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com

www.elsevier.com/locate/solener

collector using dierent cavity receivers

W.T. Xie a, Y.J. Dai b,, R.Z. Wang b

a

Research Center of Solar Power and Refrigeration, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, PR China

b

Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, PR China

Received 25 February 2012; received in revised form 30 January 2013; accepted 31 January 2013

Available online 22 March 2013

Communicated by: Associate Editor Brian Norton

Abstract

In this paper, a line-focus Fresnel lens solar collector using dierent cavity receivers are studied and compared. Thermal performance

of the line-focus Fresnel lens solar collector with each cavity receiver is studied experimentally at dierent temperature levels. The eciency factors and heat removal factors of Fresnel lens solar collectors using dierent kinds of line-focus cavity receivers are obtained

both theoretically and experimentally. Eight kinds of cavity receivers, namely: triangular, arc-shaped, rectangular, semicircular, positive

trapezoidal, reverse trapezoidal, hetero trapezoidal and convex, are tested and analyzed. It is found that the theoretical results agree well

with the test results. For the line-focus Fresnel lens solar collector, the triangular cavity receiver shows the best thermal performance. The

highest experimental heat removal factor is about 0.805 when the operation temperature is 180 C. Results show that under given operation conditions, the optimum width of cavity aperture, the optimum inside diameter of the receiver tube and the optimum vertex angle

of the cross section of the receiver are 50 mm, 18 mm and 60, respectively. It is recommended that the geometrical concentration ratio of

the studied Fresnel lens solar collector should be more than 55. The experimental heat removal factors for triangular cavity receivers are

increased to 0.879 (using rectangular pipelines as the absorber plate) and 0.873 (using tube bundles as the absorber plate) respectively,

after optimization.

2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Solar energy; Fresnel lens solar collector; Line-focus; Cavity receiver; Heat removal factor

1. Introduction

Fresnel lens was rst demonstrated as a collimator in

lighthouses by Augustine Jean Fresnel (Leutz and Suzuki,

2001) in 1822, since then, it has been widely used in many

elds. In solar thermal conversion applications, Fresnel lens

has advantages of small volume, light weight, suitability for

mass production at low cost, and eectively increasing the

energy density. Fresnel lenses have been becoming an

important choice for solar thermal conversion applications

(Xie et al., 2011). Fresnel lens was originally made from

0038-092X/$ - see front matter 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2013.01.029

materials that have optical specications similar to glass,

such as acrylic, polycarbonate and polymethylmethacrylate

(PMMA), become available in the 1950s (Xie et al., 2011).

Moreover, Fresnel lenses can be scaled as large or as small

as desired, restricted only by fabrication capabilities (Valmiki et al., 2011). So, the processing parameters (melt temperature, mold temperature, packing pressure, and injection

speed) should be investigated in fabrication of Fresnel lens

solar collector (Kuo, 2012). Generally, there are two types

of Fresnel lenses: line-focus Fresnel lens and point-focus

Fresnel lens. Line-focus Fresnel lens is usually used

for low concentrated and medium concentrated (the

geometrical concentration ratio is less than 100) solar

thermal, photovoltaic or photovoltaic/thermal systems

243

Nomenclature

Aa

Ar

Cg

Cp

D

Di

F

I

Ib

L

0

L

l

q0u

S

0

T

Tb

To

Ti

area of the Receiver (m2)

geometrical concentration ratio

specic heat capacity (J/kg C)

out diameter of the tube (m)

inner diameter of the tube (m)

n eciency

global solar radiation (W/m2)

beam solar radiation (W/m2)

the width of the sheet or the depth of cavity receiver (m)

the length of the cavity receiver (m)

the width of each facet of a Fresnel lens (m)

useful energy output (W)

solar energy absorbed by a collector per unit

area of the receiver (W/m2)

concentrated solar energy by the Fresnel lens solar concentrator outside the cavity receiver (W/

m 2)

temperature (C)

the local base temperature sheet-tube (C)

outlet temperature (C)

inlet temperature (C)

of building and greenhouses (Chemisana et al., 2009;

Chemisana and Rosell, 2011; Tripanagnostopoulos et al.,

2007) and solar thermal collectors (Jirka et al., 1999;

Zhai et al., 2010). Line-focus Fresnel lens can obtain higher

temperature with a smaller area than CPC, and is more suitable for mid-temperature solar thermal conversion

application.

The receiver is the heart for all kinds of solar collectors,

in which sunlight should be trapped and converted into

heat as eectively as possible and transfers it to a circulating uid with minimal heat loss. There are two types of

solar receivers: evacuated tube solar receiver and non-evacuated solar receiver. In general, evacuated tube solar receiver is more expensive and ecient than non-evacuated

solar receiver. However, non-evacuated solar receiver is

advantageous in its simple structure, cost-eective, good

thermal and optical characteristics. Solar receiver is one

of the key components for concentrating solar collectors

because its performance directly aects the eciency of

the whole system. Because of the high operating temperatures, radiation losses strongly penalize the eciency of

the receiver. Cavity design is thought an optimum solution.

