Nature.
But this is by no means
a full account
and

of the

freedom

and

built their

their rock

it was

of

temples and

statues

on

saw

these

awe

found
pro-

rude

before
hewed

scale that

It was
because the religious
symbolizethis awe.
old as the
books, rites, legends,hymns, seemed
as
and patriarchal
and streams
stars
trees, and memory
held
that they were
went
not back
to their beginnings,
Their
belittled the fleeting
sacred.
lives,
permanence
the vanishing dreams
and deeds
of men
not
: it did
minister to their vanity,but to their humility. Man
should

TRADITION.

could have
of God.

to

the

things so ancient and so stable,only


If the hoary head
the patribelieved
was
archal
chrism, the visible sign of divine appointment
much
God
should
oldest priesthood,
be
more
had

present in words

white

; words
generations
death than they could

The

birth.
have

155

earliest

with

the

which
be

could

traced
of

sense

; for

home

in the

they

dwelt

the
was

fit shrine

back

more

to

any

mortal
we

existence
in the

in their inviolable

of the
to

to

as

and
progenitors,
them

told
un-

come

continuous

silence

serene

no

of

awe

immortalitycame,

feelingof
traceable through the jfr/Vmor
with
to become
one
aspiration
seen,

and

love

hold

past in which
the

and

moral

"The
idealism of their descendants.
spiritual
pitris,"
according to this faith,"are free from wrath, intent
ties,
on
purity,without sensual passion; primeval diviniwho
laid strife aside."1
It was
have
a
worship
founded
the apotheosis of the tenderest
in gratitude,
"A
sentiments.
ing
parent'scare in producing and rearbe compensated
children," says the law, "cannot
in a hundred
years."2 This authorityof ideal love
and duty penetratedall worlds.
Even
the gods could
not

turn

recreant

to

the

past, and

forsake

their duties

without
voked
inev"*n
progenitors,
penalty: they were
in sacrifice,
of their
by the names
by the priests,
specialancestry.3
such conditions,Bibliolatry
deserves
Under
tain
cera
As
these
old Vedic
Hymns, Revercnce
respect.
to

to be
collected, ar- for
process of time, came
and Yajurranged,and enlargedinto Samaveda

in

the

uas"

indeed
of ritual service, we
for purposes
note
the failure of inspiration,
and the growth of ecclesias-

veda

"

III. 192.

"

Manu,

"

Muke', Sanskrit

Literature

p. 386.

Ibid.,II.

227

156

RELIGION

ticism

AND

yet there is something tender

the faithfulness with which


"

of

reminiscences

as

well

as

the

Hindu

former

state

above,"2 committed

from

heard

LIFE.

as

noble

cherished
"

of

texts

biblical science

wells

for

of

him

founded

on

as

them

words

long line
who
stillsought him with yearning care,
of ancestors,
who
and
cherished
with the whole
were
strengthof
his affections ; their primitiveSanskrit
the very language
of God ; their syllables
full of virtue that they
so
needed
not to be uttered or even
understood, onlysilently
whispered in the heart; yet every one of them laden
with ineffable meanings, which
endless commentaries
sought in vain to exhaust; laden with Briihmanas,
thousand
a
Upanishacls, Sutras, Pur"nas ; literally
schools

to

"

in

by

their mooted

theology, literature,science, legislation,

be drawn
much
so
brimming, let never
off from age to age.3 It is but a childish thoughtof
but this child is Humanity!
Then
:
everlastingness
how
colossal that outgrowth of the intuition,how utter
that faith,how
prodigal that toil in its service ! And
if age be indeed
better
venerable, surelythere was
than for any other that
ground for such Bibliolatry
has

ever

existed.

ever

What

time-hallowed

be called

institutions,
can

records, what

the side of these?

by

When

antiquityof Greek wisdom, the


old priest of Sais led him
through the sepulchral
him the tombs of a hundred
showed
chambers,
dynasSolon

Manu

(XII.

94-102) declares

all creatuies

by then

nature

A.

holy letters,
"

of verse,
was

from

the

with faith."

burns

out

the

sojourns in this low world


U.

M.

"an

Afanu.
eve

been, is,or

ihtee mystic

of sin, and

tatm
"

words,

"
"

"

Brahma

Earth.

makes
has

Sky,

things,the
Gfcyatri:and these immutable
and salvation to him
beginning,shall be sanctity
"

the

II.

74-84.

not made
light,

givingconstant

All that has

by

shall be, is revealed

all authority
is
given,by the
imparted,all prosperity
sustained,

are

knowledge of tht.se,which

though he

the Vedas

by bis powers.

measured

be

to

nor

man,

redanta.

The

of the

boasted

approach the divine

one

out

milked

Heaven
essence

who

of them

three sacred

of thiswisdom

three
ures
meas-

that

ceaselessly
utters them

157

TRADITION.

ties, recounted

him

admonished

and

years,

that there

lived

aged

no

annals

the

him

to

that

of nine
he

Greek.

thousand

but

was

"You

have

child,
no

mote
re-

disciplinethat is
the panditsof Benares
must
hoary with age." What
who
think of the Christian missionary,
would
supplant
their veneration for the Sanskrit Vedas
by claimingthat
divine guardianshiphas transmitted his Greek
or
even
is his advantage?
his Hebrew
Scriptures? Wherein
Solon,

tradition, O

Is not every
"

wills?

Bible

Every

any

that holds

cup
who

one

nor

what

pleases,"says

the
the

drinker

DabLstan,

in favor of
"may derive from the Vedas
arguments
his particular
creed, to such a degree that they can
support by clear proofs the philosophical,mystical,
Unitarian, and atheistical systems; Hinduism, Judaism,
Fire-worship,the tenets of the Sonites or
Christianity,
consist of such ingenShiites ; in short, these volumes
ious
meanings, that all who
parables and sublime

seek
A
with

find their wishes

may

mature,

self-conscious

of instinctive

races

fulfilled."l

generationcannot

faith,upon

their

own

compete

ground,
they. Its

childish than
making itself more
own
libertyto inquireand grow is what represents, in
tion-worship
tradia nobler
way, that very authorityof age which
Nature
is older than
but dimly divined.
of Man
ritual or Bible, and the personality
more
erable,
venwith years, than all his
tions."
even
specialrevelaWe
the tasks
forsake the insightnor
cannot
of the child.
of the man
for the unquestioning
credence
without

"

But

in the

child

sense

"

of

a
our

none

the

less admire

tender

cloud of
recognizethe "trailing
inborn
filial instinct towards
eternity
; an
with imperishablelife.
affinity

respect for age.

glory;

we

We

Dabist"n, ch. II.

2.

158

AND

RELIGION

To

the

LIFE.

unfoldingconsciousness

of the

race

as

of the

individual, the first great mystery is memory.


All

dear

evokes

them

its divmc

honored

and

things pass

into

one

Junction.

that

from

their
and

incessantlyovercome,
In
renovation

make

We

of posterity.
bent

are

The

faculties, into which


with

as

human

instruments

But

power.
of

wonders,

as

it was,

future

; and

result and
For

to the

was

we

the

from

now

before

wonder

is,for

memory

science
have

believed

analyzed
as

soul it was

the

familiar

too

mysteriesof
the wonder

It

might well be,


man
purely spiritual
deity of the huonly preserver of man's
winged
"

his
only conductor between
its stupendous achievements

warrant

days
ence
experi-

of many

one

but

them

those
this

us,

has

grown

of powrers.

that

in the memory

immortal

away

awakening

the power

It

words," the

rection.
resur-

erected

were

people

to venerate

the earliest

race.

far

our

which

the

them

in natural

of renewal.

mind, and

monuments

no

dead, because

the

man

that

us

their virtues would

when

in

up

light of endless preservation and


fact of immortality is first revealed.

the

to

swallowed

is

death

this

Megasthenes tells
in India

There

sleep.

of the reverent

genturies the

culture

past and
were

his

at once

it received.

of human

experience,
of hymn, meditation, and
ritual, accumulating
in its keeping alone ; and
from remotest
time, were
transmitted
the immense
more
depositwas
faithfully
than
by the later devices of writing and printing.
on"
The
"the rememberer/*
the "bearer
prophet was
Never
to forget was
the most
of an ancient message.
sacred and tender duty. The Greeks
preservedHomer
many

treasures

Down
alone for four hundred
in their memory
years.
evidence
there is no positive
of
to the time of Buddha

TRADITION.

does

not

The

for it than

"

Through

indefinite

at

Hindus

ages

mean

know
from

this

dearer

no

the

whole

literature

of the penman,

hand

writing,
by

by means
guarded from

and
practice,1

stern

And

name

beginning."

in this invisible way,

mnemonic

ample

Scriptures,
all, but, more
ally,
spiritu-

not

remembered

Words

transmitted

contempt.

does

Bible, or Book

mean

Wisdom.

of

Veda

Sanskrit.

written

159

was

of incessant
the desecrating

after the introduction

even

as well as by traditional
prohibitions
it has been finelysuggested that the

satisfaction afforded

to

every

need

of intellectual

communication, by their splendid culture


religious
have
of the memory,
prevented the early Hindus
may
from inventing a written alphabet; an
achievement
such
the Chinese, Egyptians,
which
other races,
as
to their inability
and
this
to
mature
Hebrew's, owed
In Plato's Egyptian
intellectual instrument.2
more
myth in the Phredrus, the god who invents letters as a
is told that he is doing detrifor memory
ment
medicine
to remember
to the mind, by teachingmen
wardly
outof foreign
marks, instead of inwardly,
by means
faculties.
We
the
at least admire
can
by their own
of Nature, in opening the resources
fine economy
of
while as yet science had not sethis facultyin men,
cured
of preserving and
other
means
transmitting
tinuous
thought. How; should we ever, in this age of disconreading and ephemeral journalism, chopped
feed for ruiningthese powers,
to realize,as
come
Muller has well suggested,how vast they are?
Oriental worship of tradition has its own
Thus
even
and

"

"

proper

root

in human

See Miiller's account

"

Pictet,H. 558-

nature,

and

of such exercisesin Hindu

its noble

germs

schools,Sansk. Lit., p.

504.

also

l6o

RELIGION

of future
turned

AND

their

those children

had

dignities
; nor
faces, like

when

so,

we

his minute
Oriental

Ganges,
he had

transferred,

its
Everlasting,

works

and

its incentives

hypocrisy and
as

in any
of

essence

The

absorbed

out

until

broodingthought

permanence

into all

any superstition
the fact that it brings

permit

in it to hide

respect for human

to

ago,

years

of his

inviolable
cannot

we

ways,

involved
puerility

the

in that stilllife along the

twenty-fivehundred

of the

this

ritualism

slowly elaborating
CT

lde'll"

also

Hindu

nt-

uaiisman

or

Past.

dead

the

see

of memory

religioustraditionalists,

our

to
coldlyand unbelievingly

And

LIFE.

That

nature.

quite as possiblein
other
religiousform, is palpable; but
Oriental ritualism was
reality.
certainly
sanctimony

were

ascetic, girtwith sacrificial cord,

gesticulating
before animals and plants,bowing to his platter,
trils
walking round it,wetting his eyes, shutting his nosmouth
and
by turns, muttering spells as in a
dream, performinghis three suppressionsof the breath,
whispering the three sacred letters, pronouncing at
intervals the three holy words
and
is to
measures,nature,

reason,

and

common

unedifying spectacle; yet,


formalism

modern
will

he

compel

of
a

in many

sense,

less

as

compared

detailed

serious

moral

and
esteem.

ways, an
with much

visible sort,
"These
"

Wilson,8
are
gesticulations,1'
says Professor
not
subjectsof ridicule, because reverentially
tised
pracof sense
and
by men
learning." That quaint
writer, James Howell, the contemporary of Sir Thomas
Hindu

Brown**, whom

frankly:
1

book
"

See
of

the

I knock

resembled, tells us
many
ways
thrice every day at heaven's gate,

in

detailed
regulationof timps rites,food,and auguries
microscopic

YAjnavalkya'sLaw

Manu,

he

II. 74.

in the first

Code, and the fifthof Manu.


"

Essays

on

Hindu

Religion^II

57.

l6l

TRADITION.

besides

as

hands, and

my

thrice

pray

I fast thrice

day, so

occasional

other

puttingon of
lightingthe

the

upon

and

meals,

at

prayers

clean

ing
shirt, wash-

candles.

week,"

lations,
ejacu-

And

as

"c.

These

in the
Oriental
spirit,
quaint devotions, somewhat
its round
help us to distinguishthe idea which
may
of observances
ism
sought to embody, from the formalof mercantile
piety that pays ofT a business-like
and
rites ; setfixed rate, in days, words,
God
ting
at a
Personage, a Church, a
apart for this exalted
Bible, an abstract morality,that it may keep its houses,
and
trades, politics,
practicalprudence for quite other

Oriental

dedications.

effort

an

relation.

It

did

not

have

may

cease

to

be

the

and

systematic evasion,
Behind

or

tially
essen-

divine

as

have

penance,

ion
religon

and

are

us

gladly

awkwardness

and

which

is not

fastens

plan

set

pain

shown

That

line.

is endured

escape

unnatural,

either faith

least

of life with

whole,

and

law

Relations

constraints.

the

draw

to

outward

off

at

was

recognized that the primacy of religion


at some
men
given point, where

thumb-screw,

thrown

to

was

the

cover

chosen

whose
like

to

ceremonial

of its

flinn eel in

in

theory

be

practiceto
certainly little to

so

do

by
with

freedom.

dreary ceremonialism
is the aspirationof an

of

old

religions,
ideal.
The
there
ism
despotof priestcraft
does not explain such phenomena
the requirements of Burmese
law, that a priest
as
I eat not to please
when
eating shall inwardly say,
dressing, I put
my palate,but to support life ; when
the

the

ff

"f

"

on

my

these

robes,

nakedness

recovery,

not
"

only

to

and
that

be

in

vain

of them,

but

taking medicine,

I may

be

the

more

to
w

conceal

I desire

diligentin

l62

RELIGION

devotion."1

inward

whether
the

death

of

itself,more

less,

or

of life

was

reproductionof
The

precept.

the

instinctive

enduring thingsrequiredthat the whole


should
reflect divine unchangeableness,from

largest

relations

action

had

Fate

to these

it expressedthis idea of

because

path,and

for absolute

be fixed

must

of divinities

the dearest

was

contemplativeminds,
unalterable

all

be

must

brooding deity. Human


than
determination
the impulses of

surer

the moment.

impulsive:

There

of

image

an

serene,

least.

the

to

erratic,

nothing hurried,

an

habit

for

demand

and

the

sincerity,

individual

in each

constant

of

original meaning

the

of

find

with the permanent

which

mind,

form,

the
should

we

spontaneityonly, but

in connection

Oriental

the

regulationof

outward, in which

or

of

not

be taken

must

minute

That

LIFE.

AND

satisfied this instinctive yearning

devotion

to

the

ideal.
religious

its sure

Where

plicit
againstimin the chains of habit, which they
fdith,men
move
have forged, with slight
of bondage,
themselves
sense
and
\\ithout
moral
the
degradation which
always
\\iih enforced
enters
conformity. There is freedom
of ReligiousForm.
in spontaneity,
even
It is generallyallowed that the Oriental races
wear
in worship
their robes of ceremony,
whether
has

reason

not

yet

'.11

in India/'

real

ease,

and

even

spiteof endless petty elaboration.


and grace
all classes
civility
among
told, than in correspondingclasses

more

"

we

are

This
is because
Europe and America/' a
is spontaneous, without
and
doubleness
etiquette
in the person, a wholeness, a genuine
rebuke

their

in

in

strange grace,
is

with

manners,

in

or

There

revolt

~.

Its ficedom.

"

to

come

Ma'com,

Travels

in Burmak.

Allen's

selffaith.

India, p. 483.

163

TRADITION.

Manners
actions
of

with

kind

Hebrew

times

ideal

the

of

boy,

seven

part of

and

binds

the

he

as

repeats the

food, and

at

the

the

measure

of

body

For

thing."1

new

any

of life in

Hebrew

not

forms

integrity. In

instinctive

the

routine

is

there

It is

an

passes

of

natural

Form

undevout,

or

some

the whole

not

its

as

but

unity and

freedom

and

ease

even

that

the

as

life in

the

bit of

clothes

ritual.

express

every

stillretains in

piety which

his

"enjoyment

the

ungracious,constrained,

do

that

Oriental

in

over

tephillin

round

thrice

on

faith in

time-hallowed

stick that is
forms

the

infantile

piety,and

and

in the

of his

change

every

of Nature,

face

thongs

sense

is, I doubt

freedom

even

formularies

of

sight

There

wrist, and

his

round

common

instinctive

an

form.

freshness

finger,and
over

religion,and

punctiliousfrom

grow

accord

not,

here

are

of

image, not so faint


perfectlibertyof the

of that
insignificant,
wise and justperson, whose
every act is unconditional,
inevitable, preciseas the planet's
sweep.
be

to

as

"

Slightthose
livest

Thou

Houses

are

Entice

the

From
Who

There

his

by

say, amidst

rule.

built

eclipticline

by

What

their
doth

by rule,and

hasty sun,

lives

is

who

rule

sicklyhealths,

not

if but you

can,

sky !
then, keeps #ood company."
:

beckon

the

of passions and
self-idolatry

traditions of civilization,
on

which

social
order

1
1

as

See Instructions in the Mosaic

830),p.

113.

Religion*from

the

German

ties,
cupidi-

and

and

purityand decency stand, that would


barbarism
than all the
to infinitely
us
worse
worship of the older races combined.
well

as

man

commonwealths.

failure of respect for great

so, but

moral

culture,
remand
tradition

of Johlson (Philadelphia,

164

ritualism of Eastern

The
the

of culture

laws

though

in the

germinant, in
When

least the

at

the other

sion,
preci-

ideal

the

two

from

faith;
cases,

but

principleitself be

the

case

one

universal

alike

different in the

so

ever

not

course

ease,

flow

life to

whole

the

this faith be

though

But

use.

of

surrender

is of

devotees

perfectionof both,

minute

and
free

and

LIFE.

livingaccordingto

of

freedom
intelligent

and

AND

RELIGION

mature.

recognizetherefore that in all the history


"t" religiousforms there is nothinglike Hindu
The
Pi.
of thmmiit. ritualism
for complexity, thoroughness, and
rigor,we reallyconcede to this people a certain preeminent
We
integrityin its religiousconviction.
in fact a great, all-surrounding
abstract
here
have
idea, admitting no
promise,
comexception, no evasion, no
no
practicallimit. Jt is the first product of
we

.test

that

bruin-work

pure

suns

Iranian

made

energy
of

though

after

create

in idea

it were

of which

wealth

the

inward

their clime
element

life

of beating

of the

old

vigorous protest against the

physical nature,

It would

and

makes

Aryans of the Ganges. In


and towering forests,one

of the

forces

which

the

"

its

intellectual

Of

only.

aspiration,even

vast

own

element.

the

this dream-life

manifold

beauty
capable, the

was

historyof Hindu poetry, from the Vedas to the


is the impressiverecord.
In philosophyand
Puranas,

whole

the contemplativefacultyproduced yet


religion,

It

was

bound

impulse to
all forms
world

Its grasp

results.

marvellous

and

its faith in

to

take the whole

create

and

rule.

of action in the

whose

of its

very
sure

freedom
and

on

livingby
It

ideas

pure

was

bound

image

of its own

should

be

perfect ways.

mighty

to construct

eternity
; a

in the
So

traordinary,
ex-

absolute.

them

of life into its


was

more

ness
absolute-

that in the

165

TRADITION.

absence

for

of

that

visible

and

ritualism,

became

in

so

proportion

Brahmanical
For

how

to

of

all

real

less

its

study,

it

sought.

an

of

element
dreams

it

may

absorbing
asceticism

deserves

of
rolled

universal
in

between

remember
fail

that

of

energies,
of

substance

surely

in

vidual
indi-

the

this

us

social

and

the
aim

upward

as

mist

practical

itself

would

let

though

the

communion.

through

But

result.

involves

truly

And

the

the

ideal

its

Heart-deadening

self-abnegation,

from

ing,
all-ordain-

organize

to

impotent

seen

appear,

natural

sought

and

everlastingness.

but

was

of

ecclesiastical

insignificant

come

vision

it

as

other

or

and

language

and

independence

to

us

all-pervading

natural

the

conditions

practical

educates

which

uses

progress,

more

with

struggle

ance
balthe

none

practical

virtue.

thoughtful

our

religion,
it

due

and

however
the

goal

V.

THE

LAWS.

LAWS

THE

THEN

"IT

*^

Vedic

of

the

hymns

in

clans
and

for

dealing

the

distinct

most

"revealed

verbal

"with

texts

in

even

busily

at

work

became

in
and

Sank.

sacerdotal

part
in

on

part

Lit** p. 456.
families

were

ideals

in

on

the

There

developed.

were

of

into

close
ritual

in

enough,

and

logic
than

period,

the

of

ity
author-

and

These

social

pressed
ex-

were

tion,
organiza-

religious idea,

the

twenty

hymns

priestly

legislation.
the

tionalism
tradi-

Vedic

the

caste-system,

of

tionaries
func-

this

traced

Gradually
the

pompous

biblical

combining

wants

more

use

in the

of

of

part

of

natural

rituals,

development

naturally

has

and

in

elaborated

tioiw.

religion

manner

latter

purposes.1

itself
based

the

arranging

ceremonial

for

the

the

verbiage, ringing changes

Miiller

everywhere.

the

superstitious

after

commentary,

^^mu-

work

functions

part,

and

quite spiritlesspedantry
on

family

or

the

and

the

by

Guwihof

efficacious

are

formed

fraternities, with

or

for

They

prayer.

patriarchal

old

about

sacrifices

the

gradually

priestly class,
the

homilies

ages

To

succeeded

directions

faith,

of

came

religion.

seers,

of

explanations

formulas

of

of

theological

or

definitions
of

traditional

Hymns

or

Br"hmanas,

there

inspiration ceased,

organized

Mantras,

MANU.

OF

of

these

old

clans,

out

of

as

which

170

received,
traditionally

and

its representative

developedby

there

Doubtless

class.

LIFE.

AND

RELIGION

were

such

many

codes,

ships;1
schools and fellowpriestly
but their ecclesiastical compilers could hardly
of imposing them
have possessedthe means
the
upon
populationof India. It is probable therefore that they
carried into practice
were
only in so far as they really
opment,
develand beliefs. Their
embodied
popular customs
from

emanating

too,

ages

must

rules

and

in

different

have

must

have

elapsed

relations could

theory, as

in the

men,

slow

very

before

vast

so

been

have

and

an

many
edifice of

constructed,

and
presented,with a serene
of gods
if by universal
consent

as

Dharmasastra

of the

Manavas,

monly
com-

of Manu.

called the Laws

self-assurance, in fact,rested upon


must
remember,
recognition. Law itself,we

This

even

find

we

simpleabsolutism,
and

been

lic
pub-

serene

was

of religious
but the mandate
sentiment, and
originally
oldest
the
was
cribed
legislation
everywhere honestlyasto the gods ; for these ruder
secret
ages heard
whispers of an eternal truth, on the acceptance and
rightfollowingof which depends the life of the latest
and

freest

states.

It is still undetermined

*cal" mora''
Ageofthe
code

of

in

few

what

period the theologsocial ideal of the

and
political,

Brahmanical

schools

It has

code.

at

been

usual,

in this

embodied

became
ever

since its translation

by Sir William Jones,in i794"2to place


antiquityto the three oldest Vedas, as one
of

great landmarks

Orientalists have

eighth

and

dated

thirteenth

literature

it somewhere
centuries

Parishads and Charanas.

The

version

Hindu

here used.

before

See Mailer,Sansk

it next
of the

and

between
the
Lit.

most

the

Christian

THE

era.1

LAWS

Yet other recent

OF

MANU.

scholars

171

find the

evidences

of

this great

inadequate,and hold its date to be


aqtiquity
altogetherunknown, the most eminent of these being

Max

Muller.

It is certain

that Greek

Alexander, agree
written

codes

Lassen

do

not

in existence.

not

It

codes depend
legislative

be

may

the

no

sions
specialocca-

such

be

must

to

of

in his

correct

to

are

that

prove

time

the

appealed

courts

their references

suggestionthat
only,and
were

Hindu

that

though

authors, from

written

laws

allowed, too, that


of

writing;
and this cannot
in India beyond the
be traced back
True, a wonderful
ment
developage ascribed to Buddha.
of the memory
suppliedthe place of books ; and
the Vedic
as
preserved by oral tradition
hymns were
alone

current

for centuries, so, doubtless,


and

customs

full

and

is the view of such eminent

This

Koeppen in hi"

vet

elaborate

so

authorities

Lassen

as

of

ing
understand-

common

the

in its developed

all branches

for which

into
thorough investigations

this,

as

system

imply a
duties

and

definite social

applicationto

conduct, would

of relations

code

use

were

Brahmanical

the whole

form
human

But

rules.

embodying

on

written

docu-

fJurnouf,as well

and

lustoiyof Buddhism

and

of

as

Wcbei's

exhaustive iesearches" into the literatureof India result in the judgment that it is the oldest
of the
Dim

Hindu

numerous

eke r, Geschichte d.

Codes.

oldest Buddhist Sutras describe


than this code, and

beyond
h"rata.

must

the Christian

The

Alterihnms"

era.

inoie

It

is

also.

It

The

in

of Bi.ihmaiuMn

the Buddhist

Vcclas, while
no

gencial agi cement


following is a

oiigm: yet they

laiei

piobably cited

contains

of this

96, 97.

developed stage

thereto)c have

It is cognizantof only tluee

with the latestVeda

grounds

II. pp.

allusion

to

Sutras ;

nothingof

that of Vishnu-

Krishna,

"

had

conqueied much

nowf,

Introd*

p. 343-244.

it

extends

no

of Southern

IHist.du

faither
India

th.m

to

icspects
far back

name,

of

as

acquainted

aie

and

by

Siva, familiar

makes

many
to

only

-chco

Buddhist

its only allusion to Vishnu

the

133,

"

being in a pasnothing finallyof the

Finally,its geoage.
graphical
Vindhya Mountains, though the Anans

long befoie

Boiuitihisme^p.

Wilson,Introd.

ninny

in

in fact clone

and tins aftei a puiely Vedic manner,


sag* of doubtful antiquity,
mentions
kings famous in the Vedic
ep"C heroes,while it fieely

knowledge

The

tracualle

Suti

by

Bivldlmm

generalreference to lationalistswho denied the Veda, as was


It knows, nothing of the worship
previous to Buddha.

by

given

legends and in the Mahab-

Buddhist

the

aie

rne

suniinaiy:

cm

as

Lassen, I. Sco, Bur-

38; Weber, Vorlestingen^


ear'yas the fifthcen'uiy ux.

Koeppen,

Rig Veda, placesit

See

eia.

172

RELIGION

AND

LIFE.

of
And
the use
absolutely
necessary.
such documentary form for systems or ideals of jurisprudence
in India*
not
was
likelyto have been undertaken
of the
until a comparativelylate period; both because
all
general dislike for written teachingsand because
disinclined to limit themselves
authoritative priesthoodsare
ments

appear

to defined

recorded

and

resisted, and

be

may
of Buddhism.

would

it could

doubtless, only when

came,

been

have

Yet

of the Code,

present form
Brahmanical

at least in

these

the

its main

it represents

the advance

considerations

supposable antiquity
That

elements.

gradual growth

contains

ideas, and

longer

no

compelledby

even

greatlydiminish

not

tation
self-limi-

Such

rules.

in its
of the

additions

belonging
different periods,is more
than
to very
pecially
probable,esfrom
the confused
and contradictory
elements
it alludes to earlier
At all events,
in its legislation.
doubtless incorporated
elements
into
codes, whose
are
this,the fullest and most perfectin form of all that are
Of these Indian
to us.1
codes, earlyand
yet known
would

late, there

to

seem

be

forty-sevenlaw-books
besides
Manu

twenty-two
and

accessible
metrical
Both

by

different

special revisions;

"Yajnnvalkyaonly being
to

us.1

Most

versions, based
these

codes

of these
on

older

dwells

the

merates
enu-

authors,
codes

of

practically

now

books, however,

are

texts.

define the extent

validityby callingthemselves

(Aryavarta) where

Stenzler

end.

no

the

of their territorial
"law

of the

the black

land

gazelle." It was
that a portionof the peninsulalay outthus admitted
side
their jurisdiction.
Whatever
antiquitymay be
late the originof its
ascribed to Manu, or however
1

Sten/ler,in Weber's

Indiscke Studien, I. "36" *yj.

LAWS

THE

MANU.

OF

present form, it is difficult to find the age when


have
the

had

by
practical
recognition
It is in fact
people of India.

of the

Manavas,

of the

one

is

age,

as

and

institutions of ancient
in
believing,

for

Mr.

Maine

that "it does

to
not

opinion

an

further evidence
as,

s"stra

we

Hindus

ships
fellow-

ascribed

of

Smriti^

of the

itthan

is stated

scholars,

Brahmans,

Brfih-

the

originthan

Manava-Dharma-

the

writingsdefined

or

by

the

tradition,in distinction

It is difficult to
a

explain this
dale

recent

more

the Brahmanas,

to

is

there

best

of the

suppositionthat

the

to

later
that

Sruti, or revelation.

And

with what

the view

the class
as

fact,except upon
was

of

observe

may

belongs to

orthodox

from

Code

represent a set of rules


in Hindustan,
but is an

whole

actuallyadministered
ideal picture of what, in
ought to be the Law." 1
m

Law

the

life.

accordance

be the
as

Hindu

ever

As

but

common

on

and

by

large portionof

any

guardianshipof sacred texts,


valuable
doubtedly
unmainly as embodying what was
Orthodox
in its most
Brahman?
sm
vigorous
of the recognizedusages
\Vell as a vast number

founded

reason

it can

Brahmanical

old

73

which,

as

we

know,

held
of their antiquitywere
to be
by reason
ing
receivas
verballyinspired. For it represents Manu
the eternal rules of justicefrom
Brahma
himself,
and as deliveringthem
to the ten
great rishis,who
him
of all divine
master
as
reverently address

truth.2

this inferior position,


the
Notwithstanding
1

Ancient

Law,

the Jaw of the Burmese

himself,and
from in
9

courts.

See

p. 16.

Soc,) 1851,VI, j Annals

Sykes, Polit* Condition of


Bengal, p. 104. The

of Rural
emphe.

But

we

ate

told

that

that it is null for all practicalpurposes,


IWtalcom, Travels

Introduction

to Mtittu.

in

BnrmaJi"

At*c.

Inda

Code

of

eveiy

being

Notes, IV.

Journal R. As.
Manu

monaich

never

Brahman-

is

nominally

altt-is

produced

or

it

to

suit

pleaded

174

AND

RELIGION

ical

have

commentators

LIFE.

foiled

not

recognize its

to

in whatever
relates to their
authority
And
traditional faith.
they labor earnestlyto prove,
not
here, that Mann's
quite true to their bibliolatry
him
knowledge of the Vedas
equal claims
gave
with
their
authors ; yet they bring the
testimony
value

immense

of

Vcdic

as

"

itself,that

text

Manu

whatever

said

is

medicine."1
Of

manical

this, to the Brah-

Government,

all Institutes of

the

tribes,was

flowen

Manu

indicates the honor

The

also with

as

mcns,

paid by

nature.2

The

Thought.
signifies

with the Latin

is kindred

the

Aryan

race

word
and

man,

to

the

tellectua
in-

expressive of

thus

name

sacred

and

consummate

ame.

divine

in the human,
revealed
was
intelligence
apr
and
to the
plied by the Hindus
mythical first man
firstking, as to many
other imaginary rishis in primeval
are
k'gend.3 The Institutes called by his name
in twelve
books
of metrical
sentences,
covering all
of speculationand ethics, of publicand pribranches
vate
life. The
first reveals a Cosmogony ; the second
and third regulate
and Marriage as duties of
Education
the first and

second

stages of Hindu

of Economics

treats

Morals

and

Purification,also of Women
the duties of the third and

Government

of

Private

and

and
Criminal

and
Classes

the

and

Servile

; the

Law;

See quotationsin Midler, p. 80- 103Minos

See

Ztschr. ef.D.

M.

the

ninth, of

Times

of

Pictet,11.621-627.
"

or

stages; the seventh,

the

Egyptian,Mannus

fourth

of Diet and
fifth,

of
eighth,

G., IV. 43^; Muller,p. 532.

mercial
Com-

the

Classes; the tenth, of

of

; the

sixth, of Devotion,

fourth

Regulationsfor

(ijeeks,Mcnes

; the

MilitaryClass

of

culture

Mixed

of Distress

Germans, Menw

of Welsh.

the

See

THE

LAWS

OF

eleventh, of Penance

and

Transmigrationand

Final

As
is

that

is hell, so

prudence is

of

theoretic

of

twelfth, of

speculationis that

their

ethics

the substance

aim

the

Beatitude.1

disciplineof

175

Expiation;

the basis of Brahmanical

nothing,and

The

MANU.

the

that

of their

entire

self

self- Basis

in selfishness

abn"sation.
juris-

self-renunciation.

Manavasastra

is the

utter

It is absolute despotism;
suppressionof selfish desire.
but a despotism by the conscience
rather than over
it;

enslavement

of

subjectsby rulers, but of souls by


their religious
idea.
Manu
begins, and Yajnavalkya
of the Law
ends, with reverent
to the
Selfascription
existent.
Highest and lowest castes alike confess its
not

terrible sanctions, present and

future.

Its minuteness

of

is unequalled. If we
should judge Oriental
legislation
prescription
by the principleswe must apply among
ourselves, we should say that its regulations,
purifications,
endless reach of absurdity had
an
penances
left the slightest
not
loop-hole for the self-assertion of
will.
or
privatereason
They are doubtless framed with
of the priesthood,
specialregard to the prerogative
as
telligent
divinelyappointed,and as conscious of being the inand controlling
class ; but the legislation
was
lawyer the priesthood,as well as by it,and demanded
of this class as complete self-abnegation
it exacted
as
from the Pariah.
The
Brahman
was
fullyinvested
with the duty of concealingitsinner meaning from all
but such as are
worthy to receive it from his sacred
and*
lips; and an appallingsecrecy repelledcuriosity
"

"

The

Law

Code

of

Yajnavalkya,probably next

referred by Stenzler to the period between

the second

in the
and

order

of.time

fifth centimes

of

to
our

Manu,
era,

ami

covers

the same
substantially
ground with its piedecessor,but with much less of detail,and in a
Btyleand diction in many respects peculiarto itself. Its speculative
contents
different
are

from those of Manu, comprisinga


man,

and
and

that
philosophy

curious treatise

cm

the

phvs.calbirth and

shangelycombine*

positivetendenc.es.

foyStenzler (Herlin,J?4;),"om

It consists
whose

of

structure

of

fancies with mystical,Buddhistic,


astiological
three $ooks only,which
have been translated

Geiman

version

our

extracts

are

taken.

176

AND

RELIGION

in the

repressed ambition
He

sacrifice.

fulfil its minutest

instinct of sacrifice
and

and
spiritual

this

the endeavor

of life

instinct, however

elements, that

though
alive
penalties,

and

We

desires.

selfish

implacableseveritywith which
appetitesare punished, and in the

this alike in the


brutal

and

which

in

runs

in

creatures,1 and
of the modern

its way

poet
"

He

the

see

"

made

and

loveth

all."8

in

of renunciation
in

the

motive

saints whose

final

the

disciplines
kings, a deeper
the tyranniesof
stern

beneath

of

aim

us,

the

whole

freedom

shall be

to

IV. 238, 246; VI. 40, 63.


with tenderness
strikinginstance of this mixture of superstition

"

Manu"

of self-denial,
is in the penance
discipline
prescribedin Manu
kill a cow
sacred for the Hindu, fiom his sense
inviolably
; a creature

as

fathers
and
move,

the

in

early nomad

quaff the
and

fear, he

dust

lie down

must

shelter, without

days.

raised

by

relieve

The

offender "must

by their hoofs ; must

them

her ;

when

and, in wl"tever

having cared for the cows."

wait for months

stand

they liedown.

for

when

Should

cow

XI.

109-116.

wards
re-

lose them-

to

the brute world)

having

chanced

to

of her benefits to his


all

day

the

on

when

herd,

they

fallinto any trouble

heat, rain,or cold, must


Manu,

in its

they stand, move


a

make

to

shall lie in virtue, not

ultimate

; whose

small;

loveth

priests,and

servants,

democracy

and

and

who

God

endeavor

same

upon

loveth best

who

things both great

the dear

For

arteries

the tendernesf
anticipating

prayethbest

He

All

caste

lence
benevo-

gloomy organism, forbiddingwrath and


binding the heart to the least of sentient

revenge,

laid

sensual

broad

and

see

the

through

We

veins

fine

find

we

like caste,

ceremonies
subdue

to

and

master

compass

social thraldom

insensate

with
bristling
with

is because

noble
yet essentially

blind, has
a

whole

penalty of

on

Thus

ages.

the

sweeps

It

thought.

even

precepts,

for
transmigrations

dreadful

himself,

surrender

to

is their

This

classes.

soul, to its ascetic observances

and

body, mind,
to
faithfully

lay
his

also

has

LIFE.

not

seek

his

or

own

THE

LAWS

MANU.

OF

"

in

selves

77

method
shun all worldly
to
Deity, whose
honor
as
poison, and seek
disrespect as nectar,"1
alone." 2
God
And
we
on
reposing in perfectcontent
it in the creed which
see
inspiresall this asceticism,
and
it to have
been
a
forced
livingfaith, not an enproves
The
bondage :
resignationof all pleasures
is better than
the enjoyment of them."2
The
self-renunciation
was
product of Brahmanical
the Yogi, a creature
of penances,
purifications,
"

"

"

1C

and

feats

ascetic

the

conventional

os"'

of

type

heathen

itself paints
the law book
degradation; whom
as
crouching at the foot of a gloomy banyan, his
hairs
his nails
him, and
growing in,
growing over
the tip of his nose,
on
or
moping
gazing listlessly
along with his eyes fixed on the ground, lest he should
ant or
unawares
worm
;
waiting release
destroysome
from
his body as
his wages," yet wishing
servant
a
life nor
neither
death, and
receiving his food from
others without
asking it, as the due of his austerities
for the public good.4 Unpromising enough ; yet the
"

monks

desert

as

were,

of

cleanly, than

while

they drew
unnatural
theory
from

Hindu

be, the Yogi is


conditions

in

class, less gentle and

far less

drew

Christendom

could

from
of

Man*,

And,

specimen,

furnish, of

devotion

95-

Ibid.,VI.

4*, 45,

all the
a

as

the

Ibid.,VI.

43.

others

he

may

social

purely

circumstances

positivemoral
all

have

of

to

the

Hindu,

more

under

34-

"8. 63 i Y*i"*valky*, "I.

same

the

crude

these

as

tainly
cer-

devotees

repulsiveas

such

century

the

dogma
self-abnegationwhich

II. 162.

Ibid.,II.

Eastern

Christian

caste.

fourth

thoughtful,and

these

Under
contemplative ideal.
even
squalid asceticism appears
protest. For
sensualitymust
fiercelybeset the temperament

"

the

45, 62.

178

AND

RELIGION

hot

amidst

suns,

he

more

voluptuous physical nature,

devoted

was

LIFE.

seclusion

to

and

the

meditation;

in fact a vigorwere
disciplines
ous
reaction againsttitanic attractions in the senses.
Their very name,
tapas, signifyingheat, hints of a
the moral
torrid climate, in which
was
sense
finding
This virtue is of the passive
itself severely tried.
dom,
Hindu
and freequality, lacking self-consciousness
divine
instinct strugglingagainst hard cona
ditions
! Man
shall
complete its command
; but how
know
nothing, and be nothing,apart from the God of
his ideal thought ; and in findingHim
all thingselse
Such
is its law and its promise. To
shall be found.
and

the

escape

and

relentless

these

finite dream,

enter

to

worthy

into the real and

of all

petty limit of self,


eternal, as a blessed life
the

price,is the mystic desire

have
great religions

and

and

flowered, each

into which

in its

all
hour

own

way.

The

Brahmanical

picture their
for

the

poets

certainlyknew

wilderness-life
civilized

in very
mind.1
The

attractive

how

to

colors,

hermitages are
in the Ramayana, as well as by K^lidasa,
described
surrounded
as
by spacious lawns, well planned and
scrupulouslyneat ; frequentedby antelopes,deer, and
birds, creatures
$haded by
taughtto trust in man
;
laved
trees;
fruit-bearing
by canals, strewed with
\\ild-flowers, and set with clear pools,where
white
lilies,symbols of holy living,spread their floating
wet
petals,never
by their contact with the element
here the peaceable
beneath, to the clear sky.1 And
and wives, purifiedbodilyby consaints, husbands
tinual
ablutions, and spiritually
by happy meditation
sacred themes, lived amidst supernaturaldelights
on
even

"

R"ighuvatiia"B. I. ; Sakitnta^

"

Act

I.

LAWS

THE

in the

celestial

societyof

MANU.

