Anda di halaman 1dari 10

This article was downloaded by: [University of Windsor]

On: 16 July 2013, At: 10:54


Publisher: Routledge
Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer
House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK

Journal of Clinical and Experimental


Neuropsychology
Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information:
http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ncen20

Estimation of Premorbid Intelligence: The Word


Accentuation Test - Buenos Aires Version
Debora I. Burin , Ricardo E. Jorge , Ral A. Arizaga & Jane S. Paulsen
Published online: 09 Aug 2010.

To cite this article: Debora I. Burin , Ricardo E. Jorge , Ral A. Arizaga & Jane S. Paulsen (2000) Estimation of Premorbid
Intelligence: The Word Accentuation Test - Buenos Aires Version, Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology,
22:5, 677-685
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1076/1380-3395(200010)22:5;1-9;FT677

PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE


Taylor & Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (the Content) contained
in the publications on our platform. However, Taylor & Francis, our agents, and our licensors make no
representations or warranties whatsoever as to the accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose of
the Content. Any opinions and views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors,
and are not the views of or endorsed by Taylor & Francis. The accuracy of the Content should not be relied
upon and should be independently verified with primary sources of information. Taylor and Francis shall
not be liable for any losses, actions, claims, proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and other
liabilities whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to or
arising out of the use of the Content.
This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic
reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any
form to anyone is expressly forbidden. Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at http://
www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions

Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology


2000, Vol. 22, No. 5, pp. 677-685

1380-3395/00/2205-677$15.00
Swets & Zeitlinger

Estimation of Premorbid Intelligence:


The Word Accentuation Test Buenos Aires Version*
Debora I. Burin1, Ricardo E. Jorge2, Ral A. Arizaga3, and Jane S. Paulsen2, 4
1

Facultad de Psicologa, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, The University of Iowa Hospitals & Clinics, 2Departments of Psychiatry and 4Neurology, and 3 Instituto Nacional de Servicios Sociales para Jubilados
y Pensionados, Argentina

Downloaded by [University of Windsor] at 10:54 16 July 2013

ABSTRACT
We have sought to adapt and validate a NART-like Spanish test, the Word Accentuation Test (WAT: Del
Ser, Montalvo, Espinosa, Villapalos, & Bermejo, 1997) to estimate acquired intelligence in local normal
older adults. The test requires examinees to read aloud infrequent, irregularly stressed Spanish words, a
situation that presumably requires lexical knowledge. Results in a sample of 74 participants show that the
revised WAT (i.e., the WAT for Buenos Aires) has good concurrent validity with the WAIS Vocabulary
subtest and number of years of formal education, as well as high internal consistency. Performance on this
test was dissociated from age, memory, or frontal/executive measures.

There are numerous clinical, research, and medicolegal situations where knowledge of an individuals previous level of intellectual functioning is important. Since data on premorbid testing
are rarely available, it becomes necessary to estimate an individuals previous level of functioning. There are at least four general methods
used to estimate premorbid IQ. Lezak (1983)
initially suggested that an individuals best performance be used as the standard against which
all other aspects of the patients current performance are compared. This best performance
method has been criticized because of its failure
to consider normal variability among tests, and
often results in an overestimation of IQ (Mortensen & Gade, 1993). As a consequence, an
individuals deficits are overstated. A second
popular method of estimating previous ability is
to use WAIS-R subtests with demonstrated insensitivity to brain damage (i.e., Vocabulary and
Information). Although is it well established that
*

these subtests are among the most stable on the


WAIS-R, limitations of the estimates exist. For
instance, Vocabulary performance can be affected by a number of clinical conditions and
Information performance is often associated
with educational level (Crawford, 1988; Lezak,
1995). The use of demographic measures to estimate previous functioning has also been accepted by several neuropsychologists, with education, race, and occupation being powerful predictors. Although several regression equations
have been developed (Crawford & Allan, 1997;
Reynolds & Gutkin, 1979; Wilson et al., 1978),
the most popular has been that derived by
Barona, Reynolds, and Chastain (1984). Unfortunately, these methods typically have a significant amount of error variance associated with
the estimate (Perez, Schlottmann, Holloway, &
Ozolin, 1996). As a consequence, it has been
recommended that demographic indices be used
with caution and be avoided in persons with ex-

We thank two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments and suggestions on a previous draft of this
paper and Dr. Del Ser for early input in our project.
Address correspondence to: D.I. Burin, Programa de Estudios Cognitivos, Instituto de Investigaciones, Facultad
de Psicologa UBA, Independencia 3065 3, Cap. Fed., Argentina. Fax: 54 1 957-5888. E-mail: dburin@psi.
uba.ar
Accepted for Publication: April 14, 2000.