In a cavity receiver, the radiation reected or refracted

from optical solar concentrators passes through an aperture into a box-like structure before impinging on the heat

transfer surface. Then, the heat transfer surface absorbs the

concentrated solar energy and transfers it into a heat transfer uid (HTF). The general idea of a cavity receiver is to

Tf

h

UL

U 0L

m_

n

W

Wr

convective heat transfer coecient inside the

tube (W/m2 C)

dened overall heat loss coecient (W/m2 C)

overall heat loss coecient (W/m2 C)

mass ow rate (kg/s)

refractive index of Fresnel lens

the width of focal point (m)

the width of cavity aperture (m)

Greek symbols

g

collector thermal eciency

go

optical eciency

h

vertex angle of cross section ()

k

thermal conductivity (W/m C)

Subscripts

a

ambient

b

base of the sheet-tube

f

uid

r

cavity receiver

over the large internal surface area of the cavity in order

to reduce the peak ux absorbed at any one point.

Moreover, the thermal performance indicators of a solar

thermal system typically include collector eciency factor,

collector heat removal factor, thermal eciency, overall

heat loss coecient, time constant. Among others, the heat

removal factor is an extremely useful parameter for collector design and optimization and could be used to evaluate

all the solar collectors. At present, the mature theoretical

expressions of eciency factor and heat removal factor

for at-plate solar collector (Moummi et al., 2004; Hellstrom, 2004; Eisenmann et al., 2004; Kudish et al., 2002;

Tsilingiris, 2000, 2002; Shariah et al., 1999; Khalifa,

1998), CPC solar collector (Norton et al., 1989; Rabl

et al., 1980) and evacuated tube solar collector (Ma et al.,

2010; Siddiqui, 1997; Ezekwe, 1990) are obtained. However, those for concentrating solar collectors especially

the line-focus Fresnel lens solar collectors with cavity

receivers have seldom been investigated.

In this paper, the eciency factor and collector heat

removal factor of a line-focus Fresnel lens solar collector

using cavity receivers are derived and studied theoretically

and experimentally. Line-focus Fresnel lens solar collector

prototype is manufactured and the thermal performance of

dierent designs of line-focus cavity receivers is evaluated.

The experimental and theoretical results are compared as a

procedure to nd an eective model for evaluating the performance of the concentrating solar collector based on line-

244

the receiver for solar thermal applications.

Thermostat

The line-focus Fresnel lens solar collector prototype

using dierent cavity receivers was built. The schematic

diagram of the test rig is shown in Fig. 1. The practical test

rig, which is shown in Fig. 2, consists of a line-focus Fresnel lens solar concentrator whose geometrical concentration ratio is about 15, a line-focus cavity receiver and a

single-axis tracking unit, a thermostat oil bath, a circulating oil pump, a ball valve, a heat exchanger, etc. In this

work, eight kinds of line-focus cavity receivers, namely, triangular, arc-shaped, rectangular, semicircular, positive

trapezoidal, reverse trapezoidal, hetero trapezoidal and

convex, are tested so as to compare their thermal performance theoretically and experimentally. The ambient conditions were: the minimum direct normal solar irradiance

averaged over each test period was 630 W/m2 and the difference between the maximum and minimum irradiance

values was less than 200 W/m2; the allowable range of

the ambient temperature was between 0 C and 30 C

and the maximum allowable variation in ambient temperature for quasi-steady state conditions was 2.0 C;

the average wind speed across the collector was less than

4 m/s.

2.1. Geometrical concentration ratio

Cavity receiver

Heat exchanger

Pyranometer

Fig. 2. Photos of the line-focus Fresnel lens solar collector test rig.

Cg

Aa

b

Ar W

W 0 P 2Rn tan ds

Ta

Line-focus

Fresnel

lens

Ib

F

To

Ti

Cavity receiver

where ds is the half eld angle between the solar and the

0

earth which is 160 . Because b and b are almost the same,

then:

W

W0

lens is:

Cg

b

2Rn tan ds tan b

s

2

l

5

Rn r22 f t tan a

2

tan b

Sunlight

could fall on the plane, the condition is:

tan b tan b0

concentric grooves or parallel groves which behave like

many prisms. A schematic diagram of a line-focus Fresnel

lens for solar thermal application is illustrated in Fig. 3. In

this case, the at side of the Fresnel lens is facing up to

receive the solar rays without chromatic aberration and

spherical aberration. It is assumed that the receiver is a

plane. The geometrical concentration ratio is dened as:

Tracking unit

r2

f t 2l tan a

107:4b f t 2l tan a

q

Cg

2

r2 r22 f t 2l tan a

Finally, the geometrical concentration ratio of a line-focus

Fresnel lens is obtained.

