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# Part 3

## Kicks and Gas Migration

By
Prof. Dr. Abdel-Alim Hashem

Contents
Density of real gases
Equivalent Mud Weight (EMW)

## Wellbore pressure before and after kick

Gas migration rate - first order approx.

## Gas migration rate with temperature,

mud compressibility and Z-factor
considerations
2

m
nM
g

V
V
pV
(Real Gas Law)
n
ZRT

pV
g
ZRT
M
gg

M air

M
pM

V
ZRT
M
29

M = molecular
weight
m = mass
n = no. of moles
gg = S.G. of gas

29g g p
ZRT

## Density of Real Gases

What is the density of a 0.6 gravity gas at
o
10,000 psig and 200 F?
From Lesson 2, following figure
ppr = p/ppc = 10,015/671 = 14.93
Tpr = (200+460)/358 =

1.84

Z = 1.413
4

1.84

1.413

14.93
5

## Density of Real Gases

g

29 g g p
ZR T

p = 10,000 psig
o
T = 200 F
gg = 0.6

29 (0.6 ) 10,015
g
1.413 (80.28 ) 660
g = 2.33 ppg
6

## Equivalent Mud Weight, EMW

The pressure, p (psig) in a wellbore, at a
depth of x (ft) can always be expressed in
terms of an equivalent mud density or
weight.
EMW = p / (0.052 * x) in ppg
7

EMW

po=0

## EMW is the density of the mud

that, in a column of height, x (ft)
will generate the pressure, p
(psig) at the bottom, if the
pressure at top = 0 psig

or, at TD:
p = 0.052 * EMW * TVD

TVD

p
8

2,000

Depth, ft

4,000

6,000

8,000
EMW

p
0.052 * Depth

10,000

12,000
0.0

10.0

20.0

30.0

40.0

50.0

EMW, ppg
9

2,000

Depth, ft

4,000

After Kick
6,000

8,000

Before Kick
10,000

12,000
0

1,000

2,000

3,000

4,000

5,000

## Annulus Pressure, psig

6,000

7,000

8,000
10

Gas Migration
Gas generally has a much lower density than the
drilling mud in the well, causing the gas to rise
when the well is shut in.
Since the gas, cannot expand in a closed wellbore,
it will maintain its pressure as it rises (ignoring
temp, fluid loss to formation, compressibility of
gas, mud, and formation)
This causes pressures everywhere in the wellbore
to increase.
11

P3

P2

P1

2
P1 = P2 = P3 ???

3
12

Gas Migration
Example 1: A 0.7 gravity gas bubble enters the bottom of a
9,000 ft vertical well when the drill collars are being pulled
through the rotary table.
Flow is noted and the well is shut in with an initial recorded
casing pressure of 50 psig. Influx height is 350 ft. Mud weight
= 9.6 ppg. Assume surface temperature of 70 oF. Temp
gradient = 1.1 oF/100 ft. Surface pressure = 14 psia
Determine the final casing pressure if the gas bubble is
allowed to reach the surface without expanding

## Determine the pressure and equivalent density at total

depth under these final conditions
13

## Gas Properties at Bottom

First assumption: BHP is brought to the surface
Pressure at the top of the bubble

## P8,650 = 14 + 50 + 0.052 * 9.6 * (9,000-350)

= 4,378 psia
T9,000 = 70 + (1.1/100) * 9,000 + 460
o

= 629 R

14

ppc = 666 psia
Tpc = 389 deg R

## ppr = 4,378/666 = 6.57

Tpr = 629/389 = 1.62
Z = 0.925
pseudocritical

pseudoreduced

15

Bottomhole Pressure
g

29g g p
ZRT

## g = 29*0.7*4,378 / (0.925 * 80.28 * 629)

= 1.90 ppg
DpKICK = 0.052 * 1.9 * 350 = 35 psi

BHP = 4,378 + 35
BHP = 4,413 psia

(~surface press.?
16

Pressure at Surface
Assume, at first, that Zf = 1.0 (at the surface)
Then,

BOTTOM

SURFACE

po V
pV
4,378V

po
4,378

17

## Solution with Z-factor Corr.

At surface:
ppr = 3,988 / 666 = 6.00
Tpr = 530 / 389 = 1.36

Zf = 0.817
p0 = 3,258 psia
18

## Solution with Z-factor

A few more iterative steps result in
Z0 = 0.705 and p0 = 2,812 psia
At the surface
g