OF

guests, and

received

the

in their leafy
hospitality
out
huts ; performing stupendousfeats of asceticism withtheir simpleroots and
physicalinjury; multiplying
herbs into splendidbouquets,largeenough for armies,

visits of their admirers

with

with

which

Christian
be

beside

resources

miracle

detect

we

Through

degree to

some

and
And
not

fulfilhis duties."

honor
"

He

fame, while

lipswith honey, but


not

been

And

creatures,

and

St. Francis,

to

the

house-

pation
occu-

The

are

activc

virtues-

faithfully

support them,

to

touches

Such

poison.

in

his

virtue is

the

purely contemplative life was


had
activity
stages of practical
the student

life,or social service of


of

in

givesto strangers, with


suffers his family to live

swallows

passed through :

life,a kind

to

let him

and

he

tillthree

allowable

failed

have

not

who

distress, having power


counterfeit." l

could

fact, find that the active virtues

in

forgotten. "All

to

the

imagination,
mythologicaldress,

good.

holder," says the law,


view

and

ascetic life with natural

reconcile

social

we,

which

ideal

an

Hebrew

to this Oriental

must,

tame.
hopelessly

of

those

some

life ; domestic
sort

and

ried
mar-

anchoret

missionaryfunction,to feed the forest


preach to disciples, doubtless, like
"

the

fishes

and

the fowls

also.

fall who

"

Low

applieshis mind to final beatitude,


before having paid the three debts, to the gods, the
fathers,and the sages ; read the Vedas
according to
and sacrificed,
to the best of
law; begotten a son;
his power."2 Then
only shall the twice-born man,
^revivinghis muscles relaxingand his hair turning
gray* leave his wife to his sons, or else, accompanied
shall he

"

Manu, XI.

Ibid.,VI. 35-

l86

refuge in

by her,

seek

subdued

organs

There

faith and

firm

he is to

live,patient

perpetual giver,benevolent
with

beings,content

the Vedas

LIFE.

forest,with

of sense."

of extremities, a
all

AND

RELIGION

of the

teach

fruit,studyingwhat

and

roots

being

towards

and

attributes of God

outward
things; in the hot
proving his mastery over
covered
season
by adding four fires to the sun's heat; unin the cold ; puttingon wet
garments in rain ;
til
and, if incurably diseased",livingon air and water
his

frame

and

decays
Thus

he

Lis

advances

preme.1
with the Su-

is united

soul

the final

to

of
disciplines
meditate

sole employment is "to


Sannyasi, whose
the transmigrationscaused
by sin and

on

of

rewards

of the
all
"all

is

that
"

"

higher

glory,"and
Here

the

away;"
is extinguished

nature

illuminated

are

and

with

his

essence/'2

in the divine

active

in

passiveelements

lost, since the ideal of life is contemplation

but both

elements

are

at

all

recognized*

events

bly
respect compares
very creditawith Christian asceticism, by insisting,
as that has
the system

seldom
duties
Far

in this

done,

never

or

passport

as

in

back

by

to

the

Christian

the

Spirituality,

"

of the

balance

is indeed
alone

worlds

is "absorbed

he

divine

the

to

burned

are

perishabl
im-

essence

existence

complete

offences

"his

repugnant

and

So

subtle

the

on

its

Spiritand

Supreme

beings."

virtue,

the

on

of

fulfilment

practical

contemplativerepose.
ages,
era,

these trenchant

By falsehood

the

sacrifices become

without

doubt

Hindu

formalism

rebukes
vain ;

long

before

was

met

"

by pride,devotions.

By

its fruit perishes."


proclaiminga gift,
"

For

whatever

that purpose

purpose

a man

shall bestow

any

accordingto
gift,

shall be his reward."4


VI.

Manu,

"

Ibid, IV. 237-

1-31.

Ibid.,VI. 6a, 73,

Ibid.,2i4"

81.

LAWS

THE

"

One

when

confesses
voluntarily

who

his heart shall loathe

Let

l8l

MANU.

OF

his sin

shall,so* far,cast

it off:

it,the taint then only shall pass away." l

sins,perform penance, under prehaving committed


text
of devotion, disguisinghis crime
under
fictitious religion'
such impostors,though Brahmans, are despised."*
who
"A
man
performs rites only, not discharginghis moral
duties,fallslow : let him dischargethese duties,even though he be
not

no

man,

in those

constant

*'

He

who

governs

holiest text, is

or

more

not, though he may

with

Though

passions,though he
to be

know

honored

than

only the Gdyatn,


who

one

the three Vedas."

Eastern

know

them

governs

it is said

extravagance

where
else-

suppressionsof the breath, with


repetitionof the holy syllablesfor a
absolve even
the slayerof a Brahman
for

constant

will

month,

his

"sixteen

that

the

rites." 3

faults,"5passages

his hidden

imply

also that

like the

tainly
foregoingcercould give
only a repentant spirit

So this frank confession of


to the form.
efficacy
bibliolatry as a clod sinks into a great lake, so is
Veda"
should
every sinful act submerged in the triple
such

"

"

"

be taken

in connection

with

such

precepts

lowing
fol-

the

as

"

of injuries
purified
by forgiveness
; the negligent
have secret faults,
of duty,by liberality
tation."6
by devout medi; they who
wise

"

The

"

Of all pure

are

things,purityin acquiringwealth

excellent ; since he who

gains this

with

is

clean

pronounced

hands

is

truly
with earth and water."7
purified
pure,
for the Veda
student ; patience for
Penance
bringspurification
the wise ; water for the body ; silent prayer for the secret sin ; truth
for the mind : for the soul the highestis the knowledge of God." 8
of darkness
Let the wise consider as havingthe quality
every act
of his having done, or doing,or being about to
which one is ashamed
in the
do ; to that of passion,every act by which he seeks celebrity
world ; to that of goodness, every act, by which he hopes to acquire
most

not

he who

is

"

"

"

Manu,

XI.

"

Ibid.,II.

"

V.
ibid.,

z"9-*32.

118.
106.

Ibid.,IV. ig8.

"

Ibid.,IV.

"

Ibid.,XI.

Ibid.,V. 107.

"

Y"jn., III.

24933, 34-

ao4.

82

AND

RELIGION

LIFE.

ashamed
of doing,or which
knowledge, which he is never
The
bringsplacidjoy to his conscience.
prime objectof the foul
qualityis pleasure; of the passionate,worldlyprosperity
; of the
good, virtue." l

divine

be

"To

hermit

''

Yajnavalkya :

this

Therefore, what
him

not

do

"God
The

s int.

"

would

not

to

have

done

Spirit,"says

him, let

to

Christian

the

must
they wno
worship Him
Hear the
and in truth."
spirit

friend

one

not

others."2

to

is

comes

bring forth virtue," adds


it is practised.
only when

is

Law

Hindu

Spirit,which

virtue,that Supreme

to

Gospel, "and
worship Him in
:

"

believest

thou

alland is an
resides in thy bosom
thyself,
perpetually,
knowing inspectorof thy virtue or thy crime."
within thee,go
If thou art not at variance with that great divinity
3
to the plain of Curu."
not on pilgrimageto Gunga, nor
The soul is its own
witness,its own
refuge. Offend not thy
with

one

"

"

soul,the

conscious
"

the

wicked

The

gods
"The

see

them,

wages
death."

and

Law

in

not

season."*

'

Quite

as

their

the

None

us.'

sees

breasts."

own

Bible, wis

Christian

distinctly
says

Yes,

Hindu

the

"

Little

himself,is

hearts,

within
spirit

the

fruit of sin is not

The

in due

in their

of sin," says

Retribution,

"

said

have

of men."

internal witness

supreme

immediate, but

it eradicates
by little,

in his

sons

or

like the

comes

in his sons'

the

Its

man.

harvest,

fruit,if

sons."*

happy, nor he whose wealth


from false witness,nor he who
comes
delightsin mischief." 6
and vait*
rich for a while through unrighteousness,
One grows
quishes his foes ; but he perishesat lengthfrom his root up."*
will destroy; preserved,will preserve*
"Justice,
being destroyed,
"

Even

here

below,

the

unjustis

not

"

It

therefore

must

"In

l
"
"

whatever

Manu,

XII.

never

be violated."

extremity,never

35-38.

Ibid.,VIII. 84, 85.


Ibid.,IV. 174.

*
"

"

turn

to sin."9

Y"jn., III. 65.


Ibid.,IV, i7a, 173.
Ibid.,VIII. 15.

"

Mtnu,

"

Ibid

"

VIII
,

IV.

Ibid.,IV.

Qi, 9*
170.

171.

"Let

walk

one

fathers walked."
"Vice

is

THE

LAWS

in the

path

dreadful

more

The

by

sin
the

water

Let

that

he

For,

in his passage

may

Ms

Testament,
is

affirms

"shall

guiltyof

the

sins with
a

death."8

natural

same

the

member,

one

will let

singlehole

all."

all

out

flask."3

collect virtue

one

in which

path

penaltiesthan

New

of Manu

integrity."If one
destroyshis virtue, as
in

of its

the

of

"

the

men,

commandments,

Dharmasastra

law

good

reason

says

of these

one

of

183

MANU.

"

"Whosoever,"
break

OF

the

by degrees,as

acquire a companion

the

to

thither,his virtue

builds

ant

world.

next

only

its nest,
The

will adhere

Future

Life.

him.

to

4*

Singleis each

of his

"

When

doings.

retire with
Let

averted

him

born

man

; alone

he leaves

faces,but

In

to

discover

what

humanities

of the Code.

be
"

care

and

repaid in

Reverence

pain

for age

diseased

is to the young,

and

acts,10which
"
"

"
"

Manu,
Ibid

is

substance

the

sick, the

respect,
in

deformed

were

concerned

only

the

by

even

Sudra,

poor,

should

avoided
what

Ibid.,VII. 53.

"

Ibid.,VIII.

fl

"

Ibid

116.

not
can-

"

II.

fame."

17.

138 ; VIII.

Man*, III.

161.

395 ;

the

heavy
king."8
have

spect."9
re-

ficial
in sacri-

was

"

I.
J'4/i*.,

Humanities.

life,
knowledge,and

IV. 178.

121.

this

of

of the

some

IV. 239*242.

Ibid.,II.

justice."5

years."6

laden,are to be treated with marked


"Knowledge, virtue,age, even

The

after death

in behalf of their children

old,the blind,the maimed,

"The

!"

traversed

man

first

of parents

hundred

ground,his kindred

accompanies his soul.


secure
an
panion
inseparablecom-

is the

note

us

the reward

receives

the

on

to be

follows

ideal, let

The

hard

friend who

Brahmanic

"

body

gather this,therefore,to

onlyfirm
order

his

dies,alone

his virtue

through the gloom,how


"The

he

physi-

Ibid.,II.
Ibid.,II

Kfc/*.,I.

117.

992*7.

RELIGION

well

cally as
"in

were

LIFE.

Yet

unblemished.
spiritually

as

wise

no

AND

picturesthe gods going

As

insulted."1

be

to

they

Homer

about

disguisedas beggars
and
to
hearts, so, according
outcasts,
try men's
sick
the
to
children, poor dependants, and
Manu,
The
to be
are
regarded as "rulers of the ether."2
blind, crippled,old, and helplessare not to be taxed;8
the deaf and
and

the

heir, without
father's

the

of

use

but
inheriting,

from

excluded

lost the

have

who

those

insane, the maimed,

the idiotic and

dumb,

oldest

limb,
be

must

On

power.4

must

son

indeed

are

supported by

of his

stint,to the best

death, the

the

support

endow
their sisters.5
family, and the brothers must
his family is
The
over
authorityof the householder
almost
absolute; yet he must
"regard his wife and
his own
son
as
body, his dependants as his shadow,
tenderness."6
His prehis daughter with the utmost
scribed
is, that generous
givers may abound
prayer
in his house, that faith and
study may never
depart
"

from

that he

it,and

much

have

may

to

bestow

the

on

needy."7
"

must

guest

sun
retiring

he must

The

and,

not

The

"

soldier who

stored

conduct

not,
i

Manu,

IV.

flees and
; and

"

Ibid.,III. 250..

202.

in

he

season

without

is sent
or

out

by the
of

son,
sea8

entertainment."

social ethics is well worth


like the

is slain shall take

other

following:
on

receive

himself

"

all the

all the fruit of

for the future life."

for virtaous

actions,due

protects them

falls on
iniquity
*

evening :

the commander

by the

up

if he

the whole

ple,
peo-

protects them

him."9

Ibid.,IV. 184.

Ibid.,VIII.

"

Ibid.,IX.

104-118.

"

Ibid.,IV.

"

Ibid.,III.

105.

"

Ibid.,VII.

141.

Ibid.,IX.

come

tfoe king who

sixth of their

"

he have

in passages

sixth of the reward

belongs to

at

in
solidarity

sins of his commander

good

away

sojournin the house

shown

as
noticing,
"

whether

of

sense

be sent

not

394,

185.
94;

VIII.

304-

LAWS

THE

The

Brahman's

void.2

Transfer

OF

185

MANU.

tent,
condecalogue not only commands
coercion
of the
veracity,purification,
resistance to appetites,
knowledge of
senses,
scriptureand of the Supreme Spirit,but abstinence
of wrath, and the return
from illicitgain, avoidance
of good for evil.1
Forced
contracts
declared
are

of property

Royal giftsare
There

be

to

be

must

made

recorded

on

in writing.3

permanent

laws

againstslander, peculation,
; laws
intemperance, and dealing in ardent spirits
ishing
punjudgments, false witness, and unjust
iniquitous
and
imprisonment; laws providingfor the annulment
revision of unrighteousdecrees ; enforcingthe sacredof pledges and
the fulfilment of trusts ; justly
ness
of partners ; dealing severely
dividingthe responsibilities
with conspiracies
to raise prices to the
injury
either forbid gambling altoof laborers ; laws which
gether,
drawbacks
or
; laws
discourageit by regulative
declaringpersons reduced to slaveryby violence free,
tablets.4

well

as

who

as

the

slave who

purchases

merciless

are

his

freedom.5

own

dealing with

in

greatest mischief, such

his master's

saved

has

as

life,or

Penalty becomes

crimes

which

involve

the

coin,
counterfeiting

arson,

sellingpoisonousmeat.6
The
king shall never
transgress justice." It is
of majesty,protector of all created things,
the essence
and

"

and

"

his whole

eradicates

race," if he

duty.7 He shall forgivethose who


pain : if through pride he will not
shall go

to

Manu,

"

K4/"., II. 84.

"

Ibid., Ill

949, 259;
"

abuse
excuse

him

in their

them,

he

his torment."8

VI. 91.

Mann,

from

swerves

285; II. 270;


VIII.

"

Ibid.,VIII. 168; Ydj'n.,II. 89.

"

Ibid.,I.
Manu,
i

3"8-

221;

Ydjn., II.
Manu, VII. n,

211, 230-233;

Yfy'n , II. 282, 297.

317.

IX.

YAjn.t II.
199,

4,

82,243; 31, 305; 58,164,

182.

14, 28.

"

Ibid.,VIII.

3'3"

l86
"

RELIGION

modest,

be

inclination,able

low

habits,nor

criminal

reasoning and in
and in the three
livelihood,
in

enced,
patient,experi-

very

to
rendered,respectful

of services

firm,truthful,
acquaintedwith the

of loose
wise

Yajnavalkya,

mindful

generous,

should

"

king,"says

LIFE.

AND

laws, not
to

hide
the

law, in

old,

the

censorious, nor

his weak
of

art

points,

procuring a

Vedas."

of his subjects."
protection
guished
is not extinfrom the people'ssufferings
The fire that ascends
life."!
their king,his fortune,family,
tillit has consumed
he
What
he has not, let a king seek to attain honestly; what
has, to guard with care ; what he guards,to increase ; and what is
"

is the
all gifts

than

Higher

"

"

increase

let him

give to

those

who

it." l

deserve

people."2 He should
war
only for the protectionof his dominions;
the fears, of
laws, and even
respect the religion,
conquered.3 Punishment
by militaryforce must

He

shall

make
must

the

be

father of his

"a

be his last resort.4


w

remembering what is due to honor,*'


shall not
strike the
shoot with
nor
poisoned arrows,
weary, the suppliant,the non-combatant, the sleeping,
the severelywounded,
the fugitive,
the disarmed, nor
one
already engaged with an opponent, nor one who
ing
yieldshimself captive.5 Civilization has added nothto these humanities
of militarychivalry. To sum
in thought,
in deed
be done
all, "let not injustice
or
The

warrior,

word

nor

it will bar

pain :
who

has

have

no

caused

sanctions.

such

fear

no

be easy

not

which

Moral

one's progress

to

of

caste

F4/V/.,I. 308-310. 334,

"

Mann,

"

Mattu, VII

VII.

340,

316

168, 170, 201, 203.


90-93;

*#*.,

I. 3*5'

such

Mami"

"

Ibid.,VII.

He

shall

creature

the idea of

precepts

justice
these

as

Yet
legislation.
incompatibilities
proceed side by side
the

"

dies."7

comprehend
with

fellow-creature

final bliss,"6

to

he

mingled

cruelties

cause

the smallest

to

for fear when

cause

It may

"

be uttered that shall

^fo**,

VII.

80 ;

108;

II. 161

Y"jn., I

do not
in

the

333.

Y"jn., I. 345.
"

Mdnu,

VI. 40.

THE

LAWS

State

with

of government
future.

We

"

appealed

of

to

as

other

any

in

appears

also, and

in

even

irrational

delicacy
Hebrew

both

Hindu

and

cause

than

noble

primary

love,

suggested as
is constantly

Jesus. But it would be


ground for ascribingsuch

the

yet lies in the

sanction

Testament

with

of

this

affection

ethics

New

in the

Beatitudes
make

to

This

For

law

that self-interest is

notice

to

of

instinct,as

noble

for benevolence.

motive

the

reconciliation

such, the

as

of all races?

bibles

and
laws, theologies,

187

MANU.

OF

and

mane
hu-

feeling. Laws may suggest interested motives,


But Law
and they must
itself
appeal to sanctions.
springs from the natural instincts of love and care,
well as from
the eternal
social dangers. And
as
so
piety of the heart had its large share in the oldest
legislation.
With
decision
breaks
what
natural
a
self-respect
forth through the slavery of abnegation,^
and law, in such
despotism of custom
cepts
preof
One

"

Success

it from

own

All that

"

The

"

habit of

believer

lesson

in the

brightas
nectar

may
a

action

on

think

-ever

destinyand

on

of these

depends
another,pain."3

on

one's

these

as

"

to be

conduct

let him
l

attained."

the wise

expect

singlewheel, so
brought
pass."a
one's self givespleasure: all that depends
as

car

goes

not

on

the fated is not

receive

pure

highestvirtue

from
gem even
be taken ; from

foe,prudent counsel

it hard

on

; even

Manu,

IV. 137-

"

"

Manu,

IV. 160.

"

knowledge
from

even

lightto

fade."

from

sudra

even

chandala

; and

and
,

woman

family. Even from poison


child,gentlenessof speech ; even from
from an impure substance, gold.""

the
a

to

the divine

takinggiftscauses

may

despise himself for previous failures

depends

the union

without
"

not

must

fortune tilldeath, nor

pursue
"

stoicism

older

an

W"-"

basest

I-

Ibid.,IV.

348-350.
186.

"

Ibid.,II. 238. 230.

88

RELIGION

be asked

It may

reduced
Natwe

how

!^rather
classes

of civil

rules

preachingwas

It is doubtless
Oriental

said, that

have

\ve

of all this

much

?
practice

to

of

oriental

LIFE.

AND

true,

as

Codes

express
convictions
of the

and
aspirations
from which
they spring,than
conduct.
and political
They are
the

actual
vast

ideals,
repositoriesof national life, of individual
traditions more
and
philosophicalsystems, customs
less

or

sacred, laws

carried

out.

deal in the

more

recognized and
imaginative form,

less

or

They have also an


superlativeand boundless,

and

must

not

be

literally
interpreted.These considerations apply
alike to their good and evil ; and we
must
guard alike
and over-praise.But this much
againstover-censure
too

said.

be

may

The

before

centuries

the

Greeks
Christian
of

in their admiration

who
era

Hindu

travelled
were

morals.

in

India

enthusiastic

They

told of

kings spending the whole day in the administration


of the honesty of traders, and the general
of justice,
the infrequency of theft,
dislike
of litigation
; of
left open without
bolts or bars ;
though houses were
of loaning money
without
seals or
and of the custom
witnesses.
They praisedthe truthfulness of the men
Whatever
and the chastityof the women.1
tion
deducbe made

must

and
But

for

from

these testimonies

mistakes, they
the main

us

are

without

not

import

of such

for ation
exaggertheir value.

precepts is that

of truth,
recognizedthe nobility
and love through its own
stance of the justice,
resources,
testimony.
^^
bore witness to the universality
of its own
inspiration.There
they stand written in their old
beautiful speech
called
the Hindu
Sanskrit, or
as
older times than such
it,pointingback to how much
the human

soul

"

Arrian,Strabo.

"

See also Duncker, II. 283-287.

THE

writingwe
interest

And

of the Christian,

they

men

and

even

women

"

To

sound

To

find

God's

of

and

by

states.

The

their natural

unjustor
the
to

side with

better

cruel

earthlyplummet,
worthless
clay."
"

civilizations, verities
falsities; and
the

moments

theoretic

of

people'slife

it be

ideal of freedom

and

must

fair in

that the American

side-

barbarous

best

traditions of law
Would

dispensation/'
bravelylived by

indeed

for good
capacities

measure.

assert

and

legislation and they are


disprove our conclu- The darker

contradict

customs

other

this

"

side

with

stillof

and dark
do not
many
sions.
In all times and
stand

affirm, in the exclusive

any

sea

bottom

barbarities

or

to

deeply felt
then,were

not

were

MANU.

OF

tell.

cannot

that

The

LAWS

laws

claims

record

of these

not

be

of

their

taken

as

future historian

some

conscience

had

no

better

1865 than a slavery


basis of representation
and a FugitiveSlave Law?
It
would
certainlybe more
just to say that American
historyhad been throughout, the struggleof the two
opposing ideas, Liberty and Slavery, each existing
in the consciousness
of the age and people,
potentially
less apprehended by individuals ; and that
and more
or
this
the laws, so
far from showing the stage at which
had
arrived, as a definite
personallightor darkness
point,gave merely the general resultants of the strife
If then
instituted wrong.
with long established
and
down

to

the year

"

the

barbarities

like those

of the

of mature

Hindu

Codes

were

even

crimes

instead of being,as
civilization,

they to a great extent are, results of childish fears and


superstitions,
they would still prove nothing against
of ethical truth stood
that a high sense
other evidences
mind.
side by side with them in the Hindu

AND

RELIGION

In fairness
of
"

How

note

must

we

beginnings,even
of practical

advance

inter-

intelligence
stamps
founcj

discreditable

as

jn half-conscious
to

condemn

we

that the
the

which

customs

LIFE.

human

are

to

instincts,by

no

means

And

nature.

perhaps

was

enormities,

the effort

be

the

legislation
actuallyto modify

the earlier
mis-growth. Whoever
have been, they were
legislators
obligedto make
may
fects
deto us
the best of existinginstitutions. What
are
and
have been timelyreforms
in their codes may
Solon's laws gave
functions
restraints.
remedial
political
to a degree,
according to wealth ; thus continuing,
from office.
the old exclusion of the people as a whole
from
But he was
a yet
thereby enabled to lift them
more
abjectposition,and to procure them, in compensation
and
for such
defects, their archons
general
powerful checks on the aristocratic party.
assembly,
Another
celled
canarbitrarydecree of this great Athenian
the
Yet
just debts, and debased
currency.
the poor from
burdens
which
it delivered
they could
no
longerbear, freed them from personal seizure for
debt, and produced an abiding respect for the force of
I made
the land and
the people free,"
contracts.1
his
said ; and^ Aristotle reaffirms this claim
he
on
Portions of the Mosaic
behalf.
legislation
concerning
that seem
to the last degree cruel
the Canaanite
races,
and barbarian, were
ment
reallya limitation to the treatof certain most
alone, of
dangerous enemies
appliedto enemies as such.9 Traces
usages previously
in many
of similar efforts at mitigation
observable
are
and

their

control

"

ff

severities of the Hindu


The

better

of law,

now
2

Code.

impulsesin
to

seen

Grote, III.

105.

be

which

forms
persistent
originatedin rude

many

inhuman,
*

Deut.

xx.

10-18.

THE

have

ages,

seldom

OF

been

recognized by

and
scarcely enter
inquirers,
heathenism
by the Christian
The

elder

convinced
and
were,

the

for

races,

the other

on

of natural

laws.

in

were

historical

estimate

the

world

of

general.
fullyand

of moral

nature

moral

Ipl

into

example,

of the

of
certainty

MANU.

LAWS

retributions.

tensely
in-

ev^TheOrdeaL
They

hand, ignorantof the invariableness


These

conditions

led

inevitably
of testing
to the use
of the Ordeal, as a means
guiltby
It was
an
appeal to divine interposition.
simply an
in the ill-understood
effort to find decisions of justice
ments
operationsof physicalnature ; to prove that the eleunder
moral
were
sovereignty. The Sanskrit
for ordeal
words
signify"faith" and "divine test."
"The
fire singed not
hair of the sage Vatsa, by
a
of his perfectveracity."1Nature
is pledged,
reason
in other
deal justly,when
to
words,
appealed to.
Christians tell us why a miracle
should
Can
be
not
wrought to save a truthful Vatsa, as well as to punish
should
not
a
tying Ananias ; or why fire and water
discriminate
old

Hindu

between
courts

two

saint and

the
well

as

in the

as

the

sinner

cases

manuals"
reprobatesrecorded in the
struck by lightningfor violatingthe
But

while it may
in

there
have

is in

fact

indicated not

as

of modern

drowned

Christian

great difference.
a

in the

littlefaith and

or

bath?
SabFor
age,
cour-

ignorantof physicallaws, to believe that


subordinate
and to trust its cause
Nature was
to justice,
to imply something very unlike
to her defence, it seems
the lightof a
either of these qualities
to renounce
and
of religion,
scientificage in the name
persistently
of an ignorantone.
to clingto the superstitions
Manu
knows
only ordeals by fire and water, or by
races

'

M*HU, VIII.

116.

AND

RELIGION

touching
invocations

of

heads

the

wife

one's

Other

thereon.

LIFE.

codes

and
add

children

with

by poison

tests

for example, by being


by various processes,
weighed twice in scales, drinking consecrated water,
touching hot iron with the tongue. In the trial by
carryinga red-hot bar for seven
paces, however, leaves
the hand
to be wrapped round
maining
were
; in that by rea certain time under
water, the legsof another
of the year for embe clasped. The
could
seasons
ploying
and

"

different forms

the

with

certain

regard
undergo them.

were

to

the

sick,

and

Women,

or

be

to

poison, but

only.1 Yajnavalkya implies that they


except in

used

be

The

ordeal

of any

wild

the

And

the

means

priesta

For

under

solemn

to

twelfth

the

the

Church

her

with

never

tells

us

especialsanction,"

her

water,

and

rituals within

her

holy

century, it

f?

afforded

of

awing the laity,by rendering the


of Divine
specialinstrument
justice,into

summary

every
fall."5
of these

felt that he

man

And

laws,see

liable

was

its final abolition


Stenzler,in Zeitsch. d

D.

M.

at

was

VIII.

See

Lea's Superstitionand

Pictet,II. 457, 458.


Force, p.

271.

Milman,

Lat.

any
due

"., IX. 661-683

115 ; Asiett. Res., I. 389II.


See Stenzler's Introduction, p. vii.
XA/"M
95.

Manu,
*

the ordeal

Down

to

not

were

Japanese,
its authority.3The
of jealousy."
water

Christian

its^cruelties

to

moment

the

with

hands

whose

of

iron

temples.4
the

to

red-hot

sprinkledits

subjectedto
by the scales

it appears

Arab,

his "bitter

had

historian

old,

special barbarism

the

The

African, alike defer

that she "took

enacted

called

in China.

husband

Hebrew

be

religion,
though

or

existed

have

to

race

one

who

of great moment.2

cases

cannot

those

children, the

not

were

by fire, water,

ordeals

determined

were

interests of

the

to

weak

the

of ordeal

III.
Christianity,

v.

LAWS

THE

quite

the

and

much

as

the

to

rise of the

OF

revival

free

MANU.

of the

Roman

old

the

to

as

communes

93

law

ance
repent-

of the Church.
Personal
Manu
or

as

in

deformities

and

diseases

are

regarded

of sin in the present


the consequences
the law classifies
previous life. And

in

Treatment
of

physical

defects-

they
according to the sins from which
it declares
that the victims
proceed. In one
passage
of them
too from
to be despised ; 1 excluding some
are
them

the Sraddha,

feast in honor

or

superstitionis

as

like that, infected


similar

of the dead.2

And

this

wide-spread as the ordeal ; it has,


the Jew and
had
the Christian, and
the effort to comprehend the mystery

originin
The
of physical evil under
instinctive
law.
a moral
world
the material
to
presumption that it becomes
while
show
allegianceto the moral, is of course,
of a
growing up among
ignorant races, the source
But we
must
not
superstitious
expectationof miracles.
ment
developforgetthat it is this very instinct to whose
the abolition of every ground
by science we owe
for believingor demanding miracles ; its ultimate form
being the conviction that natural laws are themselves
the desired expressionsof universal good.
Hindu
The
law prescribes towards
contempt which
deformed
the physically
and diseased is limited
and
within
defined
lines of conduct;
strictly
towards* deis evidentlyan
this legislation
endeavor
to
modify and restrain, as well as to respect, the
instinct that physical evil is a punishment for
crude
unfortunate
The
be despised as
sin.
not
to
were
with
to be treated
such.
They were
kindly and even
respect.3 They were
exempted from publicburdens ;
and
although avoided in the act of sacrifice as being
a

"

"

Manu,

XL

48, 53.

"

Ibid.,III.

150.

"

Yfy'n.,II.

004.

RELIGION

194

LIFE.

AND

Dlemished, and in the choice of partners for life,probably


to
not
reasons,
physiological
yet they were
be expelled from society
rites,
; and, after prescribed
could freelyassociate with other people.
also sanguinarypunishments on the prinThere
are
ciple
of "eye for eye and tooth for tooth." And
eye.
ye
made
^ese
most
tion
are
repulsiveby their connecof caste.
This
with the 'enormous
inequalities
the basis of all first
forms
principle,cruel as it seems,
of
and ideal justicein the requital
at abstract
essays
crime.
Some
of the severest
penaltiesare left to the
back
criminal's own
execution, as if falling
on
a
posed
supin
of their rightfulness
recognition
spontaneous
mind.1
And
their barbaritycannot
be exhis own
plained
on
any theory that leaves out of view the fact

for

or

that their makers


of the
on

crimes

limbs

with
a

which

iron.

of sensual
the law

Sympathies

itself
of

way

out

who

kings
and

hint

knew

how

a^ endurance

of these

punishment
as

clear

similar reaction
Manu,

Ibid.,VIII.

XI.

100,

104.

372, 334-

to

of

bonds

the

the

same

natural
of

"

let him

these

be

unflinching

right.It

nature

withal
Where-

was

but

its retributions

in

providecompensationsfor
As

if dissat-

looking upwards for


judgment, it says: "Men

them, and

committed

"

theft.2

of its barbarities.

have

become

the

the

lose

to

were

to

burn

must

excesses.

Jsfied with

of the law.

Adulterers

Thieves

recommended

abhorrence

intense

an

sinned, with

judges as the maxim


followingout the stern
But

least

effected

they

hath

man

punished,"

at

they punished.

of red-hot

bed

had

offences, and
due
as

received

them, go

those who

pure to
have done

againstthe severityof

Suicide is one

of the commonest
"

from

heaven,
well."8

statutes

was

forms of penaltyin the East*

Ibid.,VIII. 318.

LAWS

THE

to
naturally

in view

expectedin

be

this

exceptionalfact
the

wherever
who

sinned

has

if the affections
such

extreme

present and

presumptionmay
falsehood

that

of

death

is

of any

person

in the courts.1

It would

sought

assert

to

In

the

caused

modification

under
This

Hindus

the

influence

of the

indicates
relenting
better than

of

same

we

way

harsh

humane

may
forfeits in
of

sense

and

eye
measure

lex lalionis

sentiments.

the natural

the barbarism

as

duties, to the

for the

of crime, but the

by

seem

singularscale of fines and


commutation
of penalties,
based, by a crude
the principleof eye for
natural justice,
on
life for life. They are
not
mere
a
money
account

caste,

precedence,in

conflict of

of the

cases

their

the

help explain
lowed,
expresslyal-

be

of literal fact

demands

for the

tached
at-

were

would
inadvertently,

evidence

givingtrue

of false witness,

case

penaltieswhich

this crime, both

future life. And


the

the

of the tremendous
to

MANU.

OF

character

of the

of the

in
legislation
detail. It is not to be believed that the punishments
by branding and mutilation, the expiationsby selftorture
out

and suicide,even
with any

conformityto

for minor

thinglike

written law.2

the

crimes,

of
precision

There

is

different texts, both

so

were

our

much

ried
car-

western

diction
contra-

in

spiritand in
such frequent
manifest exaggeration,
letter,so much
tinguishin
of disconfusion of law with ethics, and such difficulty
and positive
between
dogmatic statement
command, that this natural inference from the general
between

Ma*", VIII.

The

27z/*,II 83.
of legalprohibitionconcerning the use of animal food and
disregard
very great
of
animal
destruction
life,
by the Brakmans,is described in Heber's Journal, vol. ii.
the
P" 379*

104;

196
character

of the

the Law

Book

Even

not

LIFE.

aside

set

the

by

of

text

itself.1

witness

smtee.

is

race

infanticide

historyof

the

infanticide
and

AND

RELIGION

this natural

to

No

character.

and

of

sati bears
Hindu

gentlenessof
of

traces

these

customs

are

in Yajnavalkya.
Rig Veda, in Manu,or
tion,
They arc a later growth, partlyof tropicalenervapartlyof social misery. But nobler elements3
found

in the

also
her

lost husband

the

marriage

the

bride.3

Both

desire

infanticide

female
of

custom

widow's

the

and

follow

to

due

was

with

giving a costlydowry
barbarities

these

to

abandoned

were

fluence.4
opportunityafforded by European inrapid extinction in British India was

earliest

the

at

in

involved

were

Their

mainly the work of the native chiefs themselves, under


like Lucllow, Macpherson, and
the persuasionof men
before British interference, many
Campbell.4 Even
them
endeavored
to control
of these chiefs had
by
their

Later

pandits have

not

from
regulations

lawyersuifable

It has been

the old laws

established
In

the

and

with which

disgraceful
spoken of

And

so

these

codes

the old statutes

exceptions,
even

abound

Rig Veda,

remained

though, as

we

did

the

out
not

such
seem

that

ground

less advanced

age

Hindus

vie

side by side with


may

came

later

ones

shall see,

the

Elliott'sN"

See

Ludlow's

"

Ludlow, II. 149; Buyers'sRecoil, of N. India^

p. 740.

of

ferent
dif-

explainthe contradiction*
partially
rule

was

not

without it"

East.

on

as

of the

chapter

rule

of the
Antiqitt,chap,xi.)that "the principle
it
made
impossiblefor their subjectsdefinitely
to

In this way

tenor.

in the remote

to

(La CM

acutelyobserved

often humaner

for

progress

divine originof laws in the older codes

abrogatethem."

hesitated

their times, upon

to

they were

of the world.

as

ally
gener-

condemnation.5

but with

times.

now

sati,since its abolition,is seldom

and

Free treat-

natives

The

river sacrifices of children

regard the
;

efforts.

unaided

own

W.

India* I. 250.

British India, II. 738,149, 151.


132,

235;

Allen, p. 418.

THE

denunciation

of

sacrifice of
of
widow

at

the

flesh

meat

cattle
of

use

the

at

pages

much

of this Code

as

not

so

in

which

of

feasts of

of crueltythat darkens
the
spirit
insatiate self-abnegaan
tion,
superstiis

respects

many

kind

of

tion of human
sufficient
be

may

to

with

under

point to

their

and

her

his

belied.1
from

"

The
causes

slaughter,in

sacrifice,in Mahadeva
deities have

been

certainlybecame

Kali
with

greatly

sensualized,

If, however,

to trace.

easy

seem

"Here," it
consequences.
of Hindu
virtue; here, in

These

Hindus

us lesson.
justifica-

aspects, it may

of human

car

his collar of sculls."

these

end

of human

sword

all

to

answer

nature

said, "is the

Jagannath

noiissetf-

abnegation*

for full

And,

the

of sraddhas."

name

suicide.

and

guest;

celebrated

the

appointment
son
by the
the slaughter

of

the

the

father

entertainment

dead, stillperformed under


It is

man

"or kinsman

brother

deceased

or

mentioned

be

may

the

''Among

customs.

"

horse,

become

to

man

of

of
the

ancient

Wheeler,

bull,

MANU.

OF

many

Mr.

these," says

LAWS

should

we

we
nature,
condemnatory of human
admit that Christianity
does not reinstate it,since
must
this religion
fell into similar degeneracy, and since its
theology still retains this dreadful destructiveness in
The
records of Christian
ideal form.
an
superstition

accept the facts

dismal

more

are

than

those

of the Donatist

fanaticism

Hindu

as

of kindred

are

"England and France


historythat ought to cause
*

"

are

now

unknown.

won"hip than self-immolauon."


the pilgrimsto thU shrine is in
of destruction in figuresof the
e/il,or

to

death

as

such, than

to

It has

have

to

The

sacrifice of the
been

well said,

in their

pages

them

religious

be silent,or

else to

of Jagannftthhave always
of Vishnuopposed to the spirit
The
mortality
134.)
great
among
p.
conditions. The
fact due to neglectof sanitary
symbols
relation to spirits
of
other deities referred to have more

of victims throwing themselves

Instances

been rare, and

and the human

nature.

that

Brahmanical.

of

under

Nothing could be
(Hunter's Ortssa,

human

the wheels

more

which
sacrifice,

has

alwaysbeen infrequent

198

RELIGION

LIFE.

AND

bring their charges of crueltyagainstHindu rites with


some
humilit}T."It has been computed that several
millions

of persons have been burnt as heretics,sorcerers,


Chriswitches, in Europe,duringthe periodof tianity.

and

Cadiz

In

burned
It is

thousand

two

desirable

not

subject.

But

combined

make

fanaticisms

in

Jews

the

Inquisitors
singleyear (1481).l
this aspect

on

all these

should

why

alone

much

dwell

to

dark

of the

pictures

scepticalconcerning the spiritual

us

faculties of man?

Seville

and

The

self-tortures

and

the

dismal

through the long historyof his


beliefs are not there to prove his moral incapacity
: they
teach the very opposite. They are birth-throes,
even
the less genuine,of
blind and bitter indeed, but none
is the Yogi,
There
his divinity.Let us face the worst.
crawlingin agonizingpostures from one end of India
whole
to the other, or sitting
days between
scorching
with seared
fires and gazing at the sun
eyeballs and
cuttinghimself
burstingbrain. There is the Shaman
dren
with knives, the Moloch
worshipper passing his chilthrough flames, the Aztec piercinghimself with
aloe thorns and tearingout the hearts of his kinsmen
There
the reeking teocalli.
are
on
Styliteson their
columns, Flagellants
beating themselves through the
of Christian Europe, and all the mad
streets
penances
and

savage

that

reach

suicides of the Desert

is

JesuitLoyola
iron whip; his
corpse" into the
used

at

start

the

demoniacal

hands

of

will;

Power,

"Grand

doomed

its

Masters,"

dismal

"

of human

whether

there

girdleof briers and merciless


followers
"as
a
giving themselves

contempt

doubt

And

with

their absolute
to

Monks.

and

nature,

originbe
to

not

dreadful
that

no.

centives
in-

almost

from

self-annihilation.

Jost,Gfsch. 4. yu4*nik*mt, HI.

be

to

some

But

other

to

Christian
stake

the

at

last

You

soul.

becomes

descended
needless

it is

as

dismal

least

at

that

and

for what

assure

believes

he

superstitiousterror
Fear

does

that

they

for

cry

impossible
and

of

some

and

believed

all-creative

Jewish

that

those
to

assure

triumph
man

to

some

element,

revelation

alone.

point

one

Do

to

even

hint

of

beyond
has

awe

mere

stitions.
superof
but

"

aspiration,

They

progress.
of

they

extremities

before

pain.

in his very

spiritualdignities which

owe

for

It is not

these

They

sentiment

of

they,

signs, even
been

light,they

ever
how-

errors,

self-crucifixions,

fear.

masters

without

vision

assurance

mournful

dark

suffer all things

martyrs

explain

not

self-sacrifice, these

something

makes

that

as

endurance

the

sacred?

and

true

for

will

man

and

these

significance?

that

surely

injustice

divine, have

of utmost
us

between

and

and

benignant

level:

has

done

the
life.

to

impossible,

endurance

demoniacal,

truths, however

not

the

of

brute's

have

read

not

we

that

and

in common,

You

stand

death

nature

is

later

majesty

the

at

consummate

from

new

that

impossible.

discern

lines, and

But

Can

soul.

the

and

and

the

this

turn

world's

love

on

was

God.

him."

on

all

You

rack

the

before

passed

"man

say,

you

he

have

to

of

hasten

you

the

on

liberty,and

ascribe

you

these

to

respect for life.

