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The history and development
Organization and structure of tourism
: English for tourism. Going international Kate Harding. Oxford University Press 15.02.12
: English for international tourism. Iwonna Dubicka & Margaret O'Keeffe. Pearson education
Limited. 2003
The travel and tourism industry is one of the biggest and fastest growing industries in the world. This unit
will give you an introduction to the industry, providing a sound basis for further study. You will find out
about the nature of the industry, its size and scale, and you will be introduced to the types of organizations
that form its structure.
In addition you will investigate the development of the industry and the factors which have affected the
growth of travel and tourism.
Analyze the travel and tourism industry in terms of the various sectors:
The travel sector:
The hospitality sector:
Visitor and leisure attractions:
Explain the role and function of governmental and support organisations in the travel and tourism industry.
Performance criteria
(a) Identify a range of organisations from the different sectors of the travel and tourism industry.
(b) Explain accurately the roles of governmental and support organisations in the travel and tourism
(c) Describe the function and membership of selected organisations.
Why are governments keen to get involved in tourism?
In the space below, list some reasons why you think governments are involved in tourism.
How is this government involvement achieved?
Discuss how the level of government involvement will vary from country to country depending on the
political system of each country and the level of economic dependency on tourism (e.g. the USA has never
been big on government involvement in tourism this is in line with the general ethos of the US where
private enterprise dominates rather than state-funded operations).
should tourism receive government funding? Why/why not?
Key term
Tourism The World Tourism Organisation provides the most commonly used definition of tourism:
Tourism comprises the activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their
usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes.
The nature and characteristics of travel and tourism and the travel and tourism industry
Answer the questions in pairs.
What is tourism?
What is the most profitable sector of tourism? Why?
In what way does tourism enliven the economy of the country?
Defining tourism is not a simple matter, as it is a complex industry made up of many different businesses,
the common theme being that they provide products and services to tourists. The most usually accepted
definition of tourism is that provided by the World Tourism Organisation: Tourism comprises the activities

of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one
consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes.
This definition includes the word staying and suggests that tourists stay at least one night. However, we
must acknowledge that day visitors make a huge contribution to the tourist industry and some regions and
organisations choose to include day visitors in statistics. Most UK statistics separate spending and volume
of day visitors from overnight tourists.
According to the Department of Culture, Media and Sport, the total value of the tourism and travel sectors
in 20022003 in the UK was 91.8 billion, most of which comes from domestic rather than overseas
It is acknowledged by the World Tourism Organisation that tourism is the fastest growing economic sector,
bringing foreign exchange earnings to countries and creating jobs. Jobs are not only created directly in
tourism but in related industries, for example in construction. Much tourism development occurs in
developing countries, bringing economic opportunities to local communities.
Different types of tourism
What types of tourists do you know?
What are the differences?
Read the text. Fill in the blanks. What type of tourists is the most common for Ukraine? Why?
Independent tourists
Day visits Leisure tourists Day visitors Business tourists Adventure tourists Day-trippers
Visiting friends Package holiday tourists Outgoing tourists Incoming tourists Domestic tourists
For the purposes of statistics tourists are categorised as leisure, business or visiting friends and relatives
(VFR) travellers. Thus, they are categorised by the purpose of their visit.
Leisure tourists (usually described as leisure travellers in statistics) are travelling for the purpose of
leisure so they are likely to be on holiday or taking a short break.
Business tourists are travelling to go to a meeting, conference or event associated with their business.
This is an important and growing market in the UK as more resorts and hotelsprovide conference facilities.
Visiting friends and relatives (VFR) tourists are visiting family or relatives and therefore they are
unlikely to spend as much on tourism as they are not using accommodation facilities.
There are some other types of tourism that you should know about.
Incoming tourists or inbound tourists are those who visit a country which is not their country of
residence for the purposes of tourism. If the tourist comes from France to the UK then they are outbound
from France and incoming to the UK. Overseas visitors or incoming tourists to the UK spent about 11.9
billion in 2003.
Domestic tourists are those people who are travelling within their own country for tourism purposes.
We have already noted in the tourism definition that, strictly, people are only tourists if they stay in a place
outside their usual environment. This means that people on day trips are not officially tourists, which
statistics count as those who stay at least one night in a place. A day-tripper is also known as an
Day-trippers spend money in the tourism sector and boost the economy, so it is important to measure the
value of their spending. In the UK, this is measured in the Day Visits Survey.
Day visits are defined as trips which last three hours or more and which are not taken on a regular basis.
Day visitors spent almost 30 billion in 2003, even more than those on overnight stays, so they must
be taken note of.
Outgoing tourists are those who leave their own country to visit another country. Thus, if you go on
summer holiday to France or Spain, you are an outgoing tourist.
Adventure tourists are those who are participating in sports or adventurous activities whilst on holiday,
for example whitewater rafting. It is difficult to measure them statistically as there is no agreement on
what actually constitutes adventure. Many tour operators use the term loosely to attract certain types of
Package holiday tourists are those who have booked a package from a tour operator. This will
include their holiday accommodation, transport and transfer to resort.
Independent tourists are those people who have arranged all their own transport and accommodation
without using travel professionals. This group is increasing as the Internet becomes more widely used.

