Anda di halaman 1dari 7

15/03/2016

RumorWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Rumor
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Arumourorrumor(USEnglish)is"atalltaleofexplanationsofeventscirculatingfrompersontoperson
andpertainingtoanobject,event,orissueinpublicconcern".[1]However,areviewoftheresearchon
rumorconductedbyPendletonin1998foundthatresearchacrosssociology,psychology,and
communicationstudieshadwidelyvaryingdefinitionsofrumor.[2]
Inthesocialsciences,arumorinvolvessomekindofastatementwhoseveracityisnotquicklyorever
confirmed.Inaddition,somescholarshaveidentifiedrumorasasubsetofpropaganda.
Rumorsarealsooftendiscussedwithregardto"misinformation"and"disinformation"(theformeroften
seenassimplyfalseandthelatterseenasdeliberatelyfalse,thoughusuallyfromagovernmentsource
giventothemediaoraforeigngovernment).[3]Rumorsthushaveoftenbeenviewedasparticularformsof
othercommunicationconcepts.

Contents
1 Earlywork
2 1944study
3 1947study
4 Socialcognition
5 Politicalcommunicationstrategy
6 Strategiccommunication
7 Seealso
8 References
9 Externallinks

Earlywork
FrenchandGermansocialscienceresearchonrumorlocatesthemodernscholarlydefinitionofittothe
pioneeringworkoftheGermanWilliamSternin1902.[4]Sternexperimentedonrumorinvolvinga"chain
ofsubjects"whopassedastoryfrom"mouthtoear"withouttherighttorepeatorexplainit.Hefoundthat
thestorywasshortenedandchangedbythetimeitreachedtheendofthechain.Hisstudentwasanother
pioneerinthefield,GordonAllport.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rumor

1/7

15/03/2016

RumorWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Theexperimentissimilartothechildren'sgameChinesewhispers.

1944study
"APsychologyofRumor"waspublishedbyRobertKnappin1944,inwhichhereportsonhisanalysisof
overonethousandrumorsduringWorldWarIIthatwereprintedintheBostonHerald's"RumorClinic"
Column.Hedefinesrumoras
apropositionforbeliefoftopicalreferencedisseminatedwithoutofficialverification.So
formidablydefined,rumorisbutaspecialcaseofinformalsocialcommunications,including
myth,legend,andcurrenthumor.Frommythandlegenditisdistinguishedbyitsemphasison
thetopical.Wherehumorisdesignedtoprovokelaughter,rumorbegsforbelief.[5]
Knappidentifiedthreebasiccharacteristicsthatapplytorumor:1.they'retransmittedbywordofmouth2.
theyprovide"information"abouta"person,happening,orcondition"and3.theyexpressandgratify"the
emotionalneedsofthecommunity."Crucialtothisdefinitionanditscharacteristicsistheemphasison
transmission(wordofmouth,whichthenwasheardandreportedinthenewspaper)oncontent("topical"
meansthatitcansomehowbedistinguishedfromtrivialandprivatesubjectsitsdomainispublicissues)
andonreception("emotionalneedsofthecommunity"suggeststhatthoughitisreceivedbyanindividual
fromanindividual,itisnotcomprehendedinindividualbutcommunityorsocialterms).
Basedonhisstudyofthenewspapercolumn,Knappdividedthoserumorsintothreetypes:
1.Pipedreamrumors:reflectpublicdesiresandwishedforoutcomes.(e.g.Japan'soilreserveswerelow
andthusWorldWarIIwouldsoonend.)
2.Bogieorfearrumorsreflectfearedoutcomes.(e.g.Anenemysurpriseattackisimminent).
3.Wedgedrivingrumorsintendtounderminegrouployaltyorinterpersonalrelations(e.g.American
CatholicswereseekingtoavoidthedraftGermanAmericans,ItalianAmericans,Japanese
AmericanswerenotloyaltotheAmericanside).
Knappalsofoundthatnegativerumorsweremorelikelytobedisseminatedthanpositiverumors.These
typesalsodifferentiatebetweenpositive(pipedream)andnegative(bogieandwedgedriving)rumors.