Downloaded by [University of Windsor] at 10:54 16 July 2013

678

DEBORA I. BURIN ET AL.

ceptional abilities, mental retardation, or learning disabilities (Sweet, Moberg, & Tovian,
1990).
Most recently, a great deal of attention has
been devoted to the use of reading tests for premorbid functioning estimates (Blair & Spreen,
1989; Grober & Sliwinski, 1991; Johnstone,
Callahan, Kapila, & Bouman, 1996; Kareken,
Gur, & Saykin, 1995; Nelson, 1982; Nelson &
OConnell, 1978). The best-known test for this
approach is the National Adult Reading Test
(NART: Nelson, 1982). It consists of 50 words
to be read aloud. Infrequent and irregular words
are included, so that correct pronunciation reflects previous knowledge of the words. Presumably, higher verbal intelligence implies a
broader lexicon; and in fact this test, restandardized and its revised version (NART-R:
Crawford, 1992; Nelson & Willison, 1991) show
medium to high correlations with the Full-Scale
IQ of the WAIS-R and higher correlations with
the Verbal subscale (Filley & Cullum, 1997;
Mockler, Riordan, & Sharma, 1996). In longitudinal studies, the NART was not affected by age
(Korten et al., 1997), predicted Full-Scale IQ
that was obtained one year previously better
than re-test or the Barona (Raguet, Campbell,
Berry, & Schmitt, 1996), and also predicted
Verbal IQ accurately in a 5-year longitudinal
study (Carswell, Graves, Snow, & Tierney,
1997). Although the NART does show the effects of dementia, the decrement is minimal in
contrast to other estimates of premorbid intellect
and does not impact estimations made in the
early stages of disease (Crawford, Parker, &
Besson, 1988; Fromm, Holland, Nebes, &
Oakley, 1991; Maddrey, Cullum, Weiner, &
Filley, 1996; Paque & Warrington, 1995; Sharpe
& OCarroll, 1991).
Despite its popularity and widespread use, the
NART is not readily adapted to other languages
and cultures. Indeed, there currently exist at
least four separate versions for use in various
countries and cultures (Blair & Spreen, 1989;
Del Ser et al., 1997; Grober & Sliwinski, 1991;
Nelson, 1982). The NART relies on the assumption that correct pronunciation of irregular
words depends on previous encounters with that
word. Spanish, however, is considered to be a

shallow or transparent language because


the correspondence between graphemes and
phonemes is very consistent, although not isomorphic as in Serbo-Croatian (Carreiras et al.,
1996; Signorini, 1997). Variations of graphemephoneme transcription are very few and also
subjected to rules. Written words, known or not
known to the reader, and even pseudowords, can
be read aloud by directly generating the sounds
from letters even by children who have only
recently begun reading (Signorini, 1997). Deficits in phonological awareness are a key factor
in reading disabilities (Jimenez-Gonzalez,
1997). Writing from speech (phoneme-grapheme conversion) is more complicated, because
the writer must know when to apply several
complex rules (such as double letters, mute h
or u after g, etc.), some of which come
from the preservation of etymological spellings
(such as letters s, c, or z for the /s/
sound).
In reading Spanish, one source of irregularity
is lexical stress assignment. The most frequent
stress pattern in multi-syllabic words is on the
penultimate syllable, although there are other
regularities (such as words ending in a consonant other than /n/ or /s/, in which case the last
syllable is stressed). Words that do not follow
these regularities have an orthographic stress
mark to signal the accented syllable. Correct
pronunciation of such words requires seeing the
stress mark, or previous knowledge of the word
when the accent is not written; for example, in
uppercase letters where orthographic stress is
not required. Del Ser and colleagues (1997) relied on this fact to construct a Spanish version of
the NART, the Word Accentuation Test (WAT).
They selected low-frequency words (below
1/70,000 according to Juillard & Chang-Rodriguez, 1964) to be read aloud; these were then
printed in uppercase letters without their graphic
accents. The final, 30-item WAT had high and
significant correlations with Vocabulary and
Picture Completion, and lower but significant
correlations with the Raven Matrices (Raven,
1960) and the Mini Mental State Examination
(Folstein, Folstein, & McHugh, 1975), in a sample of 81 normal older adults. The WAT also
had high reliability coefficients in terms of test-

