Anda di halaman 1dari 13

SEMESTER 3, 2011/12

EEEB141 : ELECTRONIC DESIGN LABORATORY


PROJECT 2 (REPORT)

NAME
ID

: WONG YINWEN
: EP088143

NAME
ID

: PHUA MEI GUAN


: EE087732

LECTURER : SYED SULAIMAN BIN KAJA MOHIDEEN


SECTION

: 03

DATE DEMO : 18th APRIL 2012

PROBLEM STATEMENT

We as design engineers with a major consumer electronics company are responsible


for overseeing the design and testing of new circuits. Recently, we were tasked with the
development of an audio amplification circuit for use in the budget segment of high fidelity
(hifi) sets. Hybrid pi model are highly recommended in this project besides using the BJT
data sheet to find out the early voltage of the transistor. PSpice simulation was used to solve
the problem and design the circuit correctly.
The audio amplifier specifications given are as below:
Input

: 200m Vp-p

Output

: 20Vp-p

Phase offset : 0 (non-inverting)


In this project, we were given a specified input waveform. Our task is to design an
amplifier to amplify the input waveform to the specified output waveform using the
knowledge which we have obtained from previous lab sessions and our microelectronics
lectures.

OBJECTIVE
The objectives are to apply the knowledge gained from previous labs which practices
on the transistors and PSpice, to use creativity in problem solving by design a brand new
circuit that works correctly and also to understand more about op-amp and 0(non-inverting).

THEOREOTICAL BACKGROUND

We have used two transistors to work as a op-amp to make sure that the waveform we
got from the circuit is 0(non inverting) but not 180 (non inverting). Transistor is a
semiconductor device that used to amplify and switch electronic signals. Besides that, we
have used a few capacitors in the circuit. Capacitor is used to block direct current while
allowing alternating current to pass in filter networks for smoothing the output of power
supplies. As observed from the schematic diagram, it is noticed that there are some
differences among the resistors in general. Those differences are playing the most significant
role in accuracy of the design. Even though those resistors are not really match and they are
approximately approaching to each other, nevertheless they got the required result and that is
the major point.
Basically, the circuit is a multistage amplifier which means that the transistor amplifier
circuit can be connected in series, or cascade. This circuit may be done either to increase the
overall small-signal voltage gain or to provide an overall voltage gain greater than 1, with
very low output resistance.
By using the LTspice simulation software, we have found out the resistor value needed
and designation of the circuit. The graph we obtain by using simulation software is as shown.

METHOLOGY
As I know our creativity and originality will earn me and my partner more points.
After some research we did on the internet, we manage to design a new circuit which works
as same as the problem statement in this project. By using the LTspice simulation software,
we found out that we design the circuit correctly because we got the correct output
waveform. Since our group presentation will also count points, so besides using the LTspice
to do the stimulation, we construct the same circuit experimentally in the electronic design
lab. After we got the result we wanted, we demonstrated it to our lecturer in the lab and
clearly show our lecturer the results we obtained. Our report is clearly showing all the
calculations, simulations, and references. We will also include all the calculations in our
report.

MATERIALS
Capacitor

: 3 x 100F

Resistors

: 1 x 10k, 1 x 3.3k, 1 x 3.2k, 1 x 1.5k, 1 x 8.2k, 1 x 1k, 1 x 47k,


2 x 220k

Transistor

: 2 x 2N3904

PROCEDURE

1. By using the LTspice , we started to design our circuit using 2 transistors as we all
know transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic
signals.
2. The input given in the project sheet is 200mVp-p. But in the LTspice we enter the value
of the Vp-p into half which is 100m and frequency 10 kHz.
3. We also put a DC voltage which has the value of 30V which the positive terminal is
connected to R2, R4, R6 and R8.
4. We also use 3 capacitors in the circuit as we all known blocking direct current while
allowing alternating current to pass, in filter networks, for smoothing the output of
power supplies.
5. After we completed our circuit, we tested it and obtained waveform, the values for VPP is recorded from the oscilloscope for both input and output.
6. The circuit that we designed using the stimulation software is shown in figure 1 below.

Figure 1

RESULTS

The graph we obtain by using simulation software are as shown as figure below.
a) Input waveform from LTspice simulation

Figure 2
Input (Vp-p) = 200mV
b) Output waveform from LTspice simulation

Figure 3

c) Output waveform from LTspice simulation (positive side)

Positive output value ( approximate : 10.04545 V )


d) Output waveform from LTspice simulation (negative side)

Negative output value ( approximate : - 9.90909 V )


Output (Vp-p) = 10.04545 + 9.90909 = 19.95454 V

f.) Experimental waveform:


Input:

Input:
VMAX
VMIN
Vp-p
Vavg
Vrms

Output:

= 89.0mV
=-101m V
= 200mV
= 233.8mV
= 233.8mV
= 10.05 kHz

VMAX
VMIN
V p-p
Vavg
Vrms

= 10.225V
= -9.876V
= 20.10V
= 230.0mV
= 6.329V
= 10.5 kHz

CALCULATION
Voltage gain, AV

= output voltage / input voltage


= 20V / 200mV
= 100 V

Vrms = Vmax /
= 10.225/
= 7.23 V

Percentage difference % = (V

Theoretical

Percentage differences of Output Vp-p:


| ( 20 20.1 ) | / 20 x 100 % = 0.5%

DISCUSSION

-V

Measured
Measured

)/V

Theoretica
Theoreticall

x 100%

In this project, we are assigned to design an amplifier to amplify the input waveform to
the specified output waveform by using the knowledge that we have covered or studied
previously. In our project, we are going to discuss about our design how to build it by using
transistor, how its function and how is the final results.
First of all, begin with building the circuit as shown in figure 1. The constructing of the
circuit will be advantageous for AC biasing which means that the capacitor will be used and
the input voltage will be generated by function generator device. The function generator will
assist in appearing the input wave form first. As it is done in the project, the function
generator will be setting Vi = 200mV sine wave 1kHz frequency (Voffset = 0).