1947study
Inthe1947study,PsychologyofRumor,GordonAllportandJosephPostmanconcludedthat,"asrumor
travelsit[...]growsshorter,moreconcise,moreeasilygraspedandtold."[6]Thisconclusionwasbasedona
testofmessagediffusionbetweenpersons,whichfoundthatabout70%ofdetailsinamessagewerelostin
thefirst56mouthtomouthtransmissions.[6]
Intheexperiment,atestsubjectwasshownanillustrationandgiventimetolookitover.Theywerethen
askedtodescribethescenefrommemorytoasecondtestsubject.Thissecondtestsubjectwasthenasked
todescribethescenetoathird,andsoforthandsoon.Eachpersonsreproductionwasrecorded.This
processwasrepeatedwithdifferentillustrationswithverydifferentsettingsandcontents.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rumor

2/7

15/03/2016

RumorWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

AllportandPostmanusedthreetermstodescribethemovementofrumor.Theyare:leveling,sharpening,
andassimilation.Levelingreferstothelossofdetailduringthetransmissionprocesssharpeningtothe
selectionofcertaindetailsofwhichtotransmitandassimilationtoadistortioninthetransmissionof
informationasaresultofsubconsciousmotivations.
Assimilationwasobservedwhentestsubjectsdescribedtheillustrationsastheyoughttobebutnotasthey
actuallywere.Forexample,inanillustrationdepictingabattlescene,testsubjectsoftenincorrectly
reportedanambulancetruckinthebackgroundoftheillustrationascarryingmedicalsupplies,when,in
fact,itwasclearlycarryingboxesmarkedTNT(102).

Socialcognition
In2004,PrashantBordiaandNicholasDiFonzopublishedtheirProblemSolvinginSocialInteractionson
theInternet:RumorAsSocialCognitionandfoundthatrumortransmissionisprobablyreflectiveofa
"collectiveexplanationprocess."[7]Thisconclusionwasbasedonananalysisofarchivedmessageboard
discussionsinwhichthestatementswerecodedandanalyzed.Itwasfoundthat29.4%(themajority)of
statementswithinthesediscussionscouldbecodedassensemakingstatements,whichinvolved,
[...]attemptsatsolvingaproblem.[7]
Itwasnotedthattherestofthediscussionwasconstructedaroundthesestatements,furtherreinforcingthe
ideaofcollectiveproblemsolving.Theresearchersalsofoundthateachrumorwentthroughafourstage
patternofdevelopmentinwhicharumorwasintroducedfordiscussion,informationwasvolunteeredand
discussed,andfinallyaresolutionwasdrawnorinterestwaslost.[7]
Forthestudy,archiveddiscussionsconcerningrumorsontheinternetandothercomputernetworkssuchas
BITnetwereretrieved.Asarule,eachdiscussionhadaminimumoffivestatementspostedoveraperiodof
atleasttwodays.Thestatementswerethencodedasbeingoneofthefollowing:prudent,apprehensive,
authenticating,interrogatory,providinginformation,belief,disbelief,sensemaking,digressive,or
uncodable.Eachrumordiscussionwasthenanalyzedbasedonthiscodingsystem.Asimilarcodingsystem
basedonstatisticalanalysiswasappliedtoeachdiscussionasawhole,andtheaforementionedfourstage
patternofrumordiscussionemerged.

Politicalcommunicationstrategy
Rumorhasalwaysplayedamajorroleinpolitics,withnegativerumorsaboutanopponenttypicallymore
effectivethanpositiverumorsaboutone'sownside.[8]
Inthepast,muchresearchonrumorcamefrom
psychologicalapproaches(asthediscussionof
AllportandDiFonziodemonstratesabove).The
focuswasespeciallyonhowstatementsof
questionableveracity(absolutelyfalsetothe
earsofsomelisteners)circulatedorallyfrom
persontoperson.Scholarlyattentiontopolitical
rumorsisatleastasoldasAristotle'sRhetoric
however,notuntilrecentlyhasanysustained
attentionandconceptualdevelopmentbeen
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rumor

"Propagandaisneutrallydefinedasasystematicformof
purposefulpersuasionthatattemptstoinfluencethe
emotions,attitudes,opinions,andactionsofspecifiedtarget
audiencesforideological,politicalorcommercialpurposes
throughthecontrolledtransmissionofonesidedmessages
(whichmayormaynotbefactual)viamassanddirect
mediachannels.Apropagandaorganizationemploys
propagandistswhoengageinpropagandismtheapplied
creationanddistributionofsuchformsofpersuasion."
3/7