Calvary

on

seem

"There,"

to

for truth,

199

and

martyrs

great

which

to

MANU.

dying serenely

the

to

OF

your

reverently

sacrifice

here

command,

saints

witnesses

day,

at

recover

may

you

LAWS

are

scenes

that

THE

are

duty,

They

substance,
he

supernatural change,
introduced

by

are

has
or

Christian

VI.

WOMAN.

WOMAN.

HPHE

Dharmasastras
the

on

of

Moses,
is

Manu

the

hitherto,

the

that

man

spite of

is

all

analogous

And

it is of

forces

in

in

import

of

society

human

much

general

status

in

declarati

the

it is

to

in
with

it is

in

woman

Law

right."
in this

its evils

the

remedial

the

note

her

sexes,

makes

evils,

those
of

"might"
than

the

that

the

mitigated

greater

of

ms

discuss

to

relative

of

of

"might

which

the

when

and

head,

been

rapidly vanishing,

that

than

n.nduiegj*.
latlon'

has

general

theory

is

now

nature

respects

most

The

Scripture,

less

in times

even

This

obey.

Fall,

Apostle

in

appointed

pretensions

form

that

or

is her
to

Adam's

world

wiser

no

Law

the

Christian

the

Christian

and

age

of

mythologists

as

prerogative

than

woman

positive as

as

and

was,

of

nature

or

unquestionably

are

man

was

now.

East

books,

is

given
is

she

that

"unfit

by

that

seek

ft;"

own

pleasure

qualitiesof
is

This

covert"

J//IMM,

her

"she

is

alone

that

husband,

147,

dt

u8

r Em

IX.

3,

22

as

do

wife
river

modern

essence

to
f?

austerities

to

up

Thierry, Tableau

never

"

in its purest

V.

independence,"

precious

our

herself

for

nature

any

must

The

"

and

The

never

for

thing

the

assumes

is lost in the

principle

]'"$/*.,I. 85.

fire /foam*/*, p. 979.

tf

and

widow

very

sea."1
"feme

must

give

unmarried,

remain

old Roman

of

her

Law

was

similar.

See

RELIGION

204

preparing for

reunion

husband

could, and

Hebrew

law

wives

allowed

ff

made

in

mere

LIFE.

the

next

should, marry
husbands

life ; l while

the

As

the

again.2

their
put away
uncleafcness," so the Hindu

"

plea of

the

on

AND

mere

unkindness,"

to

well

as

barrenness

as

or

disease, sufficient ground for supersedure; while


exhorted

the

woman

her

on

part,

of bestial

pain

on

it

the basest husband


to revere
even
as
transmigrations,
in later times, like the Hebrew
Brahman
a god.3 The
patriarch,might by law have several wives, though
of different castes,
cording
having claims to preference ac-

wife, child,

of their classes

order

to the

slave, could

neither

his

lute
thing as absoHe could take every thing from either
property.
from all.4 This
of them
incident, affecting
an
or
was
all alike, of the old system of patriarchalauthem
thority.
The
of polyandry,or possessionof
custom
wife by several
also pfevalewj
husbands, was
one
during the Middle Ages of Hindu history; originating?
of male offspring,
as
partlyin the necessity
ground of
of physicalsupport.6
hopes as well as source
religious
This
the theory,
was
easilymatched, we
may
nor

hold

and

any

"

in Western

remark,

time.

But

provided by

human

recent

or

not

Afanu, V. 157-162.

"

Dent.

xxiv.

Mann,

IX.

for

the

let

IX.

81 ; V.

right

to

"A

woman'

duty, he need

not

violate other

(Mann,

Ibid

154;

property

restore

laws,which

worst

V. 167-169;

I.
JKo/;/.,

her."
are

counteractions

the

its

to

of

institutions,even

observe

us

nature

85 ; VI 1 1. 416.
a

and

Mamtt

performanceof

imolve

ideas

effects.

1'4/W.,I. 89.

77.

taken

by

in distress,

her husband

(}'"/".,II. 147.) Yet


very

stringentin

this does

protectionof

the

language in the

III. 52.

Macaaghten, p. 43.) The


(Essays on Sanskrit Literature^ III. 17, a 8)
in India was, by the older laws,free to do as "he would with her property ; but
that a widow
"
made
in later times effortswere
to depriveher of this right
At pre"cnt, in Bengali" be
is acknowledged by all to be mistress of her own
wealth."
adds, "a woman
* The
the
and even
custom
universal
same
tribes!
necessityexplains
among
savage
the
of
advanced ones, like
Hebrew
tribe of Benjamin,
capturingwives,
practisedby more
property rights of

text

and

is

perhaps

too

dividingthem

woman.

Wilbon

strong.

among

of bondage, in
qualities

tells us

the captors;
the

custom

permanent status of

which tended
woman

of

course

to

under aucient laws.

ensure

other

WOMAN.

205

in
againsttotal enslavement
rude
times by the operation of two
causes.
Naturaldei.
She was
fences of
as
recognizedby man
involuntarily
deliverance, and as apbringing his spiritual
pealingto his physicalpower for protection.
the former
Of these recognitions,
due to her
was
In early times a man
procreativefunction.
Reijgjous
furtherance.
depended for safety,for help, and for honor,
The
of his children.
the number
on
sons
patriarch's
The
estimation
of an Egyptian,"
his strength.
were
Woman

secured

was

woman*

"

Herodotus,

"was,

proportionto the
day, the prayer

number

says

for
were

the

Are

"

Even

as

corks

Upholding
The
the

by

poet,
the saviors

buoy

the net

up

itb twisted

of fame

cord

of

is the

man,

tribes that have

ichism.

As

essence

risen

of the

the

abyss beneath."*

life,as

earliest
above

the sea,

on

from

mysteriousprincipleof

seed

the

law

watched

for ages

by

veneration
of Fet-

condition
it is the

familybond,

and embodied
patriarchal
religion,
which
for male offspring,
determined
of the principal
of Europe
races
Roman

transmitted

objectof

centre

in that demand

of

and

field, in

"

the

for the dead

in the

l
To this
oflspring/'
in the Nile Valley is
laborer
him
aid
in his toil.
They
life beyond death.
dren,"
Chil-

to

Greek

valor

to

of his

of the

children,
many
hold
men's
on
says

next

the

tions
early institu-

and Asia.

over

the

of the

Greek

tion
preserva-

the
as
familylines through male offspring,
ground-work of religiousrite and tradition. It is
easy to explain the fact that interests of this nature
In
so
were
excessively
developed among the Hindus.
relations with
the firstmale child centred the religious
I. 136.

JEachyl.,Gb?/A*r/,

497.

2O6

AND

RELIGION

LIFE.

child has

always been the


primal necessityfor the Oriental man.
Through a
the debt for the giftof his
he pays his progenitors
son
future.

past and

own

life,which

and

assures

the

is held

himself

Hindu

of

his

For

descendants.
existence

own

like

the

his

from

ancestors

posterity.1
believed

was

performance

of

morial
me-

line of
uninterrupted
it not through a son
that

by

an

was

became

of all dues,

sacred

payment

the

on

rites in their honor


male

mosf

the

happiness of
to depend

The

by

male

part of that

continuous

which
was
probably the first and
generations,
of his own
simplest sign to man
immortality? The
laws declare that
by a son one obtains victory,by a
son's son
immortality,by a great-grandsonreaches the
he overcomes
the great
solar heaven."2
"By a son
darkness
(ofdeath) : this the ship to bear him across.
line of

"

is

There

life to him

no

has

who

son."

no

Kalidasa

picturesthe joy of a king in the birth of a male child,


as
resembling that which is felt by the Supreme, at
the thought that Vishnu, as manifestingHis own
subof His Universe.4
tance, is a guarantee of the stability
The
Upanishads record the tender forms by which a
father at the point of death transfers his whole being
The
for son
to his son.5
(futra) means
very word
deliverer

from, the

hell called

harata,

saint has

vision, in which

descending into
in consequence
of descendants
Romans
son,
1

as

Manu,

of

In the

put.

the

this

limbo, heads

extinction

in him.

he

The

IX.

Aitereya. BrahntaiM.

Ragkuvansa,

III.

See references

in La

Roth, in Weber's
Antique^ I.

downwards,

of the Greeks

and

who

had

no

Mann, IX. 137.


Siuet.,I. 458.

Ind.
fi

Citi

cestors
an-

line

laws

106, 107.

his

of their male

prescribedadoptionto the father


line.0
his sacred duty to his own

sees

Mahab-

Kaushitaki

ch. iv,

Upan. (Weber, I. 409).


:

207

WOMAN.

exaltinghis stronger sex to


wards,
afterdid
heaven, finding therein, as
Christianity
in the "well-beloved
Son," the ground of his
Here

then

was

But

salvation.

by nature,
gods said

was

man

eveti

to

this end

after all, the

the wife and

sole

mother

sacred

and

path.

"

In her
:
concerning woman
husband," as Mann
you shall be born again." "The
himself
an
it, becomes
embryo, and is
expresses
of
time."1
And
born a second
so
marriage became
invested with the sanctions of
a
sacrament,
necessity
and
conscience
piety. Nature enforced, in behalf
of woman,
the respect that seemed
fused.
likelyto be reand heaven
Since immortality
come
through
descendants," says Yajnavalkya, therefore preserve
The

to

man

"

"

"

and

woman."2

honor

So Manu
"A
and

is

man

wife

perfectwhen

he consists of three,his wife,himself,

his son."
"A

"

bliss to the

secures

manes

of

his

ancestors

and

to

himself."
"

She

is

as

the

goddess

of

abundance,

and

irradiates

his

dwelling."4
Hence

the

in the Vedic
far than

and
purityof marriage
great simplicity
times,
a more
equaland justrelation by

in those

"

of

Manu

though nothing in

the

recorded
than
this
was

marriage rites of later times indicates other


mutual respect and unityof interests.5 Through
motive, it must have been that polyandry
religious
"
the polygamy of still more
got rid of; and even

"
Manu, IX.' 8 ; Yty'n^ I. 56.
Y"jn., I. 78.
*
Manu, IX. 45Ibid.,IX. 28, 26.
0 See fullaccounts
of the marriageritesof the Hindus accordingto the later Vedas, in
Weber1 s Indische Studien,vol. v.
6
This custom stillexistsin some parts of India,as among
the Nairs,and is ascribed
"

fay Mr. JusticeCampbell to the modification of that widely spread custom


Hindus, of a wife passing
on the death of her husband
to his brother: "This

among

the

successive

2O8

recent

ages

rather

not

and

be

by it,being

religiousend

the

where

otherwise

gratifyingloose

LIFE.

modified

much

was

last resort

could
of

AND

RELIGION

attained, than

lawless

desires.

made

of
a

riage
mar-

means

Polygamy

prohibitedexcept for such causes


as
are
expresslydeclared justgrounds for dissolving
which
the marriage contract, among
long continued
the chief.1 Again, as with
barrenness
naturallywas
of securingmale offspring
the Hebrews, the necessity
led to the transference of the wife by her husband
to"(
relative,or sapinda, for the purpose ; but the
a near
solemn
motive of the act led also to the most
religious
precautionslest this infringementshould be abused
for sensual purposes.2
These
few of the legal defences
that inured
a
are
A
the
to woman
as
recognizedway of immortality
him whose
uncontrolled
brute strength,
mere
by srfch
But they
her
his slave.
have
made
motives, would
giveonly a faint idea of that fine compensation which
have
lent her weakness,
nature
must
through her
hold upon
man's
dearest hopes.
And
her procreativefunction enlisted on her beas
half his religious
her physical
so
aspirations,
inferiority
appealedin rude times to his generosity
in fact

came

to

be

and"
the

to

grace

tenderness.

put that

they consigned

her

The

laws

of

Manu

had

dependence to which
lifelong
the ground of protection.3
on

holdingbeing here transformed into a joint contemporaneous holding/'where the great


could not otherwise be secured." Ethnology of India,
that of obtainingchildren,
object,
see
Ditandy, Potsit
As
marriage relations,
to the influence of this belief on
p. 135.
Indiemu, p. 137.
1
Macnaghten, 60.
8

Mann,

in many

I.,IX.

respects

Manu^ IX. 59, 60; Y"jn.t I. 67, 68,


states of society,
even
polygamy was plainly
ill-governed
3.
female
for
to
assigning
captives, example, a recognizedstatus,
safeguard,
In rude and

of a household.
Manu' a
husband, and in the partialmanagement
his wife by employinghear"in
sedulous instructions to the husband, in the art of protecting
of wealth, in purifications
and female duty,in the preparathe collection and expenditure
under

the

care

of

WOMAN.

And

2O9

regard to her helplessnessruns


through the
in which
she was
specialprovisionson those matters
liable to be oppressed.
On
certain grounds, even
"for bearing only female
children,"1 a wife might be
superseded; but "not a beloved and virtuous wife,"
a

who

must

superseded
in all

her

wife

is entitled

estate

general,though
erty" made

up

without
to
"

whatever.

cases

mother's

aside

set

support."3

without

their

be

never

equally

hers,
positively

with

kinds

could

crime

to

daughters
or

of

leave

inherit

sons.4

pcculium^

of six different

consent.2

sufficient maintenance

It is

Unmarried

wife's

the

her

So

in

specialpropgifts,and pronounced
be

nevertheless

used

of distress ; 5 yet a special


in case
by the husband
male
relations who
take
provisionconsignsto torment
property.6 A wife
unjust possession of a woman's

could

be

not

liable for the

debts

of

husband

supported
good wife is to be faithfully
tion,
against his inclinaby her husband, though married
from
religiousduty,8 A father is forbidden to
for giving
sell his daughter by taking a gratuity
tacitly
the son
is charged to protect
her in marriage; 9 and
after the death of her husband.10
his mother
Insanity
in a husband, impotence, and
extreme
vice, are held
a

or

son.7

held

tion of dailyfood

utensils*' (ix H), are evidently


superintendenceof household
her to her own
which are regarded as her most
dictated by the fear of trusting
dispositions,
This diligent
and preservation of the wife fiom vice, which
protection
dangerousenemies.
is made so essentiala part of his own
of a complacency which might have
savors
salvation,
had the making of the laws.
been rebuked,had woman
Yet, as thingswere, it must have
her
doubtless
his
from
and
as
to
expresseda real sense
n
eeds,
judgment
special
proceeded
the law commands,
weakness
and exposure to rude assaults.
of her physical
For instance,
*' if he have
while away ; for
his
business
wife
to
a fitmaintenance
him,
abroad,to assure
of subshe may be tempted to act amiss, if distressed for want
if a wife be virtuous,
even
"istence" (ix.74).
8
*
"
J'4/"M I- 74Mantt, IX. 81, 8a.
K4/W., I. 73.
"
"
Macnaghten, 44.
Macnaghten, 61; 1*4;*.,II. 117; Manu, IX. 192.
"

Mann,

"

Ibid.,IX.

and

the

III. 52.
too.

"

Jty*., II. 46.


Ibid.tIX. 4.
14

Mtinu% IX. 9$-

2IO

AND

RELIGION

sufficient
which

for aversion

excuse

must

be

not

LIFE.

punished by

part of the wife

the

on

desertion

tion
depriva-

nor

of her

property.1
this regard for the

And

weakness

of

could

woman

of her true
appreciation
strength. Thus, as we have justnoted, it is upon her
bases not only a perthat Manu
of protection
need
petual
tions
wardship,but a most vigilant
system of restricthe perils
and occupations,to preserve her from
her
natural frailty was
to which
pose
presumed to exBut the injunctions
end in what
her.
to these
for this presumption is decidedlya fatal admission
;
only are
truly secure
namely, that those women
who
are
protectedby their own
good inclinations." 2
So Rama
screen
a
enclosing walls can
says, "No
woman.
Only her virtue protects her."3
fail

not

lead

to

to

certain

"

f'

In

far

fact,a
has

been

the

letter of the

presumed, by

s.
oppress.G,)
overstated.

law, than

in India, for

other

example, has
despoticsystem.

in

causes,

The

distrust.

Brahmans

With

Moslem

both

originin
which

modest

But

into

facts will
which

war-

prevails

that it is of

hammedan
Mo-

adopted by the Hindus


against foreign brutality.4

Hindu, it may

and

reserve

regard only

was

have

in that instinctive

penetrates the whole

passingin

the

tyranny

regarded as forming
itis probably due to
marital jealousy
and

maintain

self-defence

in

been

main, than

the

and
-origin,

merely

those who

rpjie secjus;on of females

rant"

part of

of domestic

amount

greater

life of Eastern

its

had

reverence

races,

and

tal,
like every thing OrienThe
of the veil by
use
rigidetiquette.6

the

of ages,

course

Ibid.,IX.

"

"

Manu,

Wilson, Tfaatre of th* Hindus^ Introd.,xliii.


; Buyers, Recollect, of India, p.
De Vere, Pictur. Sketches of Greece and Turkey, p. 270.

"

IX. 79.

12.

R"m"yana.
401.

WOMAN.

females

Persian

regarded
A

social elevation.1
of

this

the

and

sun

moon.

from

sign of dignityand
lation
legend illustrates the re-

democratic

religionto

"

than

derived

as

Buddhist

subject. The wife of Buddha,


veil, againstthe wishes of the
Good
her marriage,saying :
more

been

have

to

seems

it was

when

times

211

reform

the

on

it is said,

rejectedthe
court, immediatelyafter
need
women
veilingno
The
gods know
my
qualities,my
modesty.

thoughts, my manners,
my
It would
Why then should I veil my face ?
too, that, in spiteof their seclusion, the women
"

appear,
of the

much
influence
in
classes exercise
as
upper
affairs as among
Europeans.3 In the Hindu
women

are

intercourse
and

described
and

showing

free in India

independent in their
entirely
travellingwhere they will,
veiled.4
freelyin public,and unwere
perfectly
especially,

as

movement,

themselves

Married

family
epics,

women,

in their social

intercourse

with

the

other

sex;6

and
the

at

cause

rebukes
But

Sakuntala,
of

court

in the

drama,

pleads

King Dushyanta, and

these hints of the

boldly

even

of

lead

woman

compensative forces
us

stillfarther.

circumstances

scarcelysuited to
her finer spiritual
strate
gifts. Yet
in proofs that woman
literature abound
she now
does, compel recognitionof
it may

been,

own

him.

in behalf
were

her

more

by

have
the

been

shown

service of the

of

Here

Recognition
ofwoman-

demonHindu

law

did
these

then,

as

nature

and

then,

as

though
gifts;al-

it has

lipsthan by

since

the

duct
con-

of life.
The

ages

we

are

now

Gobineau, Relig. tt Phil.

St. Hilaire.

See

"

Williams,Indian
Wilson, ut tufra.

studying are

d. t'Asta

not

Centratt,p. 348.
"
Prichard,Admin*

Epic Poetry^ p.

57.

those

of India,

of the

II. 89.

212

AND

RELIGION

LIFE.

and
wife,
simple Aryan household, where husband
equals in age, in rights,in serviceable industries,
ministered
hand
in hand
to the holy fires on
their
hearths.1
altars and
They are ages of southern
betrothed
in
woman,
polygamy and caste; when
in law for ever
a child, superseded at
childhood, was
her husband's
pleasure, forbidden to read the Vedas
rites. In these times, too,
to take part in religious
or
of polythe epics reveal
custom
the semi-barbarous
andry,
wife by several
of one
although this possession
in the stormy social
husbands
must
even
certainly,
conditions

which

the Mahabharata

describes, have been

exceptional.2
The
later,shows proRamayana, indeed, somewhat
found
But "wen
respect for the marriage relation.
this poem,
abounding in manly sentiments^|j|(j^l
women,
frequentlyfalls into the tone of^jpmempt
their perpetual minoritysuggestedjfe
which
where
as
Bharata
Rama
admonishes
of the duty of a ruler
always

to

treat

them

disregardtheir counsel,
importantsecrets.
Yet,
what
w

such

under

the law

mutual

withhold

and

circumstances

wife,3 and

and

as

from

See Mann,
In Manu

IX.

them

all

the

only did it declare


duty between
supreme

"virtue, riches, love, the

desire," to be "the
objectsof human
their mutual
and pronounce
friendship,"4
of the man."6
the highest beatitude
It
i

should

these, observe

three

he

Not

itself confessed.

till death
fidelity

husband

courtesy, while

with

of

reward
the

woman

admonished

96.

indeed it is not mentioned,and Brahmanism

Himalaya mountaineers

explain the custom

during the long absence of their husbands on


Lloyd'sHimalayas, I. 255.
*
"
Jty*, L
Manu, IX. 101.

as

necessary

had littletoleration for it. The


for the protectionof

distant expeditionsfor

74.

"

women

tradingpurposes,

Manu, IX.

28.

WOMAN.

him

that

females

where

pleased,and

where

213
honored

are

they

inference

that

that Eastern

and

in

need

common

In
a

mother

be greater than

calmer, didactic mood,


consist
and

law

in assiduous

and

of

ners.
man-

it proclaims

reverence

it defines the

service

than

of

fathers.2
of all

sum

In

duty

to

father, mother,

one's

they live, holding

as

the three Vedas

and

"

that the wife of the teacher, if of

commands

even

stantly
con-

hands

the

at

thousand

teacher, as long
spiritual
"equal to the three worlds

them

be

deeper

went

outburst of Oriental

an

to

logicon

the

house."1

gay attire shows


stands
these matters

reconstruction

But

herself.

woman

of

the

"their

and

ornaments

Western

while

on

are

made

or

therefore

must

women

suppliedwith

vain;"

are

destruction

imprecationbrings utter
The

dishonored,

are

rites
miserable, all religious

deities

the

class,sha.l be treated with the respect shown


rite in honor
In the Sraddha, or memorial
himself.3

the
to

same

of the

those
the female
side
on
or
ancestors,
pitris,
be forgotten.4The
must
not
Swayamvara form of
by the
marriage, after free choice of a husband
maiden
is celebrated
by the later poets as well as
,

And

in the Vedas.5

affirm

that

servitude

marriage

Burnouf
in India

has
was

never

It is certain

for woman.6

far

so

gone

as

state

to

of

that, of the four

of

marriage recognized as valid by Manu,


involved such subjection
neither necessarily
; while, in
tinctly
disthe Prajapatyaform, bride and bridegroom are
enjoined"to perform togethertheir civil and
duties."7
religious
forms

We

*
*
*

have

here, it is true,

Mate* III. 55-62.


YAjn., I. 242; III. 4*
Essay on the feda, p.

213.

no

such

Ibid.,II.

'

R.

Mattu^ III. 27-30.

145.

testimonies

Ibid.,II.

V-* I. 116; RaghuvanJa, VI.

aio.

as

AND

RELIGION

214

who

inform

country it

in that

that

us

husband

to

manage

business

affairs while

home.1

of

women

And

Wilson

the

dependent
tells

Hindus

for

Mohammedan

King

prostrate

grant her

literature

boon

any

in

abounds
in

for

labor

contempt

to

support.2
shown
by

by them of their
Ramayana shows us

the

at

his

of

feet

him

release

to

bound

were

learned
The

masters.3

Dasaratha

siveness

all the

was

women

wife, entreatingher
to

to

women

men

their

on

that

us

the

their husbands

debts

whose

because

for

plied the loom


Yajnavalkya specifiescertain classes

Yet

pay,

obey

customary

was

wife, and

the

for the

at

concerning Egypt,

Diodorus

and

of Herodotus

those

LIFE.

from

hte

wicked

promise

In fact, Hindu
might ask.
amusing illustrations of submisshe

husbands

wi^es

to

well

as

in wives

as

to

husbands.4
The

Hindu

gentlenessof
the

to

of these

sway

character

favorable

was

subtler forces.

This

on
,

pubhc

been

af-

fsurs"

shown

empires
their

revolutions

Indian

epic, like
feminine

states,

and

of

in

political,

Women

have

in

over

and
the

describes
a

Egypt and Assyria,and


bringing about the frequent

as

Greek

control

Ayodhya by

life.

in

of the petty Hindu

the

Kalidasa

scale

great

domestic

in India,

full share

and

wars

ment

on

mercantile, and

ruled
had

has

Influence

the

States.

The

brates
Teutonic, cele-

militarydestinies

the

admirable

of

govfcrn-

mythic queen.5

sisted
Among the native rulers who have heroicallyreshown
have
foreign invaders, none
stronger
than Lakshmi
Baee, the Rani, or queen, of
qualities
Jhansi ; whose wonderful generalshipheld the British

"
*

Diod., I.
Essays

on

Herod., II. 35.


Sanskrit Literature^ III.

37 ;

17.

Y"jn., II. 48.


See Wheeler's

India, II. 569-57*.

WOMAN.

in check;

army

dressed
field.

as

her troops in person,


killed on
the
cavalry officer, and was

and

Sir

Hugh
enemy's side

the

'Rani, Aus

215

headed

who

Rani

the

was

to

have

of

man

British

the

on

Another

Jhansi.1

being elevated by

Kour,

to

the1

in the

disputedthrone of Pattiala
disorganizedand revolted
competent

that the best

declared

Rose

Panjab, an utterly
state, "as the only person
it," is recorded by the historian

to

govern
changed its whole

in

condition

less

than

reducing rebellious villages,bringing up the


and establishing
order and security
revenues,
where.2
every-

year,

Malika

Kischwar, queen

dowager of Oude, educated


in 1866, to a knowledge
her son, who was
dispossessed
of ancient and modern
coming
literature,resultingin his beauthor of high repute, and surroundingher
an
and himself with persons of literary
distinction.
Aliah

Bae,

Mahratta

the

of Malwa,
for
queen
in her dominions, devoting

twenty years preservedpeace


herself

the

to

people. It was

said of

the

regarded as
or,

if need

Hindus

and

Mohammedans

might
this

was

sounded

be

wickedness
not

were,

lengthened.

to
praises,

to

united
And

that she

great queen,
her

that it would

her

height of

enemy,

life

culture

happiness,and
rights,

in

of

ordered

her

defence.

her

that
a

rare

so

her

been

become

in prayers

her

modesty

book, which
took

destroyed,and

be

have

to

die

of

no

notice

of the author.
certain
Notwithstanding
allowed

women

of property than

nations ; and

"

they have

Arnold's Dalkousie, II. 153.

cally
precepts, the law has practiin the

larger share
the

statutes

shown

"

of

most

abundant

ment
manageChristian

shrewdness

Griffin'sRbjahs of tfo Panjab, p. 138.

2l6

and

RELIGION

tact

"

in trade.

their influence

Seldom

family affairs,secular

In

great, and almost

is very

transaction, without

ious,
relig-

or

supreme.

complete any important


having settled the matter

man

can

LIFE.

AND

business
with his

privy council, in the female apartments."1 "As the


lute
law in Ceylon," says Tennent, "recognizes the absothe property conveyed to
control of the lady over
her
of large marriage portions to
the custom
use,
has
thrown
woman
an
extraordinaryextent of the
property of the country into the hands of the
females, and invested them with correspondingproportion
landed

of
careful
and

work

daily

India tells

on

rounds

that "in the

us

Hindu

has

woman

puts her

recent

very

familycircle,

duties, interests, and

domestic

of

enjoyments, the
sympathies which

its management."2

authorityin

quiteon

field for her

a
a

level with

her

sisters of the West."3

Nor

the intellectual

have

respect. There

"f

intellectual

j^yfcmaie

recognition,

of

sentences

rules

of

Here

are

"Honor

of

few

thy

hast received.

them

the

boasts

Veda

Rig

ancient

seven

The

women.

were

failed

women

moral

taughtin the schools, as golden


and
they certainlydeserve the name.
specimens:

Avyar

life ;
a

risliis.4 Malabar

four

and

sages,

of
capacities
are
hymns in

are

"

father

and

mother.

while

Learn

thou

Forget

art

the

not

Seek

young.

the

favors thou
of
society
in thy own

Remain
good. Live in harmony with others.
Ridicule not bodily
infirmities. Pursue
place. Speak illof none.
Deceive
not even
not a vanquished foe.
thy enemy.
Forgiveness
the

is sweeter
labor.

than

Knowledge

is riches.

lastingas if engraven
Speak kindly to
1

"

The

revenge.

Buyers,p. 399.
Prichard,Adminutr.

on

the

bread

sweetest

What

stone.

poor.

one

The

"

of India, II. 89.

learns in his

wise

Discord

"

is that earned

is he who

and

youth is
knows

by
as

self.
him-

gambling lead

Christianityin Ceylon^p. 157.


Weber, YerltsungeH, 37, 38.

to

WOMAN.

There

is

misconceives

He

misery.

no

To

religion.
worship. Of woman

who

his* interest

sleep without
tranquil

without

2iy

honor

thy

"

work

mother

is the
is

virtue

acceptable

most

modesty.

promise.
any

"

Poets," by

Deccan

on

his

good conscience,nor

the fairest ornament

littleHindu

violates

pandit,

(Calcutta,1829), tells us that Avyar,


been a foundling,
to have
was
erated
vensupposed by some
Sarasvati.
the daughter of Brahma
and
as
Rameswamie

She

the

was

of

child

Brahman

by

low-caste

Vyasa and other great Hindu


ages,
personand, though brought up by a singerof the servile
class, excelled all her brothers and sisters in learning,
like

woman,

and

besides

wrote,

poetry,

chemistry,and geography.
female
other
many
of a potter.

Though
the

the

Vedas,

We

princes.
schools,

law

The

unlike

work

same

them

prohibitedwomen
that priestesses
were

know

that

medicine,

astronomy,

poets, 'among

know

we

on

there

famous

mentions

the

daughter

from

teaching

teachers

of

Brahmanical

were

Saracen

Colleges of
the Middle
and women
Ages, at which kings,priests,
united in the enthusiastic study of metaphysicaland
it is reported that
moral
science ; and of the women
astonished
the masters
limity
some
by the depth and subof their thought, and
that others
delivered
responses
In* the
or

not

from

Dramas,

the

state

of trance.2

women

always speak in

dialects, while

common

men

use

the

Prakrit

Sanskrit

the

"

or

"holy speech. These softer popular dialects derived


by decomposition from the Sanskrit are believed by
of the female organRenan
to be specialconsequences
ization,
its independent activity
and to prove
in the
1

From

Megasthenes, Ncarchus

Schoberl's Hindustan

in Miniature.

in Strabo, XV.

Weber,

ax.

2l8

stiucture

of the

fact that

the

her

AND

RELIGION

language.1

Prakrit, thus

supplanted the Sanskrit,


present spoken languages
torkal

development

and

determiningforce.
It would
requirea separate

the

and

by
gradually

woman,

the

forms

basis

of the

So that the stamp

of India.

Hindu

of

to

literature, has

is in fact

influence

of female

is
significant

More

proper

into

introduced

means

LIFE.

conspicuous in the hisspeech, as an informing

and

to

precisionof in what

the

to

render

the fine appreciation of womanly

Literary ap-

woman.

volume

-^ jias been

noticed

poets abandon

qualities
""

already know

we

of Hindu

justice
T.

literature.

that, in recognizingthese,

exaggerationand

draw

from

ture.2
na-

tender and noble than


Nothing could be more
these ideal pictures,
covering,too, so wide a range of
andSit",
destinyand desire : the chaste love of Rama
her courage,
fortitude,and womanly dignityunder
his unjustsuspicions,
her mastery of all forms of evil
of
by moral purityand spiritual
insight; the fidelity
Damayanti to her unhappy Nala, tempted by an evil
and then to flee
spiritfirst to play away his crown,
from her for shame
and
at his beggary, but followed
redeemed
of love, which thought
at last by that loyalty
only of the misery he must endure in offendingagainst
his nobler nature
fate,
; the pietyof Savitri,controlling
charming the god of death himself, by her wisdom
life to her dead
and love, into givingback
husb'and,
and sightto his blind father, with his lost crown,
and
the glory of his fallen race.3
Equallyintuitive is ,thc
manhood
of woman's
to inspirea noble
sense
power
"

with

devotion.

absolute

Dt

Monier

"

Savitri and bat"a van,

rOrigine

du

The

Liwgage, Pref.

Williams, Indian

Mah"bh"rata

p. 38.

Epic Poetry, p. 54.


Episode of the MaAMter

describes

WOMAN.

passionatelove

the

restore

"

And

be added

to

imploringthe gods to
offeringto yield up his

and

hers.

to

give thee half my future days,beloved,


thy lifebe drawn from mine."
Light to renew
I

Kalidasa

traits,of
for his young
on

of Rurus,

his Pramadvara,

lifetime

own

219

ern
givesus the tale,wrought out in Eastthe wasting griefof good prince Adja

called

has

fall of celestial flowers

the

wife, whom

her bosom

away

from

earth

pursuing

his Indumati

perfumes and sounds


through all sweet
his mind
and
to be
or
forms, refusingto turn
away
comforted, the mighty griefslowly dividinghis soul,
it grows,
a
as
bough will rend the wall into which
until after
wearing through eight years of pain,
for his young
son's sake, living
and faithfully
patiently
on
picturesand images of his beloved, and on fleeting
transports of reunion, in his dreams,'* he freelylays
aside the ruined
life,with the
body for an immortal
the gods.2 In Hindu
and among
lost one,
poetic justice
the fickleness, unfaithfulness, or harsh
suspicion
in
towards
true
womanly love, which so often recurs
Eastern story, is always visited by remorse,
distraction,
where
cribed
or
despair; and even
changes of heart are as"

of

evil powers
in
saints, they are

to the malevolence

of offended
from

while

knows
born

or
no

the
wise

dictions
malefreed

which
teach humilityand
truth,
penalties,
friended
they honor outraged virtue by proving it beWhat
European poet
by the eternal laws.3
better than Kalidasa
how
gracious a soul is

these

in

the touch

at

nature

cherishingher plantslike
.,

of woman?

sister,
"

Ragkuwnsa,

See especially
Sakuntate

and

the R"m"yana.

Sakuntal",

22O

AND

RELIGION

moisteningin the stream


own
parched lips,tillshe had fondlypoured
roots,
purest water on their thirsty
Never

"

Her
Its
And

fain have

would

she

oft,when

infuses into them

her

affections

own

flowers, the forest creatures,


like the breath

He

of life and

to

Ceases

its dance

pale leaves

Their

dear

Sakuntala

who

would

would
leaf

of

The

his

duties
She

mother."

the

sever

She

of

noisy caravan

like

with

mellowed

birth."

Wild

"

Damayanti, wandering
halts, and the rough
The

poet of the
like

woman

other

father, in

half, his inmost

with
his

earlier

an

of his salvation

consolinghim
a

wood

is "the

benediction.8

is "man's

hardshipsof

hard

former

some

of his bliss,root

one,
solitary

going

the

to endure

holiness

wife

and

they dismiss

while

"

lovingwishes."

singsth" praiseof

friend, source
of the

to

actions in

the

coming

around

trees

lotus."

for her

beseech

Schiller.

in

the

respect the

Mahabharata

her

attempt

woods, the

the lawn

on

like tears,
with

wish

the

of deer

peacock

; the very

their

love

the blast of death.

; the

Shed

in the deserts
men

browse

Forget

fruit of virtuous
beasts

feel her

for her loss the herd

sorrow

penance
the blue

her hair

blossoms, in her
clustering
not e'en of a singleflower,"*

them

Robbing

"

decked

their thick

With

"In

LIFE.

sweet

sorrows

his

friend

words,
like

neglectof manly duties,


him of the forgotten
and admonishes
God
within him,
the witness and judge of human
Deserted
deeds.
by
refuses to recognize her, the Saher husband, who
kuntala
of the epic says with dignity:"Thou,
who
knowest
is true
what
and
what
is false, O
King]
reproves

Williams's translation.

Nala and

Damayanti, Episode of the Mah"bharata.

Ibid.

WOMAN.

221

on
scorning this child of bur love, bringestshame
thyself.Thinking, fl am alone/ thou hast forgotten
is in the heart.
from of old, who
that beholder
Doing
it is I.'
knows
wickedly, thou imaginest,'No one
But the gods know, and the witness within thee : sun
and moon,
hearts, and the
day and night,their own
The
spirit
justiceof God, behold the deeds of men.
that dwells within us judges us hereafter."
is Rama's
Sita, the ideal wife in the Ramayana,
for being
"primeval love," not less tenderly human
She compels him, by her devotion, to take her
divine.
with him into his exile in the wilderness, overpowering
his reason
and will alike by the higher wisdom
of
for his anger
love.
She
rebukes
him
againsteven
foes of gods and men,
the Rakshasas,
demon
as
becoming
un-

who

one

had

assumed

the

of

consecration

him
the first
to subdue
religiouslife; and warns
a
risingsof evil desire, since even
great mind
may
contract
guiltthrough neglectingalmost imperceptible
a

moral

distinctions

and
dearer

to

not

than

Sita,
You

epic, warns
passionson the
he who

person

lotus from

become

the

"

too
1

monished
ad-

not

ingly,
becom-

virtue, and

appreciatethis
remember

must

that

deity.
the

Ravana,

of

the

likens

in

is

Satan

of

against gratify
ing his sensual
of his beautiful captive;??for

forces the inclination

earlydeath, or
The R"m"yana
white

him

is

spoken

incarnated

the wife of the demon

the

have

we

Rama

who

one

companion
my
life."1 Fully to

recognitionof womanhood,
is nothing less than
R"ma
Even

frankness

which

beloved.
are

you
me

with

"O
replies,

delighted,and
is

prey
the wind

of endless

6.

11.

"

to

"

the

an

disease."

that drives away

bees
thirsty

Rfanayana,

shall die

woman

the

modesty

222

RELIGION

part,

from

she

their hands,

drove

injure me?

to

penalty for

the

pays

of Ravana,

the servants

myself on

others who

I have
I would

life.

also enforced

are

evil."

to

harsh

whom

What

former

I revenge

should

"Why

says,

Saved

enemies.

cruelest

forgiveher

can

Sita, on

her husband."

from

that drives the coy bride

her

LIFE.

AND

mands
com-

suffered

punish
exquisite

not

What

pictureof

womanly love is in the


by the gods, who,
Damayanti, surrounded

to deceive

her, have

fine divination

of the

sense

Nala,

and

of

in the

mingle

of her

form

the

all taken

of

crowd

chosen

suitors, in her

father's hall!
"And

before

reverence

shapes,and

their

saw

heroes

; for

there

and

their

garments,

justgathered,and
also the true
the

the

Then

on

the

hem

his

his

dust

Siround his neck, and


wild

from

bwst

sorrow
t

:ried aloud, Well

thus

done

for her

her

truth

their

fresh

as

brows,

and

and

threw

chose

him

And

shadow

of

for her lord.


but

Rajahs ;
Nala

not

the

saw

to
falling

moisture
and

took

flowers

radiant
And

on

were

she

she went

wreath

And

dust

nor

in

love,

if the flowers

with

And

lord

godhead.
they were

the earth.

not

his raiment.

And

him

knew

in

immortal

droopinggarland,and

and

all the
'

and

hands

their

their

before her

stood

on

garment,

at

on

garlandswere

their feet touched

and

brow,

sweat

no

was

; for he

Nala

of

choose

of

her

folded

resume

wondered

gods

ground, and twinklingeyes

was

to

straightway the tokens


the four bright gods,

revealed

mortal

gods, prayingthem
Nala, that she might

reveal

Damayanti

fear,and

with

the

of all.

presence
and

trembled

Damayanti

sound

of

and

sages

said, Since, O maiden

! you

gods

for your husband, in presence


of the gods, know
that I will be your faithful consort, ever
in your
words,
delighting
chosen

lave

and
be

so

my soul shall inhabit


thine alone.' " '

long as

thine,and
The

me

lamentation

of Tara,

dead
as

body of her husband,


any thingin poetry.
'

Wheeler's

this

body

the wife of
is

as

History of Indw,

solemnly vow

Bali, over

touchingand

I.

484-

to

the
noble

WOMAN.

"Why

Icokest thou

children

dear ?

"

Thy face

thou wert
I

"

so

were

to

smile

on

in the

me

bosom

of

whom

thy

death, as

if

alive.

the

nemesis

thy child, thou, to

on

thyglorystilllike sunset

see

As

seems

dull

so

223

interest of

moral

follows

that

mountain's

the

Iliad

head.11 *

in the

centres

the sanctiagainst
fo

crime

life,so

ties of wedded

on

Woman

the

that of the

Ramayana inspiration
oftheEpos*
in the public and
centres
privatecalami ties
incident to polygamy. It is the attempt of
naturally
of the king'swives to set aside the rightsof the
one
of another, in the interest of her own
son
offspring,
the miseryof the
that bringsabout the exile of Rama,
self,
people,the death of the unwise, uxorious king himthe capture of
and

this last
of

Helen.

the
But

Sita,and the

portionof
Trojan war
while

the
in

for her recovery

part
epicis but a Hindu counterpunishment of the rape of

the Greek

of her captor, the

war

heroine

Hindu

Sita

shares

is the

inality
the crimideal

of

the faithful wife.