Next,

connect output voltage in 10k resistor so that to obtain the wave form diagram from the
oscilloscope.

As observed from the schematic diagram, it is noticed that there are some

differences among the resistors in general. Those differences are playing the most significant
role in accuracy of the design. Even though those resistors are not really match and they are
approximately approaching to each other, nevertheless they got the required result and that is
the major point.
Secondly, function of the amplifier circuit. Basically, our circuit is a multistage
amplifier which means that the transistor amplifier circuit can be connected in series, or
cascade. This circuit may be done either to increase the overall small-signal voltage gain or
to provide an overall voltage gain greater than 1, with very low output resistance.
It is observed that an input buffer stage, which will be common-emitter circuit. The emitter
resistor is to be used to reduce the loading effect of the 3.2k source resistance. The input
signal generates from the signal source that is coupled into base of the transistor through the
coupling capacitor C1, which will also provides dc isolation between the amplifier and the
signal source. Regarding to gain stage, the gain stage will actually be composed of 2 stage
common-emitter amplifier that provides the necessary voltage gain.

The first stage is

common-emitter circuit with emitter resistance and the second stage common-emitter circuit.
The second emitter region will be a shorted-circuit, means that RE2 is equal to zero and it
also provides the output resistance the necessary voltage gain. As for the output stage, the
output stage will hopefully be used as a common bypass capacitor to effectively short out a
portion of the common resistance. Lastly, the entire amplifier system are biased with a 30V

voltage power supply such that to assist in flowing the current through the circuit and
200mV peak-to-peak sine wave in such a way that to provide the waveform. The reason
behind using two transistors that is both of them is inverting Amplifiers when combining
them it definitely will become non inverting amplifier.
Thirdly, the simulation for our circuit in LTspice application shows that the graph of the
output waveform is squeezed between two voltage value 10V and -10V, which will be its Vp-p
equal to 20V as shown in figure 3.

In other word, the graph looks like a large sinusoidal

wave compared to the input wave form. The signal is magnifier after it is being amplified by
the amplifier circuit. Next, the practical result, the output wave graph has finally obtained,
it looks like large sinusoidal wave. The main thing is the VPeak-to-Peak of the waveform output is
being increased and it is output approximately approaching to the wanted result Vo 20V.
In the design of the circuit, we plan to do a cut-cost design which prefer on a cheap
and effective circuit. So, we just use one transistor to construct the circuit. We manage to get
the result which was very accurate but is 180 (non-inverting) waveform. Then, we try to add
one more transistor in our circuit. At last, we manage to get a 0 (non-inverting) waveform.
To make sure the waveform is 0 (non-inverting), we need to use 2 transistor to work as a opamp. A simple op-amp can be made by using transistor. With a higher voltage gain, this
circuit is able to function as a working operational amplifier. By the way, op-amp is
constructed from several transistor stages, which commonly include a differential-input
stage, an intermediate-gain stage and a push-pull output stage. The differential amplifier
consists of a matched pair of bipolar transistors or FETs. The push-pull amplifier transmits a
large current to the load and hence has small output impedance.
As a matter of fact, we found some difficulties at constructing this circuit due to
interconnection of the voltage source and ground. We tried avoiding the jumper in our
circuit since it would surely make our circuit so messy and it would probably might made
our circuit hard to troubleshoot if there is any mistakes may occur. For that reason, weve
finally got some ideas that we can build this circuit without using so much wire or jumpers

and make it even simple and easy to trace the mistake if anything happens mistakenly and
obtain the approaching wanted result.
On the whole, of course the graph was not very precious enough owing to the mistake
that might happen during doing the project and some component is already being damaged
by itself. On the other hand, we believed that our results were satisfactory seeing that the
instructor check the results and we got approval for that.

The transistor doesn't have a voltage gain, it has a transconductance. Example it varies
its current according to the applied voltage .Op-amps are voltage amplifiers that may be of
cascaded single stage amplifiers .When you cascade amplifiers, the total gain will be the
multiplication of the gains of all stages, thus leading to a much higher gain than a single
stage amplifier. Moreover, transistor is single stage amplifier where as op-amp is two stage
amplifier.

CONCLUSION

In the conclusion, the percentage of the voltage of peak to peak is 0.5% which
considered small and the expected output graph, voltage gain and results were achieved.
Besides that, we also have learned how to design an amplifier to amplify the input waveform
to the specified output waveform by using the knowledge that we have gained from previous
labs and our microelectronics lectures. After doing this project, we know more about
multistage BJT circuit and we learned how to design an amplifier circuit by using op-amp.
We also have learnt how to solve a given problem statement by analysis the problem and
design a circuit to solve it. In this experiment, we get the accurate output 0 (non-inverting)
using LTspice. We can conclude that this circuit can amplify the input waveform to the
specified output waveform as we have been asked to design an amplifier circuit. This
assigned project test our understanding regarding using operational amplifier (op-amp) or
bipolar junction transistor (BJT). Moreover, we have become so much familiar with dealing
with electronic component using it properly, estimating its value and even designing them
and trying to simulate them by applying some program application such as LTspice.