15/03/2016

RumorWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

RichardAlanNelson,AChronologyandGlossaryof
directedatpoliticalusesofrumor,outsideofits
PropagandaintheUnitedStates,1996
roleinwarsituations.Almostnoworkhadbeen
doneuntilrecentlyonhowdifferentformsof
mediaandparticularculturalhistoricalconditionsmayfacilitatearumor'sdiffusion.[9]

TheInternet'srecentappearanceasanewmediatechnologyhasshownevernewpossibilitiesforthefast
diffusionofrumor,asthedebunkingsitessuchassnopes.com,urbanlegend.com,andfactcheck.org
demonstrate.Norhadpreviousresearchtakenintoconsiderationtheparticularformorstyleofdeliberately
chosenrumorsforpoliticalpurposesinparticularcircumstances(eventhoughsignificantattentiontothe
powerofrumorformassmediadiffusedwarpropagandahasbeeninvoguesinceWorldWarIsee
Lasswell1927).[9]Intheearlypartofthe21stcentury,somelegalscholarshaveattendedtopoliticalusesof
rumor,thoughtheirconceptualizationofitremainssocialpsychologicalandtheirsolutionstoitaspublic
problemarefromalegalscholarlyperspective,largelyhavingtodowithlibelandprivacylawsandthe
damagetopersonalreputations.[10]
Workingwithinpoliticalcommunicationstudies,in2006,JaysonHarsin[11][12]introducedtheconceptof
the"rumorbomb"asaresponsetothewidespreadempiricalphenomenonofrumoresquecommunicationin
contemporaryrelationsbetweenmediaandpolitics,especiallywithinthecomplexconvergenceofmultiple
formsofmedia,fromcellphonesandinternet,toradio,TV,andprint.Harsinstartswiththewidespread
definitionofrumorasaclaimwhosetruthfulnessisindoubtandwhichoftenhasnoclearsourceevenifits
ideologicalorpartisanoriginsandintentsareclear.Hethentreatsitasaparticularrhetoricalstrategyin
currentcontextsofmediaandpoliticsinmanysocieties.ForHarsina"rumorbomb"extendsthedefinition
ofrumorintoapoliticalcommunicationconceptwiththefollowingfeatures:
1.Acrisisofverification.Acrisisofverificationisperhapsthemostsalientandpoliticallydangerous
aspectofrumor.Berenson(1952)definesrumorasakindofpersuasivemessageinvolvinga
propositionthatlacks'securestandardsofevidence'(Pendleton1998).[13]
2.Acontextofpublicuncertaintyoranxietyaboutapoliticalgroup,figure,orcause,whichtherumor
bombovercomesortransfersontoanopponent.
3.Aclearlypartisanevenifananonymoussource(e.g."anunnamedadvisortothepresident"),which
seekstoprofitpoliticallyfromtherumorbombsdiffusion.
4.Arapiddiffusionviahighlydevelopedelectronicallymediatedsocietieswherenewstravelsfast.
Inaddition,Harsinlocatesthe"rumorbomb"withinothercommunicationgenres,suchasdisinformation
(intentionalfalseinformation)andpropaganda,asrumorhasbeenviewedbyothers.However,he
distinguishesitfromtheseconceptsaswell,sincedisinformationisoftentooassociatedwithgovernment,
andpropagandaisawidelyvaryingconceptusedtodescribeattemptstocontrolopinionwithoutregardfor
ethicsandaccuracyofstatement.Similarly,"spin"isagenerictermforstrategicpoliticalcommunication
thatattemptstoframeorreframeaneventorastatementinawaythatispoliticallyprofitableforoneside
anddetrimentaltoanother,thoughatitscoreitmaysimplybearedherring(Bennett2003,p.130).[14]
Inaddition,a"smearcampaign"isatermthatlooselymeansacoordinatedefforttoattackaperson's
character.Unlikea"smearcampaign,"rumorbombsneednotbeaboutdiscreditingaperson(asisthecase,
forexample,inclaimsaboutIraqand9/11orweaponsofmassdestructionmovedtoSyria).Spinalso
specificallyreferstoaneventanditsreframing.Rumorbombsmayseektoproduceeventsthemselves.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rumor