Downloaded by [University of Windsor] at 10:54 16 July 2013

WORD ACCENTUATION TEST

retest and internal consistency (Del Ser et al.,


1997). A comparison between 40 controls and
20 mild to moderate participants with dementia
did not find significant differences in WAT performance (Del Ser et al., 1997).
Since Spanish has marked geographical differences, in this paper we present the development of a local version of the WAT, the Word
Accentuation Test Buenos Aires (WAT-BA)
version. The trans-cultural adaptation of a test
has to show the psychometric equivalence of
both versions, which includes examining
whether the items are measuring the same dimension or ability and with similar psychometric properties (Berry, Poortinga, Segall, &
Dasen, 1992). In our case this is of particular
importance since the test relies on lexical
knowledge, which has marked regional variations within Spanish-speaking communities. For
example, a word included in the Spanish version, abogaca (legal profession or
law), is a very common word in Buenos Aires, and presumably will offer no difficulty regarding its stress. We added 42 more words to
the original 30-item Spanish version, following
Del Ser and colleagues criteria (low frequency
and variation in the stressed syllable). We have
tested the 72 words in a sample of normal older
adults to develop a locally valid and reliable version of the WAT. The current paper provides
reliability and concurrent and discriminative
validity of this newly devised version. A comparison of both versions psychometric properties in this sample is included to emphasize the
importance of the local adaptation of some tests.

METHOD
Participants
The participants recruited were urban older adults
who lived in the community. Each participant was
screened for the following exclusion criteria: (1)
Age < 65 years old; (2) Mini Mental State Examination (Folstein et al., 1975) < 26; (3) Diagnosed
neurologic or psychiatric condition currently affecting cognitive functions; (4) Abnormal performance (> 2 SD for age norms) on any of the neuropsychological tests (described in next section). The
study was conducted at the Memory Study Pro-

679

gram, Neuroepidemiology Area, Epidemiology and


Prevention Division, Health Attention, National
Institute of Social Services for the Retired in Buenos Aires.
Eighty-five individuals volunteered to participate in the study, all of whom were given feedback
following their performance. Eleven met exclusion
criteria upon assessment, leaving 74 participants
(15 male, 59 female) in the final sample. The average age was 73.2 years old (SD = 4.9; range = 6585) and the average number of years of formal education was 9.8 (SD = 4.2; range = 1-20).
Materials
Participants completed a semi-structured interview
concerning demographic variables, medical history, and problems with memory and daily activities. Participants were administered the following
neuropsychological battery: (1) Mini Mental State
Examination (CAED, 1995; Folstein, et al., 1975);
(2) Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Total
learning, Delayed recall, and Recognition (adapted
from Lezak, 1995); (3) Rey-Osterrieth Figure,
Copy and Delayed recall (adapted from Lezak,
1995); (4) WAIS Vocabulary Subtest (Wechsler,
1955, [1984]); (5) Word Accentuation Test Buenos Aires, experimental version; (6) Trail Making
Test (Reitan & Wolfson, 1993); (7) Stroop Test
(Golden, 1978, [1994]); (8) Letter (P, L, M) and
Category (animals) Fluency (adapted from Lezak,
1995).
The experimental version of the Word Accentuation Test Buenos Aires (WAT-BA) included the
30 words from the original WAT. With the help of
a linguist, 42 low-frequency words (below 23 /
2,000,000 according to Alameda & Cuetos, 1995)
were added, 17 stressed on the antepenultimate, 20
on the penultimate, and 5 on the final syllable.
Standards for administration, including the instructions, examples, and scoring, were developed. Instructions tell the examinee to read aloud correctly, without consideration of the words meaning. Each participant starts with an example consisting of a word printed in capital letters, which
the participant must read aloud; if he or she fails,
the examiner corrects him or her and repeats the
instruction. The participant is then handed a card
with the 72 experimental words, printed in capital
letters (graphic accents in Spanish are generally
omitted above uppercase letters), which are to be
read aloud without feedback. The examiner has a
response sheet with the same words, accentuated
correctly, and scores 1 (correct) or 0 (incorrect) for
each word. Total score is the number of words read
accurately.

