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Dear Reader,
We are h a p p y t o s ha re w i t h you t h e Agriculture, I ntellectual Property, a n d
DocUPDATE for the period July-December Services like health, water, education and
2003. vVe would like to take this opportunity tourism. The Fifth Ministerial of WTO at
to apologise for the inordinate delay with Cancun saw a dramatic collapse bringing
which this Doc-Update reaches you. We also into relief its deep institutional crisis. The
apologise for not bringing out the doc­ skewed nature of the process despite the
update for the period of J anuary to June "democratic" nature of the WTO was evident
2003 . We are bringing you a combined issue w i t h t h e delegations fro m E U and U S
of Doc-Update this time,covering from July (representing 1 0% of the world population)
2003 to December 2003. having a combined strength of 863 . This was
The transformatio n o f World Tour i s m three times the total of 2 3 5 for the four
biggest Southern cou n tries ( 5 1 %). The
Organisation, \ITO-OMT into a new full
General Agreement on Trade and S ervices
fledged agency of the United Nations has
created inherent challenges for it in linking (GATS) cover more or less all the essential
to U N's M illennium Development Goals public and private services supplied and
(MDG) - integrating strategies on fair trade, consumed by society. The right to essential
services is inalienable to all citizens. Further
p ov e rty all e v i at io n , a n d s u s t a i n ab l e
equity,justice, and dignity in the delivery of
development and giving priority t o the
essential services are integral for long-term
interests of the poorest nations. The WTO's
C ode of Conduct for t he Protection of societal stability and equality. 3
Children from Sexual Exploitation in Travel Despite opposition from Indigenous Rights
and Tourism tries to encourage the private Groups and Civil Society Organizations,the
sector to commit to practicing socially Tourism Guidelines that focus on vulnerable
responsible tourism! . Alleviating poverty by ecosy s te m s a nd a nce s tral t e r r i t o ry o f
supporting c o m m u n i ty i n i ti a t iv e s a nd i n d i genous people for e c o tourism was
creating ST- E P (Susta inable Tourism - passed at the Seventh Conference of the
Elimination of Poverty) with much fanfare Parties (COP 7) in Kuala Lumpur to the
at WSS D (World Summit on sustainable Convention on B iological D iversity (CBD).
development) is yet another initiative of This calls for monitoring tourism impacts
WTO-OMT. These developments seems to that may arise from the implementation of
be much smoke and little fire, with United CBD tourism guidelines in culturally and
N a t io n s C o m m i s s i o n on Tra d e a n d ecologically vulnerable areas.4
Development (U1';CTAD) sources revealing
The 51h IUCN (World Conservation Union)
that STEP was an idea ofWTO-O MT that is
'\Torld Parks Congress was held in September
in a total stand stilp·
2003 in South Africa. It came out with set of
The ·World Trade Organisation (WTO-OMC) recommendations on the i mportance of
set up to legally enforce commercial rules engaging with the broad array of people who
for i n te r n a t i o nal trade i n G o o d s , reside near and around protected areas to

ensure that their interests and needs are L iberal civil aviation policy and putting
u nd e r s t o o d a n d c o n s i dered i n t h e tour i s m in t h e co n c u rren t l i s t of
management o f these areas. Constitution; the expenditure tax levied by
the Central government has been removed
In environmentally sensitive as well as fragile
w i t h e ffe c t fro m 1 J u n e 2 0 0 3 . The
eco regions such as Andaman and N icobar
govern men t h a s allowed 1 0 0 per c e n t
Island, ten new areas have been identified
foreign direct investment in the hospitality
fo r i nt e n s iv e develop m e n t of tou r i s m
sector. The government has also initiated the
p ro m o t i o n - th i s i n cludes beaches o n
proc e s s o f c h a n ge i n labour laws by
remote, uninhabited islands and even entire
approving simplification of procedures
i slands.5 While tourism department i s
under the laws for Special Economic Zones
engaged with aggressive promotion, i t i s also
beginning to recognise conservation and
community participation. In consonance Apart from these important reforms, the
with these, responsible tourism guidelines dep artmen t of tourism announced the
are i n t h e p ip e l i n e . T h e N at i o n al 'Incredible I ndia campaign' ; government
Commission for Women Chairperson, Dr. . claims that this caused much of the change
Poornima Advani has called for an end to d u e to I nd i a's h i gh p ro file i n t h e
the tendency of tourism promotion through international media and press. In the air, the
sex. She said that many have a notion that government has declared an Open Skies
tourism will flourish if it takes a cue from policy. U nder this, all i nternational airlines,
places like Colombo where sex has been a includ-ing those from the Gulf region, will
m a i n a t t r a c t i o n .6 L ac k o f c o m m u n i ty be allowed to operate additional flights into
participation, disregard for gender and child t h e c o u n try fro m D e c em b e r 2 0 0 3 t i l l
rights concerns are the major flaw in the February 2004.
national tourism policy. Mr. Amitabh Kant,
Cultural attitudes within India are changing.
Joint Secretary, Department ofTburism has
The idea of an a n nual fam ily h oliday!
said that the strategy adopted for the North­
p ilgrimage to the home v illage is being
E a s t re g i o n of I n d i a i s to foc us o n
overtaken by more frequent weekend visits
c o n s e rv a t i o n , p re s e rv a t i o n , a n d a
to leisure facilities within and around the
community oriented tourism.7
cities. The amusement park industry is just
I n t u n e w i t h t h e o v e rall n e o - l i be ral getting its feet wet in India. N ew projects
economic policies that are currently being are coming with fresh investments including
pursued by the Government of India, the foreign investments in this sector. Around
tourism department is also trying to adopt 400 amusement parks are expected to be
d i s i n v e s t m e n t s p o l i cy as t h e l a t e s t operational by 2005.
alternative. Additionally, new schemes like
I nd i a ' s b o o m i n g B P O i n du stry p os e d
tourist visa on arrivals have been introduced.
significant growth i n their travel and helped
Concurrently, it completely ign ores the
tourism industry with significant growth. The
impacts of GATS on tourism. The National
corporate travel in India is growing 1 5-20%
Tourism Policy seeks to position tourism as
per annum. Thus, There h as been a flat
a major engine of economic growth. Giving
corporate travel growth in 2003.
away the bilateral rights to private airlines
by allowing them to land in neighboring K a r n a t a k a has set i ts eyes on U t tara
c o u n tries, privatilation of a ir p ort Kannada, U dupi and Dakshina Kannada
manageIQent. ha$ ,tak.en place. district to attrac t inves tment. The state
government organi.zed a Coastal I nvestors
In thiSelOCtiony� the budgetary allocation
Meet, which was held in Karwar. The Union
ror tourism bas heeh raised from Rs2 25 crore Ministry of tourism has sanctioned Rs. 5
to.Rs375cc�()re from the prev i ous year. c rore for t h e H am p i heritage tourism

project. Simultaneously, the Archaeological than ot:ihe work force� Goa witnesse<l
SUIVey of India is also putting in funds to the highe.eVef'lOUrist in .:"��lQ lakh tQis
refurbish the monument of this world year (200jtas against " <
:�fa�:'}ti� r
heritage site. The state is also p lanning to (2002), record�g an increase of'%5 pWcent.
p romote medical tourism w i th ey i n g There was an eff�Jrom.the�overnment
Bangalore's l arges t number o f c ardiac that for the first time in the history of tourism
hospitals. Some of this has already started in the state, which a full train was chartered
happening. The public face of this medical to carry tourists from Guj arat. The state
tourism is the Pakistani kid being operated tourism board has allocated an Rs30 crore
in Bangalore. marketing budget for 2003. Activists and
The Kerala cabinet has given approval for groups have struggled against the impacts
a new industrial policy, which also provides of mass tourism in the tiny state for the last
industry status to tourism. The department two decades and have brought many aspects
also proposed special tourism zones. The of exploitation in tourism to the forefront.
As a result of this sustained activism, the state
government would shortly promulgate the
Kerala tourism conseIVation, preseIVation government introduced the Goa Children's
and trade ordinance notifying the special Act, 2003, the first of its kind in India. The
tourism zones and constituting a tourism legislation p laces responsibility on tourism
conseIVation and preseIVation panel. The establishments, which wiU be held solely
fifth rep o rt of t h e Kerala L e g i s lative responsible for the safety of the child within
Estimates Committee has recommended for the premises as well as all adjoining beaches,
starting Eco-Tourism proj ects in 56 forest parks.
areas. The department has handed over the The Central ministry of tourism is coming
land to six big hotel chains in Bekal Special u p w i th t h e n o rthe astern s tates fo r
Tourism Area. The government is willing to promoting tourism in the region. The Prime
assist large revenue generating initiatives by Minister, Atal Bihari Vaj payee, announced a
the private sector. s lew o f measures for d ev e l o pm e n t o f
Tamil Nadu is acting on a seven-point action infrastructu re a n d human resource i n
plan announced by chief minister in the N agaland, the centre would provide Rs. 520
occasion ofSKAL(full form please) congress crore to the state within the next two to three
was held in Chennai, to position the state as years. The centre would work together with
an international tourist destination in Asia the state government to create 25,000 jobs
a n d Pac i fic reg i o n . T h e Ta mil N adu in the areas of tourism, agro-based industry,
governmen t i s l i n k i n g its economic village industry and horticulture.
development to tourism promotion. This I n Arunachal Prade s h the S ta t e
focus is based on the understanding that Govern-ment had submitted an R s 1 2-crore
tourism can go hand in hand with other scheme to the C en tre for touri sm
industries in Tamil Nadu which has multi­ development, with emphasis on eco-tourism
faced heritage, culture, pilgrimage, health, and adventure tourism. The North-Eastern
entertainment and conference destinations. C ouncil has also just set up a Regional
Goa continues to be projected as an "all
Tourism Board for developing tourism.
season destination". The Goa Industrial India Tourism Development Company, an
Policy of 2003 states that thrust will be given arm of Sahara India Parivar, an agreement
to develop Ecotourism, Heritage tourism, with West Ben gal government to make
Adventure tourism, Even t tourism and Sunderban a global destination for tourists.
M edical tourism. The tourism industry Sahara India will pump in Rs 500 crore into
contributes over one third (33%) towards the its "Floating City" project. The MoU for this
State's Domestic Product and absorbs more pr�ject had been signed.