Skills practice
Study each of the examples below. What kind of tourists are they? Note that the examples might fit
into more than one category.
Example Type of tourist
Type of tourist
Janine is taking a holiday in the UK. She lives in France.
Salim is going on holiday to Brighton. He lives in Loughborough.
Miguel and Jose are visiting Wales on holiday from Spain. They are going on a hanggliding course. They booked the course, accommodation and flight with a Spanish tour
Maria and Ken are going to Spain for a weekend break. They live in Glasgow.
Marguerite is a doctor. She has to attend a conference in Tenerife.
The Patel family are going on holiday to Disney in Florida. They booked directly with
Thomson in their home town of Swansea.
Suzie is going to New York for two days and has booked a flight on the British
Airways website. She also booked a hotel on the Novotel website.
Peter goes to visit his sister in Ireland every Christmas.
Miguel is visiting the UK to attend a language course for two weeks.
Characteristics of the tourism industry
Types of business
Many of the businesses in tourism are very small. Government figures show that the tourism industry
consists of 127,000 businesses and 80 per cent of these have a turnover of less than 250,000 per year. In
spite of this, the industry is dominated by a few large companies. They have the greatest market shares and
the most influence in shaping the industry. These are companies you will have heard of, such as Thomson,
First Choice and Thomas Cook. They are tour operators but also have retail travel businesses with hundreds
of outlets. In each sector the same situation occurs. There are thousands of small hotels and bed and
breakfasts, but the major hotel groups, such as Holiday Inn and Accor, dominate. In the airline
sector, British Airways is still a major player, although it is challenged by some low-cost operators like
Ryanair. Most organisations in the travel and tourism industry are privately owned. These organisations
may be huge companies, such as British Airways, or small businesses. They usually aim to make a profit
and are commercial companies. When they fail to make a profit over a period of time they are likely to
cease trading. All theme parks, restaurants, tour operators and travel agents in the UK are privately owned.
There are different types of private ownership, ranging from sole traders to public limited companies. Sole
traders are small and run by one person, as the name suggests. A public limited company is listed on the
stock market and is owned by its shareholders, who may buy and sell shares as they see fit.
Use of new technology
What technological developments are used by tourist industry?
Read the text and make a summary/
Early forms of technology in the travel and tourism industry were systems which linked tour operators
to travel agencies via terminals and allowed travel agents to make bookings through the system. These
were Viewdata systems. By todays standards, View data is unsophisticated and out-of-date technology,
although it is still used. Meanwhile, airlines developed computer reservation systems (CRS). Airlines
started to use computers in the 1950s to store and change the huge amount of information they needed to
access. The CRS was used internally by airlines, and agents would use the OAG publication to look up
flight times etc., and then telephone the airline to make a booking. Today, travel agencies have direct access
to the CRS systems. Global distribution systems (GDS) were introduced to link up several CRS systems
to make them accessible to the travel agent. With the latest of these products, the travel agent can make late
availability searches and view brochures and destination information online. The product allows multioperator searches, a feature which saves considerable time for the travel agent. Information is also
available on coach, rail, air and sea travel, and currency conversion. Some global distribution services
include fully integrated back office systems. This means that a travel agencys booking and accounting
procedures can be automated.