29g g p
ZRT

f = 29*0.7*2,812 / (0.705*80.28*530)
= 1.9 ppg
19

## New BHP & EMW

New BHP = 2,812 + 0.052 * 1.9 * 350
+ 0.052 * 9.6 * 8,650
New BHP = 7,165 psia

EMW = 15.3 ppg
20

64 psia

2,812 psia

530 R

9.6 ppg

8,650
9,000

7,378 psia
4,413 psia
629 R

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Gas
0.1 bbl/ft

4,413 psia
4,378
3,988 (T)
3,258 (Z)
2,812 (Z)

6. 2,024 (mud)

7,004 psia
7,179 psia
21

## Compression of Mud in Annulus vA = 0.1

bbl/ft)
DV = compressibility * volume * Dp
= -6 * 10-6 (1/psi) * 0.1(9,000-350)*2,626
DV = -13.63 bbls

## Initial kick volume = 0.1 * 350 = 35 bbls

New kick volume = 35 + 13.63

= 48.63 bbl
22

## Compression of Mud in Annulus

From Boyles Law, pV = const
p2 * 48.63 = 2,812 * 35
p2 = 2,024 psia

p8650

poA

poB

poC

Consider:

## 2nd iteration ? . 3rd

or, Is there a better way?
23

## Gas Migration Rate

A well is shut in after taking a 30 bbl kick.
The SIDPP appears to stabilize at 1,000 psig.
One hour later the pressure is 2,000 psig.
Hole Cap =

0.1 bbl/ft

MW

14 ppg

TVD

10,000 ft

24

## Gas Migration Rate

How fast is the kick migrating?
What assumptions do we need to make
to analyze this question?

25

P3

P2

1 Hr

P1

3
26

First Attempt
If the kick rises x ft. in 1 hr and the pressure
in the kick = constant, then the pressure
increases everywhere,
Dp = 0.052 * 14 * x
x = (2,000 - 1,000) / (0.052 * 14)
x = 1,374 ft

27

## Gas Migration Rate

Field rule of thumb ~ 1,000 ft/hr
Laboratory studies ~ 2,000 6,000 ft/hr
Who is right?
Field results?
Is the previous calculation correct?
28

Second Attempt
Consider mud compressibility
Hole capacity = 0.1 bbl/ft * 10,000 ft

## = 1,000 bbl of mud

Volume change due to compressibility and
increase in pressure of 1,000 psi,
DV = 6*10-6 (1/psi) * 1,000 psi * 1,000 bbl

= 6 bbl
29

Second Attempt
i.e. gas could expand by 6 bbl, to 36 bbl
Initial kick pressure
=1,000 + 0.052 * 14 * 10,000 (approx.)

= 8,280 psig
= 8,295 psia
30

Second Attempt
A 20% expansion would reduce the
pressure in the kick to ~ 0.8*8,295
= 6,636 psia
= 6,621 psig

## So, the kick must have migrated more than

1,374 ft!
31

Second Attempt
How far did it migrate in 1 hour?
The pressure reduction in kick fluid
= 8,260 - 6,621=1,659 psi
The kick must therefore have risen an
additional x2 ft, given by:
1,659 = 0.052 * 14 * x2
x2 = 2,279 ft
32

Second Attempt
2nd estimate = 1,374 + 2,279
= 3,653 ft/hr

## What if the kick size is only 12 bbl?

What about balooning of the wellbore?
What about fluid loss to permeable
formations? T? Z?...
33

## Bore Hole Ballooning

34

Example
Kick occurs. After shut-in, initial csg.
Press = 500 psig. 30 minutes later,
p = 800 psig
What is the slip velocity if the kick volume
remains constant?
MW = 10.0 ppg

35

Simple Solution

p 2 p1 psi
v slip
psi
g
t 2 t1 hr
ft

v slip

Ignoring
temperature,
compressibility and
other effects.

800 500
0.052 10.0 0.5

v slip 1,154 ft / hr

## What factors affect

gas slip velocity, or
migration rate?
36

## Gas slip velocity

The bubble size, and the size of the gas void fraction,
will influence bubble slip velocity.
The void fraction is defined as the ratio (or
percentage) of the gas cross-sectional area to the
total flow area.

37

## Gas Slip Velocity

Bubbles with a void
fraction > 25% assume a
bullet nose shape and
migrate upwards along
the high side of the
wellbore concurrent
with liquid backflow, on
the opposite side of the
wellbore

38

## Gas slip velocity

Large bubbles rise faster than small
bubbles
Other factors:
Density differences
Hole geometry
Mud viscosity
Circulation rate
Hole inclination
o
One lab study showed max. rate at 45 .
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End

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