The Gujarat government announced state's the tourism and related development area.
Tourism Pol i cy 2 0 0 3 - 1 0 received good T h i s e d i t i o n covers material from
response from the hospitality indu stry. Newspapers, Weakly, Magazines, Journals
Another Rs 2 , 500 crore worth of MoUs was and Books. While compiling this edition, we
sign (largely with N RIs for tourism projects) have also looked at information available on
in the 'Vibrant Gqjarat' global investors' the web and that we receive through list
summit. The state is also proposing the serves via e-mail. The selected information
permission to serve liquor freely and other i s i n dicative o f t re n d s i n tourism
tax consultants. development, especially in India. Issues are
T h e Uttaranj a l S tate Government has presented under headings based on the
announced major financial incentives to all sections in our classification code. Apart
those interested in investing in the tourism from tourism issues, some sections deal with
sector. Apart from giving a cent-percent issues related to development in general.
waiver in income tax, entertainment tax, At t h i s p o i n t , the team would l i ke to
excise tax and luxury tax, the Government acknowledge the contribution of Ms. Nina
has roped in top private planners and Rao, Delhi, Bailancho Saad, Goa, CAG
consultants to develop tourism infrastructure (Citizen, Consumer and Civic Action Group),
in the state. The state witnessed a 1 0 % Chennai for providing us with regional news
increase in the tourism flow in the last year. c l i p p i n gs a n d statewide rep o rts to
I t seems as t h ou g h tourism i s b e i ng understand, analyse trends at the state level
replanned to give itself a new dimension. We and to engage with debates. We request
in EQUATIONS are trying to analyse the feedback fro m our readers about t h i s
trends and debates that are emerging from document, its information and features you
would like to share with us.


WTO news 4th quarter 2003 issue 4

Rane Scharer, Instituto terrmar, Brazil, email dt feb 25,04
We won! Cancun, EQUATIONS, November 2003
tim-team dearing house: Outcry over CBD tourism guidelines
, '

TrQubled lsfands, Pankaj Sekhsaria

'Wlrning against tourism promotion through sex, The New Indian Express,
Thiruvananthapuram dated 30.()9.2003
Branding India, Business India, 1-14, Mar 2004

con ten ts...

A TOURISM AND TOURISM ALTERNATIVES .................................................................. 9

AOO Tourism, Travel (General) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
A10 Tourism and Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

B TOURISM POLICY AND TOURISM DEVELOPMEN T .................................................... 9

BOO Tourism Policy and Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
B01 - Special Tourism Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
B 30 - ITDC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
B 40 Bilateral and Multilateral Agreements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

C TOURISM ECONOMY, INDIAN ECONOMY ............................................................... 11

C 00 Tourism Economy and Tourism Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
C 11 Liberalization Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
C 24 Civil Aviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
C 30 Tourism Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
C 41 Labour Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

D TOURISM P ROMO TION AND TY PES OF TOURISM .................................................. 18

D 00 Tourism Volumes and Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
D 01 Domestic Tourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
D 10 Tourism promotion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
D 20 b Recreation and T heme Parks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
D 20 d Heritage Tourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
D 20 e Pilgrimage Tourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
D 20 f Health Tourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
D 20 h Golf Tourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

E - TOURISM, SOCIETY AND IMPAC TS ........................................................................ 26

E 00: Social Impact of Tourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
E 01 a - Environment Laws and Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
E01b: Environmental Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
E 3 0 Tourism, Public Safety and Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
E 42: Child Prostitution/ Child Sex Abuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

G -COAS TAL REGIONS ................................................................................................. 28

G 10: Marine and CRZ Acts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
G 40 K- Karnataka . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
G 50- Coastal Constructions, urbanization, land acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

K -KARNATAKA ............................................................................................................ 31
K Karnataka . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

K 11: Planning ................................................................................................................ 3 3
K 5 3 : Heritage Tourism.................................................................................................... 33
K 55 National Parks and Sanctuaries................................................................ ............... 33

L - KERALA. .......................... . . ....... ......................................... .. . ...................... .

. . . . . . . . .... . 34
L 00: KERALA -Land and People...................................................................................... 34
L 10: Policy, Economy...................................................................................................... 35
L 20: Environment and Environment issues in Kerala........................................................ 36
L 30: Movements in Kerala (General)............................................................................... 3 7
L 40: Kerala Tourism Policy and Plans............................................................................... 3 7
L 50: Tourism/ Tourism issues in Kerala............................................................................. 3 7
L 52 a Sabarimala ........................................................................................................... 42
L 58 - Special Tourism Area -Bekal.................................................................................. 43
Excerpts from an interview with Jose Dominic ................................................................. 44

M TAMIL NADU ............................................................................. ..................... . ..... 48 . .. .

M 10 Policy, Economy ..................................................................................................... 48

M 58:Special Tourism Areas in Tamil Nadu: Mamallapuram .... . . ................................... 49

NOO - ANDH RA PRADESH .................................. .... ..... . . . .. ........ . . ............................. 49

... ..

NOO Andhra Pradesh ....................................................................................................... 49

POO GOA ..... .. ........... ......... . .

.. . . .. .. ..... ..
........ . ...................... , ........................................... 50
.. .

P 00 Goa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

Q 00 NORT H EASTERN STATES.... .................................... ... ... .......................... ....... 52

. . . .. .

Q 00 North Eastern States............................................................................................... 52

S - OTHER STATES ..... ................ ................... ......... . ..... .

. . . . . ... .... ................ ........ .......... 52
. .

S 10 Eastern India - Orissa, West Bengal ......................................................................... 52

S20 North India - Up, Bihar, HP, MP ................................................................................. 53
S 21 Jammu and Kashmir........................................... '.................................................... 55
S 30 Western India - Gujarat........................................................................................... 55
Gujarat Tourism Policy 2003-2010 ................................................................................... 56
S 40 Union Territories ...................................................................................................... 5 7

T - FOREIGN COUNT RIES ... . ... ..... ....... . ................... ....................... .. .................. 58
. ... . . . . . . .

T OO: International Tourism Volumes and Patterns............................................................. 58

T 10: South Asia ............................................................................................................. 58
T 20: South East Asia ................................................................. .................................... 59
T 30 Communist Asia . .. . ... .. . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . .
. . . . . . . . .....
. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . .......... . . . . ... . . ... 59
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

T 40 Russia ... . . ..... . . ...... . . . ..... . . ... .. . . . . . ... . .. ... ...... . .. . . . . . ...... .........
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ... . 59
. . . .

T 70 -North America....................................................................................................... 60

U -INTI'RNATtONAL ECONOMy ...................... ... . . . . .... . . . ..... .

. . .. . .... . . ......................... . 60
.. . .

U 3 0 GATISlWorid Trade Organisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . �:.. ............................... , ........ 6(}"

X CULTURE AND SOCIETY .................................................", .................. ..\,.. . .• ,;61
X 04 - Local Heritage Sites.. .................................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . :
.. . . . . . : . . .. 61
X11- Social/ political system . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . :......... , ..................... 61
X31- Status of Women (General) . . . . . . . .. .. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . :.......................................... 63
X33- Women's Work! Women Workers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Interview with Dr. Poornima Advani . . . . . . . ..
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...
. . . . . . ..
. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
X40- Children . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
X 42 Child Labour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . ... .. .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Interview with Shantha Sinha . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . ..
. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

Annexure 1 . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Annexure 2 ..................................................................................................................... 7 6
Annexure 3 . . . .
. . . . . . ..
. . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. 78
Annexure 4 ..................................................................................................................... 79
Annexure 5 ..................................................................................................................... 80
Annexure 6 .... . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 86
Annexure 7 ..................................................................................................................... 89
Indian Tourism: Current Issues .................................................................................... 92
What we do .... ...... ..... ................. ................. ....... ......... ...... . ..... ...... ....... .. .... ... ..... 93
. . . . .. . . . . .