680

DEBORA I. BURIN ET AL.

Procedure
Participants were invited to check their memory in the context of a research study at the Memory Study Program. After consent was obtained,
volunteers were tested individually in a 1 1/2 hour
session and were given feedback on their overall
performance in the battery. Statistical analyses
were performed with SPSS software, version 4.0
for Macintosh.

Downloaded by [University of Windsor] at 10:54 16 July 2013

RESULTS
Descriptive statistics of participants performance in the neuropsychological battery are
shown in Table 1.
All participants understood and could follow
the instructions without problems. No participant required more than five minutes to read the
words.
Given that we wanted to prioritize concurrent
validity with vocabulary tasks, items for the final version of the WAT-BA were chosen on the
basis of their correlation with the WAIS Vocabulary test. Forty-four items of the original 72

had a significant correlation (p < 0.01). These 44


items together accounted for 92% (85% after
adjusting for sample size and number of variables) of the Vocabulary variance (r2 =0.92, r2
adj. = 0.85, SE = 3.9, p < 0.001) in a standard
multiple correlation/regression. Twenty-one of
the original 30 Spanish items were retained. The
original WAT items accounted for 40% (12%
after adjusting for sample size and number of
variables) of the Vocabulary variance (r2 =0.40,
r2 adj. = 0.12, SE = 9.8, ns). These results support the need to develop a local version.
The final version of the WAT-BA consisted
of 44 words: 20% stressed on the last syllable,
25% on the penultimate, and 55% on the antepenultimate. In comparison, of the words included in the original WAT, 30% were stressed
on the last syllable, 30% on the penultimate, and
40% on the antepenultimate.
Reliability of the final WAT-BA was high
(internal consistency using Cronbachs alpha =
0.94).
In a further evaluation of validity, we examined the contribution of Vocabulary perfor-

Table 1. Demographic and Neuropsychological Characteristics of the Study Sample.


Variable
Age
Educ
MMSE
Vocabulary
WAT-BA
RLT T
RLT Rec
RLT Rcn
RLT RcnE
FigCopy
FigRec
TMT A
TMT B
PFl
CFl

(SD)

173.23
119.82
128.15
159.92
134.76
140.97
117.77
112.11
112.70
131.70
114.46
150.77
122.53
134.88
116.52

1(4.97)
1(4.19)
1(1.19)
(10.44)
1(8.67)
1(7.74)
1(1.29)
1(2.16)
1(2.93)
1(4.43)
1(5.05)
(18.49)
(50.50)
(10.69)
1(4.23)

Range
20 (65 85)
19 (1 20)
4 (26 30)
51 (28 79)
37 (7 44)
34 (22 56)
9 (5 13)
9 (6 15)
15 (0 15)
19.5 (16.5 36)
27.5 (2 29.5)
107 (23 130)
255 (45 300)
48 (11 59)
21 (7 28)

Note. Educ = Years of Formal Education; MMSE = Mini-Mental State Exam; Vocabulary = WAIS Vocabulary
subtest; WAT-BA = Word Accentuation Test Buenos Aires Version; RLT T = Rey Auditory Verbal Learning
Test Total Words; RLT Rec = Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test Delayed Recall; RLT Rcn = Rey Auditory
Verbal Learning Test Delayed Recognition; RLT RcnE = Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test Delayed Recognition Errors; Fig Copy = Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure Copy; FigRec = Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure Delayed
Recall; TMT A = Trail Making Test A; TMT B = Trail Making Test B; PFl = Phonological Fluency; SFl = Categorical Fluency.