The

crime which

leads

on

the

woes

depictedin

other great Hindu

that

epic,the M"habharata, is a gambling


made
match, in which
a monarch,
desperateby
continual losses, finally
wife,
an
playsaway his own
is rebuked
which
the spot by a Brahman,
on
atrocity
who represents the eternal ethical law ; protesting
that
"lost himselfbefore he staked his wife,
Judhishthira
and having first become
a slave could
no
longerhave
the power to stake Draupadi."
Without
enteringinto definite criticism of all these
ideals,I cannot forbear quoting the excellent remarks
of Monier Williams in his sketch of Indian Epic Poetry.
"

R"m"yana*

B.

iv.

RELIGION

224

AND

wSita, Draupadi, and


our

Damayanti,"

interest far

affections and

LIFE-

he

than

more

"engage

says,
Helen

or

even

be doubted
that in these delightPenelope. It cannot
ful
of the purity
have true representations
we
portraits
domestic
in early
and
manners
simplicityof Hindu
Children

times.

their

to

attached

superiors;
elder

their

to

of character,

do

and

husbands

their wives, and


and

daughters

wives

are

much
to

them

spectful
re-

fondly

are

sacrifice themselves

loyal,devoted?
independence
their

express

with respect and

generally

women

missive
sub-

are

tenderlyaffectionate

are

treat

ready to

hesitate

not

parents

yet show

husbands,

to

opinions;

and

brothers

younger

brothers

welfare

for their

their parents

to

their children, and

to

obedient

dutiful

are

towards

courtesy

virtuous

are

own

and

occasion
spirited,and when
requires
and
: love
harmony reign throughout the
courageous
of domestic
family circle. It is in depictingscenes
that belong to
affection,and expressingthese feelings
human
in all times and
nature
places,that Sanskrit
epic poetry is unrivalled."
Reverence
for motherhood
is here carried beyond

modest,

yet

"

forms

all other
sons

of

Dasaratha,

their humanthat

of respect for natural

his father

may

themselves,

to

father

messages

of

profound

that other

wife

was

the

cause

his

of

his

of his

yet from

on

into exile

go

to

exile

her, and
criminal

and
disinheritance,

moved
unnot
can-

Sastras

the

obedience
his

father whose
own

feet of

the

is indeed

vow,

founds

affection

divine

The

distress,and

greater respect and

to

even

she

at

obligedto

unmeasured

claims

the

all bow

break

not

his mother's

concede

gods,
Rama,

mothers.

by

due

all

ties.

than
he
even

is

sends
to

ambition
bids his

WOMAN.

Bharata

brother

pay

every

225
of

form

pious

attention

to

both.
of these
two
inspiration
great epics is indeed
They
nothing else than the Worth of Woman.
her not only as imparting a divine thoioKy in
celebrate
dignityto every sacrifice for her sake, but asgenera'
conquering all moral evil through her constancy and
faith.
In this whole
cycle cf mythology, it is always
who
woman
destroys the dreaded powers, and revives
In the natural
of good.
the energy
symbolism of the
Rig Veda, "the divine Night arrives, an immortal
goddess, shining with innumerable
scattering
eyes,
with their splendors ; and
darkness
to her
men
come
The

birds

as

to

their

thief, and

the

bears

Dawn

She

nests.

them

drives

the

away

safelythrough

the

wolf

and

gloom."1
ing
sky, shin-

daughter of the
like a young
them
wife, arousing every living
on
being to his work, bringing light and striking down
of the days ; lengthener of life ; fortunate,
darkness
; leader
the love
of all, who
brings the eye of the
the holy fire.
"The
god."2 Woman
great
prepares
sacred
uttered
of the sacrifice have
mothers
praise,
and decorate
the child of the sky."3
And

the

arrives, "a

in view

It is remarkable,
life for male
male

offspring,that
and

female

equally necessary

as

Manu

in

from

the

as

divine

This

manifestation

of the

*
*
*

F., X. 127.
R. y.t IX
33, 5.

the

well

Love

the

the

as
or

later

theogonies

of
co-essentiality

absolute, is

the

R.

V., VII

not

; Wilson's

Hindu

Essays

on

two,

to

common

Perhaps symbolicalexpressions,
yet
Uf, I. 43

sexes

Desire, becoming twain,

"

I. 32 ; Brihad

both

treat

bine
com-

tion,
conception of deity. Creain the Upanishads, proceeds

R.

Manu,

of Hindu

reverence

elements, and

to

female.4

and

of

the less

the

male

for all

Hindu,

77.

significant.

Religion, I. 241, 245.

226

AND

RELIGION

LIFE.

Phoenician

Egyptian, and
androgynous,

religions.The deities are


or
Brafcma-Maya, Osiris-Isis,

whether

nations
they flow in series of twofold emacosmogonies,Oriental,
through all pantheistic

Baal-Baut;

or

under

Gnostic, Neo-Platonic,
as

these,

even

In most

further

representedby

deities

are

is

divine

the

cases

to enumerate.

equalityof

is still

sex

the fact that these wives

their sisters,and

also

familiar

so

it is needless

which

names

"

not

names

of the
It

thus co-eternal.

strikingillustration of that greater breadth of sympathy


have
and panwe
already noted in polytheistic
theistic
forms
of religion,
as
compared with intensely

of the
monarchical, that this cosmogonic recognition

equalityin

the

it is

Thus

of
severity

confined

was

sexes

unknown

quite

faith,as well

Hebrew

the

old

the

to

former

to the

monotheistic
to the

as

form, which
Christian, in its original
alike

in its

name

of God

Saviour.

Only

with

latest

heresy does God,

stand

to

come

mother

indeed, both

was

carried

function

male

any

to

into this

Aditi,

"

And

myriad

tender

feminine.

So

"the
"

the

great Mother."
of

rendered

was

to

Isis,greatest of

names

woven

were

the Vedic

on

their

that
faith,

(Sohar.

See

theologyof
we

"

the

Hebrews, subsequent to Greek


of Deity conceived

find the first emanation

Bert hold's

Christologia.,
" 23.) And

Solomon," under similar influences,


praisesits female

mirror of the power


*

deityas
ship,
Egyptian wor-

of all the

it is only in the later Knbbali.stic

Wisdom

God,

as

gods."2
is the fact that in all the
less significant
not
isfeminine*
older Eastern religionsthe Word
Thought, in its purest symbol, is thus awarded
Mother

and Oriental influences


as

of

to

of all, answers

fr

word

The

and

point beyond what


or
authority. To

the most

on"5

Honor

in Hindu

Egyptian divinities,whose

its choice

and

Mother."1

Our

as

tively
distinc-

prefersthe

masculine

class.

of God.

Herodotus, II. 40;

Apuleius,Metamorphoses.

"

Book

of

0o^to,lf
as

the

the

WOMAN.

weaker
physically
is the genius of

to the
woman

in short,

"

227

is,

"

the

ever

Sarasvati,

as

art, literature,eloquence,

"

the Word

In India,

sex.

holiest

symbol

to

the

properlythe wife of Brahma.


At her festivals,as goddess of learning,all books,
gathered in
pens, and other implements of study,are
Hindu

is thus

She

mind.

in

school-houses

the

flowers

India, and

in

and

; and
barley-blades
is coupled with the Vedas
name
writings,and her love invoked,

Brahma,

Ila the

gods made
Speech, is
:

says
I

"

Every

melodious

myselfdeclare this,which

priest,a

sacred
of

that

"Sarasvati,"

intellects."

of

men."

Q^ieen

of the

"The

V"ch,

or

gods," who

love, I

is desired

by gods

him

make

and

terrible.

men."

I make

him

seer."
him

wise."

is Indra's

Thou

mystic and
reasoning,
"

art

the

Lakshmi

praiseof

"

spiritual
knowledge.

art

of
"Thou

whom

man

I make

Here
"

"the

with

all."1

her

prayer

all the

one

white

"

"

as

of

instructress

the

and

Rig Veda, "enlightensall

the

says

great Father

"the

with

strewn

the three
and

arts

Thou

art

the

losophy
phi-

Vedas.

sciences,

thou

moral

and

political

wisdom.
"

"e

"

The

worlds

Every

which

have

book

by

thee."

knowledge," says the Hitopadesa,


to Usanas
ture
or
Vrihaspati,is by naAs
the understanding of women."
who
slays the Satan of the later

is known

for which

reanimated

of

implantedin
Durga, it is woman
popular belief, and
evil

preservedand

been

delivers mankind

service

"

Wilson's

Rig Veda,

"

Vishnu

this

Essays, II
Pur

I. 3,

12

goddess

from

the fear of

is adored

190.
I. 31,

Ana, I. ch. ix.

VIII. 89, 10;

X. 125, 5.

by

all

228

AND

RELIGION

deities and

had, itis a

the

"who

gods

it was

none

but

that had

appeared
when

near."

divine

three

epics also
daughters of

The

all of

Himavat,

for force of

them

Brahma

between

is able

she

Upanis-

edge.
represents divine knowl-

shining mediator

is

adoration, and vanished


too

of the Kena

myth

who

Uma,

woman,

She
and

In the

saints.1

LIFE.

to reveal

to

Indra

them, enforcingtheir

to

theysought to approach

describe
the

Uma

great

as

expounding divine wisdom.3


Veda, at the beginning of Hindu

king,

three

and
contemplation,for chastity,

in

of the

mountain

in the

renowned

one

And

worlds

for power
in the

Rig
religiousdevelopment,
of the gods,"so in the
have
Aditi, "mother
we
have
mystical Puranas, at the end, we
Durga, or
the eternal substance
of the
Mahamaya, defined as
as

"

world, soul

praise; by

of all forms,
whom

into whom

After
christiamt
and

Hea-

uiism.

the universe
it is absorbed

has

none

is created,
at

power

to

upheld, preserved,

last."3

the task of
Christianity,
from
legalincapacities
^m'incipatingwoman
Such
to be accomplished.
yet remains
progbeen
made
in this direction
s actually

eighteen centuries

of

of any distinctive religion.


Physicaland social science, intellectual culture,

be

cannot

and

whom

laid to the sole account

have
rTecessity
practical

either

Christian

belief

or

had
that

more

to

do with itthan

spiritof

brotherhood

has held to be its own


Christianity
peculiar
of its churches
affords
The history
a whole
as
grace.
in this form
no
ground for accordingthem superiority,
Hindu
law forbade
world.
The
of justice,
to the heathen
the Vedas, or to officiate at holy
to read
woman
councils
Christian
and
rites.
Popes, echoing the
which

Si

quoted in Muir, Sanskrit

See texts in Muir, IV. 367.

Ttxts, JV. 371.


*
Ibid.,371 ; Wilson's Essays,I. 247.
.

WOMAN.

great Apostle

Gentiles, have

the

to

229
interdicted

her

but from
only from assumption of the priesthood,
speaking in religiousassemblies, or administeringthe
has been
in
rite of baptism.1 Christian
legislation
A
more
unjust to her than Manu.
pointseven
many
makes
death
law of Justinian
concerningdeaconesses
is there in the
the penalty for their marrying. What
not

Hindu

code

towards

harsher

females
from

law

by English common

than

their exclusion
of

"benefit

clergy,"

which
for crimes
a
they were
put to death
clergyman could commit with impunity,and for which
Have
Hindu
laws
was
a
man
simply branded ?2
prescribedthe self-burningof widows ? Eighteen
ing
centuries of Christianity
elapsed before it ceased burnstake for heresy. Is the absolute
at the
women
and
father the oldest despotauthorityof husband
ism?
still in the law of England, which
It survives
vests
parental rights in the father alone, to the
entire exclusion
of the mother
;
giving him power
from
the children
her during his
not only to remove
but to appointa guardian with similar power
life,
over
that

so

"

after his death.3

them

What

could

be

than

worse

the

"

feme covert," the absorptionof


of
European principle
her legal existence
during marriage into that of her
in the very language of the
husband, still described
Hindu

Law

Or

the Ecclesiastical

of woman's
far

so

what

Canon

or

the

secular

progress

Synod
Work

in the Church,

Orange

(441) forbids

the

p 65.
Btackstont, I. 445,

Wendell's

Wtttmituter

Rtview

has

been

the

and

that it is

source

only in

has

made

been

in

the
re-

(670 A.C.); Avx-la- Chapelle (816); Paiis (824). The

Laodicea; Carthage; Autun


of

Law

principlehas prevailedover

ecclesiastical that any


1

say of the facts that

we

disabilities

severest

as

shall

ordination of deaconesses.

n.

for Jan. 1872,p. 30.

See

Ludlow,

Woman1*

AND

RELIGION

230

LIFE.

moving them
Europe has
Many

of witches in modern
persecution
ism.
no
parallelin Hindu or any other barbarof woman,
of the legaldisqualifications

which

descended

have

?l

The

feudalism, make

from

heathen

the
wardship among
respectablein comparison.
And

the

on

other

hand,

tive respect for the

Treatment

we

as
sex

pre-Christianworld.
byd^r!nt
of

religions, ment

It

an

seen,

not

instincto the

wanting

command-

the

was

Its roots

nature.

perpetual
almost

appear

have
was

her

were

in

religion,

generosity and in love.


Judaism and Christianity
helped it onward, by their
and by
stern
protest againstpolygamy and sensuality,
beneficence.
But the
sublime
ideals of purity and
be remembered,
Church, it must
was
anticipated
by
of Roman
noble
movement
law, which
a
steadily
in

appreciation, in

moral

transformed

the

of

status

into freedom

from

woman

almost

total

jugal,
equalityin respect of conmarital, and proprietaryrights. It has been
said with truth
that Roman
jurisprudencegave her
elevated than that since assignedto
a place far more
her by Christian
culmination
governments."3 The

bondage

and

"

of

liberal

tendencies
in

especiallyshown
favor,
had

been

mass

of

the

the

was

issue

the
of

laws
a

of

emperors,

Constantine

secular

movement,

in

as

her

which

penetratingfor centuries through the whole


Roman
itself,
legislation.Under Christianity

of earlier

slow

was

progress
ones

and
"

that this

Christian

under

religion

societytillafter
1

See

"

Wtstt*.

later emperors
undid
it is admitted
even
by
:

did not

the older

Blackstone, I. 445;
Rw.

take
races

also Mint's

for Oct. 1856.

full
had

Ant

the work

Troplong
possessionof civil
been
rejuvenated

tent

Law,

p. 153.

WOMAN.

231
sources.1

fresh lifeinfused frorti new

by

the services of the Church,


that far greater

justiceto
of
I

good

as

them

perfectequalityof

social relations
not

to

who

who

the wife

was

steed, and

in token

sword,

and

accustomed
from

while

and

spear,

empress.2
brought with
an

in all the domestic

sex

whom

was

queen

dowry, but to receive one


the
each formallyendowed

yield up

husband,

with

Rome

gave

tion
emancipa-

different quarter.

free "barbarians,"

those

mean

from

tribes,to whom

king, and

the

paraging
dis-

render

must

we

towards

help

came

Teutonic

those

mean

as

which

woman

Without

the

other with

of

common
"

fenced
were
publicduties and claims ; whose women
and "guardiansof their own
with chastity,"
children ;
of sanctityand prescience
somewhat
who
held that
"

inherent

was
on

peace

as

an

the

poem,

as

whose

the field of death

on

entered

neither

consultingthe priestess
mythology conceived destiny in
as
Valkyriuror Nornir, at the

Voluspa, was
who
a divinity

and

;"3 who

sex

without

war

forms, whether

of life or

gods

bn

nor

oracle

female
tree

in the female

ascribed
unveils

and

to

whose

oldest

woman,

sented
repre-

the past and

future

to

men.

But behind

Roman,

Christian,and

Teutonic

helpers,

rise the

and
grand Greek ideals of Wisdom
Greece and
and
Demeter, with their *""Maternity,Athena
consecration
air.
not of thoughtonly,but of earth and
of the familywas
The inviolability
in Hera.
enthroned

The

awe

their

common

sacred

*
*

of

vows.

all

deities beheld

mother, and
And

even

Hestia, the

the witness

behind

these

Troplong,Influencedu Christ ianistxe,p. 218.


of Camps." See Thierry, Tableau
Victoria, Mother
"

See Tacitus,De

Mer.

Germ.,

c.

18, 19, 8

Hist.)IV.

de F
61.

earth,

of their
stands

as

most

Egyp-

Empire Remain,

p.

189.

tian

Isis,Goddess
of the

ruler

her

through

of
divinity

beautiful
in

distress

and
the

;
;

tender

creatures

to

its saviour

seeker

his deliverer

the powers

on

of evil

of

the

from

lost

bonds,

commending
gratitudefor their

human

How
help in her beneficent work.
tion
myth ! l Diodorus
gives us an inscripshe says what
she well might say,

have

Apuleius

truth

and

thrones,

outspread wings, co-equal

her

own

which

What

her

during his calamity,and

brute

the

with

land

love

sympathy

"

with

his avenger

even

LIFE.

Mother, crowned

shieldingOsiris

and

AND

RELIGION

232

decreed,

calls

can

none

"Nature,

her

And

annul."

beginning

of

ages,

parent of all."2
These

East
root
at the

spoke clearlyin the Far


faith in maternityas the
also.
There
was
of redemption,long before men
bowed

natural

shrine of

instincts

"

Catholic

have

and

been

beheld

of God."

When

mysteriesof hell and


of Womanhood,
heaven
through faith in the sanctity
of a: spiritual
fresh confession
need,
they but made
in other
forms
is as surelyrepresentedin the
which
And
old Hindu
Epic, Drama, and Sacred
Hymn.
free opportunityand
when
becoming culture shall
Dante

Dominic

Mother
the

last achieved

at

for

for-,their intellectual

contempt

women,

women,

in India

movements

and

of Hindu
deliverance

the

Theism
from

recent
to

Diod., I.

27 ;

stood
undervision

for the better education

of

the marital,

See Plutarch's Isis and

clearer

have

hid.

England,

better

old

wholly

mission

the

capacitiesshall

everywhere gone to its place,it will be


has been
but
that the recognition
could
not
of what
anywhere have been
Recent

and

(1870) of

the leader

in the interest of their

social,and ecclesiastical

Osiris.

Apuleius,Metamorph.

WOMAN.

of

oppressions
ancient

afresh

Hindu

women

India,"

ready

do

to

female

we

their

are

education."

noble

mission

Hindus
that

she

convinced

hopes
this

disposed

the

best

the
in

of

cause

recent

intelligent

interest

for

way

always

her

in

them

it,

ing,
lead-

their

follow

to

us,

western
north-

are

the

their

in

to

was

of

it

is

that

hospitality
but

just

to

fested,
mani-

and

call

the

honor,
Brain

the

potism
des-

the

even

exclude

wholly

not

be

naturally

whomsoever

and

respect;

ber
remem-

we

would

race

intelligence, by

from

woman

when

strengthened,

could

caste

whom

people

tells

contemplative

worthy

of
of

she

are

regard

to

as

gifts

found

wise

so

"In

promote

Carpenter,

have

themselves.3

our

that

as

that

emancipate
And

to

medical

Some

caste.

pandits

purpose,

and

fain,

was

best

Miss

this

for

earnest

so

"the

Native

the

practice.1

told,

very

for

of

regular

on

these

power.

educated

distinction

of

springing

renewed

being

without

entered

already

with

are

profession,

the

but

are

ages,

waters

233

special
with
of

the

East.4

At

studying,

the

school
bee

Prichard,

Six

The

religion

Months

of

Victoria

Dr.

position of

India,
Woman

of India,
I. 78,

in

Bareilly,

where

twenty-eight

native

girls

are

now

April, 1871.

Magazine,

Admimstr.
in

in

Corbyn

II.

73.

80.

Buddhism

will

be

noticed

in the

sections

relating

to

that

VII.

SOCIAL

FORMS

AND

FORCES.

TT

usual

been

has

Hindus

"*"

But

priesthood*
instinctive,
can

accept

now

we

"castes

in

are

Of

social

general

system

so

natural

expression?
religious instincts

The

makes

savage
of which

he

listens

man

with

ascribes

to
over

power

the

makes

life

this

work

the

disease.

of

the

believed

to

"

same

possess
life

crosses

of

human

being

and

his

and

divine
the

in whose

his

of

is the

it is

but

the

The
The

priestly

rattle
a

likeness

of

or

diseased
own

represented,
a

rude
a

more

the

magical

beginning
refined

crucifix

efficacy in removing

anguish

caste-

own

hands

superstition,"when
a

out

medicine-

image

own

This
;

social.

individual

the

is

nations

and, confounding his

of
of

foreign

all-important

sticks

of

an

grass,

religious mysticism

form

din

that

of

the

as

the

Nor

aspirations

wooden

the

to

sorcerer

with

processes

the

fire ; and

awe

or

old

as

origin of
castcs-

man.

early history of

are

of

his

of earth

out

person

fetich

churns

The

drum.

of

and

the

statement

the

meets

needs

in the

of

age

consequence

theory

what

in the

sweeping

the

cases

of

are

self-conscious

Niebuhr's

all

caste

of

system

artifices

of

germs

Neither

conquests."
question

the

social

the

deliberate

in the

not

ascribe

to

the

to

FORCES.

AND

FORMS

SOCIAL

death

it is made.

from

But

is
the
the
in

238

AND

RELIGION

neither

LIFE.

the word

"

superstitionexpress the
the primitivetribes nature
is not
whole
truth.
To
merely hunting-ground and pasture, but mysterious
Endless
motion
livingPresence of invisible powers.
and endless rest, broodingstillness,
sounds,
inexplicable
in these children of the
stir strange yearning qynd awe
shall solve these mysteries,
Who
open eye and ear.
and

draw

the secret

the

nightand

to the

and

does

case

dear

to

appease
talks with

? He

men.

The

the clouds

for

sitive
sen-

shall be

forces

subtle

natural

They will
for
gods and spirits

tha shall pray

of the

out

holy

is the first nized


recogpeople will live to honor, die
grateful
The

him.

go in among

death

is most
organization

whose

of these

contact

ruler.
to

day

of life and

runes

us

to

and

seer

afar

stand

off,while

their sake.

for
lightnings

Moses
us.

he

shall

Vasish-

Indra, the storm-ruler,

to

nihilate
an-

of Nature
fulfilsall
interpreter
ideal functions, except that of militarychief or king.
He
is magician, astrologer,
physician,philosopher,
And
is eminently sincere.
leader.
he
poet, moral
our

foes.

It is his faith and

This

feelingthat

make

him

what

he

is,

ing
give him his power over the people. He is meettheir deepest needs
well as his own
as
; being
than others by those powers
more
plainlyimpressible
all confers. As yet there is no priestcraft
here.
which
is felt but as a chaos of undistinguished
And
nature
as
archy
so
societyhas reached
nothing like a hierpowers,
A division of labor is in fact just
of classes.
beginning in this instinctive respect for the inspired,
or
possessed person.
Such
is the Aryan purohita; such the Hebrew
ndbi
rock.1
Both are properlynatural seers.
The name
or
purohita,meaning one who has charge? shows how

and

Sam.

ix. 9 ; Judges xvii.

Lassen,I.

795.

CASTES.

THE

239

closelythe sentiment we have described allied itself


with the performance of religiousrites. As social
not
relations are
only
developed,this class become
psalmistsand singers,but teachers and counsellors of
the king.1 They direct his policy,simply because
"T^at king withstands his
they are his wisest men.
who
honors
a purohita;
enemies," says the Rig Veda,
"

and

peoplebow

the

The

him

his wisdom

teaches

seer

before

of their
to

his

accord."2

own

children,

who

have
to
They come
their reit is simply because
esoteric mysteries
ligious
; but
well as natural
as
susceptibilities
disciplines
of physicalor psychologhave put them in possession
ical
knowledge which the multitude can receive only
in parables.
By. and by the seers become an organization.These
into closer TheBrahhereditarydisciplinesdraw them
for such purposes
combination
as grow
naturally
of their public functions ; and we
have
out
Levites,
The
Hindu
formed,
purohitas,thus transMagi, Brahmans.
bound into charanas
and parishads, schools
are
and associations for definite objects,
such
the guaras
dianship
of formulas
and rites,or the study of Vedic
hymns. They are divided into forty-nine
gotras, or
families,who trace their descent from the seven
holy
rishis,"and the mythical or other saints who figurein
their traditions ; and these gotras are governedby strict
and
social regulations.Gradually the text
religious
becomes
more
preciousthan the soul which created it ;
and
than
at last its guardian is holier even
itself.
freedom
and ardor of the Veda
The
hymn are supplanted
formulas
of
doctrine,the oracles of Nature
by

in

follow

his

honored

paths.

mans-

"

Sam.

xxiv.

it.

X. V., IV. 5, 7,

xo.

See Roth, in Zeitschr. d. D. M.

C." I. 80.

'

AND

RELIGION

240

ritual law.

by

force

authoritygrows

by

up,

and in the name


of
supremacy
circumstances
favorable
develop into

intellectual

of

which
religion,
the Brahman

caste.

heroic

The

corporate

LIFE.

Greek

life of the

this distinct

forbade
Aryan spirit

in the

cantons

separationof

older

ious
relig-

community.1 But the


contemplative Hindus, passive, fatalistic, yearning
in the lassitude
of tropicallife for self-surrender
to
the caste
ideal powers,
to
tendency,
gave full sweep
and became
its typicalrepresentatives.
is the historyof priesthoodin
Such, substantially,
It begins in the natural
a^ times.
gravitation
The
priestfrom

class

hood.

Of

to

ppWer

Middle

the

name

of

heads

bow

God,

and

do

friendliest

and

Martin,

the weak
iron

made

down,

wisest

the

Ages,
Gregory, standing for
In

of the

the rest

Ambrose,

an

and

knees

or

oppressed in

the

fierce unshorn

and

penance

men.

for every

act

of

the prophet stood in the morning


injustice.But where
of a religion,
by and by stands the priest,its
functionary,inheritinghis honors, but not his spirit.
It is the destinyof every organizedreligion. In the
Eastern
the degeneration was
arrested
not
races
by
science
or
political
liberty. But, on the other hand,
it escaped that sort of ecclesiastical Jesuitismwhich
follows the deliberate refusal to recognizewhat
these
teachers bring. For the impulses of nature
wrought
not
againstit: a real faith,both
through the religion,
in priestsand people, made
devotees and martyrs after

its own

kind.

The

other

Roman

castes

likewise

begin

in

certain

rude

king were there one and the same


person ; and, both in Hellenic
into its own
the political
element graduallyabsorbed the religious
civilization,
and generaluses.
shaping it to practical

The

priestand

and
rent,
cur-

CASTES.

THE

forms

need.

of social

It
agricultural.

sudden
the

24!

portion

of

be defended

must

from

incursions, in its quietsettlement

Ganges

of the free

holding more
roving life,will

scale

the

and

than

as

His

he

with

assumes,

other

castcs-

pendent,
inde-

more

firmlyto the
stand higher in

Husbandman.

one

as

comes
be-

The

along

Soldier,

The

Nile.

or

tribe

the

traditions
the

function

is

this social

social
an

dispensab
in-

nence,
pre-emi-

He rules
specialburden of publicdefence.
not
as
by the might of the strongest, so much
by
of the strongest. Contempt of labor in the
the need
ancient
communities
was
comparative, not absolute.
there
In all of them
are
recognitionsof its worth,
Works
Hesiod's
and Days," or the lives of
such as
the

"

like Cincinnatus

early Romans,
labors of the
those

of artisans

the

they arise, are


and
agriculturist;

mere

subservient
so

Veneration
the

and

exist,on

to

the

prized than
The

pursuits

sufferance

by

the

only so far as prothey endure


tected
class.
Again, the handicrafts,
military

as

castes.

more

But

; and

nomad

by

are

tillersof the earth.

or

of settled life begin


armed

soldier

priestand

Cato.

and

for

need

the

the natural

have

we

to

of

wants

order

of the

parental disciplinesand

of

exact

an

the

transmission

ample,
ex-

of

all

methods, render

employments hereditaiy. Force


of fellowship,
tradition, custom, accomplish the rest.
Thus
organized by the laws of presocietybecomes
cedence
in public service.
In its originthe baleful
is not confined to Egypt and India,
caste system, which
form
has appeared in most
but in some
at a
races
tive
certain stage of development, was
simply an instinceffort for the Organizationof Labor.1
1

and

Quinet (Gin*
the European

tUts Religions]has

classes

in

the Middle

traced

between
strikingparallel

Ages, another

16

epoch

Hindu

of social reconstruction.

caste*

AND

RELIGION

242

Plato himself, in his ideal

LIFE.

classes

Republic,supposes

in a natural
division of labor, and
originated
of each to its own
function
to be that adherence
justice
the generalgood requires. I cannot
doubt that
which
of a
Plato's
justice"is the philosophicalstatement
natural ideal, which
had much
to do with constructing
the earlier forms of society.
An old Hindu
myth gives the followingsolution of
have

to

"

of the

,
ideas

callinghim

on-

was

him.
not

son,

^^

needful

could

make

not

form

that

says

of

each."

affirm

system, and

One

God

; the

soldier

the

from

his

the

degeneracy, none
spontaneous

Buddha

purport

himself
:

and

succeeded, and
Brihad

The

The

books

his
as

law

idea of

and
violent

the

consequence

elective.

contains

discourse

legend of

older

from

head,

from

Buddhist

foot.

the

in

originof

Brahma's

husbandman

the

the

descend

less represent them

his

accounts,

of
as

social

having

attributed

following

"

Creuzer, Relig. de VAntignit^ I. 227.


Manu, I. 31 ; Yajnavalkya, III. 126
90,

the other

is in all the castes;

arm,

castes

do

Brahma.1

priestproceedingfrom

describe

which

Sudra

that all the castes

s'udra from

leg, the

(X.

and

"Brahma

mythologistsdeprecatethe

study

the tools, and

together, serving

Upanishad

and,

son,

g^

service, a youth called

all dwelt

to

him

bade

Brahman,
y^

he

more,

been

fearjngtfae attackS Of
beasts, he prayed for help ; and a second
son
created, named
Kshatriya,or warrior, to protect
in defence, he could
But, employed as he was
provide the necessaries of life ; and so a third
sent
to till the soil ; and
once
as,
Vaisya, was

wild

the

created

*"

Kinofcastcs.

the

Brahma

question.

our
"
,
Hindu

6, 7) is believed

to

be of later

passage

originthan the

rest

to

similar effect in the Rig Ved*


Mullet's Chips^ II. 308.

CASTES.

THE

When

outrages

He

service

to

portion of the

serve
pre-

produce.

of lands,and afterwards
Khattiyo,or Kshatrya, as owner
happy. But his race was
nally
origiRaja* as renderingmankind
of the same
stock with the people,and of perfectequalitywith
of the increase of crimes, the people apThen, by reason
pointed

them.

themselves

from among
of

for such

elected

was

called

was

awarders

of

livingin

huts

and

ruler

societybegan, a

on

received

order, who

243

of the

punishment,
also

who

Other

came

led

or

sudras

; and

were

these

but all these

mankind.

who

persons

and

afterwards

despised

their

all the rest, does

the

ancestors

out

at

were

of

first

all these

I will become

sawana,

class, being formed

sacerdotal

properlyconstitute

not

fond

tations,
castes, left their habi-

own
"

Thus

the

classes

Finally,from

wandering lives,saying,

ascetic,or priest."

became

of the common
originally
as
tificers,
ardistinguishedthemselves
Vailya, while others, addicted to

who

wessa,

hunting (ludda),became
equal with the rest of
classes

class which

of vice

suppressors

therefore

were

persons,

called

were

or

in the wilderness

Brahmans,

stock.

"

Bahmanas,

from

caste.1

Finally,the Bhagavadgita,givingthe philosophyof


Brahmanism
the subject,
refers these subordinations
on
of natural
to differences
disposition(jguna} among
in other
words, to moral
men;
gravitation.2This
of slavery offered by the later
the defences
resembles
Greeks

these,

demonstrate

to

compelled to
and

must

But

the

do

and

society. Nor
of the people
on

Ancient
*

So

legend, as
India

the Vishnu

is

"

social

human
did
fail

to

like

institutions

are

sense

of

the pretence of
Hindu

right,
justice.

ties
authori-

of my

thologist,
lawgiver,
in their origin,
that castes
were,
vine
growth, pursuing,both by diconsent,

the

worst

all these

the intimation

"

theorist alike

This

by

serves,

and

natural

idea which

of
spontaneities

to

themselves

common

order

that the

homage

defend

suggest
and

Americans

modern

and

the

common

sense

recognize that

translated by Tumour,

(Jmtrnal of Roy. As.


and V"yu Purftnas.

Sec

is
,

given
vol

good of
and
humanity
of
the separation

common

in full in Colonel

vi.)-

Sykes's Nota

AND

RELIGION

244
the

classes

absolute

by

difference
it

refuse

delusion, and

LIFE.

of

origin was

in

place

self
it-

their ideal

of

history.1
far

As

the

lowest

The

regards the three upper


explanation now
given

as

]3ut ;t js

castes.

black

its

that

to be

noted

S'udrais

name

indigenoustribe

an

\\ould thus

seems

adequate.

lowest

caste

was

Sanskrit, but designated

not

that its caste

and

degradation
conquest by

the result of

to be

appear

the

that

in India,

castes

invading Aryans.'2

the

There

are

These

Sudra.

which,

from

product of

the

are

confusion

as

lower

classes, even

outcast

many

of the

"mixed

marriages,"
according to

castes,

law, all possibleevils proceed.3 Doubtless

the

relation of the

let's opinion,that the whole

the

than

Miche-

caste

system

but an
indispensablepolicyof
aborigineswas
the part of the Aryan tribes against
on
self-protection
is entitled to some
absorption into degraded races,
regard in explaining this intense hatred of mixed
marriages,which we find throughout the Brahmanical
of lowYet there are
also ignoblesources
legislation.4
has had
caste
miseries, and it is plain that priestcraft
ple
its sh^re in elaboratinga system which
began in siminstincts of mutual
help.

to the

MUH

established
fully

has

the truth of his statement

separate origination of the four castes


received by Indian antiquity." Abundant
or

Krita

"

white

was

castes

"men

devoted

were

the

And

when

to

God, and

alike

deity,used

ana

far fiom

says,

in

the

R"m"yana
'

supieme,

I.

160) that "the

aiticle of belief

an

'"

when

trust,knowledge, and

in

describe

universally
the earliest

the soul of all

obseivancej"

formeilybut one Veda,


enteiingin the Tietft,or later
was

beings
"tha

when

one
fonnula,rule,and rite,and practised

one

(IX. 14, tS) there

Veda
caste, the triple

one

(Sansk. Texts,

being

passages

righteousnesswas

were

one

Bhagavata Pin

speech, one

"

in winch

age of man,

is

c'uty.''

essence

and

of

erate
degen-

age.
2

Unless

conquest.
or

caste,

Brahma*

as

the
The
may

Rig

"

Manu,

Veda

VIII.

Weber
353

as

calls the black

color,

mean

having created

S'udra
black.

the

occupation\ias,

Aryan

the

and

the

Brahman

skin the

45-

"

hated

Mahabharata

of India

carries

out

than

(IX. 73, 5). Varna*

"

the

idea, representing

white,the Kshatriya red, the Vaisya yellow,and

Vorlesnngen^p.
X.

believes,a colonization rather

Maine

18

Duncker, II.
4

12, 55 ;

Bible de t

Lassen, I 799.

Humanite,

p. 40.

THE

Brahmans

The
other

to

still rule

Hindu

has

Mahratta

the

brain

the

by

their

owed

physicalforce.

than
and

245

have

must

sources

Kashmir

ern

CASTES.

believed

always

In mod-

origin of

country they
The

pen.1

the

and

supremacy

ity.

chief

his

that

^1"!!*power

blessing and cursing. According to Mann,


by which
they destroy their
Speech is the weapon
the priestVasishtha
The
foes."2
Ramayana makes
the Kshatriya Visvamitra
overcome
by the miraculous
In the Rig Veda,
of his staff.
botli these
power
for later times representatives
of
saints, who became
alike fiurohitas;and the whole
third
rival castes, are
lay

in

"

book

is ascribed

without

regard

to

priest,3Even

or

Visvamitra.

the

of classes

contest

honored
was
poet'sinspiration
he was
soldier
questionwhether
it probable that any such internecine

the
were

conflict between

by

No

the

arisen, and

then

had

to

poets in the

the two

as

that described

of Parasurama,

myth

in the "extermination"

orders

which

ends

of the

Kshatriyas,ever
really
occurred, it is plain that nothing of the kind was
ble
possiuntil the caste system had become
fullyorganized.
the primary source
been
could it have
In no case
of
priestlysupremacy.
Parasurama
himself, in the legend,is a Kshatriya,
and destroys his own
est
caste, not
merely in the interof Brahmanical
for the murdered
priestly
revenge
tribe of Brighu, but also from
motives
of a personal
It
character, the Kshatriyashaving slain his father.
would

from

seem

this that

the

reference

is to

civil

inside the soldier caste.4

war

Lassen

and

Indian

Roth, upon

"

Campbell

Manu,

"

Wuttke, Ge$ck.d.Heidt*tk

on

XI.

the

whole,

regard

the

con-

Ethnology, Journal Bengal Society, 1866.


*

33.
,

II. 321

Kurnouf, Esstti
Mini, Sansk

sur

le Veda.

Texts, I. ch

m.

Mxht"h.,

IIL

246

RELIGION

flict of Vasishtha

indicates, has

name

outcast
la

in

as

cratic
demo-

And

the

with

his

associated

mily.1
When

how

effected, or
organization of castes was
its development ever
proceeded, is not easy to
this

far

determine.
of

which

rationalistic

Hindu

the

as

war

of

the

tale

im

ely

t re m

If, as

different

it

Buddhism

in

seats

Rajputana
Hindu

of

still signs of

often

word

wwvt), and
caste, and

vis

even

either

the

and

indicates

becomes

the

At

ex-

piobably
the

to

settled

prob.ihlvVishnu, the

occupy

or

In the

hold

One.

Wheeler's

History of India^ II. 64

"

Mahdbh.,

1.

Campbell, ut snffa.

the

times,"'as

amidst

the

est
old-

epics there
:

are

tains
the chiefas

nary
merce-

Draupadi,3 the

(Greek, oiKOf

class; hence

legend;

descendants

contempt,
of

very

fact,were

soldier class

househf/ding

preserving

of

in

of such

"three

marriage

the

record

Panjab,

with

of

in the

Their

civilization.

Brahmans

treat

means

ter
charac-

been

matter

as

once.

in
superiority

sacrificers.

The

implies

slow.

been

destructive

gives no

Nor,

form.

poet Nputs it, or

abound

have

that described

Kshatriyas "exterminated;"
the

dered
constantlyhinauthority. The

still have

must

from

character

conilict in any

of

epoch

times,

historyof

for the

pression,
singleex-

conjectured, the conflict occurred

been

Buddhist

later

Paras'urama

of

probable

has

and

element,

every

therefore

barbarous

so

in
have

must

must

stem

s\

but

was

Brahmanical

of

grovsth

of the

progress
A civil

this

and

democratic

existed

have

to

thought;

and

Buddhism

distinctive
seems

faith.

Indian

generallybeen

have

races

Visvamitra,

times.

always represented the

element

popular

or

pression
symbolic exorganization

as

Brahmanical

simpler life of Vedic

the

his

LIFE.

Visvamitra

and

victoryof

for the
over

AND

Latin, vicns;

Vaisyas, the

lish,
Eng-

agricultural

CASTES.

THE

Rajahs
whom

indignantat being humbled

are

the maiden

Manu,

Brahman,

in

husband

ence
prefer-

Kshatriya suitors.

all her

to

for her

chooses

by

indeed, believed

to

have

himself

been

of kings, who
perished
Kshatriya,records the names
divine
of not
by reason
submitting to Brahmanical
right. But this means
only that the spiritualarm
claimed
the

mastery

maturity of both,

Like
was

secured

and

hewn

ends

of

out

whatever

it afterwards

as

this

thingHindu,

every

base

mingled,
"

elements

in

did

of

worship

tendom.
Chris-

priesthood

With

whatever

to

in

temporal,

conception.

abstract

an

the

over

'

iinuu,

J"uMllood

ship oil

that
theory was
justice"fcai.
and that puncould be administered
only by justmen,
ishment
belonged only to the pure.1 As the Egyptian
priesthood represented the national idea of absolute
occasions
to
duty, and exhorted the king on solemn
man
the use
for the publicgood,2 so the Brahof his power

exploited,the

held

was

be

to

Sovereign Right
the

Brahman

; born

to

of duties/'3

treasure

chief

as

it the

"Through
Therefore

weak

with

even

The

force

(Kshatriya).
the
strong."

overcome

even

the

rible
gods. Horpenalty for assaulting
the

to

of grass,

and

barbarous

for
of dust

wet

1
3
"

The

slaying or mutilating him.


as
by his blood are counted

of the

atonement

Mamt,
Mann.,

VTT.
I.

Ibid.,IX.

murderer.5
30,

98,
314,

Yajn

Down

I. 354.

90

ji"; XI.