Sources Index ............................................................................................................... 95

A. Touri sm a nd Touri sm Alter n atives

AOO Tourism, Travel (General) planning holidays for the family. (Holidayers
get busy with activity-packed vacations, Ajita
Indian holidaymakers seem to have come
of age. Not only more and more Indians Shashidhar, BL. B, 14/10/03, AOO)
looking at going abroad for a holiday, they AIO Tourism and Development
are also looking out for an experiential one. Karnataka State Tourism Development
According to a recent survey conducted by Corporation ( KS-TDC) has decided to
Resorts Condominium International (RCI) privatize four of its hotels on a long-term
on the holiday trends in India, Indians are basis.
looking for activity-based holidays. According to a press release from KSTDC
The survey also revealed that buy i n g Chairperson Manorama Madhwaraj, the
timeshare holidays is fas t catching u p hotels, which the corporation will hand over
among high-flying corporate. " I n a major to private managements, include Hotel
shift from what was viewed as a holiday M ay u ra Bahuman i , Garbage; H o t e l
product only for the middle-income group, Mayura, Bidar; Hotel Mayura N etravathi,
vacation ownership is now also sought by Mangalore and H otel M ayura, Malp e .
CEOs of multinational companies, large These hotels will be handed over to private
local corporate and business entrepreneurs managements on a long-term basis of about
who want to take international exchanges 25 to 30 years.
with their families at least twice a year. The The Tourism Department has also made
new class of vacation owners prefers exotic arrangements to com-plete the floodlight
destinations away from hectic urban facilities at p laces of tourist interests in
routines," said Ms Shastry. coastal areas, at Chitradurga fort, and Tipu
Yet another trend pointed out by the survey Sultan's Summer Palace in Srirangapatna
was that women played an important role by January next. (Four KSTDC hotels to be
in both purchase of timeshares as well as privatized, DH.B, 20/10/03, A 10)

B. Tourism Policy an d
Touris m Developme n t
BOO Tourism Policy and Plans SKA.L, witnesses a 20% to 25% growth in
Tourism in India picking up with arrivals tourism.
clocking a growth of 14. 2 % in J anualY­ The government ofIndia has sponsored Rs
February this y ear. Foreign exchange 1 crore towards conference arrangements
earnings too logged double-digit growth at and other states like Kerala, Pondicherry,
1 5% , Union Tourism Secretary Rathi Vinay Goa, Rajasthan and Chattisgarh are also
J ha said. This is the first time that SKAL is involved in the gala event. While individual
coming to I nd i a at a time when the states are gearing up to get their act
country's tourism is poised for growth. Such together on the tourism front, the Centre
events draw world attention to India. I t is is also doing its bit to market the 'Incredible
believed that the country, which hosts India' brand abroad. The Centre will spend

Rs 14 crore on marketing the brand abroad B 30 - ITDC
this year. Last year, it spent close to Rs I 0 The Central government has decided to
crore. (Tourism setfor a leap in 'Incredible India, disinvest its shares in the ITDC owned
ET.C, 30/9/03,BOO) Jan path H otel in N ew Delhi, Tourism
T h e d o m e s t i c tourism indu stry h a s Sec-retary Rathy Vinay Jha said. Center
sugge s t e d the c re a t i o n of a n I nd i a would also privatize the Asokha and Samrat
Promotion Fund, which will e ssentially hotels, run by the ITDC in New Delhi.
benefit the upper-end segment of hoteliers, (Center to disinvest three ITDC hotels IE. D, 1/
as it will be meant to attract foreign tourists. 10/03, B 30)
But while one section of the industry has
suggested a levy of 3 per cent tax on room Hong Kong-based hotel chain Shangri-La
rent of hotels to create the fund, the other has tied up with Eros Group to re-brand
section has demanded a more equitable former I nd i a Tou r i s m D ev e l o p m e n t
distribution with government participation. Corporation's (ITDC) 354 room five star
property Hotel Kanishka now as Shangri­
I n 2000, t h e Tou r i s m M i ni stry h a d La Hotel New Delhi. Shangri-La Hotels &
proposed " Tourism Development Fund' to Resorts is the trade name of Shangri-La
promote tourism. The Department of Asia, a listed company in Hong Kong stock
Tourism was proposed to provide the initial exchange pro-moted by a Malaysian family
corpus. ' But the idea of setting up of concern, Kuok Group . (Shangri-La-Eros
Tourism D evelopment Fun d has been Group Tie-up To Rebrand ITDC Property, FE.D,
drop p e d as it was fel t that cri tical 23/10/03, B30).
infrastructure development can be made
t h rough b u d g etary sup port of t h e T h e I nd i a n Tourism D ev e l o p m e n t
department and a Separate fund would not Corporation (ITDC) is all set to register a
be necessary for this. (To urism Ind ustry positive growth this fiscal financial year.
Pitches For India Promotion F und, Rajeev During the first six months of this fiscal,
Jayaswal, FE. B, 18/9/03,BOO). ITDC registered a 20 per cent increase in
the total turnover which touched Rs 140
BO 1 Special Tourism Areas

crore from Rs 116 crore registered in the

Orissa's best brand name in the field of same period last year. The major growth
tourism, Puri may soon acquire a dubious area th i s year h a s b e e n the Ash o k
distinction of being one of the most sea International Trade Division, which deals
polluting towns of the country, the hotels with duty free shop. In the last six months
are equally disastrous waste discharge (Ap ril-October 2003), the d i v i s i o n ' s
system s . \Vh e n Puri adm i n i s-tr a t i o n turnover was Rs 56 crore a s compared to
conducted a n inspection of the hotels their Rs 44 crore during the same period time
findings were quite shocking. Nearly 35 previous year. ITDC has now set a target of
hotels have come up on the beach violating Rs 125 crore for its duty-free outlets during
Coastal Regulation Zone norms and others 2003-04. The turnover of the duty-free
flushed the sewerage directly into the sea division stood at Rs 94 crore during 2002-
instead of the extra residual water. The 03, registering a growth of 32% over the
h o t e l s over t h e re rarely t reat e d the previous year's turnover of Rs 71 crore.
wastewater. The Orissa Pollution Control
The Ashok Tour Travel is also entering into
B oard Qf.�he se£twat�r had found the

a strategic alliance with Travel Services

biolqgica\Qxyg� <iemand all. indicator of Internation-al (TSI) to focus aggressively on
h ow. habitablcethe water is for harmful
the international market. Ashok Tour &
�rgflllismstobe 110. «(Puri tourism at Travel has increased its turnover by Rs 7
slq,k8;4s�fJr;sethreat to sea, M.B, 19/11/
crore in the last six months as compared to

last year. (ITDC in recovery mode, plans VRS,. "With a view to promoting cross-border
ET.B, 23/11/03, B 30) traffic, Our two governments are also
looking at an extension of.Indian railway
B 40 Bi lateral and M u ltilateral
lines into Nepal," Saran said. M ost north
I ndian cities have" a large middle class
I ndia has stressed the importance of population, with enough income to afford
establishing rail links and improving the holidays during the summer when they
road network with Nepal to boost bilateral want to avoid scorching heat, he said.
tourism even as tour operators have sought
Participants at the meeting expressed the
more d irect fl i g h t s b e tween the two
countries. view that private airlines should provide
direct Air links between N epalese and
Addressing a half yearly general meeting Indian cities to boost tourism. (India Keen
of the Hotel Association of Nepal (HAN), To Boo st Tourism With Nepal, FE. B, 27/10/03
India's ambassador Shyam Saran said the B 40)
tWo countries are looking at establishing rail
links and upgrading the road network
connecting them to boost tourism.

c. Tou ri s m Eco n o m y, I n d i a n Eco n o m y

C 00 Tourism Economy and Tourism While some industry leaders, like Kuoni
Infr astructure Asia chairman Ranjit Malkani, argue that
The I n d ian tourism a n d h o s p i tal ity at least 70% of the visitors to India come
industry is virtually euphoric and it has on business and cannot be placed in the
every reason to celebrate. Since it is notjust conventional holiday-maker or tourist slot,
the b i g h o te ls , a i r l i n e s , and travel they admit that at the end of the day these
companies, which are hearing their cash people also contribute to the Indian
registers, ring, but a host of ancillary service tourism cof-fers. They stay in the best of
providers like the local masseurs on Goan hotels, travel within the country to fulfill
beaches, Indian designers and handicraft their business commitments, shop around
makers, tour guides in Agra and Hampi, more often for ethnic handicrafts, hire cars
car rental operators, restaurants, service to commute within a given destination. All
apartment developers and even roadside of which definitely helps in giving a leg-up
eatery owners, who are grinning from ear to the industry. Domestic airlines like Jet
to ear. In fact, expert's say that depending Airways and Air Sahara have already said
on the budget, between 15 and 30% of t h a t a 2-4% i ncrease i n carriage i s
tou �ist spend is towards the ancillary happening this year.
servICes. The growth target of bigger players in this
Going by the trends including rising tourist business is a clear indication of which way
spends, the tourism industry in India is it is headed . Swiss travel giant Kuoni is
tipped to become an almost $4 billion (or betting on a 50% rise in outbound travel
around Rs 18,000 crore) business by the end next year. In 10 years, it expects a ten-fold
of the current fiscal, up 30% over last year's jump in the number of domestic travelers
(at present pegged at 200 million pilgrims).
$3 billion. In spite of SARS and Iraq war.
But then the global tourism industry is This year, some four million people are said
' to be traveling abroad.
reported to have grown to $4.6 trillion this
year Goa and Kerala art practically on fire,
according to Ashwini Kakkar, C E O of

people flying increasing, the decision to regIOn w i l l expand, i s t h e curre n t
allow an international airline to p ick up a expectation .
49 per cent stake in a domestic airline could
Airlines based i n Asean c ountries are
be detrimental to the interest of domestic
obviou sly u p be a t at t h e p ro s p e c t t o
aviation," industry leaders opined expanding operations in India. Singapore
(Domestic airlines, worried over panel decision h a s concluded l iberal a i r s e rv i c e s
on FDI, Ashwini Phadnis, BL. B, 9/12/03 C24) agreements with Sri Lanka and Australia.
Indian h oteliers, travel agents and tour The pact with Lanka allows "open skies"
operators are celebrating, Prime Minister for cargo and a liberal flexibility on the
A B V� payee proposal for an "open skies" passenger side with further scope for
agreement with Asean countries as this is improvement.
expected to lead to a significant boost to T h e agreement w i th Aus trali a allows
the tourism industry. As flights linking unlimited number of flights between any
Asean nations increase once the pact comes points in Australia to Singapore. The pact
into effect, fares are expected to decline on also enables SIA to launch a domestic
account of intense competition. airline in Australia. With smaller nations
New players l i ke Garuda of I ndonesia like Sri Lanka and Singapore going in for
would be encouraged to enter the Indian l ib eral policies along with developed
market while existing players like Singapore countries like Australia, the entire region
Airlines, Cathay Pacific, Thai Airways , is likely to witness opening up of the skies
Malaysian Airlines, and Korean would be s o o n e r than l ater. T h e U S a n d the
in a position to increase frequency. European Union, two major markets, are
already negotiating "open skies" across the
Low cost carriers from the Asean region Atlantic.
would also explore the Indian market now,
tourism industry sources feel. Both inbound Mr Shyam Suri, the secretary general of the
as well as outbound tourism to the Asean Federation o f H o tels and Restaurants
Association of I ndia (FHRAI), said the