681

Downloaded by [University of Windsor] at 10:54 16 July 2013

WORD ACCENTUATION TEST

mance, years of formal education, and age as


predictors of the WAT-BA in a hierarchical regression (see Table 2).
Both Vocabulary and education had a high
correlation with WAT-BA, but age did not (r
Vocabulary, WAT-BA = 0.85, p < 0.01; r Education, WATBA = 0.71, p < 0.01; r Age, WAT-BA= 0.16, ns ).
Vocabulary accounted for 73% of the WAT-BA
variance. Given the high correlation of the
WAT-BA with the Vocabulary subtest, the addition of education added a statistically significant
but clinically irrelevant percentage (3%) to the
prediction of the WAT-BA variance. For prediction purposes, regression coefficients (B), confidence intervals, and standardized regression coefficients ( ) are reported.
F i n a l l y, w e e x a m i n e d c o n v e r g e n t discriminant validity with factor analysis. We
included age, WAT-BA, Vocabulary, education,
Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test Delayed
Recall and Delayed Recognition, Rey Osterrieth
Complex Figure Copy and Delayed Recall, and
Trail Making Test A and B. We employed princ i p a l c o m p o n e n t s ex t r a c t i o n , r e t a i n i n g
eigenvalues greater than 0.9, with Varimax rotation. After rotation, three orthogonal factors
emerged that accounted for 68% of the variance
(see Table 3).
Factor 1 is defined by high loadings of Vocabulary, WAT-BA, and education, so it may
represent a crystallized intelligence factor. Rey
Osterrieth Complex Figure Copy also loads
heavily on this factor. The second factor is
represented by Trail Making Test A and B. We
interpreted this factor as a speed/executive factor. Factor 3 has high loadings of Rey Auditory

Verbal Learning Test Delayed Recall and Recognition, Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure Delayed Recall, and age. This third factor appeared
to be a delayed memory factor, and to have a
moderate negative correlation with age. Both the
WAT-BA and the Vocabulary subtest exhibited
very low correlations with the latter two factors.

DISCUSSION
We have sought to adapt and validate a NARTlike Spanish test, the WAT, to estimate intelligence in older adults from the Buenos Aires
area. While our selection of items accounted for
92% of the WAIS Vocabularys variance (85%
if adjusted for sample size and measurement
error), items from the original WAT only accounted for 40% of the same variance, 12% if
adjusted. This is a clear indication that a local
adaptation of the WAT was necessary. These
findings suggest that care should be maximized
when using tests initially developed in samples
that differ from the one currently seen. More
specifically, transporting a neuropsychological
test to a different cultural environment may require more than language translation and new
norms. Some specific tests and/or test items can
have a different meaning or can rely upon different abilities in different cultural contexts. Since
it is not an uncommon practice to simply translate tests from English, or employ a test developed in another culture, the current findings suggest that increased caution is required when tests
are used across cultures. Future clinical and research practices may need to more carefully

Table 2. Hierarchical Regression of WAIS Vocabulary (W-Voc), Years of Formal Education (Educ), and Age
as Predictors with the WAT-BA as Criterion.
Variables

95% conf.
interv.

r2 increase

W-Voc
Educ
Age
Intercept

0.58
0.46
0.03
1.79

0.44 0.71
0.12 0.80
0.24 0.17
19.28 15.69

0.69
0.22
0.02

0.85
0.71
0.16

0.72*
0.03*
ns
ns

* p < 0.001.

682

DEBORA I. BURIN ET AL.