4/7

15/03/2016

RumorWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Arumorbombcanbeseenashavingsomecharacteristicsofthesegeneralconcepts,butrumorbombs
happeninveryparticularculturalandhistoricalconditions.Theyarenotaboutmouthtoearinterpersonal
rumorsasmuchrumorresearchhasbeeninterestedin.Theybegininarapportbetweendeliberate
"disinformers"andmedia,whetherTVnews,talkshows,newspapers,radio,orwebsites.Theythen
circulateacrossthesemedia,perhapsbutnotnecessarilyresultingininterpersonalmouthtoearrumor
diffusion.[15][16]
Harsindistinguishestherumorbombfromothermoregeneralconceptsofrumorbyemphasizingchanges
inpolitics,mediatechnology,andculture.AccordingtoHarsin,rumorinpoliticshasalwaysexisted,but
recentchangeshavecreatedanenvironmentripeforanewkindofpoliticalrumor:anewmedia
"convergenceculture"whereinformationproducedontheinternetcaninfluencetheproductionofmedia
contentinotherformsnewmediatechnologiesandbusinessvaluesthatemphasizespeedandcirculation
thatcombinewithentertainmentvaluesinnews,politicalmarketing,andpubliccravingoftabloidnewsthat
mirrorsotherentertainmentgenres.[15][16]
Rumorsofaffairs,of"weaponsofmassdestruction"andtheirallegedremovaltoothercountries[17]"John
KerryisFrench,"[18]ObamaisaMuslim,JohnMcCainhadanillegitimateblackchild[19]allofthese
involvestatementswhoseveracityisinquestionorthataresimplyfalse.Otherstatementsmayhavean
ambiguousnaturethatmakesthempotentiallyappealingtodifferentaudienceswhomayinterpretthemin
particularwaysandcirculatethem.Harsinbuildsonrumorresearchthathasemphasizedsocialcognition
anddiffusionofpropaganda.HeextendsPrashantandDifonzio'sworkinparticular,sincetheyattemptto
distinguishrumorfromgossip,inthatrumorissupposedlyaboutpublicissuesandgossipisaboutprivate,
trivialthings.TheemergenceofinfotainmentandtabloidizationinespeciallyAmericanandBritishnews
hasbrokenthatdistinction,sincepoliticsisnowjustasmuchaboutbringingtheprivateintothepublic
view,aswasclearwiththeClintonLewinskyscandal.

Strategiccommunication
Similartotheirappearanceandfunctioninpoliticalcommunication,whereinrumorscanbedeployedfor
specificdeleteriouseffect(rumorbomb)orcanotherwiseplagueacandidateforoffice,rumorsalsoplayan
importantroleinstrategiccommunication.Strategiccommunicationistheprocessofcraftingmessagesin
supportofspecificorganizationalgoals,andisusuallyconcernedwithgovernments,militariesandNon
GovernmentalOrganizations(NGOs).Adroitstrategiccommunicationrequiresanunderstandingofstories,
trendsandmemescirculatingwithinaculture.
Rumorscanbeviewedasstoriesthatseemrationalbutthataresteepedintospeculation,inconnectionwith
acertainnarrativelandscape(thevastarrayofculturalexpressioncirculatingwithinacommunityor
region).[20]Intheirbook,NarrativeLandmines:Rumors,IslamistExtremismandtheStruggleforStrategic
Influence(http://rutgerspress.rutgers.edu/acatalog/narrative_landmines.html),coauthorsDanielBernardi,
PaulineHopeCheong,ChrisLundryandScottW.RustoncointhetermnarrativeIEDtohelpexplainthe
functionanddangerofrumorsinastrategiccommunicationcontext.Rumors,asnarrativeIEDs,arelow
cost,lowtechcommunicationweaponsthatcanbeusedbyanyonetodisrupttheeffortsofcommunication,
civilaffairsoroutreachcampaignssuchasthoseundertakenbygovernmentsincrisisresponsesituationsor
militariesininsurgencies.AsBernardinotes,"Liketheirexplosivecousins,rumorscanbecreatedand
plantedbynearlyanybody,requirelimitedresourcestoutilize,canbedeadlyforthoseinitsdirectpath,and
caninstillfear.[21]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rumor

5/7

15/03/2016

RumorWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Seealso
Applecommunity
Blinditem
Snopes.comwebsiteforcheckingthetruthofrumours
Pheme,aprojectaddressingthedetectionandspreadofrumoursoversocialmedia