Indo ASEANfree trade pact: Ground still to be covered

Merchandise Amount (US $ million)
Trade With
Countries Exports Imports
Country 1 995 2001 1 995 2001
Indonesia 501 515 384 1261
Malaysia 355 702 770 1735
Philippines 122 216 15 78
Singapore 807 1017 966 3018
Thailand 461 612 146 530
Vietnam 97 178 15 57
Myanmar 21 67 160 316
Asean (7) 2364 3307 2456 6995
Total 30630 43437 34707 49941
Source: Direction of Trade Statistics, IMF

India: Approved FDI Inflows From ASEAN Countries
Amount (US $ Million)
Country 1991·95 1996-00 2 001 2002
Malaysia 519.4 1058.9 22.0 77.6
Singapore 481.4 777.3 78.8 77.5
Thailand 816.5 30.5 0.3 0.0
Indonesia 109.7 20.6 0.0 26.3
Philippines 33.1 81.6 0.4 0.0
Asean 1960.1 1968.9 101.5 181.4
lotal 20695.5 47613.7 5578.0 2319.3
Source: AsheT and Srivastava (2003) (FE.B, 1 3110103)

prime minister's proposal was a significant yet taken any decision on this issue. (House
step towards liberalisation of the aviation panel moDis 'single window fOT touTism projects,
i ndustry. B e s i d e s improvi n g inbound BL. B, 5112/2003, C 30/)
tourism, it will also boost outbound tourism. World tourism battered by terrorist­
The government should also adopt similar inspired fears of flying, the war in Iraq and
policy for European and American carriers the outbreak of the Sars epidemic, may be
too. Out of tourist arrivals into India, 10% on the verge of a recovery, i n d u stry
are from Asean countries while 40% are professionals say. In Singapore there are
from the US and E urope.(Garuda To Enter now " e ncouragin g s igns " that tour i s t
India "While Existing AiTlines Can Up Frequency arrivals will reach their pre-Sars level early
Open skies to boost touTism, Arsdeep Sengal & next year, according to the head of the state
G. Ganapathy Subramanian, ET. B, 1 0110/ tourism office Lim N eo Chian.
2003, C24)
Already, he said, arrivals are about 75% of
C 30 Tourism Industry what they were before appearance of Sars.
The Parliamentary Standing Committee on Hotels were 60% full in June; after 35% in
Tra n s p o r t , Tou r i sm a n d C u l ture h a s May. Mr Anthony Chan, director of one of
recommended that t h e Department of Singapore's largest tourist agencies, said
Tourism take up the matter of having a flights to Hong Kong and Bangkok were
single window clearance system for tourism now full as the lure of foreign travel revives
projects with all the S tate and U ni o n after an interval of several months.
Territories. In Australia, where tourist arrivals in June
The committee's report, which was tabled were down 20.9% compared with the same
in Parliament, also recommends that the month last year, there was nonetheless an
Department ofTourism should pursue with increase in the number of visitors from New
the States the need to rationalise the Zealand, Germany and the US. Short-term
different taxes and provide incentives for stays were up 7% over May. Thailand,
the hotel industry. s o u t h - e a s t A s i a ' s l e a d i n g touri s t
The committee said, would not only boost destination, has seen a decline of 11 % in
the industry but also help generate more visitors this year but expects an increase of
6% in 2004, according to Tourism and
tourist arrivals. I t also appreciated the
measures announced by the Government Sports Minister Sonthaya Khumpleum.
in the Budget towards rationalizing taxes (WoTLd touTism sees signs of revival ETB, /28/
l ev i ed by t h e C en tre a n d S tate 0 712003. C30).
Governments, although the States have not

M r. Freederick D iverc h a S e n i o r Vice categories. This strong rebound in hotel
Pre s i d e n t , S O T C t o l d , " T h e Ind ia n occup ancy comes after two y e ars o f
outbound tourism market is one o f the downturn witnessed after the 9/11 terrorist
fastest growing. Indians traveling abroad attacks. Surprisingly it is the five-star deluxe
spent Its. 7,000 crores in 1999 and this is category that has witnessed a growth of 13.6
expected to grow to Rs. 19,200 crores by per cent followed by five stars at 10.9 per
2004." In the recent past, the outbound cent.
tourism market saw a growth of 12 per cent Current ind ications are that this year,
and it is projected that about ten million Bangalore may outperform both Mumbai
Indians will be outbound trav-ellers by and Delhi in terms of highest average rates
in the country. I n fact this i s a maj or
Mr. Sunil Gupta, Leisure, Thomas Cook improvement compared to five years ago
India told "The Government is also waking when Bangalore was ranked a poor fifth in
up to the importance of heritage structures terms of average rates.
a n d the touri sm m i n is t ry h a s a new I n 2002-03, a double-digit growth i n
approach which is paying off. (Tourism/feel occupancy w a s w i t n e s s e d in M u mbai
Good Factor, Signs of return to good times, (21. 9%), Delhi (13.3%), Goa (12.9%) and
Ramnath Subbu, TH. D, 30/1 1/12, C 30) Bangalore (12.0%). "Vhile Chennai (3.2%),
Taj Garden Retreat at Kumarakom in Hyderabad (1.3%) a n d Ahme d-abad
Kerala plans to add 12 new luxury villas to (1.] %), showed modest gains.
their inventory of the existing 22 rooms, Both the leisure destinations Agra and
i nc lu d i n g rooms i n c ottages a n d J aipur had a decline in occupancy of 8.9%
houseboats, a t a n investment o f around Rs and 7.0% respectively. 'The only metro city
2-3 crore. Taj Garden Retreat is p art of the
to witness a decline in terms of occupancy
Taj luxury hotels. was Kolkata - this was due to an oversupply
An official from Indian Hotels Company of hotel Rooms. The study anticipates that
Ltd (lHCL) told that the move to add villas in a few years the number of branded three
comes in the wake of surge in demand for star hotels will far exceed those in the
the destination (Kumarakom), both from luxury market, as has been the case in
the over seas as well as domestic market markets in the US and Europe . For the first
especially from the free individual traveller time, the NCR has overtaken Mumbai, in
segment. terms of the number of new hotels slated
According to the I HC L annual report 2002- to become operational in the next few years.
2003, these renovations are part of the
Thirteen hotels are in various stages of
company' s initiative to enhance brand planning development in the NCR ofwhich
visibili ty. The report also says that the properties are expected to be located in
renovation and repositioning of properties Gurgaon. (Hospitality sees strong rebounded,
has been contribut-ing to the revenues and Raja Awasthi, ET.B, 2 1/1 l/03, C 30)
market share in addition to the profile of In Chennai tourist arrivals to the city
the brand. ( Taj Garden Retreat To Add 12 registering a steady upward rise since
Luxury Villas At Kumarakom, Candida Moraes, October, hotels and airlines are looking
FE.B, 1 9/1 1/03, C30) fonvard to a robust season ahead.
The Indian hotel industry is getting back The earliest indications are already seen ill
on the global tourist map with a bang, even the city's hotels - both five-star and business
tho\lgh the current calendar year has been class which report an average occupancy
a bad one for the tourism industry. In the rate of 70%. Both the ITC properties-Park
calendar year 2003, the demand for hotel Sheraton and Chola Sheraton-show 68
rooms nights i mproving across all-star percent each, while H otel' Ambassador

Pallava reports 70%. While Taj Connemara around 1,700, compared to 4,200 plus in
shows a very healthy 72%, Taj Connemara Mumbai.
follows at 69 %.
Trade sources say the ART chart buster for
In hotels meant mainly for business tourists November is Bangalore's Leela Kempinski
like the GRT Grand Days, the occupancy is at Rs 8,340 and an occupancy of 87%,
as high as 86%, according to M 0 Koshy, giving it a significant lead over The Oberoi,
its vice-president. The figures at the beach Mumbai, which is relegated to the second
side properties are equally impressive both position at an Average Room Rate (ARR)
Sterling M ahab al ipuram and the Taj ­ of about Rs 7,000 and an occupancy level
owned Fi sher man's Cove show 80 % under 60%. Incidentally, the ARR of Rs
occupancy each. 8,340 is possibly the highest for any hotel
this year. The next in line in this race is Taj
Where 46,35,278 domestic and 3,10,198
West end, also from Bangalore, at an ARR
foreign tourists, landed up at Chennai for
of Rs 6,800 and occupancy dose to 70%.
the whole of last year, this year even, the
The West end, it appears, has recorded the
January-September season has recorded
best ARR among all Taj luxury properties
38.53,4 72 a n d 2,35, 6 70 tour i s t s
in the country. The Oberoi in Bangalore is
respectively. The total figures this year­
just behind the Taj hotel with an aver-age
conservative industry estimates project a 14
of about Rs 6, 720. The hotel has the
to 15 percent increase-are expected to far
disadvantage of blocking dose to 20 rooms
exceed those of last year.
for airline crew at a lower room rent, which
I n November l a s t year, Chennai a nd tends to bring its total ARR down . The
Tiruchirappalli together received 24,000 O b e ro i M u mb a i ' s A R R has s l i p p e d
tour i s t s . This year ' s fi gures s t a n d at marginally from September this year. It was
26,000.(Arrivals good so far; City set for a at around Rs 7,600 in September, Rs 7,200
healthy tourist season, Most hotels-both five star in October and now Rs 7,000. (Leela Palace
and business class-report an average occupancy has arrived ahead of Oberoi Mumbai, Girish
rate of at least 70 percent, vani Doraisamy & Rao, ET. B,9/12/03, C30.)
Joji Thomas Philip, IE. C, 3/12/03, C 30)
The Sahara Group i s eyeing its second
The Bangalore hospitality industry is on a major tourism project in West Bengal after
roll. For the second month in the running the Sunderbans. The Rs 32,000 crore
in November, the Average Room Tariff groups is planning to take up a River Teesta
(ART) report card shows its star hotels development project in north Bengal that
ahead of Mumbai, the traditional numero will also make the north-eastern states more
undo in this busi-ness. Mumbai continues accessible to tourists. Sahara has already
to enjoy the position of the financial capital submitted a proposal to the West Bengal
of I ndia and the b iggest inter-national government. The Te esta development
gateway to the country, which virtually gives project is expected to create a transit link
it first access to the creme- de- la- creme and has the potential to lure international
a m o n g the i n t e r n a t i o n a l a s we l l a s tourists, according to Sahara officials.
do-mestic corporates.
A top Sahara official said that, the company
However, riding the BPO and call centre is expecting a green signal from the state
wave and comple-mented by the surge in governm ent who will be the company 's
o ther b u s i n e s s e s , B an g a l o re has partner in the project. " Buddhism Will
experi-enced a sharp rise in demand this attract a lot of international tourists to the
year. This in turn has offered ho-tels the region and our own helicopter service, bus
enviable opportunity to demand top dollar service and hotels will take care of all the
for its rooms, and get it, since the city only needs of a tourist. The project will also take
has a compact supply of star hotel rooms, tourists to the neighboring countries of