Table 3. Communalities (h2) and Factor Loadings for Factor Analysis on Age, Education, and Neuropsychological Variables.
Variable

Downloaded by [University of Windsor] at 10:54 16 July 2013

Vocabulary
WAT-BA
Educ
Age
RLT Rec
RLT RcnE
FigCopy
FigRec
TMT A
TMT B

h2

F1

F2

0.81
0.80
0.63
0.49
0.69
0.53
0.65
0.51
0.78
0.82

0.84
0.81
0.67
0.21
0.08
0.21
0.79
0.22
0.30
0.30

0.25
0.30
0.43
0.07
0.35
0.05
0.09
0.40
0.81
0.85

F3
0.20
0.24
0.04
0.66
0.75
0.70
0.17
0.55
0.14
0.12

Note. Vocabulary = WAIS Vocabulary subtest; WAT-BA = Word Accentuation Test Buenos Aires Version;
Educ = Years of Formal Education; RLT Rec = Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test Delayed Recall; RLT RcnE
= Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test Delayed Recognition Errors; Fig Copy = Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure
Copy; FigRec = Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure Delayed Recall; TMT A = Trail Making Test A; TMT B = Trail
Making Test B.

consider the methodological issues raised by the


findings of this study. Literal equivalence is not
the same as psychometric equivalence.
Findings from the current study also argue for
the superiority of reading tests over educational
estimations of intellect. In this study, both Vocabulary and the WAT-BA had high correlations
with the number of years of formal education,
although this correlation was lower than that of
the relationship with the other WAIS subtests.
Thus, our findings are consistent with others
who prefer vocabulary tasks to estimate premorbid intelligence because of their preservation in aging. Vocabulary explained at least 85%
of the variance in the final version of the WATBA reading test. Formal education is not the
only source of acquired or crystallized intelligence, so a psychometric test is more desirable
to estimate intelligence than a demographic variable such as years of formal education.
The estimation of reliability used in the current study was high. Given that Cronbachs alpha coefficient is used as an estimate of the correlation of two parallel tests, two different administrations of the same test, or any split-half
reliability coefficient (Crocker & Algina, 1986),
we expect other types of reliability to be high.
Reliability of the WAT-BA is likely to remain

high given the ease of its administration and


scoring.
Concurrent-discriminant validity was also
determined to be good for the WAT-BA. We
have shown that performance on the WAT-BA
loaded heavily on a factor that also reflected
performance on the Vocabulary subtest and
years of education. This factor was unrelated to
age, memory, or frontal/executive measures that
seemed to load on two other different factors, so
we defined it as a crystallized intelligence factor. It should be noted that the Rey-Osterrieth
Complex Figure Copy also had a moderate correlation with this factor; other researchers have
found that performance on the complex figure is
influenced by education (Rosselli & Ardila,
1991). The second factor was defined by Trail
Making Tests A and B, and it also exhibited
lower correlations with delayed recall and recognition errors in delayed recall, so we speculated that it could be a frontal/executive functions factor with effects on memory. The third
factor was a delayed memory one, in which a
moderate negative loading showed its deterioration with advancing age.
In summary, we have developed a reading
test to estimate acquired intelligence in normal
older adults local to Buenos Aires. It is easy and

WORD ACCENTUATION TEST

fast to administer and score, and has good validity and reliability. Future research can concentrate on its psychometric properties in larger and
more diverse samples, and its usefulness with
clinical samples.