Heat

exchanger

Thermostat

Computer

Valve

Pump

Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the line-focus Fresnel lens solar collector test

rig.

receiver pipes are treated with selective coating and placed in

a cuboid cavity. The aperture of the cavity is covered with a

245

Focal plane

Fig. 3. Schematic diagram of a line-focus Fresnel lens for solar thermal application.

transmissivity is about 0.915 to reduce heat loss.

3. Collector eciency factors and heat removal factors

The collector eciency factor F0 represents the ratio of

the actual useful energy gain to the useful gains that would

result if the collector absorbing surface was at the local

0

uid temperature. The collector eciency factor F is the

physical quantity of collector heat exchange structure.

However, the collector heat removal factor FR relates the

actual useful energy gain of a collector to the useful gain

if the whole collector surface were at a temperature equal

to the uid inlet temperature. The collector heat removal

factor FR is a dimensionless parameter which indicates

the heat transfer characteristics of the collector and the

inuence of uid convective heat transfer on the collector

2009; Liu, 2010).

0

Generally, the collector eciency factor F is a measure

of how well the heat transfer is between the heat transfer

uid and the receiver, while the collector heat removal factor FR is a measure of the solar collector performance as a

heat exchanger, as it can be interpreted as the ratio of

actual heat transfer to the maximum possible heat transfer.

Moreover, both factors could reect the physical construction features, optical performance and operating parameters of a solar collector, and are aected only by the

solar collector characteristics such as the uid type and

the uid ow rate. Consequently, these factors could be

used to evaluate the thermal performance of any solar collector more conveniently, especially for Fresnel lens solar

collectors to deriving the optimal line-focus cavity receiver

in this paper.

246

Fig. 4. Schematic diagrams and some photos of eight kinds line-focus cavity receivers used for Fresnel lens solar collector.

In order to model the Fresnel lens collectors using linefocus cavity receivers, a number of assumptions are made

bellow:

(1) The collector is in steady state.

(2) Two-dimensional temperature eld of the collector

plate is divided into two mutually independent onedimensional temperature eld: x direction of the collector plate and y direction of heat transfer uid ow

(Fig. 5).

(3) Glass cover is opaque to infrared radiation.

(4) No solar energy is absorbed by the cover.

(5) The sky can be considered as a blackbody for the

long-wavelength radiation at an equivalent sky temperature. Since the sky temperature does not aect

the results much, this is considered equal to the ambient temperature.

(6) Temperature gradients around tubes can be

neglected.

(7) Properties of materials are independent of

temperature.

(8) Dust and dirt eects on the glass cover and Fresnel

lens solar concentrator are negligible.

(9) Shading of the collector absorber plate is negligible.

According to the structure of the line-focus cavity

receivers shown in Fig. 4, the eciency factor and heat

removal factor of Fresnel lens solar collector using triangular cavity receiver are derived theoretically, considering the

sheet-tube conguration and energy balance on the n element show in Fig. 5. The sheet is thin, the thickness is d and

the width of the sheet is L. As the metal sheet is a good conductor, the temperature gradient through the sheet is negligible. It is assumed that sheet under the bond is at some

local base temperature Tb. The region between the sideline

separating the tube and the tube base can then be considered as a classical n problem. An energy balance on this

element yields (Due and Beckman, 2006)

dT

dT

SDx U 0L DxT T a kd kd

0

dx x

dx xDx

8

247

area of the receiver dened by the following equations,

considering the outermost facet of the Fresnel lens

r2 b/2 in Fig. 3, then:

S 0 W r L0 2 SLL0

go I b Aa S Ar

Cg

10

l

2

214:8 f t tan a

Aa

q

2

Ar

b2 =4 f t 2l tan a

h Wr

sin

2 2L

11

12

line-focus at-plate Fresnel lens solar concentrator outside

0

the cavity receiver, Wr is the width of the cavity aperture, L

is the length of the cavity receiver, h is the vertex angle of

the cross section of the receiver. In this case, it is assumed

that the cavity is a blackbody which could absorb all the

concentrated solar rays entering the aperture of the cavity.

In addition, the concentrated solar energy in the cavity is

uniform at all directions. So S gI b C g sin h2 ; U 0L is the overall heat loss coecient, which is dened as:

U 0L U L C g sin

h

2

13

d 2 T U 0L

S

T

T

14

a

U 0L

kd

dx2

The

two

boundary

conditions

are

0; anddT

T

,

where

T

is

local

base

temb

b

dx xLD=2

perature. The solution of Eq. (23) is:

cosh mx

S

S

Tb Ta 0 Ta 0

15

T

cosh mL D=2

UL

UL

dT

dx x0

r

U 0L

m

kd

16

of length in the ow direction can be obtained by evaluating Fouriers law at the n base:

dT

qfin kd

dx xLD=2

S U 0L T b T a

L D

tanh m

17

m

2

Equations accounts for the energy collected on only one

side of the tube; for both sides, the energy collection is:

q0fin 2qfin L DF S U 0L T b T a

element.