Bhutan and Myanmar, " the Sahara official T he c hanges intended in SEZs include
said. The company; however, is yet to work exemptions from payment of statutory dues
out the investments it will have to fork out such as contribution to the empl oyee's
for the pro -j ec t . Meanwhile, work on p rov i de n t fun d and employees state
Sahara's Sunderbans project is expected to insurance for a five-year period. Mr. Singh
begin in the second half of 2004. The said, adding that the exemptions have
company plans to complete the 840-acre already come into effect and Gujarat has
land acquisition from the state government become the first state to implement them.
by March 2004. "We hope to begin the first S tate governmen ts are the drivers in
phase of work next year which will be on developing SEZs with a view to increase
the development of boating in the region," exports several states had petitioned the
the Sahara official said. (Sahara Plans 2nd Centre seeking relaxation in labour norms
Tourism Project In �st Bengal /FE. D, 1 7/12/ for setting up these zones. Among the
2003, C30) major units expected to gain from the move
C 4 1 Labour Policy include the Positra SEZ, promoted by Sea
The government has initiated the process King Infrastructure in Gujarat.
of change in labour laws by approving The government has taken an in-principle
simplification of procedures under the laws dec i s i o n to a l l ow fixed term l ab our
for Special Economic Zones (SEZs). This will contracts. The amendment to the Contract
facilitate job-creation on a fixed term basis Labour (Regulation & Abolition) Act, 1 970,
without compromising social securi ty, is also ready, the minister added. (Change
labour minister Sahib Singh Verma said. In Labour Laws Initiated, , FE.B, 7/1 1/03, C

D. Tou ri s m Promoti on
and Types of Tou ri sm

D 00 Tourism Volumes and Patterns Going by latest trends, tourism trade

India, for the first time, has entered the top watchers are hopeful that India will break
ten tourist destinations of the world, the j inx ofjust 2.5 million foreign tourists
according to the latest research by Conde a year. During January to August, tourist
Nast U K Readers' Travel Awards. In its arrivals increased by 1 4 . 2 per cent as
l a t e s t i s s u e , Euro p e ' s b i gges t travel compared to last year, totaling 1 6.74 lakh
magazine, Conde Nast Traveller lists India arriv al s . (India a mong top 1 0 tourist
at the number 9 spot, with the top three destinations, IE. C, 30/9/03, D 00),
slots going to It-aly, Australia and France. The ministry of tourism intends to set up a
While Agra's Taj Mahal has been the Rs 500- crore Tourism Development l:und
legendary motif for the country's tourism (TDF). Other ministry proposals pertain to
industry, newer attrac-tions such as Kerala's a liberal civil aviation policy and putting
p romos for Ay u rv e d i c health resorts, tourism in the c oncurre n t l i s t of
Maharashtra's grand karmic cleansing at C o n s t i tu t i o n for better coord i na t i o n
the Kumbh M ela historical Buddhist finds
between the Centre and states.
in several other states and, of course, the The tourism development fund proposal
Goan beaches are sure-fire tourist magnets has been sent to the Planning Commission.
today. Once approved by Planning Commission,

::.; H'.::;�·.>; ' ::--'
., ; ' ,';:,';,
the fund proposal wil l go to the U nion The dotJ;.,e �tif:
tourism is poised to become'
Cabinet. a $80 bi1l�pn industry b)'; )2<)(f�,i,�ccof(;l�ng
Half of the fund would be utilised for to a McKins�y report. , > '; ( �' .• . . .
.. • . .
.. '

bridging minor gaps in infrastructure at Indian travel c:tnq tourism, whic h h;;l� wn �
local level . Prime Minister Atal Bihari � �e
rapidly at 20 pe c:ent GAGR'd r 1997-
Vajpayee had earlier announced the setting 2002 to become a $32 billion industry has
up of the tourism development fund. The the potential to touch the $80 billion mark
m i n i stry i nfor m e d at the quarterly in the next four years, the global strategic
p e rformance rev i ew m e e t i n g o n the man-agement consulting firm said.
m i n i s try of tour i s m under p l a n n i n g The report pointed out that the share of
commission, was confident o f spending Rs tourism in India's Gross Domestic Produce
325 crore plan fund for the current fiscal.
(GDP) is very low at 5.2 per cent compared
Planning commission deputy Chairman to other countries. This is due to its low per
K.C . Pant urged the tourism ministry to cap i ta i n c o m e , w h i ch l e a d s to a low
s tudy the i m p a c t of i t s s c h e m e s o n proportion of its GDP being spent on
employment. domestic travel or outbound travel. Despite
\Vhile a majority of states are favorably this, it registered a notable growth on the
inclined to incorporating tourism in the back of increasing domestic travel and
concurrent list, seven states are opposed to outbound tourism.
the move. Highlighting the drivers of future growth,
The seven states are Andhra Pradesh, the McKinsey study said both domestic
Jammu & Kash mir, Karnataka, Kerala, travel (23 per cent CAGR) as well as
Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Rajasthan. outbound travel (25 per cent) have grown
At the quarterly performance rev i ew significantly over the past three to five years,
m e e t i n g , the P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n as the Indians have started traveling more,
directed the ministry o f tourism to prepare especially to Southeast Asian countries,
model legislation for s tates, based o n driven by t h e devalu a t i o n in t h e i r
i nternational exp erience, s o that a currenCles.
consensus could be evolved on the issue. To cater to t h e incre a s e d d e m a n d ,
At present, tourism does not figure in any e s p e c i a l ly for d o m e s t i c touris t s , the
of the three lists of the Constitution accommodation sector has seen a large
namely, Central, state and concurrent. capacity addition in the past five years. The
The tourism ministry suggested a liberal sector has grown at 1 8.4 per cent CAGR
civil aviation policy, in which foreign airlines despite a fal l in average room rentals .
could be given a consistent policy for three (Tourism industry likely to touch $80 billion by
to five years for flights during the October­ 200 7: McKinsey, DOO.)
February season. The Russian leisure travelers to India
The ministry also wants the current state appear to be going through a major image
level taxes on aviation turbine fuel to be makeover according to Mr Himmat i\nand,
replaced by a Central sales tax. the chief operating officer of Kuon i ' s
inbound travel arm, SITA.
At the quarterly p erformance review
meeting i t was mentioned that Punj ab , The Rus s ians are paying upfront and
U ttar Pradesh and the Northeastern states largely patronise good four and five star
are lacking in efforts to promote tourism. hotels. SITA is operating around 250-270
(Rs. 500-cr Fund Likely For Tourism Promotion,
charters back to back from this October to
FE. D, 25/09/2003, D) end March 2003 into Goa, most of them
from Russia, though there are some from

other parts of Europe, primarily U K. While pay top dollars, Girish Rao, ET.D03/09/2003,
the holiday makers on these charter flights DOO)
are beach-oriented and do not want to India recorded a strong surplus in tourism
move around much, a fourth of them are earnings after many quarters. According to
ready t o s t e p o u t t o Ker a l a . S o m e the latest balance of payments figures, net
participate i n short three-day trips to tourism earnings amounted to $247m in
Karnataka by bus, though most of them April-June '03. This has been the highest
prefer Kerala because of its backwaters, sinceJanuary '02. In January-March '02, net
ayurveda and beaches again. e a r n i n g s w ere $ 3 1 6m . H owever, n e t
This year, SITA is also bringing in some 20 tourism earnings during most parts o f last
c h a r t e r s with 4 , 4 0 0 trav e l e r s over a year were negative, with s p ending by
five-month period beginning this October outbound tourists higher than income on

• ($ Mn) i

2 00

-2 00 -

Apri l- July- Oct- April-
- r ------- - --------- - - � - _ ..