Downloaded by [University of Windsor] at 10:54 16 July 2013

REFERENCES
Alameda, J.R. & Cuetos, F. (1995). Diccionario de
frecuencias de las unidades linguisticas del
castellano [Frequency dictionary of Spanish linguistic units ]. Oviedo: Servicio de Publicaciones
de la Universidad de Oviedo.
Berry, J.W., Poortinga, Y.H., Segall, M.H., & Dasen,
P.R. (1992). Cross-Cultural Psychology: Research
and Applications . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Barona, A., Reynolds, C.R., & Chastain, R. (1984). A
demographically based index of premorbid intelligence for the WAIS-R. Journal of Consulting and
Clinical Psychology, 52(52), 885-887.
Blair, J.R. & Spreen, O. (1989). Predicting premorbid
IQ: A revision of the National Adult Reading Test.
Clinical Neuropsychology, 3(2), 129-136.
Brayne, C. & Beardsall, L. (1990). Estimation of verbal intelligence in an elderly community: An epidemiological study using NART. British Journal of
Clinical Psychology, 29, 217-223.
CAED, Consortium Argentino para el Estudio de la
Demencia (1995). Normativa para el diagnostico
de demencia en general y demencias corticales tipo
Alzheimer [Norms for the diagnosis of dementia in
general and of Alzheimers type cortical dementia]. Revista Neurologica Argentina, 20, 103-105.
Carreiras, M., Albea, J.E., & Sebastian-Galles, N.
(Eds.)(1996). Language Processing in Spanish (pp.
ix-xiv). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Carswell, L.M., Graves, R.E., Snow, W.G., &
Tierney, M.C. (1997). Predicting verbal IQ of elderly individuals. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 19 , 914-921.
Crawford, J.R. (1992). Current and premorbid intelligence measures in neuropsychological assessment.
In J.R. Crawford, D.M. Parker, & W.W. Mackinlay
(Eds.), A Handbook of Neuropsychological Assessment. Hove, UK: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Crawford, J.R. & Allan, K.M. (1997). Estimating
premorbid WAIS-R IQ with demographic variables: Regression equations derived from a UK
sample. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 11, 192197.
Crawford, J.R., Parker, D.M., & Besson, J.A. (1988).
Estimation of premorbid intelligence in organic
conditions. British Journal of Psychiatry, 153,
178-181.

683

Crocker, L.& Algina, J. (1986). Introduction to Classical and Modern Test Theory . New York: Holt,
Rinehart and Winston.
Cuetos, F. (1993). Writing processes in a shallow
ortography. Reading and Writing, 5, 17-28.
Del Ser, T., Gonzalez Montalvo, J.I., Martinez
Espinosa, S., Delgado Villapalos, C., & Bermejo,
F. (1997). Estimation of premorbid intelligence in
Spanish people with the Word Accentuation Test
and its application to the diagnosis of dementia.
Brain and Cognition, 33, 343-356.
Filley, C.M. & Cullum, C.M. (1997). Education and
cognitive function in Alzheimers disease. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, and Behavioral Neurology, 10, 48-51.
Folstein, M.F., Folstein, S.E., & McHugh, P.R.
(1975). Mini-Mental State: A practical method for
grading the cognitive status of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189198.
Fromm, D., Holland, A.L., Nebes, R.D., & Oakley,
M.A. (1991). A longitudinal study of word-reading
ability in Alzheimers disease: Evidence from the
National Adult Reading Test. Cortex, 27, 367-376.
Golden, C.J. (1978). Stroop Color and Word Test.
Chicago: Stoelting. [TEA (1994). Stroop. Test de
Colores y Palabras. Madrid: TEA Ediciones].
Grober, E. & Sliwinski, M. (1991). Development and
validation of a model for estimating premorbid
verbal intelligence in the elderly. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 13, 933949.
Jimenez-Gonzalez, J.E. (1997). A reading-level match
study of phonemic processes underlying reading
disabilities in a transparent ortography. Reading
and Writing, 9, 23-40.
Johnstone, B, Callahan, C.D., Kapila, C.J., &
Bouman, D.E. (1996). The comparability of the
WRAT-R Reading Test and NAART as estimates
of premorbid intelligence in neurologically impaired patients. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 11(6), 513-519.
Juillard, A. & Chang-Rodriguez, E. (1964). Frequency dictionary of Spanish words. The Hague:
Mouton.
Korten, A.E., Henderson, A.S., Christense, H., Jorm,
A.F., Rodgers, B., Jacomb, P., & Mackinnon, A.J.
(1997). A prospective study of cognitive function
in the elderly. Psychological Medicine, 27, 919930.
Kareken, D.A., Gur, R.C., & Saykin, A.J. (1995).
Reading on the Wide Range Achievement TestRevised and parental education as predictors of IQ:
Comparison with the Barona formula. Archives of
Clinical Neuropsychology, 10(2), 147-157.
Lezak, M. (1983). Neuropsychological Assessment,
2nd. Ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
Lezak, M. (1995). Neuropsychological Assessment,
3rd. Ed. New York: Oxford University Press.

Downloaded by [University of Windsor] at 10:54 16 July 2013

684

DEBORA I. BURIN ET AL.