References
1.Peterson,WarrenGist,Noel(September1951)."RumorandPublicOpinion".TheAmericanJournalof
Sociology57(2):159167.doi:10.1086/220916.JSTOR2772077.
2.Pendleton,S.c.(1998),'Rumorresearchrevisitedandexpanded',Language&Communication,vol.1.no.18,pp.
6986.
3.fromOxfordEnglishDictionary,2nded.,1989
4.L.WilliamStern,ZurPsychologiederAussage.ExperimentelleUntersuchungenberErinnerungstreue.
"ZeitschriftfrdiegesamteStrafechtswissenschaft".Vol.XXII,cahier2/3,1902.
5.p.22
6.Allport,GordonJosephPostman(1951).PsychologyofRumor.RussellandRussell.p.75.
7.Bordia,PrashantNicolasDiFonzo(March2004)."ProblemSolvinginSocialInteractionsontheInternet:Rumor
AsSocialCognition".SocialPsychologyQuarterly67(1):3349.doi:10.1177/019027250406700105.
JSTOR3649102.
8.DavidCoastandJoFox,"RumourandPolitics"HistoryCompass(2015),13#5pp222234.
9.SeethehistoricaldiscussionbyDr.AaronDelwicheathttp://www.propagandacritic.com/articles/about.html
10.Sunstein,Cass.2009.OnRumors:HowFalsehoodsSpread,WhyWeBelieveThem,WhatCanBeDone.New
York:Farrar,StrausandGirouxSolove,DanielJ.TheFutureofReputation.NewHaven:YaleUniversity
Press.Stowe,2007.
11.Harsin,Jayson.TheRumourBomb:TheorisingtheConvergenceofNewandOldTrendsinMediatedUS
Politics[online].SouthernReview:Communication,Politics&CultureVolume39,Issue1200684110
http://search.informit.com.au/documentSummarydn=264848460677220res=ELIBRARY
12.(reprintedinMichaelRyan(ed.).2008.CulturalStudies:AnAnthology.London:Blackwell.
13.Pendleton,S.c.(1998),'Rumourresearchrevisitedandexpanded',Language&Communication,vol.1.no.18,
pp.6986.
14.W.LanceBennett(2003),News:ThePoliticsofanIllusion
15.FordiscussionsofthesetrendsinnewsandpoliticsseeJohnCornerandRichardPells(eds.)2003.Mediaand
theRestylingofPolitics.London:Sage.
16.(seemorerecentdevelopmentsoftheconceptandcasestudiesin"DiffusingtheRumorJohnKerryisFrench,i.e.
Haughty,Cowardly,Foppish,SocialistandGay,"inR.GivenandS.Souleeds.TheDiffusionofSocial
Movements,NewYork:CambridgeUniversityPress(2010)
17.http://www.nysun.com/foreign/saddamswmdmovedtosyriaanisraelisays/24480/
18.http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/1/7/2/4/3/p172432_index.html?
phpsessid=a4fd476ee1fbf0cc5ca97ef9fe864b88
19.Davis,RichardH.(21March2004)."Theanatomyofasmearcampaign".TheBostonGlobe.
20.NarrativeLandscapes:Rumors,IslamistExtremism,andtheStruggleforStrategicInfluence.RutgersUniversity
Press.2012.p.224.ISBN9780813552514.|first1=missing|last1=inAuthorslist(help)
21.Asimov,Nanette(20111014)."ResearchershelpU.S.militarytrack,defuserumors".SanFranciscoChronicle.

Externallinks
Spreadoffalseinformationcausesdangers
(http://www.law.harvard.edu/news/spotlight/constitutionallaw/sunsteinchairlecture.html)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rumor

6/7

15/03/2016

RumorWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Retrievedfrom"https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?
title=Rumor&oldid=709993755"

Wikiquotehasquotations
relatedto:Rumors

Categories: Humancommunication Propaganda Urbanlegends

Lookuprumorin
Wiktionary,thefree
dictionary.

Thispagewaslastmodifiedon14March2016,at09:36.
TextisavailableundertheCreativeCommonsAttributionShareAlikeLicenseadditionaltermsmay
apply.Byusingthissite,youagreetotheTermsofUseandPrivacyPolicy.Wikipediaisa
registeredtrademarkoftheWikimediaFoundation,Inc.,anonprofitorganization.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rumor

7/7