The Internet is growing rapidly as a means of booking our holidays and flights. It is estimated that the
British book between 5 per cent and 10 per cent of their holidays and trips on the Internet. In America, this
figure is about 30 per cent. The growth in Internet booking for flights can be attributed to the low-cost
airlines, which have educated passengers in how to book quickly and easily via the Internet, and offered
discounts for doing so. Travel agents and tour operators are also using the Internet to present their products
and services and many, but not all, accept bookings online.
Here are some other examples of the use of new technology.
Self check-in at airports Where this service is available, passengers can save time by checking in at a
kiosk where they can choose their seat and print their own boarding pass. From there they can go to a fast
bag drop and leave their hold baggage. Passengers without baggage can go straight to the boarding gate.
Online check-in for airlines This is an alternative where passengers can check in without even being at
the airport. From home or the office they go online and follow instructions to check in, choosing their seat
and printing their boarding pass. It is not offered by all airlines.
Online brochures Kuoni (a tour operator) has been one of the first to present online brochures, as well as
providing traditional ones. The customer can browse the brochure at home online and Kuoni saves money
on printing and distributing brochures.
Air France
To enhance customer comfort and security and to assess the impact of new technologies on the fluidity of
airport border crossings, Air France is trialling an experimental automated security screening system
dubbed PEGASE (Programme dExprimentation dune Gestion Automatise et Securise). It is based on a
biometric fingerprint identification technology developed by Sagem and is to be tested on volunteer
customers for a six-month period at Paris-Charles de Gaulle airports Terminal 2F. Click on our website, section e-services, for the exact dates.
The extract shows information about a border control system trialled by Air France.
Participants, who are volunteers at the moment, have prints taken of their index fingers which are filed
along with their personal data. When going through immigration control at Charles de Gaulle
airport in Paris, a passenger is authenticated by placing their fingers on a scanner.
1 What do you think are the benefits of the system?
2 Are there any drawbacks?
3 Find out more at in the e-services section.
History of tourism
relics educational ethnology step luxury privileged Oracle
Recreational and 1 educational travel already existed in the classical world and, even earlier, in Egypt
under the pharaohs. In the latter, there is evidence of journeys emanating from a 2 luxury lifestyle and the
search for amusement, experience and relaxation. The 3 privileged groups of the population cultivated the
first journeys for pleasure. Their writings tell us that they visited famous monuments and 4 relics of ancient
Egyptian culture, including, for example, the 5 step pyramid of Sakkara, the Sphinx and the great pyramids
of Gizeh buildings that had been constructed a good thousand years earlier. The Greeks had similar traditions. They travelled to Delphi in order to question the6 Oracle, participated in the Pythian Games
(musical and sporting competitions) or the early Olympic Games. Herodot (485424 B.C.) , the welltravelled writer with an interest in both history and 7 ethnology who visited Egypt, North Africa, the
Black Sea, Mesopotamia and Italy, pioneered a new type of research trip.
guiding corporate realisation custom licentiousness wandering merchants
The mobility of mediaeval 1 corporate society was shaped by its own forms and understandings of travel
tailored to diverse groups, including 2 merchants students, soldiers, pilgrims, journeymen, beggars and
robbers. From the twelfth century, the movement of errant scholars became increasingly important.
Journeys to famous educational institutions in France (Paris, Montpellier), England (Oxford) and Italy
(Bologna) became both a 3 custom and a component of education. The desire to experience the world
emerged as an individual, unique 4 guiding principle. Travelling tuned from a means into an end: now, one
travelled in order to learn on the road and developed in doing so a love of travel and life that not

infrequently crossed over into 5 licentiousness and the abandonment of mores. With regard to the motivation for travel, one can see here an important process with long-term repercussions travelling and 6
wandering has, since then, been seen as a means of confronting oneself and achieving self-7 realisation
innovative vouchers clientele strata inclusive political tempt
Organised group holidays offering an all-1 inclusive price that reduced the travellers' costs were an
innovation of the 1840s. Thomas Cook (1808-1892) , a brilliant entrepreneur
from England, is seen as their inventor . His first all-inclusive holiday in 1841 took 571 people from
Leicester to Loughborough and supplied both meals and brass music. From 1855, Cook offered guided
holidays abroad, for example in 1863 to Switzerland. These catered to a mixed 2 clientele, from heads of
state and princes to average representatives of the middle, lower middle and working classes. Cook,
inspired by clear socio-3 political motives, wanted to use Sunday excursions to 4 tempt workers out of the
misery and alcoholism of the cities into the green of the countryside. He had more success with
inexpensive all-inclusive holidays, often to foreign destinations, for the middle class. His introduction of 5
vouchers for hotels and tourist brochures was highly 6 innovative He influenced the travel agencies later
opened in Germany, above all those associated with the names of Rominger (Stuttgart, 1842). Carl Stangen
(18331911) organised holidays through Europe, then from 1873 to Palestine and Egypt, before extending
them to the whole world in 1878. Over this period, the travel agency was able to establish itself as a
specialised institution. It channelled ever greater demands for relaxation and variety among broadening
social 7 strata: from the 1860s, travelling became a type of "popular movement" that spread throughout
clientele Periodisations coastal accommodation distraction recreation bulk
The development of tourism in the 20th century can be divided using a number of different 1
Periodisations It is common, and plausible, to identify a "developmental phase" between 1915 and 1945.
This covers the stagnation in tourism as a result of the First World War, but also transitional developments
that steadily acquired importance. It was preceded by a period of growth in which, for example, the number
of stays in a hotel or other form of holiday2 accommodation in Germany rose about 471 percent between
1871 and 1913, a good seven times faster than the level of growth in the population. The3 bulk of these
belonged to the upper middle class, and soon the entire middle class, who made their way to the newly
opened 4 coastal resorts on the North and Baltic Seas, as well as to the spa, health and gambling resorts.
Germans took to bathing holidays relatively late in comparison to the pioneering British and, at first, for
health reasons, with socialising and 5 recreation coming later. However, they became increasingly popular,
as evident in the development of famous locations, coastal resorts and beaches. The loss of their former
exclusivity and the shift towards entertainment and 6 distraction signified an increase in social
accessibility, whereas, for example, the new ski and winter tourism retained its chic 7 clientele at the turn
of the century.
Fill in the blanks with the words from the box
Promotion and marketing in tourism
economic levels grows professional benefits potential strategy region challenges increasing
visitation time visitor rivals competition governments tourism trends sector