84,

Brihad

inviolable, world-maker,

was

blade

rule

to

world-preserver,venerable
transmigrationsare
him,

ministers.4

shall

the Brahman

or

and guard
justice
appoint a
king must

The

justicecreated

declares

Dharma,

promote

his

of

of

"incarnation

an

IV

166, 168,

years

at

Dwd.

"

Ibid

grains
in

the

his feet, and

Sicul.
,

ishments
pun-

VI 7

Yajn., II

"5",59.
215-

248
ask

if
forgiveness,

Let

him

the

fire

for
offerings

and

prayers

He

if his

He

is the

he

rule of

sea

dwindles,

the

logic.

The

people cease.

of which

violate every

may

moon

deliverer

of the virtue

outcome

sign.

the

the

producer,the healer,
the

the

in

perishes.

nation

out,

goes

him

confuted

have

you

suffer, and

fails, the

LIFE.

AND

RELIGION

world

is but

is the visible
without

caste

sin,

extremityof distress : though


shall not
be
the king die of hunger, the Brahman
taxed, his contribution being alreadyinfinite. He is
be but
venerable
from his birth ; though a Brahman
ten
old, and a Kshatriya a hundred, the former
years
is the father, and all things are
his.1
relieve himself

to

To
its

invest

from

individuals

classes

or

with

an

exclusive

divinitybelongs to all forms of organized


And
hitherto prevalentin the world.
religion

mean-

i"g-

worship of the Brahman


is i'.stypicalform, of what
which
superstition,
folly,
and despotism it is capable. But such criticism,however
just,does not explain the facts of history. We
would
recognize that sentiment, in itself eternally
crude
and blind expressionin this
found
valid, which
old absolutism, so as to give it currency
with human
What
it aspired to, in its imperfectway, is
nature.
in fact achieved
only through the mutual stimulation
of free, vigorous,
The question
which
races.
practical
Brahman
he,
worship properly suggests is whether
it is easy

the

whom
the

real

whether

show,

in

this

progress

of

civilization has

to

goal
the

of that

true

worlds, he whose

imperfectgroping

preserver

Mann,

of

conscience

suppressed, is

stayed or

XI.

206;

shown

states

and

and

IX. 316; X.

103,

the

II. 135;

be

striving,

sustainer

outraged, whose
indeed

to

of

service

people'sshame
I.

100.

THE

and

whether

loss,

"

universal
and

strong
the

an

most

were

of

the

249

justcitizen, the

ideas and

uses,

respect.

Meantime

has

last

at

absolutism

laborer

to

Hindu

underlies

life.
been

have

not

how

note

veneration

could

for

adequate recognition

it is well

impulse to this natural


unpromising features of

Brahmanical
mere

CASTES.

the

out
imposed from withbody of priests,
Priest and
sentiment.
the religious
on
people
of the indispensableness
alike swayed by a sense
spiritualhelp. They comprehend that to bring

device

this is

to

of

sustain the world;

inspiration,are derived
duties is to recognize him

that

from

to

eternal idea, which

this

that

has

who

stay this product is


people. Here, in the crude

that

social order, custom,

this

deal

to

first of

the

to

give ;

destruction

and

to the

is the fine

ore,

these latest ages

gold of an
still engaged

are

Here
is at least a sincere
effort to
working out.
himself
divinize spiritual
was
help ; and the Brahman
of the impulse, even
servant
a believing
substantially
directed it to effect his
while he more
less selfishly
or
in

own

supremacy.
He

wrought
He

the

out

bowed

his

laws, under
neck

own

sense

under

the

of

yoke
"

which

he

laid

the

on

lower

Responsibil-

This

castes.

tion.
inspira-

i
rd

man*

the alloy of priestcertainlytrue, whatever


The
craft in his legislation.
tive
theory being that primibelonged only to the just,its organ must
power

firstmaster

lay beneath
was

beneath

himself.1

far

this incarnate
the law.

he
disciplines,

food

As

is filth, and

be

whose

the wretched

god, so

Let

shall

as

him

turned
mouth

far the

violate
into

Chandala

god

its

himself

precepts

demon

whose

firebrand.3

a
"

Mami,

VII. 30;

Y"jn

I. 354-

Manu,

XII.

or

71-

To

250

RELIGION

is

neglectthem
Dante's

make

to

not

shall himself

for

from

low-caste

the

he

otherwise

than

kite

man,

existence

next

prefiguredin these penalties


"If, as judge, the Brahman

them

uses

shall become

he

destruction.

own

is

sin.

sacrifice, and

for his

him : if he
justice,it shall overturn
the dart of iniquityfrom
its wounds, he
be wounded
thereby."1 If he begs gifts

overturn

extracts

LIFE.

way

Inferno

Christian

of Brahmanical
shall

AND

or

shall
if

and

crow

become

he

for sacrifice,
if he

in

outcast

an

marries

begs

low-caste

degrades his familyto her caste, and loses


his own.3
For his marrying a Sudra
the law
woman,
declares there is no
are
specified
expiation.4Crimes
will change his nature
which
into that of a Sudra
in
law
three days.5 The
forbids the king to slay him,
Yet it
even
though convicted of all possiblecrimes.0
for capital offences,
also prescribes his banishment
declares
it permissible to kill him, if he
and
even
attempts to kill.7 If he steals, his fine is eighttimes
he

woman,

that of

is

Sudra

punished as

he shall be able

milder

by

his

not

rose

in

but

will is

of

is

VIII.

Manu"

Ibid

"

Ibid.,VIII.

For

15,

12.

some

India,

350
curious

1. 53.

"

elevation

in

Whatever

Ibid
Ibid

Ibid.,VIII.

XI
X.

effects of this fact

on

bed

life,and

caste

in the

matter

Brahman

rightsthe

property of others, the

lives and

fl

his

are

of asceticism

demands

by comparison,

III. 19.

higher

Brahmanical

The

that

penalties,

the less real, nor

The
one's

indeed

recognitionof

none

roses.

is taken

for the severest

burden.

bonds.9
the

Care

the

freeman

possessedover

Bnti\h

compound

proportion to

of ceremonial

to

easy

made

Sudra

the

thief.8

own

expiationsan
was

the

penance

than

law

and, if he accepts stolen property, he

24, 25.
92

Ibid

"

Ibid.,VIII.

III. 16, t7.

380.

vj7, 340.
the

relations of the castes,

see

Ludlow'i

THE

insisted

law

with

25!

CASTES.

should

that he

energy

subdue

his

passions,be just and merciful, and return


good for
of his
evil, on penalty of losingall the prerogatives
sell spirituous
He must
birth.
not gamble, nor
liquors,
mate
nor
indulge any sensual desires. Nor must we estithe practicalpower
of these saving prolightly
visions,
and of the religiousbeliefs from which
they
Alexander

sprung.

his followers

and

found

the Indian

l
Gymnosophists blameless, patient,wise, and just."
plines
the Egyptian priesthood,under
And
analogous disci"

to

the

to

sent

was

to

Royal

mouth

of
of

number

Brahmans

and

from

drawn
be

which

Buddhist

the

that

of rites.

He

Suclras

many

writings,
race,

nor

that

from

were

have

quotes

great

shows

authorities

austerities ;

their

of birth

the

of

out

castes

their sacred

matter

Brahmanical

become

Manu

the

to

into
change a Brahman
Sudra, that virtue is better than lineage,and that
a
less
royalty without goodness is contemptible and worthas
;" also the Mahabharata,
saying that the signs
the possession
of truth, mercy,
of a true Brahman
are
that origiself-command, universal benevolence
; and
effect that

"bad

little
interesting
communicated
by him

very

of the

observance

mothers,

by

like reputation

themselves; proving, by
cannot

nor

won

Society,in
doctrine

examples

leading

low-caste

Hodgson,

Brahmans

wisdom,

many

the

that Brahmanism
nor

world.

Asiatic

confutes

author

to have

seem

ancient

in the
tract

Hindu,

the

actions

will

as
frugal
Megasthenes,for example (De Situ Orbis, ch. xv. ),descnbes the Bi.ihmans
with
in living;avoiding animal food or sensual p'easure. intent on senous
conveisation
And
such as are willingto hear.
Scholasticus,in the fifth ceijtmy, says of ihem : "They
worship God; never
question Providence;
always in piayei tinning ton aids the light,

it may

wherever
and

woods, and

These

See Mai

be; live
sweet

song

were
philosophers
co

Polo,and

on

what

the eaith

spontaneously bungs ioith

sing hymns
highestideals of the

of the bads;

in fact the

the Aiabian

\\riteis

on

also

India
,

to

-God, and

Greeks

in

delightin

deshe

fit
fine

morality and

WuttLe, 463, 464.

the

sky

lite."

religion.

252

AND

RELIGION

LIFE.

but one
caste, the
nallythere was
of rites and vocations.
diversity
the

have

woman

These

should

thesudra.

ft

of

system

All

born

of

subjectto

the

men

are

nioral

the

we
injustice
caste-system in placing
with
modern
slavery.

level

indeed

were

show

may
Hindu

the

do

on

Siidras

The

and

organs,

considerations

of

condmon

"

arisingfrom

wants."

same

same

four

the

at

of

mercy

oppression. Lt'galpenaltiesfor
neither

races

were

Code

of

codes

of the

Manu

more

in

than

Slave

old

less barbarous

nor

written

the

States

of

and

America.

fearful

enslaved
in

the

unwritten

Slitting

and
ears,
pouring hot oil into mouths
sary
cuttingoff lips and branding foreheads, are necesadjunctsof any system which undertakes to make
in old time or
any form of slavery its corner-stone,
thraldom
of the Sudra
The
was
new.
very distinctly
stated.
"Though emancipated, he does not become
of

tongues,

free, since
natural

to

divest

can

none

He

him."2

him

can

of

state

possess

no

is

which

property

as

3
and must
not accumulate
wealth,
;
againsta Brahman
!4 And
lest he give trouble to the superior
race
a kind
of colorphobia,
too, certainly
underlay the old bondage

itdid the later. Whether

as

the Sanskrit

word

for caste

(varna) reallypointsto the color of the skin or not, at


itis certain that the lowest
present a doubtful question,5
The
black, or nearlyso.
caste
was
indigenousraces
of India, according to good authority,
are
negrito.0
called
black skins,"
As the Dasyas in the Veda
are
the Aryas are
the "white
friends of Indra."
It is
so
w

1
*
6

Trnnsac

Manu,

Mtrir, II.

has the
'

of Roy.
VIII

sense

374-413

on

Soc., III. p. 160


8

414

of lace,

Campbell

As.

Lassen, I. 407-409

tnbe. says

Indian

Ibid.,VIII

Schoebel

417.

Duncker,

II. 55.

(Researcltes,p. u).

Ethnology', in Jour

Ben". Soc.^ 1866.

Ibid.,X. 129.
In the Rig Veda,

vanta

MITIGATION

OF

CASTE.

253

old sin, this

preying of the fair skin on the dark ;


and, in the overbearing oligarchy of British rule in
India, its penaltiesare fallingon the native posterity
of those Aryan oppressors.
an

But

higher law

modern

his

than

slaveholder

made

social and

slaveholdingdenied
Caste

West.

the

duties

held

that

rested

on

of the East

of the

and restraints
rigidresponsibilities
force and

mere

on

of duties

the

westem

sltUCly-

conscience

belief

member

every

ofLastem

outgrowth

an

affronted

and

I)iffercnce

his law.

his power

religionsfaith

nized
recog-

The

gain.

own

Caste, in its generaloutlines,was


of the

Brahman

The

is this difference.

there

in

of

reciprocal
under

system

slaveholdingrested

fraud, and the belief in

reciprocity

Man
and incidental.
exceptional
escapes
of
from both systems not by miraculous
intervention
moral
but by the deeper forces of his own
Christianity,
As these have driven American
and spiritual
nature.
slaveryto self-destruction,so they have in past times
was

counteracted, and
tendencies
The

of Hindu

...

of

"out

the

exercises

"The

the

counteract,

worst

intervened

classes

the

Sudra

and

...

and

its

mitigated

tyrannies,
king is formed," says Mann,
of

essence

pervaded the system,

graduated

their force.

and

checks

which

mercantile

Brahman

series of mutual

to

caste.

militaryand
the

and

continue

the

their functions.

Checks

tween
beto

oppression
in the caste
system.

Ro"'ahy.

eight guardian deities,


He

is ordained

protector

dischargeof their several duties."1


In the Ramayana, the king of that model Brahmanical
for
not
city,Ayodhya, "takes tribute of his subjects,

of all classes in the

his

own

use,

but

to

it to

return

Manu, V. 96

VII. 80, 35-

them

with

greater

RELIGION

254
beneficence
it

the Sun

; as

the earth in

to

Rama
are

unjustlycondemned

and

the

herds

the

him.*1

will

who

Mann,

the

equivalentto
blood
shed by
on

his

is under

children

partiality.5'2
a
bility
responsi-

burden

cent
of inno-

large measure
to
proceed mildly in
by gentle admonition,
tion
by fines, then by inflicseverest

use

methods

last resort.4

as

those

falls in

courts

first
dealing with offences:
then by severe
reproof,then
of corporeal pain ; and
to

only

fall from

with

The

to return

Bharata," says

destroy the

king

power.

the

governs

is commanded

Me

f'

ocean,

which

tears

of him

of

law

the

up

rain."1
vivifying

who

By

LIFE.

drinks

brother, "the

his

to

AND

All persons

are

according to the
and by reference
interests

under

the

rules.

obliged5to adjust their controversies


order,
particularlaws of their own
to

who

those

familiar

are

with

the

cohabitants
question: kindred, fellow-artisans,
of villages,
decide lawsuits, and meetings
may
entitled judicatories.
for the purpose
There
are
are
judges appointedby the king also in these courts ;
and
and
an
appeal lies from these to higher ones,
finallyto the king himself.
lie is exhorted
mild
and
discourse
to
conciliatory
law codes abound
in injunctowards
litigants.The
tions
to adhere
to justice
by conscientious
upon- him
of the cases
brought before his tribunal.
investigation
from the priesthood,
He is to appoint a counsellor
who
shall check him if he act "unjustly,
or
partially,
versely."
perthe judicial
And
assemblies
are
subjectto
same

of the
1
8
6

are

Egyptian judges

RtlmAyann,
VIII
J/rifiif,
These

We

B.

not
2

Ibid.,B
Ibid

18.

I"a\v.

administration
See

Trans,

to

"

I.

rules foi the

Digest of Hindu

reminded

of

of Roy. As.

the

obey

king

if he

11.

VII.

justiceare

of the official oath

104;
taken

Soc.^ vol.

u.

VIII.
fiom
pp

127.

Colebrooke's
174-104.

elaborate

MITIGATION

command

should

them

opinion is

The

The

injuredparty.
of causes
only
rather

than

shall make

suit,and

who

persons
and

austere,

are

who

the

his

falsehood.
volved
penalty in-

good the loss to the


appoint for the trial
"gentle and tender

shall

king

Hindu

deliver

not

twice

lined

be

to

does

deliberate

guiltyof

is

255

unjustly. By

act

to

deemed

unjustjudge
in the

CASTE.

sits silent and

law, the judge who


real

OF

wise, cheerful, and

are

disinterested."

poetic ideal

The

King Atithi,

dasa's

throne,

was

spoke

who

vain

rr

who,

invincible
no

royalty is

Hindu

of

when

even

the

through

words,

found

love

of

his

what

the

on

young

recalled

nor

in Kali-

people ;
had

he

given,inconsistent only in this, that, having overturned


enemies, he lifted them
again fiom the earth ; seeking
fire attacks
not
as
water,
practicable,
only what was
the forest ;
to consume
though the wind is its servant
to
amassing riches, only because
gold gives power
in war;
even
help the unhappy; loving honest ways
homes
making travellers as safe as in their own
;
be
to
sending the poorest from his presence enabled
to

generous

others,

over

voyages

the

the clouds

as

sea

making

back

come

enemies

from

their

tion
feel the infec-

of his virtue."1
The
as

severest

the

caste-laws

numberless

ties of the code

must

have

contradictions

amply

cruelties

manifest.

inoperative,

absurdi-

It is certain

L()0sene,,
""^i^-

could never
legal in Mann
which
have been inflicted by any physical power
the
have seen,
could have possessed; and, as we
priesthood
of serious doubt whether
this legislation
it is matter
ever
To learn the
had very extended
recognitionin India.
to other witactual condition of things,
must
resort
we
that

the

made

and

been

R"ishui"imi, XVII.

256
I have

nesses.

Greeks

visited India

who

of

reference

to

great

royal

further

They report

LIFE.

alreadyalluded

excellence

the

to

AND

RELIGION

any

that

written
the

extent

before
and

testimonyof

Christian

the

tc

era,

judicialadministration.
courts
judged without

the
code

whatever
the

at

case

the

to

and

is

such

present time, local

takingthe place of positivewritten statutes.1


were
Practically,the lines of caste
always ill-

usages

defined,
,

Interchangeahieness
the

of

like
shifting
"

of the desert

th e winds

cnstcs.

pretensions

always
have

been

been

valuable

to

paper

on

immobility.

permitted,and
treated

of sand

waves

with
the

some

respect.

constant

blown
satire
"

byJ
its

on
i

Inter-marriage has
.

of the mixed

classes

Colebrooke,

subject,has

described

in

the

of lixed orders
in Hindu
society,and
disintegration
of its "impassable walls
the breaking down
of caste
classes.
They were
by this subdivision into mixed
multipliedto endless variety at a very early epoch ;
that it seems
so
hardly possiblethat the division into
four distinct classes
"ould have
really prevailed in
India for any
great length of time.
The
of necessity,
could, in case
higher castes
the occupationsof the lower; and the Sudra
assume
in trades belongingto the class
could not only engage
above
him, but even
"gain exaltation in this world
and the next, by performingcertain lawful acts of the
2
"In f.ictalmost
twice born men."
every occupation,
though regularlythe professionof a particularclass,
is open to most
other classes.
The
only limitation is
the
in the exclusive
to teach
right of the Brahmans
3
ceremonies."
Vedas, and perform religious
"

"

"

1
*
*

Maine, VillageCommunities, p. 53.


X
81, 96-99, 128 : }*"?/",111. if.
Colebiooke, in Asiatic Researches^ vol. V.

Manu,

MITIGATION

One

often,
may
six different low

carpenters of live

told,1see

are

we

257

CASTE.

OF

ing
buildemployed on the same
the same
diversitymay be observed
; and
among
all other
in dockyards, and
the craftsmen
on
great
laws
works.
Manu's
caste
are
perpetuallyviolated,
the severest
those to which
even
penaltiesare attached.
or

Bengal army has been


high-casteHindus, mostly Brahmans,
is composed of low-caste
men,
army

It is well known
of
Madras

castes

Brahman

that the

officer ;

be

even

may

of

assertion

an

private under

natural

posed
com-

the

as

and

low-caste

democracy

little

as

likely to be relished in India as the authority of a


general by scions of fii"t families in America,
negro
Men
in both
of low
cases.
yet equally inevitable
in their
have
been
castes
princes and had Brahmans
"

service.2

Calcutta

is

The

President

Sudra, while
Brahmans

High-caste cooks

are

in

and

army,

Brahmanical

become

reverse.4

And

this

has

gone

on

from

intermixture

of

justicein

and

shown

Such

ethnic

nature

yet

suggest

Rickards,India,

"

Muller's

that

out

low,

high-

than

*
"

350.

'7

tended

is marvellous.

past

Allen's

an

the force

to

resort

barbarism

to

strong for it,

too

the

the

functions

there

that

man's

of the

I. 32.

CAtps, II.

the

constitution

been

has

explain

to

progress

for

caste

even

transformingenergy

testimonies

future

and

in India ;

human

naturalism, either
his

of

of

rules

early times, leading


regulationsin Munu.

chapter of
Every thing in climate
favor this system

The

the

to

in

great demand

it far easier
servant

servants."3

very

elaborate

to

in

at

Brahman.

are

families.

purity make
to

Bengal

be

to

native

man

caste

in

said

Dharmasabha

the

secretary is

the

Three-quartersthe
the

of

or

super-

guarantee
of

India, p. 472.
Ludlow, I. 57.

caste

in

258

AND

RELIGION

LIFE.

form, is wholly gratuitous.They

any

have

thus

bearing on the adequacy of Natural Religion to the


makes
them
of great
explanation of history,which
interest in the present state of inquiry on that subject.
tendencies
Strong centrifugal and disintegrative
revealed

have

Democratic

of fae System,

reactions.

impulses

free

"

pride.

Indus

the

crossed

held

tribes

all

the

the

equal."1

men

mix

castes

functions.

Brahmans

In

their

and

this

which

sense

of four

had

never

Manu's

it in

given

doctrine

old

the

is

the

India,

at

diversity

rank

Sudras

has

name

never

sociallytogether,even

South,

the

land

It

Northern

In

its integrity,"

Bengal begins,
Beyond

west.

social

middle

separatedby religiousdistinctions,or

where

truth

in

passed

never

classification,ceases.
on

present day, all

the

or
priestcraft

to

Lower

where

east

fourfold

as

the

the

that

its first foundations

Hunter, "beyond

Mr.

On

of India.
caste,

classification

Manu's
says

in which

yieldeither

to

structure

affordingample proof

nature

laid refused

were

of

of

in the very

themselves

next

the

ing
degrad-

Laws.8

distinct

In

has

castes

to

no

of

The
validityanywhere.
and Vaisyas are absorbed
into the infinite
ancient Sudras
no
castes, now
diversityof mixed
longertreated
with contempt.* So are the old Dasyus of the Veda.

longer

semblance

cultivators

Brahman
and

in

Oude

are

of the

descendants

all others ;

outnumber

traders, civil officers,and

in Western

numerous

writers

Kshatriya,or

in

and

the

the

India,
chief

Panjab4

soldier class.

are

"The

appeared.
Vai^ya caste," says Ludlow, "has almost wholly disThe
Kshatriya (as soldier)exists perhaps

A nnnls

"

See

"

Campbell

of

Rural

Monier

Bengal, pp.

Wilhams's
on

Indian

Lecture

102,
on

Ethnology.

104.

Campbell, p. 136.

the Study of Sanskrit.

DEMOCRATIC

REACTIONS.

259

Rajputs of the north-western frontier ;


the Y"ts and
the Sudra, scarcely
anywhere but among
Mahrattas.
holds his ground ; and
Only the Brahman
beneath him a chain of castes, varying almost infinitely
less than
seldom
in number
according to locality,
In Malabar
are
seventy, and averaging a hundred.
the

only among

enumerated
Wilson

tells

"

that

us

Brahmans

universallydeviated
"

"

originalduties and habits ; that


body, few,
they are null ; as a literary

with

slender
"

that

they

"

fakeers
and

ceased

that

succeeded

have

assailed, from

Gotama

Jagann"th in Orissa,
in India," says

caste

and

throw

away
enters

Max

as

own

their

ple
peo-

which

gosains and

after

sway,
of

another

the
has

the

to

Miiller,

Pariah

is

as

races

"

of his

is ashamed

proud

anxious

and

highest Brahman.

the

wNo

always,rejectedcaste.

cooking vessels

the house."

the
upon
conclusive

work

has

the lowest
his

preserve

the

subordinations

Buddha

meet

present day.
festival in India, that of
religious

national

most

The

reformer

one

of

Brahmanical

old

these

contemn

system, which

ancient

to the

and

arisen

have

impostors."2

archy
hier-

countrymen

advisers

sects

as

"

their

the

to be

various

as

generally

The

"

them

denounce

from

countenance

have

and

to

have

they

of the

their

from

one

And

hundred."1

three

Sudras

defiled, if

as

man
Brah-

Sir H. Elliott,in his valuable

of

evidence

North- Western
the

on

India, supplies

failure of

caste

to

principleof immobility in that region.


attempt of early lawgiversto divide societyinto

maintain
"The

its

classes, which

should

other,

which

was

one

hold

broke

down

at

an

in India 'love will be lord of all/

Even
"

British India, I. 48

"

ReligiousSects of

the

Races of
Elliott,
Hindus^ 186*.

N.

with

communion

no

W.

earlyperiod.
The
plan of

India, I. p. 166.
'

each

Chips,II.

347-

26o

issue

LIFE.

AND

RELIGION

of mixed

been

has

highly
of granitetill
beneficial.
It is like the disintegration
who
had a
it forms
fertile soil. In practice,
man
a
Brahman
not
or
likelyto be
Rajput for father was
ashamed
of it,or to be looked down
on
by his fellowthe barriers of caste
men
once
overstepped,
; and
and
that mixture
fusion of the people began which
has gone
to our
on
day, and promises to continue till
degrading the

there

shall

modern

be

new

two

in North

Behar

'

Caste

says,

laconic
'

is rice

That

will suffice.

witnesses

more

the

author

the time

"

of

foretold

the

and

nation, is

form

doubt.

one

with

the

They

have

that

Annals

in

Sanskrit

the

of

people shall
not

Bengalis
about

of

them

of

one

one

who

of the
caste

is

quainted
ac-

the

present day

the

of
capabilities

does

not

"

caste

"

Bengal

Book

be

far off, no

Finally,Maine
is now
merely

nation."

noble

Rural

Indian

Future, when

say

left.

caste

eatingor not eating with others, only.


hopefulsign,presaging,like the Brahmo
Somaj,
One
and better order of things in India."1
or

Says
"

of

of

matter
r'.c.,

It is

remnant

no

proverb

castes

can

hesitate
for trade

name

to
or

Monier
Williams
that
asserts
occupation;"2 and
"however
resolves
strict,it practically
theoretically
itself into a question of rupees."3 Caste, in Ceylon
well as in India, is now
in fact a purely social distinction,
as
disconnected

and

from

any

belief.4
religious
The Drama
has given expression

sanction

derived

from

"

I. p. 167.
Elliott,

Leiture

before,it
young

was

on

the

decided

Brahmans,

who

Study of Sanskrit
at

meeting of

had

Old

(1861). He
and

New

lobt caste, should

be

performingpurification.
4

Tennent, Christianity in fttdia,p. 91.

to the

VillageCommunities, p.

mentions

School

democratic

Hindus

readmitted

on

the fact

57.

that,a few yean

in Calcutta

that certain

paying a large fine and

26l

REACTIONS.

DEMOCRATIC

it did to the opening of


in India,
as
spirit
liberties in Europe,
by protest againstthe
prideof caste, which is in fact but the feudal"

modern

"

ism

describes

the Eastern

world

This

curse

of

is the

suitable

as

befalls poverty, in

that

social contempt

the

indignantlanguage,

"

Mrichchikati,1 for instance,

The

East.

the

of

in

shown

^erature.

the Western

to

to

as

"

be disbelieved when

slavery,to

speak

you

the truth.
"

him
"

poor

with

disdain

Believe

sin to those
"

is

Disgrace

The

to

the

to

open
Brahman

of

crime

poverty

worthless

play brings out

Brahman,"

look

wealthy guests

at

corner.

the

misconduct

adds

the

measure

he

doors

rich

man

is

Brahman

thread^ "that

his sacred

the

sixth

hideous.

most

in

same

uses

incurs

he who
term

we

sneciks into

; he

me,

is scorned

truth

man's

The

useful

walls

who

appendage
would

he

force.

would

thief

temptible."
con-

to

scale, and

It

ridicules

ing
pandit,"stuffed with curds and rice, chanta Veda-Hymn
; a pampered parrot." A
king is,
in another
represented as commanding the
passage,
impalement of a priest. Again, the brother of a slain
giveness
king, dragged about by a mob, is set free by the for-

of the

unjustly. A
and

made

what
of

to

subjecthe

slave is shown
"

ought not

all outcasts,

"My
Son,

perhapssome

you

good

when

have

put

model

of

if you

me,

ordered

will

integrity,

cannot

chandala, the
to

execute

death

to

do

lowest

supposed

"

about
have

man

as

done."

be

to

father,when

whenever

Kill

say,

criminal, replies:

would

may
1

to

depart

to

heaven,

said

to

me:

culpritto execute, proceed slowly; for

buy the

criminal's

Translated by Wilson.

liberation ;

perhaps

262

son

be born

may

perhaps

in

one

The

; or

bondage

lower

in other

perhaps

In

ways.
and

astronomers,

attained

certain

have

the

of rulers

change

generalpardon

be set free.'

may

castes

loose, and

break

elephant may

an

the confusion

every

king,and

the

to

LIFE.

AND

RELIGION

"

be

proclaimed;

prisoner
take

may

escape

in

place,and

claims

established
have

Ceylon they

to

been

respect

the

only

fancies
astrological
of scientific knowledge,
noting the periodsof the
their

amidst
amount

calculating eclipses and


stars.2
It is

tribes has

native
Influence

the intercourse

probable that
tegrate the

the native

caste

popular rites in
agriculturalorigin,and

in which

all classes

that

resisted

invader

the

maintaining

heroic

barbarism, many

virtues which

honor

and

with

disin-

celebrated

Most

Bheels

ancient

caste

of

throughout India,
holiday pleasures,
has proceeded from

of

these

many

tribes
have

have

bravely

their

rocky fastnesses,
independence. And, with all
of them
have
shown
primitive

among

ignore conventional

The

very

of serpents, doubtless

influence

democratic

aboriginalraces.
alyvays been free from

men.

weaken
The

system.

unite, amidst

the

their

to

Aryans

of

tnbes.

prove

helped

of the

are

described

distinctions
as

"more

among
honest

as
Aryan Hindus," and their women
having
a
higher positionthan those of the latter race, and
taking part activelyin all reforms in behalf of order
Khonds
and industry.8The
believe that to break
an
is to
oath, or repudiatea debt, or refuse hospitality,
invite the wrath of the gods.4 Another
writer speaks
of the Kols towards
the kindly spirit
of
each other."
Kol girlis never
The
abusive : her vocabularyis as

than

the

"

"

"

Wilson's Hindu

See

"

Mrs.

Theatre, vol. i.

Upturn's Sacred
Spier'sIndia.

Booh*

of Ceylon, Introd. xiv.


"
Laaaen, I. 377, 378.

bad

from

free

language

it."1

is full of
"

263

REACTIONS.

DEMOCRATIC

of this kind
Santhal

whole

"The

Bengali's
village,"
says
a

as

It works
in common.
joys and sorrows
gether.
together,hunts together,worships together,eats to-

Hunter,

has

No

is allowed

man

to

make

of

out

money

here
work
quoted,
stranger."3 In the interesting
which
extends
the democratic
over
"village-system,"
back
to the aborigia large portionof India, is traced
nal
tribes.
They must, at all events, have shared it
from
the earliest period with the Aryan immigrants.
3
Ludlow
as
depictsthem in general terms
"savages,
with
and
them, yet honest
scarcely a rag to cover
a

truthful, as

all free

benevolence

and

stillmore

are."

races

expended

on

tithe of the

the

Hindus,"

make

writer,4 "would

recent

"A

care

says

the hill

a
a

races

enlightenedpeople." However
strong some
the unanimity of the
of these expressionsmay
seem,
best observers
points at least to a strong democratic
force as working from
this direction on
the Hindu
noble

and

social

system.

Such

force

the

of

democratic

oldest system of social wrongs,


taken

generallybeen

heathen

under

ness

reaction
a

"

system which

type of their

as

influences.

within

this
has

unchangeable-

Such

the

protest

began with its beginning, and steadily smote


in pieces;
against its iron jointstill it broke them
indeed introducing
but preparing the way
not
liberty,
for it by dividingthe bondage to an
indefinite extent,
for better affinities.
atomizingthe elements as it were
that

And

by

this old Brahmanical


the

sacred

instinct of freedom,

Bengal yournal,

"

British India, I. 19.

Lewins, Races

of

code, wrecked

1866.

S. 27.

India, 349;

Annals

also

of

Rural

bears

and

stranded

witness

Bengal, pp.

zoa,

that

208, 216.

Journal Bengal Society(1866),II.

151.

264

AND

RELIGION

LIFE.

theocracies,
always greater than his own
or
kind, and will
despotisms,of whatever
oligarchies,
man

was

abide

never

But

further, so
of

far

possibleamidst

was

like these, each

the

theory of

the

civil

defined

,",
affairs

have

lowest

itself

by

its

managing

in

found

by

its

law, certain

well-understood

rights, such

as

since

might

Slavery

It stands
Slavery.

helped

Sudra

to

become
;

must

on

from
distinguished

be

According

to

the

sideration
con-

caste.

whollyJ different basis and

oriiri"

of

causes

in

slaves,

bar,
while, in Mala-

nates

Slavery
equalize

higher social

had

have

popular

of the free castes.2

some

in India

been

even

tribes.

could

castes

slaves, in their turn,


than

have

Teutonic

serve

well-

and

respects the ancient

some

of all

Brahman

acquiring and
read, and performing

usages

European

men

and

of

that

parts of India, has

itself,in many
and

Caste

in

resemble

institutions of the

caste,

suffrage;

own

the
always had, notwithstanding

sacrifices.1
to

politicalmatters,
".

bestowing property, learningto


certain

always

has

caste

series

lower castes.

even

as

stood

really

of

in his home.

as

changes
to

Positive

nghts

in them

superficialnature.

more

Mohammedan

law, there

is but

one

: namely, punishment
ground of enslavement
justifiable
of infidels fightingagainst the true faith. According
Hindus, fifteencauses
to the
are
enumerated, among
-sale is the substance
which
voluntary or involuntaryself
of several, and
punishment that of others.3
The
strong language of the law concerning a slave's
portant
imnatural destitution of rightsreceived in fact many
He
could
be manumitted
; if
qualifications.

he

his

saved

master's

Buyers's

Adam,

Adam

Northern

Slavery
,

life,he could
Indm^

in

314,

4157 ;

demand

Allen, /W/"*,

471.

India* 131-133.

Macnaghten'b Hindu

and

Mohammedan

Law*

his free-

265

SLAVERY.

dom

and

the

portionof
his slave

both

master,

son

if the

mother

himself

and

of his

only son
became

free

enslaved
for
by virtue of that condition alone ; when
otherwise, his bondage
or
specialcauses,
voluntarily
of its grounds.1 Contracts
ceased with the cessation
made
of an absent master, for
by slaves in the name
the behoof
of the family,could not be rescinded
by
him ; nor
there
was
cial
any bar to the institution of judiproceedingsby a slave againsthis master ; nor, in
practice,to the reception of his testimony thereon.2
We
must
observe, too, that slaveryin India has not
been

as

alike

to all

It

in the West

should

be

and

races^

therefore

was

held,

incident

an

impossiblethat
as

in Christian

the

though
India,

soil,or sold

in

relation

the

society.
such

as

countries, to be

thing
some-

its victim.

be

hand

to

slaves

of

speak

transferred
and

hand,

their condition,

as

Distinction

"/Jjfwt"-

slavery.
especiallyin Southern
has
been
graded,3
deand
past descriptionmiserable
be said that slavery,in the
yet it may fairly

in which

sense

from

attached

but

race,

all classes

to

even

organic and essential in


laws
Notwithstanding Hindu
mere
cattle,though they could
with

of

word, has

we

not

em

have

existed

been

used

in India.4

to

understand

It does

the

claim

not

in

Chief
religiousfoundations.5
declared
the law
that
JusticeHarrington distinctly
of slavery had
connection
and
immediate
no
usage
with
and that its abolition would
not shock
religion,"
the religious
prejudicesof the people. Manumission
that country

to rest

on

"

Colebrooke, in Macnaghten, p. 130.


VIII.
167; Adam, p. 17.

"

Manu,

See

documents,
*

given by

the accounts

(printedin London

by Thomas

Adam
Ward

: and

"

in

Co.,

originally
prepared for the Morning

Buyers, 314,

315.

valuable pamphlet

on

Slavery in India

1841),full of statisticsdrawn
Chronicle.
*

Macnaghten,

p. 128.

from

official

266

AND

RELIGION

itself,
on

LIFE.

hand, is regarded as

the other

act of

an

piety

expiativeof offences ; and by the Mohammedan


it is expresslycommended
merit.
as
a religious
form in which
slaveryappeared in ancient India
that the Greeks

mild

so

thenes

that
declaringdefinitely

Arrian

India," and
in

even

had

writers

there

was

slaves

no

in

And

free."

are

The

Megas-

are

these

which

it is not

knowledge,

no

name

regions of

in

and

"

Hindus

that "all

times

later

it the

refused

law

find

to

easy

the abstract idea of chattelhood, as


the Hindus
among
Western
Everywhere,
ingenuityhas wrought it out.

for

example,

the "Law

; while

called

those
scope,

venture

to

Western

always

was

affirm

that

slaveryas

favorable

nothing of
idea

an

as

the Romans

which

customs

to

the

heritance
in-

the slave to

of Nature,"

ethnic

ancient

rightof

of the

traces

are

had

versal
uni-

his claims.1
exact

existed in the

of

nature

older

East,

the Hebrews,
the Persians, the Chinese,
among
the Hindus.
The
to
systematic reduction of men

either
or

things could
instinctive

hardly

have

been

conceived

by

these

It

self-conscious
belongsto socially
know
who
to
generations,
enough of ideal freedom
comprehend what the negation of it implies. It is a
full made
satanic
of
sense
possibleonly by a mature
personalrights. The earliest approach to it,so far as
I know,
was
by polished ethical philosophers of
races.

Greece.3
But

in
,

is

there

all

family likeness

races

and

in the forms

times.

And

of

that

slavery

theoretic

Appeal of

basis which

could

quitereach the absolutomoiogy.


.gm Q" Western
bondage was, within the limits
of caste, developedwith extreme
precision. The idea

caste

"

to

Maine's Ancient

Law,

158-160.

not

"

Aristotle's Politics,B.

l.

ch. 4-6.

267

SLAVERY.

abstract

of caste
of

everywhere rests upon an


men.1
organicdifferences among

it is the

be

to

pray,

of

"nature"

Brahman
"

It is the

adored.

triya to fight,of

Vaisya

to

in

Thus,
to

"

to

a^ Kscha-

of

labor, of

Manu,

Vedas,

read

nature

postulate

Sudra

to

the system
belief grew
as
up insensibly,
fixed, and its distinctions hereditary. Then

This

serve.

became

the Brahmanical

further, by a
priesthoodwent
of development. With
law
those
subtle
of theirs, they spun
out
an
ontology of caste.
laboringclass represented the physical world
delusion.

the will) which


and

maintains

The

Brahmans

The

strugglesup
itself in

contradistinction

themselves

it would

the

represented

in

the

that

seem

no

The

of

ac-

therefrom.

only real life,absorbed


As
for the lowest caste, it lay outside the
ideas, an oppositepole of negation; though
rcalm^
spiritual

brains

a
kingdom of
unreality,
soldier caste represented
out of this lower
region,

tion" in their philosophyan

obscurityand

sary
neces-

absolute

evil

purely
deity.
of

world

here

even

affirmed, since

was

might rise into the highest


it was
attempted to
through transmigration. Thus
of the soul
a colossal servitude
by the structure
justify
from

the lowest

caste

the constitution

and
value

of the universe.

To

power

the

of injustice
to render
every form
of justicein mankind.
natural sense

never

in the

system

sufficed

sight of

to

vindicate

See Grote,on

they

would

functions and

Plato's "guardians,"or "golden and

necessarily
regard the

destinies. Crete's

"brass

Plato, III. 214.

and

any

real

lay
perception

ceaseless

silver men,1' and

iron"

despotic

in this fact

And

man.

guaranteed from the first an ultimate


of social ethics.
and appreciation
The

which

sity
neces-

compels
to

account

the chief

us

of this attempt is in its illustration of the

which

Mere

one

natures,

on

ordained

en-

the way
to

in

lower

268

AND

RELIGION

forcement

of all institutions to

ideal

of conscience

bar

miracle,
It

to

inevitable

was

abstract

upon

theoretic

the

it has

test

appeal

just as
American
For

the

result

the

was

well

as

founded

of

the

own

of

suicide

And

logicalground,
principle.This

Buddhist

the

and

its refutation,

rebut them.

social

own

years
And

after him.

be

to

its

on

in India,

thousand

was

to

came

reaction.

For

physical
recognizedmetaof all distinctions
principles,

moral

as

brotherhood.
has

it

abolition

caste,

on

of universal

in

pass

years

seen

of its

denial
to

Buddhism

cal

thousand

driven,

was

came

need

its falsity
justify
and right. To this

whether

slavery.
deeper dialectic

utter

the

to

nature

come,

since

have

Brahmanism
to

of

be driven

should

defences
ontological

to

we

to

two

or

at

cause

last, without

at

America,

in

grounds

Christ

before

leads

that caste

been

slaveryhas

as

plead their

commonwealth.

true

LIFE.

upon

the

affirmation

consequent

And

from

this Brahmani-

fully recovered.