: ($ Mn)i . 0 -2 50 1 00 -3 00 275
-- - --_ . - ._- ------ - _ .................... . ....._-- -------

Quarterly trend in Net Tourism Earnings (Travelogue/ET. D, 8/10/03, DOO)

to Kovalam. Mr Anand said they are also account of inbound traffic. In the latest
getting tourist groups into the Ujj a in, quarter, earnings on account of inbound
Khajuraho, Agra and Bhopal circuit. Ujjain traffic amounted to $754m, while the outgo
will soon come on board for the first time was $507m. The weak dollar does not seem
with SITA for Samistha, a Khumb Mela style to have had any significant impact on the
festival in which foreigners as well as NRI international traveller in the region, where
h o li d ay m a ke r s can p a r t i c i p a t e a n d the domestic currency i s appreciating
experience central Indian heritage. At least against the dollar, which means they get less
50 air-conditioned tents housing a couple for their money.
for avo days each will be set up for a 30-day Despite India emerging as a 'must see'
period in Ujjain under this programme. tourist destination in recent years, the
SIlA has also tied up with Mumbai-based c o u ntry i s n o t y e t a m o n g the m o s t
Vedic India, a health management tourism competitive tourist destinations in the
company (which has signed up Apollo and world, according to World 'l'ravel and
Wockhardt), for tapping the vast N RI Tourism Council (WTTC) survey. The
audience in the west. SITA proposes to council has released a 'Travel and tourism
p rovide the backe n d s u p p o r t , w h i c h competitiveness monitor', intended to serve
includes the travel arrangements from as an indicator of the extent to which a
Europe or US into India, the pre- and post­ country offers a competitive environment.
treatment stay (if necessary) in a hotel, a The data is grouped into eight categories
hoJidflY For thq FOltiqnt'$ family if they seck such as price competitiveness, openness,
one. (Changing times: Russian leisure travellers

i n fr a s t ru c tu re , tec h n o logy, human The first Gatileo-Express Travel & Tourism
resources, and social development. awards presented by TQul'i�tIl f .m inister
India is still among the 1 5 most competitive M r.] agmohan . T h i s awaJf(i ' .; . ba s bee n
nations. An area of possible concern for instituted by the Indian Express group and
tourism policymakers and industry players global computerised reservation system
is the country's performance in creating an (CRS) provider Galileo.
open and liberal framework for the travel While ] et Airways bagged best domestic
and tourism industry. This facet of the airline award, Singapore Airlines and
monitor, which considers areas such as visa Emirates Airlines have been adjudged as
requirements, trade openness, taxes on best international airlines, eastbound from
i n t e r n a t i o n a l trade a n d s o o n , p u t s I n d i a and w e s tboun d fro m I n d i a ,
Luxembourg, Maldives and Aruba right on respectively.
top, while India comes at 1 42. Similarly, in Dubai Tourism Board and Kerala Tourism
areas related to human resources and the have b a gged t h e award for b e s t
impact of tourism on human development, international and domestic tourism boards
the country's performance is a cause for respectively.
The recipient of awards includes Cox &
(India not yet among most competitive tourist Kings (best out-bound tour operator), Sita
destinations, Sankar Radhakrishnan, BL.B, 1 21 World Travel (best inbound tour operator),
1 1103,DOO) Sarovar Park Plaza Hotels & Resorts (best
Foreign tourists are heading to India with business hotel chain) and The Taj group
a renewed interest, inbound tourism is (best luxury hotel chain).
booming with most flights to India already Most innovative marketing campaigns of
sold out. Up to September " foreign tourist E m irates (airlines) , the Orchid group
arrivals to India had increased by 1 4.5%, (hotel), Thomas Cook (tour operator) and
and in September alone arrivals grew by Goa Tou r i s m ( tour i s m b o ar d ) were
over 1 6%. Along with this, India's foreign appreciated.
exchange earnings from tourists have also
shown a 20% jump (up to September) over The Editor's Choice Award was conferred
corresponding period last year. Amitabh on Mr ] agmohan for his contributing to
Kant, joint secretary i n the ministry of marketing I ndian tourism as a successful
tourism and culture, estimates at least 20% brand.(Tourism Sector Posts 1 6% Growth, FE.D
] , growth in number of foreign tourist 1 8/1212003, DOOI)
coming to India this year and a substantial D O l Domestic Tourism
25% increase in foreign exchange earnings.
'The booming BPO industry' corporate
'rhe number of foreign tourists coming into travel i n India is growing 1 5-20% per
I ndia fell for I 3-months in a row after the annum. This, despite most multinationals
911 1 attacks, in 200 1 and 2002, foreign keeping a cautious approach with' their
tourist arrivals declined, by 4% and 7%. The 2004 travel budgets world over.
inbound tourists to India started reviving
According to an international survey on
only from October last year, and from]une
travel conducted by World Travel BTl, the
onwards this year the momentum has
third largest corporate travel management
further building up . The highest growth
firm in the United States, a majority of
this year was seen in ] une at a significant
resp ondents have made no significant
2 7 . 5% the outlook for the next t hree
changes in their 2004 travel budget. A
months is also equally bright. (Rediscovery
section of the US multinationals p lan
of India: Tourist arrivals up 1 4 . 5% in HI,
changes of only 1 0%. I n India, however, the
Nikita GulabranilEtig, ETD 0811012003, D
latter half of 2003 witnessed a growth of


20% in corporate travel due to the booming Union Tourism Secretary RathiVinay Jha
BPO industry and an overall pick-up in the said. Jha said the overall fund allotment
I ndian economy. for the tourism industry was Rs. 2,900 crore
as against the Rs 750 crore in the Ninth
There has been a flat corporate travel
growth in 2003 and no significant jump in Plan.
trav e l budget is expected in 2 0 0 4 , The government was targeting a sustained
According t o the survey, the corporate growth of 1 0 percent overall growth in the
travel industry will see an upswing in 2004. industry in the next 1 0 years, adding that
An increasingly stable economy is an this was more or less n ear the 'World
i n d icator of an i ncrease in c o nsumer Tourism Council's prediction of9.7 percent
spending and corporations will no doubt growth for the country in the same period.
want their "road warriors" on the move to The fact that the arrival of foreign tourist
leverage the upswing. Face-to-face meetings had gone up by 1 4. 2 percent between
will reclaim its status as the preferred way January and February this year as compared
of doing business. "'While we will see: an to last year was an indication of things to
increase in passenger traffic, companies will come, adding that even foreign exchange
be smart and cautious about their travel due to tourism had gone up by more than
spending," said survey. This year, the top 1 6 percent.
travel alternatives for those companies
indicating decreases in travel budget are The government had spent more than Rs
te l e p h o n e a n d v i d e o c o n fe re n c i n g , 1 0 crore on p romoting the ' I n credible
foregoing the tri p , Web meeting and I n d i a ' adverti s e m e n t a n d marke t i n g
driving. Many multinationals adjusted their campaign over the electronic media alone.
compa-ny travel polices in 2003. (Corporate (Tourism to get big boost with 500% hike in
travel to India registers growth 0{20% - BPO funds IE. C,30/09/03, D 1 0)
and Economic Pick- Up Catch Fancy of MNCs, The advertising budge t for promoting
Arshdeep Sehgal, ET D, 1 9/12/2003, D Ol) tourism in India has been hiked by over
There was a 'record' increase of three crore 60% to Rs. 65 crore. I n January 2003,
in the domestic tourist traffic in the past I n d i a ' s maiden global camp a i gn
one year, while about Rs 4,000 crore was " Incredible India" was flashed acro s s
earned in foreign exchange from foreign l e a d i n g n ew s c h a n n el s , n ew s p ap e r s ,
tourists, the Lok Sabha was informed. magazines and travel sites covering the Far
East, Europe, US and UK The government
Foreign, tourist arrivals also went up by 1 5 had then set aside an advertising budget
per cent and there was a rise of over 22 of Rs 40 crore.
percent in the foreign exchange earnings
between, January and November this year, According to the M inistry of lourism, the
tourism m i n i s t e r J ag mohan s a i d i n gover n m e n t of I n - d i a h a s h i ked the
Parliament during the question hour. advertising Budget because after the last
campaign earlier this year, tourist in-flows
The estimated foreign exchange earnings from source markets like the Europe and
through tourism had increased from $2,594 U K have increased by over 2 1 %. Against
million between January-November last this, tourist inflows from these countries last
year to $3, 1 75 million in the same period year had reported a negative growth of 25
this year,(Record Increase In Domestic Tourist
%.(Tourism Ministry's ad spend up 60%,Meena
Traffu:, FE. C, 23/12/03, D Oli) Nichani, ETC, 1 0/1 1/2003, D 1 0)
D 16 '1burima promotion
The Far East has been the destination of
The Q!ntral Government has hiked the choice for Indians holidaying abroad this
fUU(r�tiQll for tourism by more than year. The outbound travel market in the
�OO; �rcent m ' the Tenth Five Year plan,

October-November period has grown 30% added thar park owners today are looking
against a 1 5% growth last year. at smaller towns to build PQriq:. According
While, an estimated 4 . 5 million I ndians to Mr Chawla, piltk8 4lke at
travelled abroad in 2002, the travel industry least five to six years to become profitable.
says the numbers for this year will be close H owever, amusement park owners say that
to 5 m illion. The overall buoyancy in the h i gh e r d i s p o s a b l e i n c o m e a n d a n
economy has led to greater leisure travel increasing willingness t o consider newer
abroad. Bookings for the summer of 2004 forms of entertainment are driving this
have already begun. sector's growth.