Maddrey, A.M., Cullum, C.M., Weiner, M.F., &


Filley, C.M. (1996). Premorbid intelligence estimation and level of dementia in Alzheimers disease. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society , 2, 551-555.
Mockler, D., Riordan, J., & Sharma, T. (1996). A
comparison of the NART (restandardized) and the
NART-R (revised). British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 35, 567-572.
Mortensen, E.L. & Gade, A. (1993). On the relation
between demographic variables and neuropsychological test performance. Scandinavian Journal of
Psychology, 34(4), 305-317.
Nelson, H.E. & Willison, J.R. (1991). National Adult
Reading Test (Part II). Test Manual. Windsor:
NFER-Nelson.
Nelson, H.E. (1982). National Adult Reading Test .
Test Manual. Windsor: NFER-Nelson.
Nelson, H.E.& OConnell, A. (1978). Dementia: The
estimation of premorbid intelligence levels using
the New Adult Reading Test. Cortex, 14(2), 234244.
Paque, L. & Warrington, E.K. (1995). A longitudinal
study of reading ability in patients suffering from
dementia. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 1, 517-524.
Perez, S.A., Schlottmann, R.S., Holloway, J.A., &
Ozolin, M.S. (1996). Measurement of premorbid
intellectual ability following brain injury. Archives
of Clinical Neuropsychology, 11, 491-501.
Raguet, M.L., Campbell, D.A., Berry, D.T.R., &
Schmitt, F.A. (1996). Stability of intelligence and
intellectual predictors in older persons. Psychological Assessment, 8, 154-160.
Raven, J.C. (1960). Guide to the Standard Progressive Matrices. London: H.K. Lewis.

Reitan, R.M. & Wolfson, D. (1993). The HalsteadReitan Neuropsychological Test Battery: Theory
and Clinical Interpretation. Tucson, AZ: Neuropsychology Press.
Reynolds, C.R. & Gutkin, T.B. (1979). Predicting the
premorbid intellectual status of children using demographic data. Clinical Neuropsychology, 1(2),
36-38.
Rosselli, M. & Ardila, A. (1991). Effects of age, education and gender on the Rey-Osterrieth Complex
Figure. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 5, 370376.
Sharpe, K. & OCarroll, R. (1991). Estimating
premorbid intellectual level in dementia using the
National Adult Reading Test: A Canadian study.
British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 30, 381384.
Signorini, A. (1997). Word reading in Spanish: A
comparison between skilled and less skilled beginning readers. Applied Psycholinguistics, 18, 319344.
Sweet, J.J., Moberg, P.J., & Tovian, S.M. (1990).
Evaluation of Weschler Adult Intelligence ScaleRevised premorbid IQ formulas in clinical populations. Psychological Assessment, 2(1), 41-44.
Wechsler, D. (1955). WAIS Manual. New York: The
Psychological Corp. [(1984). Test de Inteligencia
para Adultos WAIS Manual. Adaptacion de Buenos
Aires. Buenos Aires: Paidos.]
Wilson, R.S., Rosenbaum, G., Brown, G., Rourke, D.,
Whitman, D., & Grisell, J. (1978). An index of
premorbid intelligence. Journal of Consulting and
Clinical Psychology, 46(6), 1554-1555.

WORD ACCENTUATION TEST

APPENDIX 1

Downloaded by [University of Windsor] at 10:54 16 July 2013

Stimuli for the final WAT-BA version


MASTIN (example)
CANON
ACULLA
CONCAVO
ALELI
SILICE
ANOMALO
SISTOLE
BALADI
GELIDO
ALEGORIA
NEOFITO
SANDALO
INFULAS
HIPERBATON
PARONIMO

DIAMETRO
HELICOIDE
DESCORTES
POLIGAMO
LAUDANO
DISCOLO
AMBAR
VOLATIL
TORRIDO
ZAHORI
ACOLITO
HIPERBOLE
APATRIDA
ALBEDRIO
PECORA

CELIBE
ISOTOPO
TACTIL
ACME
PROCONSUL
SUPERSTITE
PERONE
RETRUECANO
GRISU
LOBREGO
INVEROSIMIL
METROPOLI
BULGARO
SALOBRE

685