18

where F tanhmLD=2

mLD=2

eciency for straight ns with rectangular prole. The use-

248

ful energy gain of the collector also includes the energy collected above the tube region. The energy gain is:

pD

S U 0L T b T a

19

q0tube

2

The useful energy gain of the tube and n per unit length in

the ow direction is the sum of Eqs. (27) and (28).

q0u q0fin q0tube

pD

L DF

S U 0L T b T a

2

20

Ultimately the useful gain from Eq. (29) must be transferred to the uid, which can be expressed in terms of the

two resistances as:

q0u

Tb Tf

1

C1b

pDi hfi

21

Cb

kb b

c

22

width, c is the average bond thickness. Solving Eq. (30)

for Tb, substituting it into Eq. (29) and solving the results

for the useful gain:

q0u

S U 0L T f T a

1

1

1

U 0L

LDFpD=2

pDi hfi

Cb

W r F 0 go I b U L T f T a

23

F0

1=W r

2

C g fW r 2D sinh=2FpD sinh=2g

1

pDi hfi

C1b U L

24

Eq. (32) is ultimately transferred to the uid. The uid

enters the collector at temperature Ti, and increase in temperature until at the exit it is To. An energy balance on the

uid owing through a single tube of length Dy as:

dT f

_ p

W r F 0 go I b U L T f T a 0

mC

25

dy

0

then the solution is:

T f T a go I b =U L

U L W r yF 0

exp

26

_ p

T i T a go I b =U L

mC

0

the outlet uid temperature To is obtained by substituting

0

0

L for y in Eq. (35). The quantity WrL is the collector receiver area Ar:

T o T a go I b =U L

U L W r L0 F 0

exp

27

_ p

T i T a go I b =U L

mC

The collector heat removal factor FR is dened as:

FR

_ p T o T i

mC

Ar S U 0L T fi T a

h

i

L0 U L F 0

_ p 1 exp W rmC

mC

_ p

214:8ft2l tan a

sinh=2

W r L0 U L q

2

b2 =4ft2l tan a

28

214:8 f t 2l tan a

0

qu W r F R q

2 sinh=2go I b

b2 =4 f t 2l tan a

U L T i T a

29

using cavity receivers, the same method is adopted to

obtain the theoretical expressions. A summary of collector

eciency factors and collector heat removal factors are

presented in Table 1.

3.2. Experimental validation

In order to compare the thermal performance of Fresnel

lens solar collector using line-focus cavity receivers, some

uniform geometrical parameters of these cavities are specied which are illustrated in Table 2. During the experiment, two PT-100 sensors of which the measurement

precision is 0.1 C are positioned to measure the temperature rise across the line-focus Fresnel lens solar collector.

Another PT-100 sensor is positioned close to the concentrator to measure the ambient temperature. The uid ow

rate is measured by a ow meter of which the relative error

is no more than 1%. The solar radiation is measured by a

pyranometer which can track the sun automatically and

measure beam, diused and total solar radiation respectively. Particularly, beam radiation is measured by a pyrheliometer designed specically to measure the direct beam

solar irradiance with a eld of view limited to 5, and it

is highly accurate and relative error is no more than 1%.

All measuring transducers are connected to a data logger

Keithley 2700. Based on two standards ANSI/ASHRAE

93-2010 and ASTM E905-1987(2007), the thermal performance of the line-focus Fresnel lens solar collector with

each cavity receiver is studied experimentally at dierent

inlet uid temperature levels. Firstly, the experimental data

are obtained and recorded; secondly, the experimental data

are processed and the solar thermal eciency tting curves

and formulas are derived; thirdly, the overall heat loss coefcients are obtained; and nally, the experimental collector

factors are determined from the gradient of each tted formula divided by the overall heat loss coecient. Moreover,

the theoretical collector factors are obtained using the

experimentally obtained overall heat loss coecient, structural parameters of the cavities and the appropriate physical parameters.

The theoretical and experimental values of the eciency

factors and the heat removal factors are presented in

249

Table 1

A summary of the collector eciency factors and collector heat removal factors of Fresnel lens solar collector using line-focus cavity receivers.*