The Far ' E a s t , e s p e c i a l ly M a l ay si a , The growth o f this m arket has m a de

S ingapore and Thailand have been the entrepreneurs consider parks in several
most preferred destinations this winter, as offbeat locations too. For instance, Wonder
they o ffer s h o rt duration, affordable Valley Resorts, a 30-acre resort and nature
h ol iday s . The second most p referred preserve, hopes to open its doors to visitors
destinations are Australia and South Mrica. by the end of this year. Its water-park and
Travel operators such as Kuoni I ndia, go-karting track hopes to draw visitors from
Thomas Cook and Cox & Kings, claim that nearby towns in North Karnataka such as
the overseas leisure travel market gained Bellary and Chitradurga.(Foreign majors eye
momentum from October onwards. The amusement park industry, Rahul Sachitanand,
travel market was subdued for most part of ET. D, 1 6/12/2003,D20 b)
the year owing to the SARS scare and the Global theme park attendance fell 1 .5 per
war in Iraq.(Outbound travel up may touch 5 cent in 2003 as travel fears, bad weather
m, Meena Nichani, ET.D, 1 8/122003, D 1 0) and a weak economy discouraged visitors,
D 20 b Recreation and Theme Parks according to a leading industry j ournal
about 247 million made it to the parks,
For a sector that has its origins about 400 however, and traffic in Asia even showed a
y ears ago in t h e D a n i s h c a p ital 2 % i ncrease a t i t s top 1 0 res o r t s ,
Copenhagen, the amusement park industry Amusement Business magazine estimated.
is just getting its feet wet in India. Around Europe suflered an 8 % drop and visits to
Rs 1 ,000 crore is said to have been invested the biggest 50 North American parks fell
in this space in the last few years. by 1 .5 %, with the notable exception ofWalt
Around 400 amusement parks are expected Disney Co's California Adventure, which
to b e operatio n a l by 2 0 0 5 . Forei g n saw a 1 3 per cent rise.
companies such a s Universal Studios, Time Disney's Magic Kingdom at "Yalt Dis-ney
Warner and Disney are also said to be World in Florida and Tokyo Disneyland
eyeing this market. There i s no legally were, respectively, No. 1 and 2 worldwide
defined requirement of area for amusement in visitors for the second year in a row,
parks in India. But, the general norm is that although neither saw much change from a
a population centre of six million people year earlier, with 1 4 . 0 million at the Magic
can be served with a park covering 40-60 Kingdom and 1 3.2 million at the park in
acres, say Indian Association ofAmusement J apan.( Hi>ather, travelfears slowed theme park
Parks and I ndustries (IAAPI) officials. Mr visits, ET. D, 2 1/12/2003, D20b)
Balwant Chawla, president, lAAPI, claims
that this industry is poised to grow at least G 10: Marine and CRZ Acts
3 0 % annually. Amu s e m e n t parks are For y ears, the dumping of debris and
typically located on the outskirts, where c on s truction material w a s destroyi n g
land and water are not issues. mangroves along a v a s t stretch of the
Around 5 lakh people visit the average Versova coastline. But a recent Bombay
Indian amusement park yearly. Mr Chawla high court order ensures that the very same

Dhoot Entertainment Network, a company The U N body has granted the coveted
of the Videocon group, is planning to set world heritage status to 24 sites in India.
up amusement parks comprising the latest While 1 8 of them are cultural, five are
and modern amusement facilities in various natural and one industrial. The UNESCO
parts of India. keeps a watch on their overall condition and
Revealing that DEN is in the process of provides international expertise for their
signing up with a multinational company upkeep.
for this venture, Dhoot said the proposed Of these, the Manas wildlife sanctuary in
amusement parks would h ave game s , Assam and the Hampi group of monuments
movies, food, shopping and theme-based has been on the "world heritage in danger
entertainment, among others . Some of list". ( UNESCO tearn to inspect Taj and Harnpi,
these parks would also have health-based Saurabh Sinha, HTD, 1 8/ 1 2/2003, D 20d)
activities including oxygen bars, health D 20 e Pilgrimage Tourism
spas, etc. (Dhootfirrn to set up arnusernent parks,
BS.M, 5/i 1/03,D20b ) Tour operators are also gearing up with
specific packages and tours aimed at this
D 20 d Heritage Tourism niche segment with Coxs & Kings's Spiritual
The U N ESCO is sending a team to study Sojourn, "Ibomas Cook's classical tours to
the impact the shelved Taj corridor project Tamil Nadu, Nasik, Uijain and Bodhgaya.
had on the m o nu m e n t the p roj ec t Tour operators fee l that this segment,
envisaged constructing a huge shopping though sman , contributes to the overall
mall behind the Taj Mahal by diverting the growth that has be forecast to show a 1 5 to
course of the Yamuna. They will also inspect 20 per cent increase this year. Thomas Cook
the H a m p i group of m o n u m e n t s i n head (Leisure travel) Sunil Gupta told that
Karnataka." ASI officers will accompany the a lot of inquiries have been coming in for
experts. Buddhist p laces of interest in particular
The U N ESCO website says Hampi was put Bodhgaya, Nasik and U ijain. He also said
on the "world heritage in danger list" in that I ndia is now attracting a lot of visitors
1 999 because of "the construction of two from South East Asia and expects inquiries
suspension bridges that dominate the to double as the summer season begins.
natural environment and threaten the About 60 per cent of domestic Travellers
world heritage site's integrity". travel annually to religious places and the
In June this year, U NESCO had threatened industry sees a major boost fro m this
to withdraw the world heritage site status segment in terms of domestic travel in the
from the Taj if the Rs 1 75-crore construction coming months .
work continued. It had informed its Paris Sita Incoming Services, a division o f Kuoni
centre about the developments. The Paris Travel Group India is also in talks with the
centre had asked the Indian delegation to Madhya Pradesh government along with
U N ES C O to fur n i s h d e ta i l s o f the the Indian Railways and Jet Airways for the
developments in Agra. forthcoming Kumbh Mela in U ij ain.
Apart from the monument com-plex, It is setting up 50 air-conditioned tents and
developments i n the buffer zone - the expects about 1 ,500 visitors. So far, already
adjoining area that affects the "integrity; 350-400 overseas visitors have booked and
authenticity and historicity" of the p lace - Sita is hopeful that domestic visitors will
will be scrutinized. For ins tance, while make up the rest in the coming months.
battery-operated buses and rickshaws take (Indian tourisrn Industry Gearing Up For
tourists to the entrance of the complex, Overseas travellers' religious trips For Overseas
residents of a nearby locality can be seen Travellers' Religious Trips, Candida Moreas, FE.
freely riding two-wheelers. D 08/01/2004, D20e)

D 20 f Health Tourism D 20 h Golf:Tourism
The promotion of health care facilities in As the government is willirig to ClSsist large
M ah aras htra w i l l be clubbed w i th revenue generating initiatives by the private
promoting the state as a tourist destination sector, includ-ing financing part of the
so that foreign patients obtain the benefit expertise cost, we hope to make golf an
of medical treatment and recuperation in important part of India's tourism of-fering.
one package Goa and Kerala are ideal targets for golf
To begin with, the council will target certain tourism hubs, with both airport and hotel
international markets from where there is infrastructure in place even if space is
already some patient traffic. These include scarc e . Greenfi e l d proj ects are m ore
the Middle East and Mrica. attractive now as well.

According some estimates, there are over Pointing out that his state is also developing
80,000 foreign nationals and N RIs coming golf courses, Orissa chief minister N aveen
to the country each year to get medical P'a tnaik is optimistic, for instance, of the
treatment and the number is estimated to incremental benefits for his efforts to tap
be growing at a rate of about 30% every year. the Buddhist circuit with courses in Asia and
Europe becoming prohibitively expensive,
The state already has a fairly high number India's cheaper alternatives should prove
of foreign nationals and NRIs coming for a powerful lure for the estimated 55 million
medical treatment. The influx is especially golf enthusiasts worldwide.
high in Mumbai where many hospitals have
an average of about 1 5 % of i ts beds There are 1 68 courses registered with the
occupied by foreigners. However, the Indian Golfing Union but over 70% of these
southern states, especially Karnataka and b elong to the Armed Force s a n d are
Tamil Nadu are known to attract more therefo re out of t h e touri s t amb i t .
foreign patients. (Health providers, Al'rashtra I n frastructure isn't only o f paramoun t
govt. in league to attract medical tourists,jeetha importance for courses with international
D 'Silva, ETD 20/1 1/2003, D20j) professional tournament ambitions.

According to a Mckinskey report, medical Golf courses are sprouting all over India but
tourism can fetch up to $2 billion. Medical the problem, from the marketing point of
tourism is a growth area. A report by view, is that they are too scattered to be a
Mckinskey last year said the trade could cumulative attraction. Nor do thev have the

earn up market hospitals around $2 billion requisite add-ons. H igh spending golf
by 20 1 2. Medical tourism according to the tourists look for a week or 1 0 days of playing
report has been growing at the rate of 1 5 on a variety of courses. Experiences of other
% over the last five years. " By 20 1 2, if nations have shown that a course with an
medical tourism were to touch 25% of attached resort are simply not enough any
revenues of private up-market players, then more, especially as women most often
up to Rs 1 0,000 crore will be added to the decide golf holiday destinations.
revenues ofthese players" . However, for this Water and ecology are the most evident
promise to be fulfilled, certain measures ones, although the availability oflarge tracts
need to be adopted. The broad areas of of land is equally important. Private parties
action are insurance, tax conces-sions, in Sikkim and Kerala have shown interest
infrastructural facilities, and establishment in handing over acreage for development.
of standards. That naturally raises ecological concerns.
(Medical tourism can be a gold mine, Urmi A. The PGADe's biggest project, spread across
Goswami, ET D, 13/12/2003, D 20j) 3 ,500 acres in El Salvador will cost $ 2 . 3
billion when completed. I n I ndia, ITC

Classic with 27 holes ( 1 8 of championship options.(Goa, Kerala ideal for golf tourism,
standard and 9 'executive') is the largest; Reshmi Dasgupta, ET D, 1 9!1 1!2003, D20 h)
maj o r courses abroad have 3 6- h o l e