The economic1 of tourism is substantial and the following 2and Promotional3 intends to maximise
the 4tourism can generate. Moyne Shire aims to work alongside a dedicated and 5tourism industry 6
to ensure the 7.maintains and 8its share of the lucrative 9market. Key 10. to achieving this
Responding strategically and creatively to growing 11 of competition;
Responding to changing 12and social 13.;
14tourism dispersal throughout the Shire; and
Maximising 15., yield and 16.satisfaction.

Competition for leisure 17.has never been greater. Tourisms18 include

everything from sport to home renovation. As19and the private
sector become increasingly aware of the value of tourism, the inevitable result is
escalating tourism marketing
17 time
19 governments
20 competition
II. Fill in the blanks with your own words (one word for each blank)
Leisure travel
Leisure travel 1 was associated 2 with the Industrial Revolution 3 in the United Kingdom the first
European country 4 to promote leisure time to the increasing industrial population. 5 Initially, this applied
6 to the owners 7 of the machinery of production, the economic oligarchy, the factory owners 8 and the
traders. 9 These comprised the new middle class. Cox & Kings was the first official travel company to 10
be formed in 1758.
The British origin of 11 this new industry 12 is reflected in many place names. In Nice, France, one 13 of
the first and best-established holiday resorts 14 on the French Riviera, the long esplanade along the
seafront 15 is known 16 to this day as the Promenade des Anglais; in many 17 other historic resorts in
continental Europe, old, well-established palace hotels have names 18 like the Hotel Bristol, the Hotel
Carlton or the Hotel Majestic reflecting the dominance of English customers.
Many leisure-oriented tourists travel to 19 the tropics, 20 both in the summer and winter.
Pre Writing: Organization and structure of tourism
Governments are involved in tourism for a variety of reasons.
Tourism has an impact on the economy of a country (it brings in foreign currency, impacts on the balance
of payments, increases employment and aids regional development.
Tourism involves movement across national frontiers governments have to control and monitor this.
Tourism is often used to enhance national image governments are keen to ensure that outsiders have a
positive perception of their country.
The tourism product may need protection as well as development through government aid. Many core
tourist attractions are public property (landscapes, natural and built heritage).
Government provides or has an interest in the infrastructure upon which tourism exists public services,
roads, railways, etc., although it should be remembered that very little infrastructure is provided
solely for tourism.
The industry is very diverse and government involvement is necessary to regulate and coordinate
activities and provide consumer protection.
To provide finance necessary for marketing and development at the destination.
Taxation many governments use tourism as a source of tax revenue. In the UK we are taxed on
accommodation and meals, air travel, car rental and package holidays.
An analysis of the travel and tourism industry in terms of the various sectors:
The travel sector: travel agents; tour operators; incoming tour operators; internet tour operators; ground handling
agents; tour guides and couriers; hotel booking agencies; conference and incentive organisers; airbrokers.
The transport sector: airport and port authorities; airlines scheduled, charter, low cost, cruise and shipping
companies; coach companies; railways; car rental companies; reservation and sales staff.
The hospitality sector: accommodation (hotels, major hotel groups and consortia, self catering, bed and breakfast,
camping and caravan sites, holiday centres, timeshare); catering (restaurants, fast food

outlets, takeaways, snack bars, tearooms, inns, bars). Quality assurance schemes classification and grading of
Visitor and leisure attractions: theatres and cinemas; nightclubs; shops; museums; art galleries; theme parks;
zoos; wildlife parks; sports centres; stately homes; palaces; gardens; historic houses;
heritage sites (religious, industrial, transport); other historical sites; industrial visitor centres (for example,
distilleries); countryside and scenery; country and forest parks; nature trails; craft shops and visitor centres.
Quality assurance schemes grading of visitor attractions.