Types of cavity receiver

F0

F0

1=W r

2

pD1h C1 U L

C g fW r 2D sinh=2FpD sinh=2g

i fi

b

1=W r

4p2h

F tanhmLD=2

mLD=2

1

1

pDi hfi C b

h

i

mC

_

L0 U L F 0

F R W r L0 U L Cg psinh=2 1 exp W r mC

_ p

FR

UL

_ p

mC

0

W rL

2C sinh=2

U L g2ph

i

L0 U L F 0

1 exp W r mC

_ p

F tanhfm2phW

m2phW r 4D sinh=2=8 sinh=2

1=W r

F0

W r 2l

1

1

pDi hfi C b

FR

UL

_ p

mC

0

W rL

C Wr

U L W gr 2L

h

i

L0 U L F 0

1 exp W r mC

_ p

tanhmLD

r 2D=2

F 1 tanhmW

mW r 2D=2 ; F 2

mLD

F0

1=W r

2C g pW r 4DF =4pD=2

1

1

pDi hfi C b

FR

UL

mC

_ p

W r L0 U L

2C g

p

i

L0 U L F 0

1 exp W r mC

_ p

tanhmpW r 4D=8

mpW r 4D=8

F0

Positive trapezoidal cavity receiver

1=W r

C g W r cosh=2B

1

1

pDi hfi C b

UL

FR

mC

_ p

i

L0 U L F 0

1 exp W r mC

_ p

i

L0 U L F 0

1 exp W r mC

_ p

C W cosh=2

g r

W r L0 U L 2LW r cosh=22L

sinh=2

r =2Ltgh=2Dg

F 1 tanhfmW

mW r =2Ltgh=2D

cosh=2Dg

F 2 tanhfmL=

mL= cosh=2D

F0

Reverse trapezoidal cavity receiver

1=W r

C g W r cosh=2B

1

1

pDi hfi C b

UL

FR

mC

_ p

0

W rL

C g W r cosh=2

U L 2LW r cosh=22L

sinh=2

r =2Ltgh=2Dg

F 1 tanhfmW

mW r =2Ltgh=2D

cosh=2Dg

F 2 tanhfmL=

mL= cosh=2D

F0

1=W r

2LW r cosh=2L sinh=2

C g W r cosh=2fL= cosh=22DFpD=2g

1

1

pDi hfi C b

FR

UL

C W cosh=2

n h

io

L

L

F tanh m 2 cosh=2

D =m2 cosh=2

D

Convex cavity receiver

F0

1=W r

pW r 4L2W r

pD1h C1 U L

2C g W r fpW r 2DF 1 =4LW r D=2F 2 pD=2g

i fi

b

FR

mC

_ p

r

W r L0 U L 2LW r gcosh=2L

sinh=2

_ p

mC

2C W

g r

W r L0 U L pW r 4L2W

r

i

L0 U L F 0

1 exp W r mC

_ p

i

L0 U L F 0

1 exp W r mC

_ p

tanhfmLW r D=2g

r 2D=4

F 1 tanhmpW

mpW r 2D=4 F 2

mLW r D=2

*

214:8ft l tan a

2

for line-focus Fresnel lens.

Where C g AAar p

2

2

l

b =4ft2 tan a

was 90 C, 150 C and 180 C, the triangular cavity receiver has the highest eciency and heat removal factors

compared to any other kinds of line-focus cavity receivers.

Fig. 6 illustrates the relationship between the inlet uid

temperature and the collector factors of the line-focus

Fresnel lens solar collector using triangular cavity receiver.

As seen, when the inlet uid temperature increased from

90 C to 180 C, the experimental heat removal factors

decrease from 0.871 to 0.805, which may be attributed to

the considerable increase in the heat loss coecient. When

the inlet uid temperature increased from 180 C to

250 C, the theoretical heat removal factors decrease from

coecient increased considerably while the heat convection heat transfer coecient increased not much. The heat

removal factors decrease signicantly and bring a deviation between the theoretical and experimental results

within 10% because of the higher overall heat loss coefcient which is more than 80 W/(m2 K) when the inlet

uid temperature is higher than 200 C. Consequently, it

is predicted that when the inlet uid temperature is

between 150 C and 180 C, the line-focus Fresnel lens

solar collector using triangular cavity receiver has better

thermal performance for mid-temperature solar thermal

conversion applications.

250

Table 2

Specied uniform geometrical parameters of line-focus cavity receivers.

Maximum depth L (mm)

The vertex angle h ()

Triangular

cavity

receiver

Arc-shaped

cavity

receiver

Rectangular

cavity

receiver

Semicircular

cavity

receiver

Positive

trapezoidal

cavity receiver

Reverse

trapezoidal

cavity receiver

Hetero

trapezoidal

cavity receiver

Convex

cavity

receiver

100

60

100

100

100

100

100

100

60

100

100

60

100

100

60

100

100

As can be seen in Table 3, when the inlet uid temperature was 90 C, the triangular cavity receiver has the best

thermal performance. The experimental eciency factor

is 0.870 and the experimental heat removal factor is 0.866

when the inlet uid temperature is 90 C. However, when

the inlet uid temperature is 150 C, the experimental eciency factor is decreased to 0.843 and the experimental

heat removal factor is reduced to 0.824, respectively. The

arc-shaped cavity receiver has larger eciency factor and

heat removal factor than rectangular cavity receiver, semicircular cavity receiver and convex cavity receiver but smaller than triangular cavity receiver when the inlet uid