So

close

lay
the appeal to
truth to honest
inevitable was
so
error,
The
three thousand
history
pure reason
years ago.
of this reaction will claim our
attention at a subsequent
caste

stage of these
But
Democratic

we

studies.

may

nobler

r^Hi!-old

never

go

behind

tendencies

Vedic

the
in

the

Hindu

caste,
mind.

to

far

The

recognize it at all.
dummd.
The
afterwards
names
given the three upper
found in these hymns, but not as indicative
castes
are
of
of social distinctions.
Brahmana
is appellative
Vais'ya,
Kshatriya,offeree ; and Vis, whence
prayer;
of the people in a general sense.
the old
Indeed
cratic
have seen,
a
were
pastoralAryans, as we
very demoknown
disto have
no
community. They seem
Hymns

do

spiritof
not

DEMOCRATIC

tinctions

those

resembling

like

seer,

offer sacrifices

himself

might
family.1
or

Manu.

in

defined

his chosen

had

householder

269

TENDENCIES.

the

Hebrew,

head

the

as

The

of his

who
only of Brahmans
descended
from soldiers, and of Vaisyas taking part
but of times when
in government,
the whole
tion
populaof a King.3
assembled
to ratifythe nomination
In the Mahabharata,3
King Judhishthirais inaugurated
So the
by the united action of all the castes.
cil
Ramayana tells us that Dasaratha called a great counThe

epicsspeak

of all his ministers

to

advice.

The

divine Rama

prince.

His

sanctityin

of the

share

the

discuss

to

government

gathered together in
preference,and give

their

express

chieftains

and

appointment of a son to
that all the people were
manner

not

is the ideal of
the

epic

the
and
like
their

democratic

is itself

ence
transfer-

ideal of

from the Brahman


to the
religion
Kshatriya; an affirmation of libertyon this soil of
chiefs praisehim for continually inquirThe
caste.
ing
after the welfare
of the citizens,as if they were
"

his

children, afflicted

own

at

their distresses

and

joicing
re-

in their

the
the

joy,upholding the law by protecting


innocent
and
punishing the guilty; so that all
of
bearers
or
people,whether
they be servants

burdens, citizens
monarch

to

of

seeking to
the crown,
resort

you
1
*

ryots, young

or

install Rama
the
move

him

the

coadjutorin

Rama's

Raj."4
from

in obedience

appeals to
not
lay your

as

to

37;

the

his father's

Lassen, I. 795.

vow,

people. "Why,

istration
admin-

Bharata,

brother

his determination

injunctionon

Weber, Vortesungen^p.
Mahibhlrata, B. H.

old, petitionthe

or

yield

to
as

last

people!

do

And

the

Rama?"

Lassen,I.

8xi.

Rtaayana,

B.

11.

27O

AND

RELIGION

LIFE.

both sides,and
on
peoplereplythat they find reason
cannot
judge the matter in haste.
into little
the first divided
from
The
people were
under
clans
to this day
independent chiefs. Down
of the
the tribes of the Panjab, that oldest homestead
free from
consolidated
Hindu
archy
monAryans, remain
caste.1

and

populationof India, about fifty


hundred
native
millions, are governed by about two
Such is the force of the centrifugal
chiefs.
principle
of local independence.2 Small, self-governedcommunities,
and
traditions,
adhering to local customs
and
exist all
organized in guilds and corporations,
of royalty and
the shadow
under
India, even
over
caste, persistent
againstthe
protests in many
ways
of these institutions.3 The
authority
type of this free
is the Sikh, whose
Bible says :
spirit
A

quarter of the

"

"

They

tell us

there

are

four

; but

races

all

of the

are

of

seed

Brahm.
four

"The
"

Think

shall be one, and

races

not

of caste, but

abase

all shall call

and
thyself,

the Teacher.

on

attend

thy

to

own

soul."

Originallythe full titleof


conceded.
Title to the religiously
hnd-

that cultivated land

first cut
as

is

away

the wood

or

the laborer
"

The

to

the soil was

old sages

declare

is the property of him


and

cleared

antelope belongs to the


Even
mortally wounded.4
an

tilled it, just

first hunter

by

whom

feudalism

the

who

of

it
the

ownership
Rajput princesstillacknowledges the ryot's
in the

land.6

This

natural

hold

upon

rightof self-government
consequent
1

See Weber, p. 3.

"

Duncker, II. 105 ; Miiller,Sansk. Lit.,p. 53.


Asiatic Journal, New
Series,V. 41.

'

"

Westm

the soil and

thereon

have been

Rev., July, 1859.


"

the

Afo"", IX.

44.

DEMOCRATIC

embodied

by

Hindus

the

27!

TENDENCIES.

from

times

remote

in what

"VillageCommunities."1
mune
By this system the land is held by the villagecoman
as
organizedwhole, having complete village
the
for distributing
produce
arrangements
called the

are

coin-

munities-

of a certain
laborers, after the payment
at different times, to the king
fraction,differing
the

among
small

the

and

local chiefs.

by all, and its


It has its judge

cultivated

villagehas

The

land

its arable

land

used

by all as
head-man, appointed by
or
pasture.
the rajain the old time, but now
a
hereditaryofficer.
in all transactions
He
with
is the agent of the village
of taxes
the government,
the assessor
according to
property, and
Yet

the
of

all matters

consultation
with

the

The

assistance

of

manager
moment

the

with

waste

the

lands.

common

determined

are

and
villagers,

by

"free

disputesdecided

of arbitrators."2

organizationof

the littlecommonwealth

is

plete
com-

ent
judge, its collector,its superintendof boundaries, its notary public, its weigher and
schoolmaster,
ganger ; its guide for travellers,its priest,
and
police; its barber, carpenastrologer
; its watch
ter,
its letter-carrier,
smith, potter, tailor,spice-seller;
and burner of the dead ; all functions being
irrigator,
and all work
hereditaryin most villages,
paid for out
;

of the

having

its

fund.3

common

Within

the

instincts this littlecommunity is

an

limits of Oriental

independentunit;

"petty republic;" containingwithin itself


of stability
satisfaction ;
elements
and
mutual

"

"The

of every
"ecured

rightof the sovereignextended


thing acquiredby hi" subjects
;

as

his own."

he was
owner
only to the tax. Theoretically,
they had their rights,as fully
practically

Ritchie, British World

in

the East, I. 179


Hunter's Orissa, (1^72} vol. ii.

See Wheeler, History of British India, II. 597.

"

Mill,British

July,1859; Ludlow,

217;

Heeren, Asiatic

Brit. India* I. 61.

organ-

but

"

India, I.

all the

Nations, II. 259;

Westm.

Review

fa

272

AND

RELIGION

LIFE.

of each familyin the


securityand profit
assigned it, and
positionhereditarilyor otherwise
of its contribution
accordingto the recognized measure
And
these villages,
it may
to the publicservice.
ized

for the

from

be added, have

very

ancient

times

been,

not

frequent
in-

togetherinto largerorganizations,
They
containing generally eighty-fourmembers.1
illustration of the principle
of Mutual
admirable
are
an
influence over
in
mankind
Help) and of its controlling
of social life. The
members
of
the earlyorganization
India itself has
such
primeval republics,of which
other tradihave
tions
been styled one
vast
no
congeries,"
of political
duty than what this form of government
transmitted
from
immemorial
has
antiquity.
memberment
disthe
They trouble themselves
very little about
of empires ; and, provided the township
of perfect indifference
remain
to
intact, it is matter
becomes
ternal
them who
sovereign of the country, the inThe
administration
continuing the same."2
system in fact rests on principlesthat may not only be
with actual Hindu
called congenital
tribes,but go back
The
tie which
to
more
primitive social relations.
of these villagecommunities
unites the members
volves,
inbound

"

rf

as

Maine

has

shown

in his remarkable

Ancient

assumptionof a
suggesting unmistakably

N.
Elliott,

W.

Wilkes's

Law,

the

work

family
their origin in
descent,
Patriarchalism, the earliest constructive principleof
The
social life.
same
profound student, in a more
of equal interest,has
volume
added
recent
to his
between
the Indian communities
and
previousparallel
Slavonian
and
the Russian
a
village-brotherhoods,
on

II. 260.

common

India, II. p. 4.

Historical

Sketches of the South

of India.

See Heeren, Asiatic Nations,

DEMOCRATIC

close resemblance

of the very
description
named
to
organizations
a

"

especiallyin

and

too

their

of the

Teutonic

the old

"much

resemblance

273

TENDENCIES.

strong

of families

townships,
"

to

be

"

the

presenting

iirst-

accidental,"
double

same

ship,
kinby common
of
and
a
exercising joint
persons
company
These
Indo-European affinities
ownership of land."1
will of course
origin
suggest to the reader a common
in the primeval life of the race
sion
previous to its disper-

of

aspect

group

nationalities.

into different
Mr.

Maine

infers
well

as

collective

are

among

families to

Hindu

associated
of

body

which

other
of

means

so

is

member,

and

the

of

the Jand

among

Aryan

as

rather

notion

of

The

of

dividuali
in-

own

corporate

system,

European
personal
be

might

his

with

idea is doubtless

of this whole
of

than

traditional

him.

to

defect

the

great

hber..

idea of freedom
is certainly
villager's
the
with
rights of the corporate

new
rightsis substantially
profoundly alterative
subjectedto the influence

no

Thcir
ties"

ownerships

universal

limitation of these

Yet

munities,
villagecom-

data, that the

individual

been

have

he

of

property in land

than

personal independence,
as

character

periodicalredistribution

he

The

from

rather

finds

the

forms

though
races.3

from

as

discoverable

oldest

united

inferred

ideas

and

freedom
;

now

since

is

stitution
in-

by

these

rightsconstitute the natural body of political


consciousness, assuming the form of organic guaranties

corporate

and

sacred

trusts.

The

has

Family, moreover,

its

does not penetrate,


sphere,within which the commune
protected in part by patriarchal traditions of very
means
great sanctity. Personal
property is by no
1

Village Communities

"

Ibid.,p. 76.

in the East

and

the West, pp.


8

18

12, 107,

Ibid.,p. 82.

127.

274

RELIGION

from

excluded

the

by
It is

system

by all,is

owned

though

less

or

more

rightsin
universal

means

like the

"

an

the

even

marked

off

in the

Hindu

different

to

excessive

of which

every
is
government

is

commune

and

has

his separate

prietary
pro-

by

villages. Whole

no

races,

Central

as

one

vators,
culti-

absorptionof

Northern

over

land,

arrangements.

the

by

arable

thoroughlydemocratic ;
cravingfor fixed ownership in

described

are

and

permanent

land

Jats,spread

LIFE.

too, that the

observed,

to be

AND

India,

having

as

land,"

the

share, while

the

patriarchal,but to a very great


coast, and in
degree representative. On the Western
the land is largely
the broken
hillyregions especially,
held by privateownership.2 And
the isolated homestead
natural

so

common

in

denc}rof

an

seek

to

the

the
to

the

to

advantages

Seventy

"

of

of

system

Sir Thomas

ago,

Munro

owned

by

individuals

ject
sub-

assessments,

who

inherited

their

understood

who

communal

years

in Kanara

lands

; and

is in fact very

races

strong tenagriculturalpopulation like the Hindu,

government

estates

Teutonic

India, notwithstandingthe

cultivation.3
found

not

property rightsas

well

Englishmen."4

as

Naidu,

Ramaswami
in the

British,service, prepared
of those

the tenures

of reputation
official,

native

ancient

careful

States which

of

memoir
to

came

be

Presidency.5 It contains full


the native sovereignsof India, a
evidence
that, under
portion of the cultivators possessed full proprietary
rightsin the soil,while another portionmerely paid a
for protection,
tribute to the kings in return
according
included

See

in the

Madras

Campbell'selaborate

account

of Indian

Ethnology', in

the

Journal of tfie Bengal

Societyfor 1866.
2
4

Campbell,
See

Wcstm.

p.

83, 134.
JKev.tJan. 1868.

Maine, Village Communities*

Journal

R.

A.

p. 114.

S., vol. i. 292-306.

DEMOCRATIC

TENDENCIES.

275

proportionof their products. It gives us


also a full descriptionof the constitution of a village
itarily
community, and of the eighteensalaried officers heredattached
to
it; of their appointment by the
bution
king in newly conquered territories,and of the distrithe clearers of
of free proprietorships
among
the land.
"This
ownership," says the author, "the
cultivators enjoy to this day, because
hereditaryright
to

fixed

in them."1

soil is vested

to the

Absolute

equalityis

"

There

commune.

are

parts of India

many

part of the ideal of

no

parallelsocial
classes

outcast

are

a
"

strata

Hindu
and

attached

in

to the

probablybelonging to indigenous conquered


villages,
Yet

races.

carrier
to. the

free

and

with
proprietor,

discuss laws

and

of

races

other

official fees.2

customs

can

; nor
or

more

dead, who

class, is, like the

lowest

are

boundaries

of the

burner

of

outsiders

subjectof

the

on

these

even

The
the

held
and

tative
authori-

the

letter-

usuallybelongs
functionaries, a

people freely
constant

less democratic

mixture
inter-

tendency,

India, have
going on for ages all over
of individuality
Hindu
failed to supply elements
to
that the village
observed
life. It has already been
tion
an
exclusivelyAryan institusystem is by no means
in India, but indigenous also;8and, even
it
where
been
is predominantlyAryan, the native tribes have
quite freely incorporated into its membership, and
shared its elements
of political
equality. This hospitality
is so characteristic,
that the natural working of
the system is probably preferablein such respects to
the changes introduced
by foreigninterference,which,
which

Wilson

has been

(///"/.India,

tovercignderives
*

RAmasw.

no

wan

Naidu.

ant

that "the
418) declares distinctly
from

the

laws

ancient
8

or

proprietary
rightof the

institutionsof the Hindus.*'

Hunter's

Orissa, vol i.

276

RELIGION

in Maine's

LIFE.

AND

jealouscorporate
than had
exclusiveness, clingingto vested rights,
viously
pretution
existed.1
Looking at the historyof the instidiscern hints and openings,
as
a whole, we
may
which
lighton the subjectof
promise to throw much
of Hindu
zation.
civiliindividual
freedom, as an element
The
breaking up of the old caste-system
the one
on
hand, and the persistenceof these local
liberties and unities of the agricultural
communes
on
in
facts of great historical significance,
the other, are
the idea of personal
estimating the degree in which
rightsand duties is probably alreadydeveloped among
the

view, has induced

of India.

races

The

extent

more

which

to

the

munes
com-

Kshatriyas into
of cultivators
the
further
the class
question,
opens
how
much
this permanent
devotion
to
agricultural
have
clone towards
-the
industry may
counteracting
have

exclusiveness

absorbed

of

Brahmans

ana

caste.

affirmed to have been


villagecommunity is now
the primitivepolitical
unit in all Aryan tribes.
These
little Indian republicshave
been
trulycharacterized as
the indestructible atoms
of which
out
empires were
formed."
Many of the largestcities of India were
The

"

collections
originally

of these

sive
villages.Every succesof the soil has been
master
compelled to respect
them, as the real
proprietaryunits with which his
Wherever
deal.
the English have
authoritymust
abolished them, the people have
returned
at
to them
the earliest opportunity. Their
extension, not only
all India, Aryan and native, but even
over
beyond
Java,2makes them the ground fact of Oriental history,
and especially
of Hindu
character.
And,
interpretative
"

1
*

VillageCommunities, p. 167.
Raffles,
quoted by Heeren, II.

"

260.

TENDENCIES.

DEMOCRATIC

trying all

after

of

forms

their

277
and

bungling

own

the latest

political
surgery,

experimenters in
of this ancient

governing India find the main features


politybest suited to the genius of the
preparationfor
which

The

long

"

In

have

been

essential

member

now

ere

is

an

byJ virtue of his function

and
'

lot of tax-free land

admirable

an

accorded

people.1

school-master

s\stem;
J

most

ship,
system of full personal proprietor-

that

should

the Hindu

to

and

race,

It has been

consistent with social order.

barbarous

Hindu

every

of this

enjoys
J

_,.

Education.

giftof the

by
villagewhich

commune.

retained

has

its old

assured," says Ludlow, "that the children


generally are able to read, write, and cipher; but

form, I

am

where

in

have

we

Bengal,

swept
the

there

the

villagesystem, as
peared."2
villageschool also has disapaway

by jury (fianchdyct}alike

Trial

fact, is generally
a
part of this
"

and

of law

tion
determina-

for the

Junes.

;
system of self-government

and

and

the

ing
escort-

Reynolds, who was


employed
years in suppressingThuggery, testified in
many
of the village
police,
highestpraiseto the vigilance
him
in tracking offenders
aid afforded
to the
to

of

for hundreds

sometimes
as

special

Mr.

of travellers.

the

is also

discovery of criminals,

service for the

for

as

call the

miles.

He

of India

villagesystem

"

went

so

far

the best in the

world."3

For

of the

full account

see
villageland-tenures,

Mackay's Reports

on

Western

India,.
8

native

British

India.,I.

schools

government

62.

though,

Report

in

In

Bengal alone there

doubtless,for the
1835, theie

Missionary Intelligencer,IX.
* Ludlow, J.66,
1I-344-

133,

was

193.

most

were

once

part, of

no

poor

less than

eighty thousand

quality. According

villageschool for every

four

hundred

to

persons,

278
The

of

number

their

their

in

panchdyct juries vary

in the

and

LIFE.

AND

RELIGION

composition,
Originally

members.

It is a
judge one.
common
saying in India, In the panchdyct is God."
And, though not always incorrupt,its administration
is, according to good authority,on the whole
larly
singujust." The influence of the elders of the village
often induces
contending partiesto yield points of
to forgivethe injury.1
difference, or even
In Nepal, both civil and criminal cases
referred
are
to the panchayets, at the discretion of the court, or
of the parties
members
the wish
; the
being always
appointed by the judge, each party having the right
nominated.
The
of every man
of challengein case
and
in other cases,
each five members,
name
parties,
each

party named

two,

and

the

"

the

adds

court

unanimous,

live

to

effect

to

their
a

The

ten.

decision

verdict

of the

case.

must

be

These

paid any compensation for traveljurors are never


The
loss of time.
or
prisoner can
ling expenses
cross-examine
and
the
always confront his accuser,
witnesses
The
is commonly
witness
against him.
the Harhansa,
which
is placed on his head
sworn
on
with
solemn
reminder
of the sanctity
of truth.
If
a
is

Buddhist, he

on

with

judgment

the

appeal

the

to

Kathmandu;

on

Koran.

Moslem,

ihe

sworn

of

the
If

the

Pancharaksha

at

ministers

assembled

applying

first to the

law,

in

the

AT.
Elliott,

IV.

India, I. a8a.

they can
palace at

premier, and, if
him, proceeding to
"Justice! Justice!

failingto obtain satisfaction from


the palace gate and callingout,
Upon which fourteen officers are assembled
the case, and give final judgment.5*
*

if

dissatisfied

partiesare

courts

"

Hodgson, in Journal

R.

"

to

hear

As. Soc." vol. i.

TENDENCIES.

DEMOCRATIC

The

Hindu

279

then, retained

mind,

the

bias

natural

republicanismwhich was so distinctly


RepuulCan
in the Aryans of Vedic
times, and tcmiencu*
reached
such
tonic
energeticgrowth in the TeuNeither
the hot sky
of the same
stem.
races

towards
shown
which

of Central

expel

the

nor

could

the

invader

Mussulman

this

eradicate

forth in

broke
constantly

it stimulated

system, which

caste

rankness,

such

to

Its fires

India,

germ.

organizedefforts

from

soil.

the

to

The

Mahratta

near
came
confederacy,which
overthrowing first the Mogul, and then the British
ent
empires in India, was a militaryrepublicof independcentral
chiefs, loosely related to a
authority.
The
iirst peaceful religious
at
Sikhs, or disciples^
roused
by Moslem
puritans,became, when
tion,
persecuafter
ardent apostlesof political
liberty. Even
in the
ended
the long and
bloody struggle which
subjugationof the peninsula by England, there still

formidable

remained

the

combine

to

energy

in

one

immense

ing
againsta foreigndespotism that h#d been peelthan
for more
the land and demoralizingthe race
to deprive
to compel the government
a century ; and
the colossal East India Company of autocratic
power.
A brief notice of some
of the most
importantfeatures
revolt

of British rule in India, which, it must


succeeded

have

been

here

introduced,

people

of

to

in

better

much

censorious

England, for whom

respect, but
reader

not

by

do

because

such

something

be

methods,

like

review

will

spirittowards

I cherish
a

remembered,

most

the

cordial

will enable

justiceto the
to judge whether

be

the

natural

their
of the Hindus, and
qualities
are
stantly
condegeneracy, so much
harped on, is, as we
told, owing to viciousness speciallyinherent
in the

heathen

heart.

28O

AND

RELIGION

The

English systems
have

been

of

LIFE.

land

and

tenure

taxation

prejudicialto the rights

more

of

ForeiRnmis-

the

government;
land

system.

whjch

zemindars,
to

half

they supersededt
farmers

or

of

produce of
paying themselves

name,

the

The

who

and

the tenants

the

took

from

revenue,

latter,the
fourth

the ryot, in the

government's

of the

thus

out

revenue

the

of

powers

acted.
ex-

into

zemindars
the

Company,
distraint

summary

system involvingthe

/r

Mahommedan

paid quit-rentto

with

armed

were

TV

the

Under

transformed

English

positiveowners,
on

than

village communes

utter

extinction

of native

had
stilllingered,
favored
rights,which
by
of the Mussulman
tion.1
administrageneral irregularity
The presidencies
of Bengal and Madras
ing
becomimpoverished by this policy,the Ryotwaree system
tried, in which the zemindars
were
supplanted by

the

was

the

the
on
levying directly
tax-gatherers,
fruitful of corruption,
this proved as

government

villagers;and
extortion, and
often

would

his

with

content
on

collector

Christian

the

would

; thus

of

grasp

land, but

actual

crop

of each

for this, and

; but

took

from

then

See

Ludlow.

"

Ibid

Westm.

Led.

35
Rev^

to

40

per

Jan. 1858.

IX-

McCuIluch's

insisted

East

Indie*.

was

at

last

draining the
a
pany.3
foreigncomportion of the

English fixed
for produce, and

the

field

other

also

enrich

to

taxation

older

he

that

so

country of preciousmetals,
The

rapacity
generally

was

the

the

the

assuage
one

of

only throwing the peasant

not

his

bribe which
clutch

the

kind, but

usurers,

alienate

obliged to

not

The

in

payment

The

ryot from

successor.

having money

into

the other.2

as

the

deliver

Mussulman
of

outrage

an

assumed

city
capa-

an

assumed

price

cent

of this fixed

28l

MISGOVERNMENT.

sum

the

larger part
general to sweep
of

Clive,2 the

for ever."

its share

as

of

The

effect

income,

ryot'sactual

the

the

away

From

whole.

exhaustion

material

absorb

to

was

and

and

time

the

social

in

misery

steadilyincreasing,until, as in the Putteedaree plan,which


was
adopted in the Panjab, isolated
efforts were
the
made
towards
to
a
partial return
native villagepolity.
In 1838, by the exertions of many
ers,
leading reformwhom
were
George K h
conspicuous
among
ind.aSoThompson and Daniel O'Connell, the "BritClety'
ish India Society" was
organized, a natural
offshoot from
the great movement
against Western
slavery, for the purpose of emancipatingthe masses
in Hindustan, and at the same
opment
time, through the develin that countrj by free
of the culture of cotton
labor, to abolish slavery in America
by destroying
The
the English market
for the slave-grown article.
the land
made
ring with
apostlesof this movement
and
eloquent denunciation
appeal. They brought a
of the
condition
flood of lightto bear on the wretched
Hindu
Their speeches assailed the pretence
laborer.
went

on

"

"

that
"

the

with

Government

rightto take
They proved

the

field."

private property
had

decreased

thirds, while
same.

the

the

They

what

that

in land

tax

waste

of the

suited it from
its extortion

impossible,and

in consequence

denounced

cultivation of

owner

was

assessed
it for

soil of
every

of

India,
man's

made

rent

that

tion
cultiva-

in the ratio of two-

continued

nearly

laying high

lands, for the express

of

taxes

the
on

purpose

preventingthe impoverished ryots from resortingto


these.
They pointed to a long series of appalling
1
*

Briggs'sSpeech at Glasgow, Aug.


Macaulay's Essay on Clwe.

Gen.

i,

1839

282

RELIGION

famines

in

five hundred

of which

one

LIFE.

AND

thousand

sons
per-

perishedin a singleyear, while grainenough was


being exportedfrom Bengal to feed the whole number
another
of which
with a pound of rice a day ; and
scribed
They deswept off three millions in Bengal alone.
ruin
the
of Hindu
manufacturing industry,
to sixpence a head
and the fall of British imports down
the rulers of the
the population. They warned
on
detestation in which
held throughout India,
they were
of desperate revolt that were
of the elements
ing.
gatherof Hindu
The
horrors
slavery were
spread out
of the British people, who
before
the eyes
were
just
then
strikingoff the chains from their West India
of corporativedesbondsmen.1
Yet
potism
twenty years
were
yet to elapse,findingtheir natural result
in the terrible scenes
of 1857-58, before
the worst
features of the old land system in India began to yield
to the civilization of the age.2
chievous
misThe policeof the East India Company was
as
its

as
"

scribed
but

great engine of oppression

venality and

The

intolerable, and
rebellion.3

trade.

in

abolition of slavery and


and
as
8

See

he
the

one

of

si eeches

Ludlow, ch.

courts

became
of the

leadingcauses

of

xix.

its

labors

compulsory culture
evil.

enormous

revenues

the

entitle him

of the bravest

Societies dining 1839 and


8

corruption."

of the

At

one

Company

time
were

George Thompson, both in advocatingthe


oughness
defendingoppiessedand defrauded native rulers,with a thorwete

eloquence which
was

and

opium

sources

pre-eminentvalue

Of

of

fifth of the

the

among

de-

crime,

repress

and

of the

was

were

Opium

arbitrariness

were

monopoly

The

only powerlessto

not

as

It

system.
J

revenue

Pohce.

of

to be called the

helpers of the American

Thompson,

1840, for abundant


on

East

Indian emancipation,

slave.

Briggs, before the British India


and startling
statisticson these points.
Warren
Hastings.

O'Connell, and

Macaulay's Essay

apostleof

283

MISGOVERNMENT.

perniciousinterest. The loss of


productiveindustryeffected was as nothing compared
from

derived

with

this

the moral

it entailed.1

ruin

It

decisive

the

was

ably
remarka
testimonyof Hastingsthat the Hindus were
with
temperate people before evil communication
The
toxicatin
of inthe Europeans had corrupted them.2
use
by the
drugs is prohibitedto the Brahmans
the higher
native law, and is stilldisreputableamong
In the rural districts intemperance is still
classes.
but wherever
rare;
English rule is established, and
It
foreigninfluence active, it has greatlyincreased.

is admitted

of the

character

Mohammedans
under

all hands

on

Hindus

the effects of alcohol

The

Mohammedan
for the

these

localities the

changed, and that both


are
rapidlydegenerating,
and opium. a

has

people
and

in

that

is nowise

government
of

terrible results

the

sible
responIt

trade.

opium

repressedthe cultivation of the poppy as long as it


able.
was
Ninety years ago no regular trade in
East India Company's officers
The
opium existed.
chests into China.
began it by smuggling a thousand
Thenceforward
the "fosteringcare" of the Company
eign,
developed it till it "enticed all India, native and forChristian
and
Buddhist."
In 1840 the Chinese
chests
of
destroyed twenty thousand
government
for a
than half the importation
opium, being not more
In 1858 the production in India, of
single year.
which
England held the monopoly, for exportation
China,

into
1

Westm.

amounted

Rev*) July, 1859.

"

(Ludlow,

II.

Dr. Allen

(India, p. 304) declares

300),"is due

slave-trade,more

to

to

Half

opium.
that

than
reprehensible

the

crime

the

One
he

opium districts"said

cultivator will demoralize

knew

manner

in the

nothing in
in which

chests.

thousand

seventy

modern

was

Sym

village."
except

commerce,

this business

Mr.

whole

carried

the

on.

Ludlow, II. 302.


* Allen,
See
testimonies collected in Thompson's
pp. 478, 479, 497.
Friendf
Yearly meting in London, 1839.

Address

at

284

AND

RELIGION

down

Government,

rebellion

the

to

LIFE.

of

1857, not

only

effort to repress, but steadily


slightest
the
of it upon
encouraged it,urging the legalization
to resist a
Chinese
rulers, who
as
strenuouslystrove
that was
land,
Engdesolatingtheir dominions.
scourge
India and China
in fact, "found
comparatively
free from intemperance through the positiverestraints
the

made

never

of Buddhism

Mohammedanism.

and

in these

countries

She
extensive

the most

lished
estab-

has
and

deeply

debauchery the world has known."1


in India,"
The
intemperance of the British soldiery
Dr. Jeffreys in 1858, "appears to be bounded
wrote
It is
command.
only by the opportunitiesthey can
rooted
"

to

lamentable

natives.

of the

minds

the

into the
in

Europeans
Mussulman

Once,

of certain

creeds

Upper

the

with

associated

extent

in
Christianity
quiries
making inmy

on

Provinces,

of

descendants

black
a

well-informed

Christians,that he
they were
plicity)
knew
it (speaking not disrespectfully,
but in all simdrunkards.
from their being nearly all of them
The
example of Christians, and the efforts of government
for the sake of revenue,
to multiplyspirit-shops
Drunkenness
are
changing the habits of the natives.
is becoming prevalent,whereas
formerly there were
few

who

The
salt

mo-

nopoiy.

touched

monopoly

enue

"f the

door

Army
*

These

The

salt-mud

fifth of the

peasants

of the

were

rev-

for-

river mouths,
"

Not a
agricultural
purposes.
the sun-evaporated salt left by nature
at his
could be placed by a native on his tongue, or

last facts and

in India

another

Company.

the very
reliance for

form."2

in any

afforded

bidden

grain of

me

alcohol

salt

their main

own

informed

affirmations

are

taken

from

work

(London, 1858). See, also,Ludlow, II.

Jeffreys.,
p 19

The British
on
by Dr. Jeffreys

303.

285

MISGOVERNMENT.

destroyed.
article
the

"

into his hut

removed

At

time

one

the trade in salted fish was

and

the

hundred

raised to thirteen

was

priceof

this necessary
above

cent

per

production.1
The
by English
supersedureof native manufactures
of suffering
amount
machinery created an
R.
f
in
India
classes
to
manufactnumerous
scarcely
among
The
be paralleledin the history of labor. a
in England,
slave-growncotton of America, manufactured
had
forced on
a
woven
was
once
people who
of

cost

WCSt

for their
native

the finest fabrics in the world.

use

own

looms

that

before

long

not

The

produced annually

stopped
eightmillions of piecesof cotton goods were
cities and villages,
the
altogether. Once flourishing
ruined.
of a busy and thrivingpopulation,were
seats
Dacca, for instance, once
a
city of three hundred
sand
thousand
to sixtythouinhabitants,has been reduced
and

whole
is

"

The

older

secure

"woven

wind,"

thing of

through a finger-ring,
past."a

the

governments

careful

were

communication

the

across

to

build

country.
J

In

1857, the "Friend

"for

one

suffered twenty to
miles

of

of India"

road

good

railroad

have

of

canal

begun

to

created

by

communication,

since

have

Four
been

well

as

the

as

native

from

recover

the

we
or

T
Internal

havecatlon'
five thousand

projectedand
several

hardly
industry can
terrible discouragement

on

the

Ludlow, I.

internal

part of the invaders, and


*
*

in

thousand

long-continuedneglectof

Ludlow, Thompson, "c.

roads

thatcommum-

the

10.

made

4
disappear."

but

confessed

have

we

great part constructed,


miles

will pass

dress of which

almost

and

its transparent muslin,

Allen,449.
See, also,Allen,p.

327.

the

286

incessant

shocks

they helped
The
.

AND

RELIGION

of

Gan^a,

conquest

Purana

describes

the sacred

stream,

Vishnu, which

of

civil strife which

and

introduce.

to

Skanda

A
Agriculture.

LIFE.

broke

the

descent

through
t"

'

her

of

the tresses

fall and

scattered

She followed
to the land.
bearingfertility
she was
the steps of Bhagiratha,to whom
granted,
of heaven, as reward
of his
a
drop of the waters
the consecration
in
Such
all-conquering devotion.
and love for
mythic lore of the popular enthusiasm
is
streams.
Nothing in the Ramayana
fertilizing
more
eloquent with genuine national feelingthan the
is identified
episode in which the descent of the waters
of all the gods. It represents
the beneficence
with
her

waves,

"

them

as

revive

to

sent

the

ashes

of the

sand
seventy thoudust by Vishnu,

of

to
Sagara, reduced
of the all-nourishing
earth,in
spouse
Fire," because
they reproached him
sons

the

away

sacred

horse

of their father's

his

of

avatara

with

carrying

which
sacrifice,

These
through the worlds.
the symbols of an
are
agriculturalpeople ; and the
like the Greek
is manifestly
whole
myth of Ceres and
of the death
re-birth of
and
Proserpine,significant
vegetation.
Serpents,ill the popular mythology of India, seem
this oldest
interest of the community.
to represent
in

vain

they

had

The

festivals in honor
of

sought

the

old, rich and

of these

have

holiday, and

crowned

with

flowers.

and

animals

incarnations
faith

and

ground are celebrated


by young
India.
poor, throughout Western

children

Epics,these

first owners

ascribes

are

in

In

the
the

this veneration

and
The

serpent figures are


Sutras, Puranas, and

always mentioned

serpent form

pants
occu-

abound.
to

with respect,
The

lar
popu-

gratitudefor

the

287

MISGOVERNMENT.

forgivenessshown
husbandman

who

the

by

of serpents to the
queen
her little ones
by the stroke

killed

of his

plough.
of this agricultural
Thfe
prodigious monuments
ardor, so intimatelyrelated to the old Hindu
religious
faith,have been treated by later invaders very much
similar achievements
as
by the ancient Peruvians were
of South
America.
treated by the Spanish conquerors
Of

the

innumerable

native

built by
irrigation,

great numbers

and

tanks

and

canals, reservoirs

Mussulman

suffered

for

ments,
govern-

tlecay,and the
contributions
paid in by the people for their repair,in
with ancient custom,
accordance
were
appropriated to
were

purposes.1 Wherever
afforded, as especiallyin

opportunityhas been
the Punjab of late years,
the improveentered with vigor on
natives have
ment
of these long-neglected
sion
works, and their extenthe

other

the

to

upon

To

such

suitable scale.

demoralizingforces
When

for centuries.
subject
J
of the

we

the

Hindus

have

been

therefore

read

Inferences.

filthycondition

of

the
villages,

destitute

of the

agricultural
population,
for explanationeither to
shall not need
to resort
we
shall
to religion. We
caste
or
appreciate McCulloch's abundant
proofs that this poverty and misery
are
largelyowing to that misgovernment of which we
We
outline.2
shall
here
have
given but the merest
appreciatethe force of such testimonyas that of the
Bombay Times," in 1849, ^iat the boundaries of the
of the East India Company could be discovered
dominions
by the superior condition of the country
subjectto their sway ;
people who had not become
and

despondent state

Ludlow, II. 317;

Commcrc.

Arnold's

Dut., artic'e

on

Dalhousie^

II. 282.

Ktiit Indies.

288

AND

RELIGION

as

or

that

affirms, in his work

Campbell's, who
"the
longer we
and

common

Thomas

half

Munro's,
of

all India."

in

abjectrace
with
energy
of Commons

that, "if

from

India, they would

their

dominion

than

as

ment-

looked

was
civility

treat

to
as

had

habitant
inmost

in
had

been

better

no

House

the

driven
of

traces

and

matter

Sir

appreciate the

tigers."
outrage by British

and

upon

servants

left

hyenas

Englishman

an

English

have

niuch

so

shall

the
the

were

declared

the

Systematiccontempt
m-treat-

We

Burke

which

"

Provinces

more
as

or

since, that

century

British

the

the

"

perjurybecome

India,

on

province,

possess

does

grave

LIFE.

of

officials
that

course,

natives with

for

common

prodigy ; and the government


general impression that it
a

into bad odor


with the Company.1
bring one
Impressment, plundering of houses, and burning of
the kick, the buffet, the curse,
mal-treatment
villages,
would

in

form,

every

such

as

"

made

wonder
Napier, and Shore
year," brought the ryots to

missionaries

the
that

confessed

Christian

"the

that
the

like

men

we

hold

in their conference

caste, eating beef,

for

India

conviction

religionconsisted

Metcalfe,
a

last, as

at

of

1855,
in having no
trampling on

drinking freely,and
the rightsof niggers."2 The
of
gross immoralities
Europeans in the early period of British rule in India
of the term
Christian
in fact led to the use
as
a byword,
of "bastard ;" and, "had
having nearly the sense
been
the name
altogetherlaid aside, it would have
been
a
great blessingfor those parts of India most
frequented by Europeans."8 It can therefore hardly
1

Hon

Ludlow,

Uuyers's Northern

F.

J. Shore.
II.

See, also,Speechesat Friends'

Meeting

in

London*

1839

365.

Rev. for July, 1808.

India,tp. 107

Sanger, History of Prostitution^p. 423

289

MISGOVERNMENT.

be

suggestiveof specialhardness

held

heathen

heart, when

of British

of

Christian

nearly

twenty

there

that

sway,

thousand

find, after

we

the

century
hundred

tion
popula-

and

natural

of

out

millions

of

out

than

in India

hundred

thousand

than

more

less

are

converts

two

in the

less

than

forty-fivemillions

of

Bengal.
It remains

add

to

of Christian

item

more

one

Not

in India.

influence

this

to

sad

detail

only did
f

C1

Slavery.

existent
gratuitouslysanction
Mohammedan
Hindu
and
law
slaveryby interpreting
in its interest,needlesslyplacing it under
the shield of
respect for the religiousinstitutions of the natives ;
the sale
not only did it everywhere permit and
justify

Company

the

"

of this kind

of property

carried

with

for

on

the

the

of Africa

coast

sell slaves

itself,to

steadilyresisted

of India

and

Arab
Sea

of

arrears

endeavors
the

slaveryon

by

Red

the

secure

numerous

of Hindu

abolition

supply

courage
only enlong period

not

for

slave-trade,

external

an

them

among

traders

; not

only
It

revenue.

obtain

to

part of such

the
men

Harrington and Baber, from 1798 to 1833.l Not


directed
till 1811, was
against the slavelegislation
trade ; and the law then made
prohibitedthe sale of
such persons
only as should be brought from abroad
as

for

this

it of

no

express purpose,
the

importationof
by Earl
was
years,
Parliament

limitation which

effect.

increased

"

Every extension
traffic,opening the
fresh

victims.2

In

rendered

of British

domain

whole

1833,

territory

to

duced
bill intro-

abolishing slavery in five


emasculated
in its passage
so
through
by the oppositionof the Duke of Welling-

Grey,

for

case
fullystated in Adam's Slavery in
Judge Leycester,in Parliamentary Documents

See the

19

India.

for 18^9, No. 138, p,

315.

AND

RELIGION

290

LIFE.

but a timid recommendation


finally
far
evil as
to mitigatethe
to the Company
be found
convenient
should
courage
enas
; serving only to
and confirm it. The
earnest
agitationof the
subjectby the British India Societyin 1838 aroused
fresh interest; but the East Indies and
Ceylon were
excepted from the great Colonial Emancipation of that
I learn that any complete Act of Abolition
Nor can
year.
has been
What
passed,down to the present hour.
is the fact that this
here especiallyto observe
we
are
and

ton

others, as

of

continuance
of

excuse

made
that the

stronglyin

barbarous

so

regard

necessary

interests of the

out

to come

system has
for the

had

not

the

prejudicesand

tigation
people. Judge Vibart, aftiikan invesported
1825, reby desire of ^overnmcnjjp
respectableclasses of tlfFrlinduswere
of abolition, and

favor

medans
Moham-

-that the

great objection.Macaulay, as
assured
by the ablest of
Secretary of the Board, was
had

no

very

Company's civil servants


danger in the attempt.

the
no

Parsees,

Hindus,

that
In

there

1833, four

Mohammedans

and

It

the

was

Mohammedan

the

free

would

almost

of

their

religionor

the

which
J raits

slaves

any

immediate

this

from

could

not

be

of

such

reference

to

abolish

the

lawyers that
rightly executed,
in India;

nor

connection

has
with

caste.

criticism

to

an

fairly presented
"/

ol

thousand

able

itself,if

their system

hasten

we

opinion of

all the

Hindus

that

But

law

be

memorialized

Parliament, thanking it for its exertions


slave-trade.1

would

estimate
without

oft-told

otherwise
history,
neecj[ng no fresh recital. Charges of gross
depravityare constantlybrought againstthe Hindus
Hmdu

to

an

character.

Waid

Pamphlet
"

on

Slavery in India, compiled largelyfrom officialdocuments;

Co., London, 1841.

printed
by

HINDU

Such

people.

CHARACTER.

writers

as

be

incapable of finding any

29!

Mill

as

good

and
in

Ward

to

seem

them.

Of

these

sweeping accusations, falsehood, vindictiveness, and


sensualityhave been the most
frequent. The best
in refuting them.1
Dr.
authorities
Jeffreys
agree
allows himself the extravagant statements
that "every
child is educated
carefullyto avoid speaking the truth,
of interest or
necessity,"and "that
except as a matter
each
for the
other's ruin or death
they will compass
Colonel Sleeman, on the contrary, tells
smallest object."
he

us

has

man's

He

had

hundreds

of

cases

before

him

life depended
or
property, liberty,

; and

he has

refused

to

tell it,to

save

on

in which
his

telling
Mr.

either.

of thirty
those
were
Elphinstone,whose opportunities
in the highest positionsin Indian
scribes
service, deyears
"for
and
the Rajputs as remarkable
courage
with
self-devotion, combined
gentleness of manners
softness of heart, a boyish playfulness and
and
an
"No
infantine simplicity."
almost
set of people among
he continues, "are
the Hindus,"
so
depraved as the
The
villagersare
dregs of our own
great towns.
everywhere amiable, affectionate to their families, kind
all but the government
towards
to their neighbors,and
The
honest
sincere.
and
townspeople are different,
but quiet and
orderly. Including the Thugs ami

Decoits, the

mass

of crime

is less

in

India

than

in

Thugs are almost a separate nation,


The
and the Decoits are desperate ruffians in gangs.
merciful
and
Hindus
a mild
are
gentle people, more
freedom
Their
to prisonersthan
any other Asiatics.
from
they
point in which
gross debauchery is the
in
to most
advantage ; and their superiority
appear

England.

See

The

especiallyMontgomery

Martin's

admnable

Report

on

tfie Condition

of

India

RELIGION

292

purityof

AND

LIFE.

is not

self-esteem."1
to our
flattering
"Domestic
slaves are
treated exactly like servants,
regarded as belonging to the
except that they are
family. I doubt if they are ever sold."2 It is highly
that Siva-worship through
Hindus
creditable
to the
the lingam, once
the symbol of reproduction,
widely
found
"no
hold on
to have
.spreadin India, is now
and to suggest no offensive ideas."
the popularfeeling,
it is
It is but justiceto state," says Wilson, "that
India
unattended
in Northern
by any indecent or
ceremonies
it requiresa lively
indelicate
; and
nation
imagiin its symbols to the
to trace
any resemblance
objectsthey are supposed to represent. The general
of indecency from
absence
ligious
public worship and rein the Gangetic provinces was
establishments
Stuart, and in
fully established by the late General
every thing relatingto actual practicebetter authority
manners

'r

be

cannot

to
state

be

to

to be

desired."3

licentious

The

sakti-worshippersthe
seldom
practised,and then

the

held illiciteven

by

buted
attri-

customs

authorities

same

in secrecy

; and

their supporters, if instituted

Statistics show
that
gratification.4
the
profligacyof the large cities of British India
of
that of European communities
hardly exceeds
And
similar extent.
to the amount
actuallyexisting
habits of Europeans have
the
largely contributed ;

merely

while
form
these

for sensual

the

of

efforts of the

immorality have

bad

influences,

ceremonies
religious
1

government
done

as

well

much
as

to
to

diminish

counterbalance

to

suppress
involved it.6

which

History of British India, pp, 375-381. See Ritchie,British World

the older

in the JSeut,

186.
*

Elphmstone, I.

350.

Wilson, Essays

on

Sanger, History

Religion of Hindus

', II.

of Prostitution, p. 423.

64

; I. 219.

this

Ib^d.,I. 261.

CHARACTER.

HINDU

2p3

of opinion
great diversity

The

is doubtless

of the Hindus

morals

the

to

as

due

in

practical

part
1

the great varieties of moral

to

exist in
that of

type that

"

Moiality.

must

and

immense

complex a population as
India, subjected to such
variety of foreign
so

influence

of years.

for thousands

however,

that

Hindus

the

have

It does
been

not

more

appear,

inclined

is true
of them
This
than other races.
sensuality
even
as
sharingthe almost universal cultus of the productive
whose
to
principlein nature,
symbols seem
have representedthe sacred duty of man
to propagate
of
his kind.
They have always had sufficient sense
the statues
of their gods in a way
proprietyto carve
their vices must
not to give offence to modesty.1 Yet
the whole
have
been such as belong to the impreson
sible
of tropicalraces,
the passiveyielding
temperament
fibre that obeys the luxury of illusion and reverie.
to

The

truth

praiseslavished
and

Christian

by

It is in
the

Christian
w

writers

on

of

censure

the
the

unbounded

ancient

dus
Hin-

their descendants

criticism.
unmindfulness

no

that I add

case

Greek

by

excessive

the

between

be somewhere

must

people

few

from

more

of these

good

competent

in
probabilities

words

for this

witnesses.

think of the

non-

Malcom

Bengal sepoys in his day without


admiration."
in general
Hastings said of the Hindus
that they were
gentle and benevolent, more
tible
suscepthem
less
of gratitudefor kindness
shown
and
inflicted than
prompted to vengeance for wrongs
any
people on the face of the earth; faithful, affectionate,
tation
submissive to legal authority." Heber, ^hose detesof India was
of the religions
intense, yet records
Hindus
similar impressions. "The
brave, courare
could

not

Stevenson,

in

Jour. Roy. As.

Sot..* 1842, p. 5

AND

RELIGION

294

LIFE.

for knowledge and


mo'-t
intelligent,
eager
improvement; sober, industrious, dutiful to parents,
teous,

affectionate

patient,and
attention
I

their

Doubtless

with."1

met

ever

and
easily affected by kindness
and
wants
feelingsthan any people

more

to

children, uniformly gentle and

their

to

those

on

have

great value
of

Harrison,2

character

"The

authors.

their

"arc

of the

view

in

like

statements,

highly colored

side, are

other

the

these

but

they

and

Hindus,"

portuniti
opsays

mild, peaceable people, fulfil the

naturally
kind to each
other, and always ready to be hospitable,
where
even
poverty might exempt them : they are
It is a common
deficient in filial affection.
never
thing
walks of lifebestowing a third
to find people in humble
half their scanty income
or
even
on
aged and destitute
ardent
tribute
parents." I will only add the somewhat
of

relations

life with

of the

Mohammedan

Sultan

Akbar

of the

great

in the seventeenth

in Akban\

Ay

exactness,

Faz'l, vizier

Abul

century, a thoroughly
The
Hindus," he says, in his
affable, cheerful, lovers
religious,
ft

witness.

competent

tolerable

"are

of

mirers
justice,given to retirement, able in business, adof truth, grateful,
and of unbounded
fidelity.
their soldiers know
And
it is to flyfrom the
not what
field of battle."

What
such

race

to

the

have

been

barbarities of

needed
Delhi

to

and

rouse

Cawn-

pore

It

be

must

Cruelties of
the

inhumanity must

not

remembered
tne

work

t]iat ti^y

war.

the

part of the

afterwards.
1

Hebcr's

The

were

that these

barbarities

were

of the

people as a whole, and


quiteparalleled
by cruelties on

Christian
horrors

J"mrttaltII. 369, 409.

invaders
of

both

Cawnpore
*

were

before

and

the work

English Colonies,p 64, 66.

CHARACTER.

HINDU

of Nana

Sahib

295

his

and

ents,
body guard of savage adherhis own
soldiers "refusing
the women
to massacre
and children, which
was
accomplished by the vilest
of the city,"while his own
officers sought in vain to
dissuade him from his monstrous
purpose.1 Dr. McLeod
invokes
his countrymen
to public confession,
of indiscriminate
with shame
and sorrow,
slaughter
perpetratedin cool blood by Christian gentlemen, in a
below
them
the level of their enewhich
sunk
mies."1
spirit
"

The

Hindus,

atrocities of this war,


in fact the natural

were

people,driven
crimes

as

the

to

madness,

causeless

massacre

the

on

of

excesses

not

of

part of the
an

able
excit-

merely by such
the loyalthirty-

Sepoy regiment,at Benares, such treacheries


the broken
as
promise of higher pay to the army of
convictions of the
Oude, such outrages on the religious
of cartridges
native soldiers as the compulsory use
greased with pork, but by a long-continuedseries of
seventh

enormities

had

that

become

habitual.

As

of these, the fact will suffice that, a year


the

revolt

of

or

1857, investigations
by

illustrative
two

the

before

ment
govern-

brought to lighta regularsystem of torture of


the most
revoltingdescriptioneven
women,
upon
which
for years
had been
applied in many parts of
India by native officers of the Company, in the collection
of its revenues
This
and for extortingevidence
insurrection was
but the last of a series growing out of
similar

the

upon

greatest scale

of

of

all.

It

gared
dispossessed
kings and begall
chieftains starting
up and springingto arms
and
India ; the issue of a policyof annexation
over
"subsidiaryalliances," pushed for half a century by
bribery,fraud, and force ; of the industries of millions
was

the

and

causes,

cause

common

McLeod,

Davs

in NortJtern

India,

p. 68.

296
drained, and

rapaciousforeign masters

outrage and

practisedupon
and

India

from

:
military

which

ment,

justsuch
in

which

Hindus

had

yet it had

not

calming the

its mere
It is

justiceto
both

nervous

sides.

ally
ineffectu-

coming of
thoughtful

the

fenrs

by

t}ie "East

which

they

of the

closest

be

secular

had

condition

to

contact,

of the

or

the

from
classes

the

that

native

recklesslytrampled out
interests.

Company

deal,

to

slightest
degree in
Sepoy army, which

to
my purpose
the terrible scenes

India

religion

revenues

ignorant

most

the

East

little countenance

derived

the

more

the

the

suppress

throw

of

the

respon-

1857-58
I

alone.

either the difficultiesof the

hide

to

said that

be

give

in

militaryand

desire

many

of

traditions would

by no means
of
sibility

not

it even

succeeded

its character

beliefs and

by

made

had

attempted to

it would

the native of

out

labored

had

men

It could

missionaryefforts,and
the superstitious
rites

knew

shut

earthquake as this, for every


India, merely a questionof a few years

Company

of the

historic record

an

of time.

less

India

noblest

reform, and

to

mind

issue, in
the

magnificent,

civil or
opportunity,whether
short, of monstrous
misgovern-

office and
the

animals,

lower

beyond

runs

of systematic

literature is

whose

race

of the

as

system of exclusion, which

or

contempt

civilization

whose

of

swept off,to

of ages

wealth

the hoarded

fillthe coffers of

LIFE.

AND

RELIGION

upon

have

no

with
position

ized
previous semi-barbar-

Hindu^States, upon

respects certainlytheir rule

was

an

which

in

ment.
improve-

The

later

of the
and weakness
brutality,
corruption,
Mogul princesof India, had disorganizedthese

communities

and

robber

spreading desolation
peninsulawhen the French

were

tribes and

robber

chieftains

through portions of the


and English began their

CHARACTER.

HINDU

297

importantis it
strugglefor its possession. Still more
affairs after
to recognize the improvement in Indian
their administration

Company in consequence
by the British people.
have

interests of

the

offices have

been

talent; and

the

of the revolt
New

East

the

assumed

was

"

civil and

India

criminal

codes

wisely regardfulof the


other
native tribes; municipal and
transferred in some
degree to native

introduced,

been

from

withdrawn

"

more

extortion

of

has

rents

been

ably
measur-

guarded against. The results of these changes,


it is claimed, are
vation,
alreadyapparent in improved cultiadministration, and happier social life ;
purer
though such terrible facts as the Orissa famine in
1865, with its record of governmentalneglect,become
all the
While
labored
for
the

of

credit

all due

.render

we

with

discreditable, in view

more

to

of

claims.

such

those

who

have

and are
ing
laborbring about these measures,
still more
important ones
equally consistent
spiritof the age ; and while the noble record

to

officers and

individual

Elphinstone, Briggs, Crawford,

Bentinck,

like

scholars,

Jones, Lawrence,

ceive
through the long historyof British India, should rethe lastinggratitudeof science
and humanity,1
fail to note
would
also the bearing of the
not
we
happy results so speedilyclaimed for a justerpolicy,on
That
the questionof Hindu
capacityand character.
generate
Mogul oppressionshould have brought about the de"

social condition
of
That
should
4

pages

The

follow

British
such
at

of the

amelioration

once

in

of Indian

the
I would

as

track

their

of

mencement
com-

credit.
dis-

described

now

gladlypause

Statesmen^ Arnold's

familiar to the publicin England and America.

to

is

the

at

rule, is nowise

reader will find this record,which

of Kaye's Lives

natives

the

here

DaUiousie^ and

to

earliest
review,in the

other like works,

298

AND

RELIGION

LIFE.

afforded them, after more


than a
opportunity
in
of this rule, is surelya strong argument

fair

tury
cen-

their

favor.

And,

all,the conclusion

after

painful history
i

Neme"is,

draw

we

from

differ widely from

must

"/

this

that of

"/

springsfrom their natural


sympathy with the victoryof a higher civilization over
rection,
lower, and from that only. This crowning insura
reflects more
credit on
in the view of history,
If Macaulay's
the conquered than on the conquerors.
logic be admitted as fair,when, in his brilliant essay
writers whose

on

view

the life of Clive, he affirmed

historyin

India

is

that

wisdom,

are

proof

all

that

that

"

the

event

of

and uprightsincerity
ness
have
could
gained by
is as nothingwhen
us
gained by being the

we

around
imitatingthe duplicity
compared with what wre have
word
reliance can
only power in India on whose
placed," what inference could be drawn when
reversed by unanswerable
facts,and
premise was
in
event
proved an utter absence of confidence
"

of

government
What

India

from

pieceof ironydoes

end
the

our

to

end

of

the

be
his
the
the

land?

complacent self-eulogy,

less

respectablevoices, become !
of European government
in India yields
The
event
When
different lesson.
the rajas of Oude
a
very
in procession
marched
to give in their adhesion
to the
after the conquest of that kingdom,
British Government,
echoed

by

so

many

"all," says McLeod,


lands, and
was

not

one

who

would

even

with

not

one

who

the

hope

who
not

have

not

thankful

of British

loved

tolerable
did

"were

us

for

for their restored

protection.But
our

own

sakes

; not

there
one

preferreda native rule to ours,


protectionof life and property ;
regret the unrighteousdestruction

HINDU

of the

of Oude."1

Kingdom

almost

the

CHARACTER.

299

So, in the

of

war

1857,

in sympathy with
Bengal army was
the rebellion.2
It was
universally
recognized at that
time
that the
long-continued rule of England in
India had in no
of that
degree reconciled the masses
vast
'?If the
empire to the authorityof their masters.

Russians

whole

should

"Westminster
disaffection

march

an

Review,"

army
late

so

into

Scinde," said the

in

of
1868, "a spirit

as

agitatethe
change would
whole
country." This persistentrefusal to accept or
to trust selfish and despoticrulers, with whatever
civilized
unimpulsesit may be connected, gives hints of
higherloyalties.And humanity finds its real interest
and
in the impressivefact that, after centuries of wars
tyrannies,Persian, Afghan, Mongol, Mohammedan
survived
and Christian, there should yet have
enough
in
the latest invader
of the old Aryan fire to turn
on
wrath
indeed
Such
determined
and desperaterevolt.
in the most
smoulders
gentle and laborious races,
its frenzycomes
is most
at
terrible when
and in them
awaited

has

desire

the East

In

last.

and

and

proud

weaker

races

the

Hindu

are

dissimilar

and

and

than

of

in the West
selfish

alike, a
for

nations

themselves.

Nemesis

exploiting
The
passion of
American
Negro

patienceof the
; but the wrongs
qualities

of both

do

any

the

are

avenged.
The

They J

Hindus
are

made

not

deserve

for noble

contempt

on

in

achievement

ground.

phi-

Promise.

losophy, in aesthetics,in science, and even,


with Western
help, in social and practicalactivities.
full day has not yet come.
Their vitality
Their
is far
but in
from spent: they are
not in their senescence,
1

Days in Northern

India, p. 88.

Ibid.,p

166.

their
are

AND

RELIGION

3OO

chiefs,often ferocious

Their

prime.

Ali, Tippoo Saib, Holkar, and


soldiers, and

has

helpers in

generous

the

to

cause

the

thinkers, learned
merchants,

administrators, shrewd

scholars, able
yet of

their

lack of subtle

no

brilliant

others, were

for
fought valiantly

India

death.

and

crafty,
magnanimous. Sivaji,Hyder

often heroic and

as

LIFE.

improvement

of

nor

the

by British officials in 1829


constructed
of public utility
by
represents the works
in a single
individuals,without view to personalprofit,
district of half a million people,as amounting in value
besides plantations
to nearlya million pounds sterling,
Hindustan
of trees enclosingtwo-thirds of the villages.1
An

people.

made

estimate

has native

scholars

of eminence

in Sanskrit

both

of Sanskrit
editorship
the philosophical
contributions
well as
to
works
as
and
journalsare at this time especially
ethnological

European letters,whose

and

Western

and
Mitra

important

Brahmanical

Radhakanta

lamented
an

Sanskrit

immense

member

oT

Fresh

editions

works

with

coins discovered

ancient

of

systems

entrusted

was

Sastri

Deva

of great value.

numerous

Astronomy.
task

the
in

of

1863, and

and
Deva

Eastern

the

mastered

Rajendralal
expounding the
has brought out

Buddhist

works.

Bahadur,

the

was
an
encyclopaedia,
learned
European

of the national

epos,

of

and

The

author

of

honorary
Societies.

other

great

commentaries,
antiquity,with valuable
within
revisions, have
paraphrases, and learned
few
the auspices of the
a
appeared under
years
Asiatic Societyof Bengal, which
of
owe
very much
well as their elegance to the pertheir excellence
as
sonal
industry,abilityand munificence, of native
1

See

IVestm. Rev., July,1868.

CHARACTER.

HINDU

scholars.1

that,
ground for predicting
Western
thought shall elicit

is ample

There

further

as

3OI

friction with

specialgenius of the Hindus, it will be found


Western
desiderata in our
capable of supplyingmany
civilization,contributingin ways
as
yet unimagined
by us to the breadth and fulness both of our religious
the

social ideals.

and

The

effect of

enervatingclimate

sensuous,

on

the

Aryan has, however, been in many


ways
powerand
defectbecame
a
prodigious. His very idealism
persuasion of the nothingness of the individual.
inclined his intellect
The
lack of practical
stimulus
his first endeavor
to contemplation,and turned
at the
like
organizationof Labor into what looks to us more
an
organizationof Idleness : the drone priestat the
head, the drudging menial at the foot,the lazy soldier,
Hindu
life,in
a blighton
industry,between the two.
its twofold

aspect, grew

rivers it dwelt

by, in

overflow

return.

and

still,dreamy

sea,

more

and

like the great

more

their alternate flood


In

Thought,

its bare, motionless

in Action,

and

failure,

great, broad,
face

upturned

cooped and stinted stream,


stirred here and
however
there, girtwith broad strips
treacherous
slime.
desert and even
of thirsty
Surely
these dead-weights of
it is refreshingto find, under
endeavor
for co-operaphysical nature, the earnest
tive
the unconquerable
work, the love of agriculture,
of liberty. The
degeneracy itself has its
germs
It does
that the
not
physical
hopeful side.
prove
the spiritual
overmaster
must
everywhere,
inevitably
the

to

sky;

Many of these

Society of
to the

are

mentioned

synopsisof

the recent

of the
publications

more

than

60

have

Hindu

Asiatic

M. G., XXV
(1871),p. 656. Their contributions
been of especial
value. Gildemeister(2?/"/.
Satiskr.t1847)

Bengal, in Zeitsckr. d" D.

Bibliotheca Jndica

mentions

in

scholars

of

our

time,besides

100

earlier

ones.

3"2

illustrates
itself
brain

the

in

thinking

into

its

to

think

or

hand,

"dispensations,"
even

law,

universal

and

dreaming,
under

whatever

itself,

unmans

and

the

that

dream.

and

It

disciplines.

Christian

specifically

under

except

LIFE.

AND

RELIGION

life

fails

that

spends
to

put

disciplines
becomes

impotent

its

or

II.

PHILOSOPHY.

RELIGIOUS

I.

VEDANTA.

VEDANTA.

^HE

I
"^

theme
of

pression

on

mind

my

circles

in
and

death,

and

consent,

of

sweep

in

its

It

is

fact

megalithic

have

The
and

wholeness,

Ethnogtmc
See

Ferguson

in

Meadows

(Rtitte

Asia
of

history

wide-spread

Gattfotse

Taylor,
Stone

(Paris,
in

1868),

Journal

I\Ionni}tcnti")

thinks

of

520;

of

and

out
with-

truth,

oldest

toric
prehis-

natural

ments
monu-

this

of

shows

art

similar

Scandinavia,

The

this

us

acter.2
chara

very

symbol

of

unity.
Lubbock's

of Bombay
theue

that

Ireland,

religious
use

colossal

central

probably

are

all-embracing

or

form

India.1

and

eye,

half-conscious

interest

in

only

One."

circular

found

been

where

his

her

on

life

shipper
wor-

stones,

The

hand

rude

the

natural

is the

many

the

built

art.

his

stars,

of

meets

had
the

the

recurrence

plain,

lines

psychological

Southern

in

of

Arabia,

Germany,

the

structures

origin

early

laid

had
than

without

of

of

integer

with

round

of

the

alternations

soul

he

out

even

almost

Greater

the

on

symbol,

as

of

forces

the

around,

or

Nature

of

in

self-re-entering

image,

cement,
child

there

above

whether
altar

and

in

sway

is

Cirde

The

courses

natural

all

it held
;

apparent

vegetation,

crowning

also
the

the

left

wonderful

circle

im-

profound

theism,

the

by

The

in
in

of

since

Stonehenge.

seasons,

recalls

me

naturalness

years

Repeated

the

"

the

many

of

Form.

before

now

Prehistoric

Branch
cromlechs

of Roy.
are

of

more

Man.
As.

Soc.

recent

(IV.
origin.

380).

306

PHILOSOPHY.

RELIGIOUS

It is

hundred

nearly two

demonstration

learned

years
that

since
the

Universality
of the idea

ofun.ty.

was

bias

polytheism of
*

the ancient world

was

but the

cover

Cudworth's
J

of

deeper

The
Supreme G{}Ai
argument
and mythoconfined to certain great philosophical
logical
by a strong dogmatic
systems, and marred
of the ancients from
towards derivingthe wisdom

Hebrew

faith Jn Qre

It did

sources.

not

deal with the natural

religiousbelief, which show


unfoldingin the earliest stages of
of

of
; and

of mankind

us

laws

theistic germ

trations
growth. Illusdant
these laws are
however, quiteabunnow,
the grounds of this all-pervading
aspiration
should
be recognizedby every thoughtful
social

mind.
conclusion
of science; but
Unity is the sublime
The
soul is
religiondoes not wait for science.
than
the
understanding. It blends
clearer-sighted
of
and awe
poet, philosopher,and saint in the wonder
he simply sees
and feels.
the child at what
The
cannot
most
quite escape
unreflecting
savage
the
Its

grounds

impression that he is the

one

cause

of the

which
of acts
make
multiplicity
up his life.
jje at j^agt unconscjousiy
follows this thread
of inward
unityin dealingwith the varied phenomena
of outward
nature.
Just as he shapes an ideal in the
image of every passion and propensitywithin him, so
he is always more
less haunted
or
by the intimation
in the image
of some
highestall-containing
presence,
which
all these passionsand
of that personal identity
tary
propensities
represent. In all his worship of elemenforces, there is the play of this guiding instinct,
innatuiai

intuition.

Intellectual System (Harrison'sed

246, 300.

I. 43t;
London, 1845). See, especially,

II. 226,

VEDA

of his inner

tliis law

in the dim

307

A.

As

being.

mental

of the intuition

higherforms
Either the gods are
somewhat

NT

back

referred
Unknown

attained.

are

to

first God,

they all

whence

vances,
ad-

growth

to

Its di,
verse
ff
lorms.

central force of

living
deity, and in these ways have been shaped certain
Greek
and Semitic theogonies, or else, if that pointis
made
not yet reached, all the gods are
one
implicitly
;
in the Vedic hymns, where
have seen
as
we
worship is
effort for supreme
the same*
an
always essentially
to a

or

emerge,

constant

"

"

devotion

and

each

to

may

be

every
ever

in

name

so

rudimentary,it

implicitunity in the movements


in
instinct. All worship,even

at

look
to

be

this

least
:

the

in

names

common,

of

curiouslyassociated

head, above,

or

with

the lowest

that

"

it is

primitivedeities
with

that

terms

suffices

of the

for this

has

sciousness
Self-con-

turn.

are

mean

ious
religtribes,

an

ward
up-

found
over-

that

root-sounds

signifyupward
these simple minds

attitude of
subjective
less similar resultant
in worship is always a more
or
of blended
hopes and fears. And, on the other hand,
less
of these emotions
the objects
are
or
always more
ing
and enfoldconsciouslyreferred to the all-surrounding
contains in its mysteriousdepthsall
Whole
; which
of help and
their minor capabilities
harm, and which
finds constantlypresent, whether
it
the orbed
eye
looks upward into the infinite spaces, or traces
the
paths of all-pervadinglight,or searches the horizon
motion.

The

line.
The

rude

cromlech

sentiment.

The

speaks
belief in

to
an

universal

religious
all-embracingand

the

diverse
One, however
all-controlling
specialto tribe or religion.It is

in

form, is

human.

In

not

the

308
I have

sense

Maximus
is

PHILOSOPHY.

RELIGIOUS

God

one

noted, it is

exaggerationto say with


are
agreed that there
Tyrius,"All mankind
and
Father, and that the many
gods are
Even

his children."1

no

from

the rude

of America

races

latest researches

already referred to
bring ample testimonyto this tendency of belief, in
of supreme
less perfectly
or
names
meaning, more
if not clearlyconceived
as
expressiveof unity,even
advanced
involvingit.2 What, to a more
stage of
The
deities but forms of deityf
reflection,are
gods
Africa, the

and

ff

but

are

the
of

co-rulers

of

essence

each

Fathers, does

the
as

sovereign unity
of life and

gods,
Supreme.

term

of One

the denial

Psalmists

Hebrew

in

"

relation.

but

names,

Him,"

deities,as the God

holy

as

"

as

of all

the

among

Dissert

XVII.

5.

Religion^ ch. xxvi.

de

Gauloise, has

ones,

"

The

Belloguet,in

De

carefullytraced

Brinton's

heathen

we

and

there

are

worship

us

concealed

in the

greatness of the
"the

different

this belief

learned

through

the theisticelements

On

One

gods

srtr

word

the

?
on

Soul

are

is

bers
mem-

Indifferenceen Matiere
Druidism
{Ethnoghtie

Texts, IV.

iu-

274.

of

various branches

in the

religionof the

Furst, Gesch. d. Bibl. "//., I. 45-49.


World, ch. li.; Livingstone's
Africa ;

Myths of New
Development of Religious Belief*I.

Muir's Sanskrit

ff

"Let

See, especially,
Lamennais, Essai

Chaldceans, and Phoenicians,see

Origin and

diffused

Soul."3

the Celtic.
family,especially

contrary, the

of
unfoldingthe wrhole race
gods, the unityof all unities,

holy

ways.

used, imply

gods,

"

in many
of the One

Christian

powers,

the

intelligible
gods."
Owing to the
Nirukta,
Deity," says the Hindu
lauded

nor

greater fulness

nature."

one

says Proclus,

Of

Maximus

the

Maximus,

through his works," says


invoke
by different names.
many

On

manifold

His

nor

often

so

thereby

receives

expressing
specialforce

the

Plato

in

Neither

name

one

which

on

szuay^

depends.

Tyrius, neither

God," this

with

the

Aryan
Babylonians,

Baring Gould's

VEDANTA.

309

poles of unity and varietycoexist

These

We

theistic religions also.

call

in

strictly

Hebrews

the

monotheists

"

above

all
If

plural noun.

was

God

was

Theistic
fauh*

Vishnu, Siva,
synthesis reconciles Brahma,
has its tripersonform
of theism, so Christianity

Hindu
in

Elohim

and

gods,"

Jehovah

but

Polarityoff
"

alityof

God.

adorers

both

its liberal

Even

of

and

Christ

sects

are,

God.

in

substance,

The

Gnostics

Unity, yet with hypostases


God
ruder
and
ceons
thirty-fold. The
they made
adores saints and pictures,holy coats
and
Romanist
He would
handkerchiefs.
probably find it difficult to
of personal reliance, from
separate these, in his sense
which he nevertheless
knows
and
to be one
deityitself,
the idols of the Christian world
Practically,
only one.
numberless.
like their
are
They are not personified,
do not
analogues in the ancient world ; so that we
-polytheism.
apply to this form of worship the term
And
probably be hard to prove that the
yet it would
of Supreme Unity was
sense
interceptedby swarming
in

believers

were

divinities in the
it is

than

Divine

of

idea

of modern

Infinite and

the

spiritualrealityfrom
unlimited specialdesires, has
thinker

and

this

As

prophet, as

idea

of
o

"^
so

man,

absent.

it has
It is

not

traditional
trade.

tion
Eternal, in its distinc-

cravingsof
continuallyrenewed
vague

to be

Mind,

one

been

never

'

been

anywhere

organic and

and

of old.

infinite

containing all things, has

ally
effectu-

more

societyand

the

as

by

mind

materialistic

these

by

idolatries,the fetichism
The

Greek

average

vital

and

in

itself,and

lost by
J

wholly the
its flame

Intuition
one

of
in-

destructlble"

Moses,
only to startle some
Pythagoras, Zoroaster, into making fresh appeal to
of reality,
to himand recallingman
the simple sense
has

at

times

burned

low

PHILOSOPHY.

RELIGIOUS

310
self.

Mysteries,brought, it is probable,
effective
specially
by the Dorians, were

Greek

The

the East

from
for

thousand

two

maintaining faith in
destinies beyond death ;

in

times

of ancient
To

moral
and

to have

seem

philosophersindeed
ancient gods spoke of

popular faith

the

beheld

the Father

around

Eastern

popular

Brahma

Vishnu

and

of worlds,

the

One.

men

"

largeutterance

the

One

of

while

gathered at

the

centre, and

figures
vestigesof this

monstrous

were

with his foot in his mouth,

mythic sport

line which

of

symbol

but

are

that sacred

"

his coiled serpent,

on

spiritual

great

the world's

at

as

initiated into them.1

all its deities

Jove. Even
mythology

inevitable instinct.

and

transcendent

well

as

all the

been

the

of Hestia,

hearth

common

sanctions

almost

the

those

of

in this direction

years,

returns

The

or

with

with

the

his necklace
ideal* Circle,

into itself;the

three-headed,

armed, thousand-eyed divinities of the Greeks

natural

hundredand

the

multiplynumbers, in order to embrace


the play of a Pythagorean
the more
in unity. It was
instinct in the rude imaginationof childish races.
To find this sense
of a Supreme Unity or wholeness
all religion
which
absolute
on
rests, in its most
Hmdu
The
pieroma.
must
form, we
appreciate the philosophical
Here
the very
was
capacity"of the Aryan Hindu.
field for his vast generalizations
upon a few observed
abstraction, his passion for
data, for his measureless
did but

Hindus

"

Go

on

in

He

is

He

woiks

one,

the

rightpath ; and contemplate the one ruler of the world.


Him
From
only aie all thingsborn ;
self-proceeding.
mortal
all,unseen
by
eyes, yet seeingall."

and
in

(OrphicHyn.n of the Mysteries,quoted by


pray, go with

Clem.

Alex., Exhort,

to

the Heathen, VII.)

prepared purityof mind, such as in tequiredof you when


The Eleusinian mysteries
mystenes" (Epictetus,III. 31).
you approach the rites
the
of
called Inttia* both because they are indeed
beginnings a life of true princip'es,
are
and as teaching us to realize a better hope in death"
(Cic.,De Legibits^II. 14). "Of
need " (isocratee,Pattfgyr.).
most
in
them stands human
nature
"

When

you

and

"

VEDANTA.

31T

All forms
thought in its ultimates.
of unity,from the simplestto the

pure

involved

were

indeed

was

Pleroma

speech),from
of the

world

which
may

be

various

the

construction
by speculative

as

of

terms

least

at

ceons,

of

though

It

theologicalsystems

forth,

drawn

subtle,

most

Neo-Platonic

(to use

ception
con-

of his idea.

fulness

in the -nebulous

of the

but

course

as

in the
be
unfolded
to
foretypesof what was
of science and practical
use, by other times and
solidity
In the Hindu
mind, it stood
more
energeticraces.
simply as the free play of pure idea ; the unityof all

ideal

and

essence

all existence

Circle; deityas inclusion


This

is the central

the

of

sweep
evolution

and

Infinite

an

of all forms.

of Hindu

philosophy; the key


its philosophicalreto its religiousmysteries, and
actions.
Who
so
worships this or that special and
separate being,"says the Brihad Upanishad, worships
determination, not totality, worship thou Soul, in
sun

"

"

"

all the differences

which

how
to note
interesting
swayed the Hindu mind,

It is
and

the

abstract

most

Students

terns.

introversion
like

Pictet

one."

become

this

aspirationhaunted

from

infancyto

of its later sysMiiller beand

Develop-

"^^^1
du

thought.

"

they find signsof an originalmonotheism,"


positiveor implicit,in the primitivefaith of the prelieve that

Vedic

times.a

Cosmic

theism

would,

as

expressionfor what was


opposed to polytheism,nor yet in
sense,
which
distinct primitiverevelation, from
be

me,

better

fell away.

Hymns
universe

of the Veda,
with

it

not,

any
men

to

seems

in any
sense

wards
after-

step further down, in the earlier


find Varuna^
we
rounding the

order, maker

of

the

sun's

paths

I. iv.

"

Br"ad.

"

Muil'.r. Sansk.

LU.* pp. 528,559

Pictet,Les Aryas Frintiifs^II.

704-714

and

312

PHILOSOPHY.

RELIGIOUS

and

sense

soul

notions

absorbing into
moral

of

of

limits, alike in the worlds

of all sacred

preserver

stinctiv
primitivein-

the

one

and

sequence

spiritual

lieved
of justice,
providence, and fate.1 It is beauthority,
that this name
Varuna, identical with
by some
Ouranos

of

the

Hesiod

whom

Greeks,

itself the

makes

the

in

oldest

Aryan
have requireda long
It must, however,
mythology.
distinct and positive
time to mature
a conception of
so
in the Vedic
Moral Order
is contained
as
Hymns to
If in a more
-primitive
Varuna.
meaning his name
have
\vas
given way to that
reallythe oldest, it must
of the Supreme in this
of Indra, as the next
name
of wholeness.
sentiment, or sense
development of religious
father

of

the

gods,

was

far off limits of

at the

not

closer

which

Indra

Varuna,

Like

the

fade

stars

thought,but

felt in

presence,

concentrated

and

the
the

ethereal
moon

all powers:

in the

expanse,
wanes

of

sense

into

and

the

resolve
shiftinglightand shadow
their mystic play. The
vast
abyss of creative light
all phenomena, and deityshone
in the symabsorbed
bol
of Fire, through man
and beast, through star and
clouds

sod.

melt,

Then,

concentration

and

as

introversion

grew,
idea
religious

of the

came

more

around

definite

lightas

image"ofthe conscious soul, at once self-centred


the Sun
and radiatingthrough all ; whereof
the
was
became
natural symbol, and
under
so
names
many
the next
emphasis,or phase, of unityfor the spiritual
all the verses
of the
are
tracing. Then
process we
in the Gdyatri: we
concentrated
Veda
meditate
are
the adorable
on
lightof the divine Savitri." All its
deities are resolved into gods of the earth, the air,the
nearer

See Roth, in Zeitsckr,

Koeppen, Religion

des

d, Deutsch.

Buddha,

Merg.

I. p. 3

Geselts'

h., vol. vi. p. 77,

VEDANTA.

sky, "whose
but

according to their works;


godhead, the Sun, life of all

differ

names

is

there

313

only

one

beings,of motion and of rest." * All these are further


"lord of creatures"
(Prajapati)or
gathered into one
ing
"deityof them all;"2 and, again,their whole meaninto the sacred
is absorbed
monosyllable A UM,
and

Or
of

all

consciousness

how,

which

had

been

these

ages,

Soul

the One

world

Old Vedic

Manu,

alone

not

of

and

commentary
The

II. 83.

through

Soul"

is this All."
dismiss

all

invested

"Him

know

ye

words."4

all other

Aryan

intense
see

the Maruts.

himself,and

as

lessen, I. 768

(anm)

OM
mysticsyllable

The
and

Mandukyn.

"He

sleeping;in

Upanishad
o

her

Colebrooke, Essays, I.

is the

signof

constant

(Sansk. Diet.) refeis

thought. Bumouf
"

woid-,

^manifested, in the unity of his

thePr"cess.

shared

extent

community, whose
epic
to
sensuous
susceptibility

tkit

of the inithls of the three main

combination

ng,

great

any

(thiso"ie\ m irking existence,

ava

dream

to

the

indicate

unity,\\hich pervades Hindu

Eternal

One

of life,

aspirationto Unity in pantheisticinstincts,


nothing but absorptiontherein could satisfy.
of this change from the
us
recognize the nature
of contemplation.Natureof
of action to the world

traditions

was

depths
questioning

the

Probably it was
by the mass

Zendc

"

in

the

whither

the

preme."8
Su-

the

on

thoughtfulminds
stirring

"Spiritalone

meaning.

Let

that

and

triple

appellativeof Infinite Power, Wisdom,


Brahma,
Adhyatma, Purusha, had one

every
Goodness.

which

fixed

dropped, as

and

whence,

is solved

with

Such

explored

the

the

is

symbolism
are

about

as

mind

the breath, with

suppressionof

in the

concentration

into inward

drawn

even

is to be"

as

manifested

essence

out

; while

"

to

ward1 y,

the whole

worship of
as

Agni, Varuna,

Brahma,
as

fiom the

probably,it

more

deity,

letters

that

toav.zttz,

But,

elements of Vedic

refers the three

it

as

ing,
wak-

manifested

to

word, abolishing

of the letters,
The formula of the Bhagathe distinctions
icpresents his absolute nature
is Om
tat sat, or " God
the same
is t/tat [ie.t the
universal]reality." Later still,
vadgit.t
unites Brahnri, Vishnu, and Siva in a trinity.It expresses
the Buddhist
oneness
syllable
formulas of prayer.
of
Saint, Law, and Congiegation." It is the preludeto all Buddhist
'*

the Brahmanic

To

Om

tat

sat

conesponds the Thibetan

Om

mani

pidme

hdm

In sum,

of Hindu
Asia,fullyrepresents the continuity
throughouteastern
religious
sentiment,and itsdevotion to ideal unity,through all phases,epochs, and results.

this sacred word, adored

Mundaka

U pan ishad, II. i. 10;

ii 5.

PHILOSOPHY.

RELIGIOUS

314

The simple
enjoyment and a stormy physicalenergy.
developed into
vigorous impulses of Vedic life were
physicalpassionswhich it requiredall the finer moral
and spiritual
of the race
elements
to check, and which
indeed very graduallyyielded,even
to the enervating
influences of climate and social organization.Yet it
is reasonable
that a tendency to mystical
to believe
contemplation,so spontaneous and profound as is
shown
in all the religious
compositionsof the postVedic age, impliesa deep root in national character,
and
in affinity
have been
with the instinctive
must
have
ready
alof the people. We
religioustemperament
In these there
noted its germs
in the hymns.
is already a ground of diverse tendency; many
of
them being of a thoughtfuland peaceful,others of a
warlike and even
revengeful,nature.
which
sentiment
The
are
we
change in the religious
involved a loss of that enernow
getic,
considering
certainly
healthful

life,which

belonged

effected
life of ideas
thus secured

of the real world

sense

by

and

the Vedic

to

intenser

make

the process

an

the

the present
It

age.

concentration

principles. And

and

was,

the

on

ever,
howinward

compensations

important one

in the

historyof religion.
The

of the result need


not surpriseus.
spirituality
This
spirituality
primarilythe worship of
religionwas
""^h"Unity. A thirst to find the One in the maniof unity,
fold is intellectual inspiration.We
must
member
rehow
mysteriousa step in itself is the genesis
It is a step of
of the idea of unity or wholeness.
the personality,
beyond observation of facts, beyond
experience; an intuitive affirmation,for which no data
of the
towards

senses

account.

it is the passage

And
from

the direction of the mind


the

senses

to

the

spirit.

VEDANTA.

We

have

The

how

seen

manifest

315
it is in the Vedic

hymns.

universal, their functions

interchangeable.
Each
absorbs the rest, and might readilystand
for the whole.
Agni is light; lightis Indra ; the
Sun is light."1 "Aditi
is heaven;
is the firmament;
is father, mother, son ; is all the gods ; is the five
birth."2
As Indra
is generationand
orders of men;
contains all thingsin himself, as the felloe of a wheel
oldest
these
the spokes,"3 so
hymns hold the later
Sacrifice itself is here but
pantheism itself in germ.
divine life through the round
of
the circulation of one
It is said of the sacrificial plant
god, nature, man.
gods

are

"

Pf

it contains

that

gods.4 So
the gods.5
is uttered

all

worlds

the

and

the sacrificial horse


And

the secret

in other

the

assumes

of

sense

that

hymns

is father

pour

oneness

forth

of the
of

names

in all life

thoughtful

all
enfolds
yearnings to solve the mystery which
thingswithin and without in its shadow, the mystery
of being itself. For these yearnings the universe
is
And
universal
not less profound and
a mystic whole.

the

answer

In the

"

Other

But

than

"

beginningthe
It there

the

for the One

holds

is in fact the

itself,and

could

leave

of Mind.