temperature is 90 C. Moreover, when the inlet uid temperature is 150 C, the rectangular cavity receiver has larger eciency factor and heat removal factor than arcshaped cavity receiver, semicircular cavity receiver and

convex cavity receiver. Nevertheless, the eciency factor

and heat removal factor of positive trapezoidal cavity receiver, reverse trapezoidal cavity receiver and hetero trapezoidal cavity receiver are small among the eight kinds of linefocus Fresnel solar collectors. In addition, the hetero trapezoidal cavity receiver has the smallest eciency factor and

heat removal factor because its structure results in a larger

heat loss than the others. It can be thought that the triangular cavity receiver has the best thermal performance.

Furthermore, it is also found that the main factor which

inuences the heat removal factor considerably is the overall

heat loss coecient. For example, considering the triangular

cavity receiver; when the inlet uid temperature is 90 C, the

overall heat loss coecient is 12 W/(m2 K); when the inlet

uid temperature is 150 C, the overall heat loss coecient

is 24 W/(m2 K); when the inlet uid temperature is 180 C,

the overall heat loss coecient is 50 W/(m2 K). The corresponding value of the experimental eciency factor is

decreased to 0.811, whereas the experimental heat removal

factor is reduced to 0.805, respectively. The deviation between

the theoretical and experimental results is within 5%.

The theoretical results are also shown in Table 3. As seen in

Table 3, the eciency factors and heat removal factors of linefocus Fresnel solar collector using triangular cavity receiver

are higher than those of the other line-focus cavity receivers.

4.1. Simulation results and discussion

It can be seen from the theoretical expressions that the

main factors, which have strong inuence on the eciency

factor and heat removal factor of Fresnel lens solar collector using line-focus cavity receivers, are structural parameters of the cavities, overall heat loss coecient, geometrical

concentration ratio, convection heat transfer coecient of

receiver tube and the properties of working uid, the inner

diameter of the receiver tube, among others. Since the optimization processes for dierent cavity receivers based on

the two dimensionless parameters are similar, the line-focus

Fresnel lens solar collector using triangular cavity receiver

are just analyzed and optimized here.

The eect of the width of the cavity aperture, the inside

diameter of the receiver tube, the vertex angle of cross section through the symmetric axis of the receiver and the geometrical concentration ratio on the eciency factors and

the heat removal factors are analyzed. The calculation conditions are taken the same as the above section. It is

assumed that the other parameters are kept constant when

one specic parameter is varied.

Fig. 7 shows the relationship between the width of the

cavity aperture and the collector factors of line-focus Fresnel lens solar collector using triangular cavity receiver. It

can be seen that, when the width of the cavity aperture

increases from 5 mm to 100 mm, the collector factors rst

increase and then decrease. Thus, there exists an optimum

aperture width which is about 50 mm. The collector heat

removal factor decreases obviously because of larger width

of the cavity aperture which causes higher heat losses.

Fig. 8 illustrates the relationship between the inside

diameter of the receiver tube and the collector factors of

line-focus Fresnel lens solar collector using triangular cavity receiver. As seen, when the inside diameter of the receiver tube increases from 8 mm to 27 mm, the collector

factors rst increase and then decrease. Increasing the

inside diameter of the receiver tube could enhance the heat

transfer to some extent and cause large heat loss. Therefore, there exists an optimum inside diameter which is

about 18 mm.

Fig. 9 shows the relationship between the vertex angle of

the cross section of the receiver and the collector factors of

line-focus Fresnel lens using triangular cavity receiver.

When the vertex angle of cross section of the cavity is

increased from 15 to 150, the collector factors initially

increase rapidly. When the vertex angle is larger than 60,

little eect on thermal performance of the Fresnel lens solar

collector could be observed. This is because larger vertex

angle with large aperture width leads to increased heat loss.

Thus, there exists an optimum vertex angle which is about

60. The eciency factor and heat removal factor decrease

251

Table 3

Theoretical and experimental results of the eciency factors and heat removal factors of Fresnel lens solar collector using line-focus cavity receivers.

Working

condition

Triangular

cavity

receiver

Arc-shaped

cavity

receiver

Rectangular

cavity

receiver

Semicircular

cavity

receiver

Positive

trapezoidal cavity

receiver

Reverse

trapezoidal cavity

receiver

Hetero

trapezoidal

receiver

Convex

cavity

receiver

90 C

0

Theoretical F

0

Experimental F

Theoretical FR

Experimental FR

0.875

0.870

0.871

0.866

0.865

0.862

0.861

0.858

0.849

0.846

0.843

0.840

0.856

0.851

0.850

0.845

0.823

0.819

0.816

0.811

0.834

0.827

0.829

0.820

0.812

0.803

0.799

0.792

0.837

0.833

0.831

0.824

150 C

0

Theoretical F

0

Experimental F

Theoretical FR

Experimental FR

0.841

0.832

0.834

0.824

0.809

0.805

0.800

0.795

0.815

0.814

0.807

0.805

0.813

0.809

0.804

0.800

0.796

0.791

0.785

0.782

0.807

0.801

0.789

0.784

0.789

0.785

0.782

0.777

0.810

0.804

0.802

0.795

180 C

0

Theoretical F

0

Experimental F

Theoretical FR

Experimental FR

0.827

0.811

0.813

0.805

0.794

0.799

0.792

0.785

0.802

0.789

0.781

0.773

0.797

0.786

0.781

0.769

0.781

0.775

0.762

0.758

0.789

0.781

0.769

0.765

0.776

0.767

0.759

0.751

0.793

0.784

0.775

0.767

200 C

0

Theoretical F

Theoretical FR

0.801

0.778

0.772

0.768

0.778

0.769

0.774

0.763

0.765

0.759

0.771

0.761

0.754

0.751

0.772

0.765

250 C

0

Theoretical F

Theoretical FR

0.752

0.723

0.731

0.712

0.743

0.717

0.725

0.706

0.711

0.702

0.719

0.704

0.705

0.697

0.719

0.705

section of the cavity receiver, which similarly resulted in

larger aperture area which may lead to considerable heat

loss.

Fig. 10 illustrates the relationship between geometrical

concentration ratio and the collector factors of line-focus

Fresnel lens using triangular cavity receiver. In this case,

it is assumed that the change of geometrical concentration

ratio depended on the area change of cavity receiver aperture and the area of line-focus Fresnel lens solar concentrator is denite. As seen, when the geometrical concentration

has little eect on thermal performance of the Fresnel solar

collector because the eciency factor and heat removal factor are almost constant. Therefore, it shows that a geometrical concentration ratio higher than 55 is benecial to the

thermal performance of the line-focus Fresnel lens solar

collector.

Finally, it is shown from the optimization that the optimum aperture width of the cavity, the optimum inside

diameter of the receiver tube and the optimum vertex angle

of cross section through the symmetric axis of the receiver

Fig. 6. The relationship between the inlet uid temperature and the

collector factors (triangular cavity receiver).

Fig. 7. The relationship between the width of the cavity aperture and the

collector factors (theoretical results of triangular cavity receiver).

252

are 50 mm, 18 mm, 60, respectively. Moreover, it is suggested that the geometrical concentration ratio is more

than 55 for better thermal performance of the line-focus

Fresnel lens solar collector using triangular cavity receiver.

4.2. Optimization analysis

Fig. 8. The relationship between the inside diameter of the receiver tube

and the collector factors (theoretical results of triangular cavity receiver).

include: giving up the tube-plate binding structure and

using rectangular pipeline as the absorb plate directly in

the cavity receiver which is shown in Fig. 11; the aperture

width is set as the optimum aperture width which is about

50 mm; the equivalent diameter of each cavity receiver side

is set as the optimum inside diameter which is about

18 mm; the vertex angle is set as 60, increasing the mass

ow rate for higher convection heat transfer coecient

inside the rectangular pipelines.

For the optimized triangular cavity receiver using rectangular pipeline as the absorber plate, using the same

assumptions adopted in Section 3.1, the collector eciency

0

factor F , which is expressed as:

1=W r

F 0 q

2

0

b2 =4ft2l tan a

d

1

UL

l

k

hfi

107:4ft2 tan a sinh=2

30

collector heat removal factor FR is:

q

2

b2 =4 f t 2l tan a

FR

214:8W r L0 U L f t 2l tan a sinh=2

W r L0 U L F 0

1 exp

_ p

mC

_ p

mC

Fig. 9. The relationship between the vertex angle of cross section and the

collector factors (theoretical results of triangular cavity receiver).

31

214:8 f t 2l tan a

0

qu W r F R q

2 sinh=2go I b

b2 =4 f t 2l tan a

U L T i T a

32

pipeline is easily deformed when the system operation pressure is more than 3 bar using synthesis oil as heat transfer

uid (HTF) which might lead to poor performance. Consequently, the rectangular pipelines are replaced by tube bundles which are also shown in Fig. 11. Finally, the collector

0

eciency factor F , which is expressed as:

1

F 0 q

2

h

i

b2 =4ft2l tan a

1

1

U L 2D sinh=2

2pk lnD=Di

pDi hfi

107:4ft2l tan a

33

Fig. 10. The relationship between geometrical concentration ratio and the

collector factors (theoretical results of triangular cavity receiver).

253

( b) Tube bundles

Fig. 11. Triangular cavity receiver using rectangular pipelines and tube bundles.

Table 4

Theoretical and experimental results of the eciency factors and heat removal factors of line-focus Fresnel lens solar collector using three kinds of

triangular cavity receivers.