Thus

the

we

as

have

breathed

nothing since

Veda

Rig

One

seen,

been."6

to Theism

also.

Aspiration

wforship of Thought
of

out

gods

hymns

has

are

sightno
all

function

creators.

in which

read of Zeus Bacchus,


we
So, in the later Greek inscnptions,
Rig Veda
Similar
"c"
the
with
lapius,
compounds aie formed
Egyptian /fo, as Ammou
Ra,"c.
1
* Ibid.,I.
Ibid.,I. 89, 10 ; I. 164.
33, 15.

Ibid.,IX. 86, 10;


taq.

109, 4.

"

Ibid.,1. 163, 3*

worship of
thousi"t.

There

deityappears

"

breath.

by itself,
yet without

are,

in all

Zeus

Ra, Osiris

3l6

PHILOSOPHY.

RELIGIOUS

all

for the

as

these

they were,

as

Jehovah

is adored

Mind

gods."2 Rude
profound veneration

above

Hebrew

of the

personalityand energy
creative
hymns in which
the

"God

psalmists

of

Thought.
Their constant
for intelligence
was
; their praise,
prayer
of all things by
of the creation
distinct recognition
a
mind.
The
they gave to prayer (mantra)
very name
had the same
meaning. And as, in later times, the
believed
gods were
subjectto the powers wielded by
had

intense

form
to

concentration,

mental

concentration,

of such

similar

possess

movement

this

that grew
God
identifying
word

held

in Vedic

The

word

Brahma,

meaning upward
used to designate

first

was

it was

this very
for deity,thus

and

to be

the

with

conscious, efficient Mind.

Lord

times

brih*

of prayer

intelligent
energy

earliest

the

prayer,

was

the root

endeavor,

or

so

mastery.3

from

probably derived

power

highestname

First,

of

Prayer,Brahmanaspati,perhaps as
bearing upward the devotion of the worshipper; then
of devotion considered
the might of the
the power
as
absorbs
gods ; and finallyBrahma, the prayer-deity,
there

was

them

all.

meant

the

And

so

divinization

in the

Name

this

of devout

unityof

its

all their

above

ligence
intel-

thought,meant
and

essence

the

names

fulness of

its life.
But

Brahma

even
"

"devotion

from

involved
1

Rig ^eda,

X.

Riff Veda

I. 67, 3,

manen,
4

in

Roth,

pronouncer

und

translated

131,

Zeitsch.
as

d. D.

above.

"

the

first the

the

by

amenable

For

own.

quoted by Maury, Croyances

hymns

See

his

than

held

was

et

Llgendcs, p.

AT. Gesellsch.* I

of these

(neuter)becoming Brahma1

relicrious sentiment.

two

1871) derives
ideas, "to

deeper

gence
of intellipower

of

120.

the word

aspire"

Roth, BraJima

und

die Br"J*

66-86.

the
meant,
first,
priesthood. Haug (Brahma
bination
vrih, meaning "to grow.11 The com-

of the prayer ; whence, later,Brahmanas,

dlt Brakwanen,

worship
rightand

all

Muller.

Prayers uphold the sky." See

Brahma

to

from

and

"to

(masc.),which

the

grow," is

the

noblest

basis of the

VEDANTA.

man

to

with

new

317

change his ideals, and supply his faith, not


ceptions
symbolic forms only, but with fresh conof deity.
and
names

Through

the

mysticaldepths

of their

following its intuitions of beingfcj and

and

cause,

'

c"

yearning to
it could
the

rest, the

Veda,

ultimate

find those

their way.

The

The

in which

truths

whom

search

for essential
e"'g'

of

poets also,1 pursued

were

of

typicalform

philosophy
"

rise is the Vedanta,

their studies gave

",.

speculativestudents

later
of

many

thought,

own

end,

to
or

which
scope,

of the Veda."

They
was

that behind

saw

pure

substance,

unconditional
alone

But

"

was

closer mystery

of existence

qualifiednor
we

"Of

One

divine

the

says

there

be

to

not

Being, whereof
is.
-perfectly

trulyand

silence,

all forms

can

all

in the
than

there

defined,"

only

It

say,

mysteries,I

am

Bhagavadgita.

silence

solution

questions,speaking in all beings and worlds,


limitation, whether
or
by name
yet escaping every
ings
by thought, and comprehended only in the breathof inward
aspiration. And, that they might
of All"
that
not
to limit this "Soul
seem
by terms
and
distinctions
conditions, they
suggested human
in
Brahma,
to speak of God,
were
or
apt reverently
the neuter;
saying, as we also do, "It" and "That,"
whenever
"This"
moved
rather,
or
by deeper awe;
of all

1 I speak here of the writers of the Upanishads (lit.


:
Sittings)
philosophical
poems,
the fifth,
to
sixth,
belonging*according to Mailer, Lassen, and other high authorities,
is
in
and seventh centuries before Christ. A list of these poems,
given
number,
149

by

M tillerm

more

impoitant

philosophy,I
Sutras

the

of

Journal of the German


in

have

Weber's
used

Indiscke

Sutras, ascribed

to

Studien*

Society for 1865, and


In

these

prepanng

analysisof the
chapterson Hindu
an

translations of the principalUpanishads by Ro'cr and

Kapila. by Ballamyne

For the VedSnta,

Oriental

or

Uttara

the

and

Mima"ns4

Vyasa, of which

an

Weber

BhagavadgitS.,by Lassen, Wilkins, and


philosophy,the

account

is given

authorities

by

Colebiooke.

aie

the

the

son.
Thomttrahma-

Essays, vol. i.,

318

PHILOSOPHY.

RELIGIOUS

when

the

intimacyor
therefore by
not

neuter

which

even

the

by life ; not as lowest


making gender trivial through that
generation,the essential ground of

by death,

as

but

gender,

of natural
deepened into a recognition
inseparable union ; plainlymeaning
not
neuter
an
emptiness,but a fulness ;

awe

as

transcends

"

itself.
personality

The

One;"2

manifested

but

as

truth of truth ;

"Greater

than

"

is distant, yet

Unknown

to those

of the

ear

ear,

of the

eye

in the

near,

think

who

"

is

distant

heart;"6

though verily
of

mind

eye,

great;"3

More

very

know,

to

Un-

The

what

from

"

what

"

is

what

"Higher than thought;"4 "Different


G
known, beyond what is not known
;
than

"

mind,

the

speech of speech, life of life,"7 such the negationof


they sought to express
every possiblelimit, by which
the necessity
of Absolute
lieving
Being, as condition of all beand all thinking. Nor
did they fail to^put this
points,as later philosophy
negation strongly,at some
"

has

done, and

declare

to

that

"Not-being" (asat) was

Being (sat]; 8 a formula which then


it now
as
meant,
simply the eternal need of a
means,
deeper foundation for thought than any definite specific
of thinking; and
for being, than
forms
the limited

the

of

ground

modes

which

under

we

conceive

it.

The

neuter
.

Brahma

contain

existences
be

must

"

than

such

sentences

of the wise
the

wind

II. ii

Upanishad,

"

Mmtdaka

"

Kena

Up., I.

"

Kena

Up., II.

"

Chbndogya. Up., VI.

Up., II.

20.

Mann,

Mitri

"

3 ,' I

XII.

Mundtika

2.
i.

So

Rig Veda, X.

72,

the

a.

shines.
is

50.

(inWeber's

Uj

sun

True.

it the universe

By

Up

all

It
goes.
these : w The

flight,the

blows,

i. 2.

3.

as

is the

makes

and

comes

support of speech.

is the

Brihad

more,

interpretedby

highestBrahmana
Through Truth
Truth

which

realityitself,that

meant

Intl. Stud, I. 273).

III. i. 7.

VEDANTA.

319
"

is'encom-

upheld. It is highestof all."


It harms
passed by Truth.

this."2

is theirs, in whom

"The

eternal

crookedness,
One

world

delusion,

no

Absolute

Falsehood
him

not

knoweth

who

is

no

lie."2

no

of Truth

Reality ; unchangeableness

this was
what
these
of Substance,
imperisliableness
affirm ;
would
mystical half-poets,half-philosophers,
this was
what
they breathed
silentlyin the sacred
syllableOm : whereof
they said that "it contained all
leaf is supported
the gods,?3and that "as
the palas'a
This was
by a singlepedicel,so the universe by Om."4
what
"Tad," or That.
they spoke aloud in the neuter
"Into That (One) all This
(Universe) enters, out of
"

That

That

it beams.

is what

shall be."5

and

was

tible
indestructhey meant
by saying, "The
One
is verilywithout
form, or life,or mind, or
origin,self-existent spirit."6"There is another name,
It

what

was

from

different

that,'

not

I am."

that

am

affirmation

of

This
"I

deity.

is

is:

which

that

am

The

Greek.

"The

Chinese.

the

this the

And

ultimate

deity,to

the

Brahma

has lived

through

the

1
*
"

"

of

reach

ground
ages

be, and

our

of

on,
;

which

the

Ufi."II. i

a.

thefaiths*
Absolute,"

the

individual

this

"

religiousthought.

being itself.
repeated under

Thus

forms
the

in

forms

that which

change

can

of

neuter

different

basis

specialwill

Mah"ttArfiyana Up. (Weber, II. 80-95).


Brikad
"//""V. v. ; Prnsna
Up., I. 16
(I. 130): cited by CoUbiuuke,
Ytijnavalkytt
Mund.

Real;

diffaent

Reason,"

and

behind

for without
no

"

Western

was

this

or,"

Nature

"Substance;

all these alike

must

of

way

this

"

7'o

,
t
absolute

veil,"

-Egyptian. "Essence*,

the

"

"

lifted my

hath

mortal

no

is

'

highest Hebrew

the

was

this, He

not

of Truth."

truth

the

namely,

"

"I

definition, 'He

the

"

Nirnkta.

"

Katha

"

Brihad.,

Up

IV. 9.

II

iii.6.

nor

320

RELIGIOUS

control, there

is

conviction, but
The

only

not

no

Vedantist

PHILOSOPHY.

ethical

no

of life itself

sense

proper

sanction

nor

real.

as

thought on this idea


of pure substance, to some
detriment of the rights
of human
personality.A tendency to this is apparent even
in the interchangeableness
of the Vedic
deities ; their
flow into each
lack of individuality
other, like
; their
It is matured
in the pantheism of the
of a sea.
waves
Upanishads, where the individual fades into the One ;
in the doctrine of Transmigration,which
and
floats
him

tides

on

away

his

concentrated

of

manifold

lives

unremembered

overmastering retributions. This failure


right of personality,with all its melancholy
and

in
due

not

to

the

institutions

later

idea

the

of

of the

absolute

one

of

quences
conse-

Hindus,

substance,

the

was

but

to

their devotion
to balance
requisite
qualities
to it, and
bring adequate respect for persistencein
Nor
definite forms of being and action.
fail
must
we
that these contemplativemen
moved
to note
were
by a
of freeingtheir conof the necessity
ception
profound sense
of truth and rightfrom
of the divine substance
all contingencyon human
passionsand desires, from
the lack

the

of

beset all individualities,from

limits which

the very

of caprice.
of its sinking into a creature
possibility
Did they iirthis wholly forgetthe truth of personality?
Did
most
personality
they not pursue that on which

depends?
to

deserve
All

What

God

is the

or

sonai.

man?

Here

Hindu

our

as

plied
ap-

mystics

attention.

specialforms
conceived

andimper-

to

of the word

meaning

under
fr

as

which

personal

deity is ordinarily

"

are

sions of individualism, and


i;m;t.

only because

Even

for the

so

moment

subtlyidentified by

us

expresmany
of exclusion and

so

they
with

content

the

us

real in-

VEDANTA.

definable

Infinite

321

beyond them,

which

unlimited

involves

ality
person-

of the word,
of perceptionand voliforms
tion.
transcendingall specific
such
In
other
words,
limitary personal, or
rather
to thought,only
individual, deityis endurable
Being,
through tacit reference of it to unconditional
that
know
we
a
as
deeper ground. As of divine men
indeed, but

in

an

sense

it is

by partaking of the essential


goodness, and right, that they are
in these,
their personalitystands
"

ascribe
divine
wills

to

God, it is

manifestation

it,but

of God,

to

be

remembered

is not

that God

rightand

wills it,
"

or,

nature

of

truth,

divine, and
of

so

all

we

that this
true

because

that

may
or

that

God

rather, it is in and

"Even
right and true.
deityis
divine," says Plato, "by the contemplation of truth."1
It is this final appeal to the Absolute
that must
set
offcertain
intense idolatryof specificvolition and
a
which
in Christianity,
inherent
and
is
seems
purpose
mainly derived from its Semitic origin. The
gods
of Greece
themselves
were
subjectto the Oath : if
they broke into its sanctuary of truth, they ceased to
be gods.
And
for deity demands
so
our
reverence
is personal rest on what
that what
is impersonal; not
of unintelligent,
in the sense
or
w^w-personal,but of
universal
and
substantial; being held divine, only as
It will
identified with
principleand with essence.
the illusion of imagining that the Absolute
is
escape
such
specific
empty, is nothing; and going behind
ally
forms of individuated
being and will as may, traditionbe set before it as
God, affirm what
or
directly,
them
in
transcends
all,that Truth, Right, Intelligence,
their substance, are God;
recognizingalso that every
because

it is

Ph*dru*t
21

c.

62.

PHILOSOPHY.

RELIGIOUS

322

his vital,enduring reality,


rests
personality,
in these.
participation
contemplativeHindus, it is easy to see, were
that
fascinated by the idea of the infinite,
so

one's real
his

on

Our
Failure

on

they failed

the finite

side.

rightsof the finite.


the balancingforce

the

justiceto

introversion

Their

lacked

social interests which

scientific and

of

of

Both

other

Semitic

and

races

ligions,
Aryan rethe other hand, have emphasized conscious
on
and plan,
self-assertion in limited forms of forethought
the practical
relations
the very life of God ; while
as
have
and aims of these energeticraces
brought out
in the life of man
the
; so
corresponding element
intense faith in an exact
that they have now
opposite

climes

however,

East and
west.

of

and

the

world,

what

we

cannot

trace

the

other

the

will

at

extravagance

direction.
least

unfavorable

most

His

admonish
to

getic
ener-

thoroughly believed

truth
to

work-worship is,

as

have

they have believed in


a
meaning for the

that

in

right of

inherent

in

Upanishads

life, men

moral

one-sided

conditions

that, under

of

as

Hindu

the

Mimansas

an

will-worshipand

intense

This

and

ideal.

the Oriental

to

us

supply.

to

were

as

claim

truth,

as

unlimited

the

in
stance
sub-

devotion;

reality
beyond phenomena,

conscience
or

and

the

heart

define, compared

to

ests,
interdogmas, traditions,expediencies,
tries,
will of masses,
or
personal profit
personal idolaheld shadowy
life and all the worlds, were
even
themselves
to
and transient ; and that they committed
of their own
ern
this as the substance
being. Our modpracticalideal is yet to be debtor to this Oriental
We
do not
dream.
disparageour civilization when

which

rites,

VEDANTA.

323

defects.

Palpable signs of its


need
of the contemplativeelement
extreme
appear,
and
of mind
in the dissipation
morals
practically,
by
and theomaterial interests and competitions,
logically
vast
our
in that utter dependence on the efficacy
of a
singlebody of ideal personal traditions and symbols,
of saving faith.
which
has passed for the substance
The
remedy for both of these is in larger experience
of the universalities of abstract
thought. Eastern
teach
us
special ethics; but it
philosophycannot
faith in the reality
bringsinto our view an unbounded
of the absolute and
eternal as perceived by thought.
pointout

we

To

forsake

its actual

f?

of

all dread

abstractions,"

words,
empty
for these instead of nominalists, is
ideals

as

garding
re-

cease

become

realists

essential

for the

to
as

to

humanity
recognitionof principles truth, justice,
in their clearness
the spiritof love is
and
as
power,
the popular rewhich
their application
to
ligion,
; a truth
in our
ing
day, stands greatlyin need of embodyin its doctrine.
That
are
our
practicalresources
"

"

breadth

of idea,

discoveryof

the

is that

in
self-respect,

libertyand
real

their

the

abstract

loftyand solemn
essential being as

The
no

order
first

dition
con-

intenselyreal ;
authority. This

become

to

the
is

guarantee of intellectual and spiritual


progress.
made
there been
"Nowhere,"
says Quinet, "has

such
of

the

And

uses.

impersonal, sacred; truth, its own


our

of conviction,

vast, calls for all the greater clearness

so

mere

faith of these
dead

of the

affirmation
in India."

dreamers

substratum

rights Brahma

as

80uL

was

of formulas

in

no

and

in
unreality,
words

the

ultimate
of their thought was
very opposite. The
11
This is their sacred, central, ever-recurring,
Soul."
1

Ginie fa

Religion*,p.

133.

RELIGIOUS

324
final word.

The

PHILOSOPHY.

dtman^

terms,

same

-purusha^ which

in man,
carried up
essence
were
expressed the spiritual
affirm there also
to the deeps of Infinite Being, to
what
of Mind.1
we
mean
by life,in the fullest sense
The Brahma
Sutras, or specialVedanta
aphorisms, are
careful to prove, againstthe supposed negationsof the
niscient,
Sankhya, that deity is mind, "the omnipotent, omcause."2

sentient

The

Bhagavadgita speaks
of the "eternal
person;"3 the Upanishads, of the
shines everywhere, seen
within the solar
lightwhich
and throughoutthe
orb and the human
eye, in heaven
world, intelligent,
immortal, and for ever blest."3
aim of the Brihad
The
whole
Upanishad is to teach
of
of all thingsand master
that Life is the substance
ff

death

"

"

Life is

"

The

verilyoldest

it sways

of lifeand

rises out

sun

will sway

to-dayand

"

Life is the Immortal

"

Unseen, He

"

Life is preserver

"Life

is the

best."

and

sees

forms

and

One, names
unheard, He

of the

law ;

to-morrow."

of all forms

soul

into life ; this the sacred

sets

hears

by

whole, is

but conceal
He

unknown,

gods ;
fit to say, sacrifice to ////",
the
to
other,god.'
As by footprintsone
finds cattle,so by soul

knows."

is sustained."

lifethe universe
all the

this."

that it is not

so

"

'

"

one

all

knows

things."
"

and

all worlds

"

her

"At

it was

the

Lit.,p

fastened

are

over

sway

children,protect

us,

all ;

the spokes in the nave,

as

in the One

Soul."4

all in earth

grant

us

so

and

As

wisdom."

heaven.

and
prosperity

(German, atke-m\ or elsa


""probably derived from "*", "to breathe"
and was
used to designateSoul, both individual and universal:
meant
life,
used as the first person.
See Miiller,
SattsJk,
Self,the Ego, being even
familiarly

man

think"

"to

souls

has
(Prajapati)

Life

mother
1

king of

Soul is the lord and

"

21

Pick's Wdrttrb^

Colebrooke's

Schlegel translates

"Overworld."

p.

690.

Analysisof these
it

nutnen.

See, also, Thomson's

Eichhoff derives it from "/, "to move;"

Sutras,Essays^ I. 338.

designationsof deity are


Bhagavadgtt^ ch. viii.n. i,

"Oveisoul"

Other

(XII. 12)is to similar effect.


Sttryn Siddh"nta
" Brifutd
Ufian.*VI. x, x ; I. v. 33 ; I. vi. 3 ;
" Prewui
Ufa*., II. 13.

I.

iii; I. iv; I. iv,7

on

funtska,

II. v, 13,

and
Tha

VEDANTA.

does

"He
these

His

the

birds

As

repairto

Supreme."
"He

it."

in

than

thought:

He

was

far,yet also

have

never

before.

gone

He

near.

In

is within

dwell

to

tree

there,so

the world

repairs to

all that

is creator, and

founded

is

He

outstripsthem.

He

him.

obtained

senses,

All, yet beyond

"

yet is swifter

move,

gods, the
rest

this

not

325

him

and

sleeps

or

indestructible

goal;

is their

He

breathes

or

moves

is

life and

mind."3

The

ideas of Absolute

Substance

and

alike held

are

Greek

the

deeps

go out of
for
absolute

to

manifold

basis

said

that

in the

the

One

bring forth

ever

love

were

reconciled.

here

are

nature

essential elements

as

for

must

less

these

ing

fast

Plotinus

alone, but
Not

Thought,

its unknown

and

Infinite Mind,

Realityand

desire

and

of

gence
Intelliof

Being
deity.

could

souls

of

not

from

affirmed

to

dwell

himself.
be

ring
stir-

of Oriental

deity: the long- Manifestaself, the impulse to sacrifice L"0"el^Ug


the phenomenal, unity for Desire,

life,is there.4

The

Kama,

Hindu

like the

A Veda
Orphic Eros, is primal impulse to creation.
first came
hymn says of the self-existent: "Then
And
love upon
one
it, the new
spring of mind."6
of the Upanishads puts it thus :
The
Soul
supreme
become
desired, 'Let me
many,' and performing holy
all things."6 Another
work
created
speaks of his
7
The
Self-existent said
love
as
all-embracing."
within himself, 'In austerity
is not infinity.Let me
sacrifice myself in all created
things.'"8 The endJess theme of the Vedanta
philosophyis the production
w

"

"

"
*
"

"

"

y"jasaneya Sank. Upan." 4, 5.


Mvndaka
Ufian.,II. u. i, 2.
f
II. ch. a ; Sankara?s
Hist.
PJiiU"s."
Ritter,

"

Rif

AmrUattada

Veda.

X.

129

Mullet's

Ujan^ Weber,

Sansk.
II. 62.

Comment-

Lit., p. 564.
'

Pronto, IV.

on

Brihad, I 4.
"
Taittariya, II. 6.

gotapatha
Brahmana,

Muir, IV.

35

326
of

RELIGIOUS

PHILOSOPHY.

life,of mind,

all

and

sexes,

the

elements,

from

the /aces,

his life

"Prajapaticauses

be

divided, not

One.1
content

be alone."2

to

But

not

even

as
products, distinctly
they were
such, could phenomena be separated
as

recognized as
from that spiritual
substance,
the most
impressiveof facts to
Immortal

"

and

Brahma

left ; all
"

looks

divine

one

is to know
"

The

is

is

and

one

effect is not

An

second.

He

To
m

this

form

right

to

by

them.

To

than in
this

know

its waters,

though waves,

other."

than

its

cause

is

Brahma

the embodied

separate from

singlewith-it

self.

He

is

Soul,

of the

forms

and

Unity of

existences

Life in its

but

are

as

mists

turns
re-

risingfrom

into

the

above, below

All, this infiniteworld."

other than

not

absorbing sense

essence,

The

is this

be abandoned

each

other

is not

the soul is he."

and

the

foam, spray, differ from


"

was
universality
mysticalsense.

world, or gods, or beings,elsewhere

Soul, should

all."
sea

for

whose

before, behind

Brahrna

pervading:

Whoever

the

worlds, the

indestructible

the
to

the

esbence.

jj^

w;nds

the
formed

sea,

in

again into its stillness;not


only in form ; the mists are

returningin rain;
the atmosphere and dying
changing in nature, but
and

stillwater,

the winds

are

air.

According to Manu, "The Self-existent created the


waters
by a thought; and moving on the deep, as
Narayana, the Spirit,placed therein a seed, or egg;8
from

which

He

is

himself

again reproduces himself

as

born

Mind,

as

by

Brahm",
whose

Mundaka,

II. i.; Brihad, II. i. 20.

Brikad, I. iv.

"

Mundaka*

II. ii.u.

Brtftad, II. iv.

Colcbiooke's

In the

"

"ymbol

ol

Analysisof the Brahma Sutras,Essays, I. 351.


Orphic also,as in most other earlycosmogentc
systems, the
productionor evolution.

who

devotion

egg; is the

VEDANTA.

all

from

created

things are

is the circle

Here

of forms, is but

327

of

transmutation

within

things are the same.


circle of being," says Yajnavalkya, "revolves
Says the beautiful
beginning or end."2
Upamshad :
it; in

"The

all

substance,

preme.1
Su-

the

rather evolution

or
creation^

endless

an

bosom

the

out
with-

Katha

"

"

world

The

whose

is like

with

different

moving

awe,

When
from

eternal

from
within

is

there

whose
holy fig-tree,
Brahma

In

descend.

branches

becomes

an

this, their
this,its

this divine Whole,

all worlds

None

repose.

trembles

life."

of

sense

any

of difference

nor

above,

are

universe

The

root.

supreme

longer

no

roots

separation

from
.

...

All

the

ground

and

words,

when

common

in other

"

depth

"the
"As

knows

mind,

that this

then

"

and
searchable
un-

is reached

all its

of

speech

things,and
of

is

to all actions

He

is but

an

This

that is here

same

is here.

to

common

essence.
spiritual

The

"

is life and

itself in the

and
striving. The wonder
joy it
in this participation
is called by the Taittariya
of universal
unity."4
song

goal

feels

of

loses

for all times

being, one and the same


and
things that are, and

persons

the

soul

of

mystery

God.

of all forms,

substance
the

in

all names,

agent,

so

the eye

for all souls

passing from

also.

death

The
to

perception

is there

tity
iden-

is their Brahma."

is there

to all

that is there

same

death

who

ence
differ-

sees

in Brahma."
This

"

Soul

of all is

to-day,will

be to-morrow.

off into

valleysis scattered and lost,so do


beholding attributes as apart from this.

wise,who

knows

that remains

"

Mantt)

what

in its

8-

8.

"

Katha* VI.

"

Brihad) I. vi. 8.

i,

2.

is the same,

place,alike and

So the

is like pure

As
run

men

But
water

the
on

water

after differences,
soul of the
the

ground

undispersed."

Surya Siddh"nta, XII.

Y"jvavalkya,

III

Taittar., III.

x.

"

Katha, IV.

ning
run-

ia*

5.

zo, 13, 14.

328

RELIGIOUS

"

who, dwelling in

He

whom

they

rules

them,

Yet
Human

it is

to

error

an

human

within

There

is apart from

Whatever

It

and

be

ever

is
him

divine

ultimate

in

individual
them

Vedanta

in

one

of

nature

they have no
which
must
Spirit,
distinctions

abolishes

the ideal of devout

which
reality

exist-

that

of Infinite

The

as

common

holds

and

One.

of

spiritual
pantheism

simply regards
the

deityonly, as

ground

that
belief

with

being independent

that

him.

suppose

-is inconsistent

spiritualessence,

in

from

ruler,immortal.

inner

but

knows,

or

dividuaiuy. ences.

for

body they

thy soul, the

is

knowledge,

are, who

in.

real

whose

and

forms

nought."

to

comes

He

"

and

all elements

know,

not

hears

that

none

do

PHILOSOPHY.

and
aspiration,

be

must

and

one

the

as

same

for all.
Nor
Divine

todeity,thus conceived, become the mere


of these distinctions, nor
ttjlity
yet their mere
transcends
all definite factors
identity. Brahma

does

(ran-

Kendencc.

that

reach

never

nor
infinity,

infinite,but

If

observe

we

find that

we

higher

the

sum

the

sea

than

word

syllablesof
with base.
than

the
1

the

which

mere

is

to

as

The

aggregate.
"

Soul

steel

is

uncreate

One
and

has
immortal

must
not

"

of

roar
one

very

the salt than

the Whole

than

more

the

successive

mere

The

races.

or

ages

different

in it ; the

the

of

sum

as

chord

blend

historythan

So Brahma

Brikad, III. vii.

unity as

shall

we

wave-plashes it gathers into


of

He

only as

not

processes,

orchestral

tones

flint added

than

this

it appears

Always
The

fact.

the

mental

conceive

not

of those

articulate

more

do

parts.

component
and

all ; and

can

it.

approach

even

own

our

finite addition

One.

the

as

as

up,

all, yet transcends

absorbs
the

summed

be

can

spark

is

acid mixed
mean

more

the limitations

(Plato,Phasdr

c.

53).

VEDANTA.

tfieparts.

of

lifts them

the Vedantists

from

Again

let

"

him.

the

as

one

the defects of the eye


sullied

of

Being
without

known

and

"

become
"

know

free."

it

Supreme

existent

or

without

Soul

it.

is also

this whole

from

future."

and

things,is

ot

different from

as

wretched

in its

different from

as

in

blended

"

the

it

helplessness:
His

these, and

divine

"

wisdom

"

beginning; not to be called


possessingevery sense, yet separate from

Soul

is without

yet within

from, and

far and

all ; both

near

; not

me.

My

beings,yet as if it were"
All thingsexist
this my kinglymystery.

among

"Behold

not

are

non-existent

all ; apart

divided

by

beings is

One

different

Being

Soul

Bhagavadgita :

"The

them

in

supreme

aspects

of the

the

different
sullied

it is also

in this universe

Brahma

glory,its griefceases."
Both

"

the

sees

of

the

me

soul, immersed

The

when

to

of all

the Soul

nature,

every

is not

world,

world, because

effects,past, present,
who

They

fully

as

becomes

; none

of the

eye

world, so

to

in its own."

them,

causes

the

or

nature

every

Make

"

sun,

Upanishad

founded

arc

evils of the

the

by

this is

the non-difference

as

Katha

the

all the worlds

Yet

And

and

Supreme.

hear

us

Him

Upon

from

the

it rules them

but

higher meaning.

into

soul

them,

It absorbs

recognizedby
the

329

in

which
has caused
sustains
them
them, yet does not dwell
spirit
in them.
(confined)
Everywhere I am present in manifold forms,
of being singleand separable from them."
by reason
"

the

am

mother

the
the fire,
sacrifice,

of this universe

Vedas

the

incense.

am

the

father,the

Om,
mystic doctrine,the syllable

the

tion,
path,the support, the master, the witness, the habitatible
the refuge,the friend ; origin,and dissolution, and inexhausseed
I am
ambrosia, and death ; what exists and what exists
; the soul,in the heart of all beings : beginning,middle, and

not

; the

end."6
1

Katha, V. 8-1

Bhag.

follows
"

our

1.

"

Ibid.,II.

Git", ch. xiii. Tin*


present

Ibid.,IX. X.

line of

14-

poem

thought.

"

is not

Svetasvatara
a

Up., I.

Upamshad,

nor

7-

Ibid.,IV.

purelyVedantic

7.

yet it

33O

PHILOSOPHY.

RELIGIOUS

What
all

is here

declares himself

forms

of

ocean

silent

worship

spring ; splendoritself

letters,A

thingsthat

among

mysteries; the goodness of the

among

Meru

of
also

kind.

and

form

; among

monosyllable Om

; among

"

One

Holy

mountains,

the

words,

"

the

; among

sun

among

worship,

the

among

sons,
sea-

; among

shine

silence,

knowledge of

good,the

the

"

wise.

He

continues

I have

"

the

indifference

mere

in each

be the Best

to

I am
lights,

waters, the

the

not

ideal; since

their

things,but

"Among

is

meant

and

made

"

by

still uphold this universe

portion of

one

myself."1
So

in the

fr

Hymn of Purusha,"
himself
as
sacrificing

is described

support of all worlds, it is said


Purusha

But

"

this all,

The

other

three parts

arc

three

parts, He

remains

to

be

and

born

conceived

above

it :

"

As

God

as

with

one

shall

the

is,or

how

the divine

world, and

yet

"

exists

in the world, yet in such

Such

and

"

Vedantic, shows

in tunes,

does,

for the creation

is all that was,

sound

from

He

it.
while

is the

affirmed

with

the

as

and

shut

transcendence
of

immanent

in its
to

that He

may

presence."3

all forms

Mind.

exaltation

sesame-seed,

be rated
sepain all his works, just as
the
wise

universe, it is

be

also

oil in

as
flavors,

unchanged

open

conceivable

must

fruit in its

remains

flowers

here

there

in

and

later treatise, not


be

sun

eternal

is above

below

could

so

creation

Supreme

be, is
is but the quarter of his being : the
the heavens.
Ascending with these
beyond the world : the fourth part
die by turns." *

who
(thespirit),

above

the

where

In
not

above

worlds

and
this

oneness

forgottenthat
it, unfathomed

life beyond.
*

Bfag

BurnouPs

"

Jfva

Git""

Gn"n

ch.

translation,
in Jtttrjd. to JBhAgavata Purdrta-

J'rtMm, in A9tur.

Oriental

7Mtniait vol. iv.

VEDANTA.

For

absorbed

such

and

One, all

self

was

contemplationof

of limit ceased;

sense

felt no

331

There
extinguishedits claims.
individual
but not the private,

in

the

felt

spiritualessence,

Absolute

finiteThesenscof

thoughtabsor*nion-

stillatma,

was

interest that
existence

Relative, conditional

name.

the

infinite of

the

more;

the

bore

the

merged

was

All in all,the

as

self;

one

clusive
in-

constitutive

principle,
by and through which
of being was
the sense
not
possible. I distinguish
of unity, from this whole."
myself,"says the disciple
To
has recognized
soul all has become
soul ; mind
its identity
with the universal
force, the primal, pervasive,
w

and
should

it

of

speak

this, which
the

ultimate

"

Brihad,

separate object]Him
eye cannot
enables us

to

by

itself.

see

know

one

existence.

[as

whom

How

can

How

apart from

as

of Mind?

substance

should

all

of mind

form

any

is the

of

reason

"How,"

asks

intrinsically

an

he

knows?"1

we

see

"The

the soul which

see?"2

It lies in the direct line of present scientific tendency


that

should

recognize the unityTheun5tyof


of mind, by observingthat all phenomena are mimL
be
Force, which
can
differingexpressions of one
The
other than Thought.
correlation of physical
no
forces is pushed forward
and upward, in the hope of
in fact contains
and conditions
including that which
them
all ; but the result can
only be demonstration,
and
to the
even
understanding,that molecule
plasm
protoand
that all
cannot
dispense with intelligence,
we

cosmical

forces

Meanwhile,

as

science, and
"

identical with

are

thought, intuition
with

to

come

we

are

and
reach

Rrihad, II. iv. 14.

mind.

indicatingin Oriental
contemplation are beforehand
now

the

result from
"

"wa

Gn"n

Potk"m.

side which

33

RELIGIOUS

precludes
have

PHILOSOPHY.

materialism.

thus foreshown
human

Speculation and sentiment


steps of experience throughout
is divinely
prescientof his
he begins to meditate and
as

the

history. Man

as
mind, as soon
infinity
aspire.
Let us do justice
to this dream
that drew the Hindu
seers
before
upward through their morning twilight,
the day of science
free intercourse
and
of nations

could

by

rise upon

the East.

That

rays which

are

somewhat

spectrum

thus

far, and

cheered
was
twilight
in our
ern
Westintercepted
which they may
help us to

bring out.
"I distinguish
not
myself from the whole."
is not analysis
science.
Quite
; it is not
The giftof
the East.

tje js jt Hebrew

Greek

self-assertion,or

not

philosophy as

the

term

; nor

who

be

way

infinite of

the

knows

absent.

The

"

the

the

is and

is not.
"

not

Knowing
and bang.
w

say
\s

the

self in

It is the

life it

grander

Say it,O Jellaieddin, I


Is

faith.

poet, child,
free flow

and

sees

the

loves.

heard, takes

poet'stongue

can

up the
but echo

"

what

am

loss of

EternaJ, alone

of the

it is the eternal

It is the

into itself,
and

its words

prayer, or
self-dissection.
It is

understandingdefines
of a worship of defisense
nite
present deity only as one

aspirationand

voice

human

But

man.

life into

our

lit-

Christian

modern

pietyin

saint, lover, in

as

the clear, cold

will, which

of

fear, or

This

of

man

Where
go
Whoso

one

I am,
an*

nature

"

the Soul

with

his faith reposes,

tjiese Eastern

if thou

foundation,' becomes

he

there and

under

it,

in all"

what

mystics

worships God

dost know

do
the

founded

not

worships?
that is he.
hesitate
'

to

thought,

He

under

the

VEDANTA.

'

thought,
thought,
thus

He
'

is

He

great/ becomes

the

Brahma."2

self-assertion with

becomes

is said

whatsoever

the

"Whoever

prevalenthabit

the

only

under

; or

wise."1

Brahma

supreme

It is

great

becomes

is mind,'

knows

333

of

even

ing
associat-

done, that

or

shock
and
language like this, in any religion,
repel. It is perfectlynatural to the poetic sense,
to
the spiritual
imagination,to the spontaneity of
makes

faith and

self-surrender

the

It is

of love.

"

not

self-

deification," but that very


any

people, the

or

age

alone,
spiritby which
vice of self-worshipis to

in
be

escaped.
Not

yet have

heard

we

relation of individual
"

Round

longas

and

round, within

it fancies

becomes

oil in

the two

is that absolute

so

truth and

when

seed

sesame

fire in
as
earth,

the

"

wheel, roams

and

itself different

trulyimmortal,

"As

to

of the
any better statement
universal life than this :

Soul

is found

by

pieces of

wood

found

by

soul must

The

poet does

the truth

churn

not

beginning, of human
by paying the price.

of

water

by rubbing them
his

by digging
together,

soul,through

own

laid

everywhere
or

of every

out
patiently

this is the

endeavor

and

thing."*
end,

must

not

come

aspirationappears in the
the
sufficiencyTO know
upon

of this

earnestness

really knowing

modern

as

pressure,

forgetthat

the

stress

him."

within

It

Supreme.

disciplinealone."4

"The

The

one

the

apart from

upheld by

vagrant soul,so

the

Western

and

seeing

truth.

concentrated

mind,

j^!^10

The

truth-

on

action, taught by its theology to distrust intellectual


intuition in religious
belief,finds it hard to do justice
the

to

*
"

ancient

Taittariya, III.

Sv*t"Jvatarat I.

x.

6.

principle,"Whoso
3.
"

Ibid.,I. 15.

"

Mundaha^

Amritan"da

knows

or

sees

III. ii. 9

Up*n., Weber, II. 6*.

PHILOSOPHY.

RELIGIOUS

334

But

truth."

if this

not
principlewas
moral power,
it to be, as it certainly
how
came
was,
of thoughtfulmen
who
the resort
sought to comprehend
and master
the illsof life? What
must
theyhave
nature
meant
by "knowing," who said, "Whatever

becomes

truth

meditates

oge

meditates

of the Fall of Man


of

tree

Here

is

separates,

The
to

even

knowledge from the tree of


that makes
a deeper synthesis,

and

one

he

nature

attains God"?1

God

on

that

to

on,

the

There

pride of
longing

he
goes:
Semitic

who

immortal

life.

myth
antagonism,the
the

to

two

same.

worship of knowledge which


of mind,
understanding,but sincerity
is

to

be

falsities,the sway

escape

of

the

is not
"

will

the

by

of livingby truth.
"Truth
alone,
necessity
and not falsehood, conquers
truth is opened the
: by
in the
path on whidi the blest proceed."2 "No purifier
world like knowledge."3 In the simplest and purest
a

supreme

of

form

conviction,

be ; in other
is

with

one

to

know

is

not

words, the life goes


it.

And

to

into the

this sacred

from

to

thought,and
Thought and

unityof
highestphilosophyas well. Plato
science" from "opinion," affirming

Being attends the


"true
distinguishes
that in this way

divorced

know

like purport is his

truth is

become

to

great ethical

truth.

Of

that vice
postulate,
the beauty of virtue

who
see
ignorance; none
being capable of violatingher laws. "Wisdom," in
quacy,
adethe Hebrew
Apocrypha, shines with the same
reflected in large measure
from the Hellenic
She
is the brightnessof the Everlasting
mind.
Light; and, being but one, she can do all things; and
in all ages, enteringinto holy souls, she maketh
them
is but

"

ch. viii.
Bkag. Gittlt

*
"

Bkag. Git"t ch iv.

Mundak*.

III. 6.

VEDANTA.

friends

of

God

Kapila,

"is from
and

the

across

and

prophets."

delusion."1

thirsts

ages

that

the

shall

know

"Whoso

knows

of God

Christian
is the
"

the

is

Spinoza

knowledge

"

"Ye

"Bondage,"

more."2

no

And
the
loving Him.
genius the fourth Gospel
Word
lipsof his ideal
:

335

cipated,
eman-

answers

is

mystic,

says

with

one

of

whose

product, puts into

this truth

of universal

truth, and

truth

the

ion
relig-

shall

make

free."

you

"The

For

knoweth.
the

clouds

and

of

and

being

"is

Bacon,

says

of

truth

all

error

one.

truth
that

the

knowing,"

is but

man

prints goodness
in

descend

of

truth

storms

and

of

what

he

the}' be

passions

perturbations."3
To

be

what

one

knows

to

be

real

is for

ever

the

it is implied in
goal of noble effort, simply because
the unity and integrityof thought. Nothing is really
distinction
known
so
long as it stands aloof, as mere
external
the thinker, an
from
can
object only. Mind
know
only by finding itself in the thing known.
being is not
Nothing is reallythought by us, whose
made
with our
mystically one
thought, through the
which
makes
element
common
knowledge possible.
Nothing is reallysfoken or named^ unless the word or
is i