Triangular cavity receiver

(before optimization)

Theoretical F

0

Experimental F

Theoretical FR

Experimental FR

0.841

0.832

0.834

0.824

(after optimization)

Rectangular

pipelines

Tube

bundles

Rectangular

pipelines

Tube

bundles

Tube

plate

Rectangular

pipelines

Tube

bundles

0.926

0.892

0.903

0.879

0.922

0.881

0.898

0.873

10.1

7.21

8.27

6.67

9.63

5.89

7.67

5.95

1.08

3.81

4.65

1.21

2.73

2.86

q

2

_ p b2 =4 f t 2l tan a

pmC

FR

429:6W r L0 U L f t 2l tan a sinh=2

W r L0 U L F 0

1 exp

_ p

mC

34

429:6W r F R f t 2l tan a sinh=2

0

q

qu

2

p b2 =4 f t 2l tan a

go I b U L T i T a

35

eciency factor and heat removal factor of the triangular

cavity receiver using three kinds of absorber plate structure

are derived. The inlet uid temperature is set as 150 C.

Table 4 shows the theoretical and experimental results of

the eciency factor and heat removal factor of line-focus

Fresnel lens solar collector using three kinds of triangular

cavity receivers. As seen, the eciency factor and heat

considerably after optimization. The experimental eciency factor and heat removal factor using rectangular

pipeline as the absorber plate are improved by 7.21% and

6.67%, while the theoretical values are 10.1% and 8.27%

respectively. However, the experimental eciency factor

and heat removal factor using tube bundles as the absorber

plate are improved by 5.89% and 5.95%, while the theoretical values are 9.63% and 7.67% respectively. This indicates

that there is still some improvement potential for the structure of the absorber plate. Before optimization, the relative

error of theoretical and experimental results of eciency

factor and heat removal factor are 1.08% and 1.21%. After

optimization, the relative error of theoretical and experimental results of eciency factor and heat removal factor

increased which are 3.81% and 2.73% using rectangular

pipeline as the absorber plate. Moreover, these values are

4.65% and 2.86% respectively using tube bundles as the

absorber plate. The reasons for this are the experimental

data only obtained from several typical days which might

254

cause poor performance of insulation materials; poor air

tightness of glass cover over the cavity receiver; low accuracy of the tracking system; wide uctuation range of overall heat loss coecient, etc. In addition, the deviation

between the theoretical and experimental results of eciency factors and heat removal factors is within 5%. Consequently, it is suggested that the line-focus Fresnel lens

solar collector using rectangular pipelines triangular cavity

receiver design when the system operation pressure is not

very high (about 2 bar using synthesis oil as HTF), while

tube bundles triangular cavity receiver design should be

adopted when the system operation pressure is higher

(more than 3 bar using synthesis oil as HTF).

5. Conclusions

In this paper, the thermal performance of a line-focus

Fresnel lens solar collector using dierent cavity receivers

has been investigated. Analysis on eight dierent types of

line-focus cavity receivers is made. The collector eciency

factors and collector heat removal factors of these receivers

and two optimized line-focus cavity receivers are derived

and compared theoretically and experimentally. The main

conclusions can be drawn:

(1) The theoretical collector eciency factors and collector heat removal factors for concentrating solar collector using cavity receivers can be used to evaluate

the thermal performance of concentrating solar collectors directly. It is convenient to design the optimal

parameters of dierent cavities and to predict their

performance under dierent temperature levels with

these formulas.

(2) The analysis on the collector eciency factors and the

collector heat removal factors indicate that the triangular cavity receiver has the best thermal performance. The highest experimental heat removal

factor is about 0.805 when the operation temperature

is 180 C. An optimum width of cavity aperture is

about 50 mm, an optimum inside diameter is about

18 mm, an optimum vertex angle is about 60, and

a geometrical concentration ratio of more than 55,

are recommended, for good thermal performance of

a line-focus Fresnel lens solar collector using triangular cavity receiver.

(3) It is found that the theoretical results agree with the

test results well that the relative error of eciency factors and heat removal factors between the theoretical

and experimental results is within 5%. When the inlet

temperature is more than 200 C, the deviation is

within 10% because of the higher overall heat loss

coecient which is more than 80 W/(m2 K).

(4) When the system operation pressure is not very high

(about 2 bar using synthesis oil as HTF), the linefocus Fresnel lens solar collector using optimized

rectangular pipelines triangular cavity receiver design

can be adopted. However, it is suggested that the linefocus Fresnel lens solar collector using optimized

tube bundles triangular cavity receiver design should

be adopted when the system operation pressure is

higher (more than 3 bar using synthesis oil as HTF).

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under the Contract No.

51276112, the key scientic and technological project of

Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality under the Contract No. 10dz1203402, and the Graduates Creativity Fund of Shanghai Jiao Tong University

under the Contract No. TS0220702002.

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