E . Tou rism , Soci ety a n d I mpacts

E 00: Social Impact of Tourism time, the C h ief Secretaries concerned

The world will have over one billion annual w o u l d be h e l d res p o n s ib l e . On an
travelers by 2 0 1 0 . This phenomenal growth a p pl i cation from M r. M e h ta, seeking
i s b o u n d to have a n i m pact o n the implementation of the November 1 99 1
economies, the environment and cultures judgment, the Bench on July 2 1 issued
of the host destinations, according to Ms notices to the S tates and the L n i o n
Rathi Vinay Jha, Secretary, Union Ministry ierritories for their response i n introducing
ofiourism. environment as a subject in school and
college curriculum. Notices were also issued
Tourism was facing serious challenges. New to the National Council for Educational
tourist destinations and products were Re searc h and Training and All India
leading to fierce competition among Council for Technical Education.
c o u n tr ie s . I n cre a s i n g e nv ironmental
concerns were changing consumer behavior In November 1 99 1 , a three-J udge Bench
and were forcing both the industry and of the court had directed the University
/ Grants Commission to prescribe a course
Gover n m e n t s tl c h ange their
p o l i c i e s . (lncreased tourism will impact on environment in the graduation and
p o s t-gradua t i o n l e v e l and c o n s i d e r
economies, environment, cultures, BL. C, 3/12/
2004, EOO) feasibility o f making t h i s a compulsory
subject at every level in college education.
E 01 a - Environment Laws and Policy "So far as education up to the college level
The Supreme Court today slapped a fine is concerned, we would require every State
of Rs. 1 5, 0 00 each on 1 0 States for their Government and everv education board

failure to respond to the court notice to c on n e c t e d w i th educ a t i o n u p to the

implement an earlier order directing the matriculation or even Intermediate colleges
introduction of "environment" as a su�ject to i m m e d ia tely take steps to enforce
in school and college curriculum. A Bench, compulsory education on environment in
comprising Justice N. Santosh Hegde and a graded way," the court had said. The court
J ustice B . P. Singh, imposed the fine on had directed compliance with the order by
Maharashtra, Rajasthan, 'Vest Bengal, the academic year 1 992-93 . It had made it
Madhya Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, mandatory for theatres to exhibit free of
Bihar, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Goa and cost at least two slides on importance of
Jharkhand for not responding to the court's environment protection and had directed
notice issued on an application from noted the licensing authorities to cancel the
environmentalist lawyer, M .e . Mehta. licenses of those theatres which did not
comply with the order. (1 0 States fined for
The Bench asked the States to deposit the
not introducing environment in curriculum, J.
am ount within four weeks in the Registry
U1nkatesan, TH.D, 23/09/2003,E01 a)
and granted additional time to file their
responses. The judges made it clear that if The Ministry of Environment and Forests
the response was not filed or the fine has decided to bring new big urban projects
ilmoun t nul deposited within the stipulated under [he p u rvi ew of the Environment

Impact Assessment (EIA), thereby making adequately maintain the sewerage system
e nv iron me n t a l clearance m andatory. a n d t h e tre a t m e n t c apacity a l ready
Industrial estates with high pollution level provided under N RCP On the other hand,
will be brought under the EIA irrespective local bodies and development authorities
of the total area. in towns have been approving new prqjects
This follows a Supreme Court directive to of various categories without any concern
the Cen tre to amend rule s under the for environment. (Environmental clearance
Environment (Protection) Act to require the must for new big urban projects, TH.D, 29/1 0/
EIA notification for the purpose of town 2003,E 01 a)
planning. EOlb: Environmental Issues
The ordenvill be applicable to construction The Centre informed the Supreme Court
of new townships, industrial townships, that the no-tification issued by the Union
settlement colonies, commercial complexes, Ministrv of Environment and all the States

hotels, hospitals and office complexes for in right spirit should comply with Forests
1 ,0 0 0 p eo p le or more or discharging on October 2 7 , requiring the Centre ' s
sewage of 50,000 liters a day and above or approval for fresh projects costing over Rs.
with an investment of Rs.50 Crores or more 5 0 crores . Some S tates were rushi n g
and new i ndustrial estates having more through the projects based o n the approvals
than 50 hectares of land. given by the local bodies and without
The project proposals, carrying the relevant obtaining the Centre's approval as per the
certificate, will be c o n sidered by the October 27 notification (See Annexure 1 ) .
Government for environmental clearance The court if any of the States had started
on a priority basis. any major project without prior approval
and environment clearance and the court
Also, new construction prqjects, where work must put a check on them. (States should
has not come up to the plinth level as of comply with Environment �Ministry notification,
today, would require clearance under the J. Venkatesan TH.B-5/1 1/03, E 01 b).
E I A n o t i fi c a ti o n . I n t h e case of new
industrial estates, where the construction Describing the conservation of the Dal Lake
work has not started or the expenditure as a national i s sue, the Parliamentary
does not exceed 25 per cent of the total Stan d i n g C o m m i ttee on S c i e n ce a n d
sanc-tioned cost on the day of the issuance Technology o f the Ministry of Environment
of the notification, too, would require and Fores t , h a s rec o m m e n d e d the
environ m e n t a l c learance. S i n c e t h e formulation of a plan of action to control
Environment Protection) Act, 1 986, does pollution in the lake.
not cover town planning, the Ministry has Removal o f exc e s s ive b io - m a s s a n d
suggested amendments to the Act so that diversion o f pollutants are needed o n a war
it could be applicable to urban areas also. foo t i n g a n d o u t r i g h t p rev e n t i o n o f
Discharge from untreated sewage in cities, dumping o f garbage i n the lake should be
towns and other settlements is the major accomplished without further delay by
source of pollution of the rivers, lakes and effectively managing the solid waste, the
coastal waters. report says while pointing out that the lake
formed the axis of life for the Kashmir
The Ministry is already implementing the valley and, therefore , it was not only
National River Conservation Plan (NRCP) important from the point of view of ecology,
for pollution abatement works in 1 57 towns but also for augmenting economy of the
along 3 1 rivers in 1 8 States. However, the people and ensuring peace in the region.
l ocal b o d i e s , resulti n g i n pa rt ia l (Action plan mooted to check Dal Lake pollution,
achievement of the obj ectives, do n o t TH. C, 25/1 2/2004, E 01 b).

E 3 0 Tourism, Public Safety and Health vulnerable targets on the beaches of Goa
Taking serious note of the rise in drowning a n d Keral a , a c o n fi d e ntial report
c a s e s i n G o a , t h e state gov e r n m e n t commissioned by the British government
y e s terday a d o p t e d s o m e measure s says.
including an extensive awareness campaign It also said the c h i l dren in t h e s e
at various levels and better patrolling on destinations were particularly vulnerable,
beaches. because they were often the victims of the
connivance of their own parents. The study
Chief Minister Manohar Parrikar expressed
concern over the drowning deaths and said was carried out by retired British police
about 40 people had died during the last officer, Rick Wood, who specialises in child
year. abuse case.

The tourism department has been asked to His report was handed over to the Goa
print and distribute pamphlets to hotels Government some eight months ago, with
a n d l o dges , war n i n g touri s ts against specific recommendations to set up a special
v e n tu ri n g i n t o the sea duri n g the police cell and train tourism-related staff
monsoons' and high tides. to help them identify child sex predator.

Parrikar said that the entire 1 02- kilometers But there has been no response or action
Goa coast would be strictly monitored, as on the part of the Goa Government, highly
the tourist police and the lifeguards have placed British diplomatic sources said.
been asked to work in group s and prevent Pedop h i l e s were s hi ft i n g foc u s to
p e o p l e fro m e n t e r i n g into the s ea, destinations like Goa and Kerala, after the
particularly during the u n safe season. Thai authorities began to clamp down on
(Campaign to prevent drowning deaths on child sex tourism, the diplomat points out.
beaches, GT. G, 2 7/8/03, E 3 0) (Pedophiles shifting-focus to Goa, Kerala: report,
E 42 : Child Prostitution! Child Sex Abuse Devika Sequeira, DR.B, 3 0/08/2003, E 42)

Tourism-related pedophilia is moving out

o f Thailand a n d l o o k i n g for m o re

G . Coasta l Reg i o n s

G 1 0 : Marine and CRZ Act The order m e a n s that over 5 0 p l o t s

For years, the dumping of debris and a l l ocated i n t h e area by t h e s tate
c o nstruction material was destroyi n g government, mostly to well-known city
mangroves along a v a s t s tretch o f the personalities like Hema Malini, Amrish
Versova coastline. But a recent Bombay Puri and Sena leader Datta Nalawade, have
High Court order ensured that very same been literally left out at sea.
rubble that was killing off the sensitive trees Since the p lots were allocated on areas
will be used to protect them in the form of beyond the high tide line, which are flush
a kilometer-long bund that will block off with mangroves, developing them would
the coastline from hungry developers. mean reclaiming the land and violating
Save Andheri Versova Environment (Save), Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) rules. CRZ
which filed a petition on the mangroves in rules, introduced in 1 99 1 , ban construction
Survey No 1 6 1 , Versova, in 200 1 and have 500 metres from the high-tide line. The
been battling the st:;:jte govern ment on the affected p lots were allocated largel y after
issue since much earlier. 1 99 1 , mostly around 1 994.

On October 8 , the Bombay high court With theCeJ1tre approving setting up of a
ordered the c o n s truct i o n of the special eeonomic zone at Paud...bidre, 24
embankment along the h igh-tide line km from Udupi, touri$m p�motional
within 1 8 months and as per specifications activities could be taken up i n a big way
approved by the ministry of environment tagging in with private and corporate'
and fore s t . H owever, w h i le the state s e c t o r cooperati o n , h e p o i nt e d o u t .
government has given all the specifications Sheltered by the soaring Western Ghats on
the bund must be 1 2 metres wide, four feet the coast and bordered by the blue waters
high and slope on the sea-ward side-it is of Arabian Sea on the west, the two districts
still battling the environment ministry over are studded with numerous spots of scenic
exempting one particular plot, the one beauty. The p a lm-fringed coastline i s
owned by the Khorakiwalla Foundation. dotted with bays and estuaries having vast
The state government has argued that since untapped tourism potential.
the plot l ies on the landward side of the Mr Umashankar said a private agency had
high-tide line, it will fall in a lower category approached the Government to develop a
of protection in the C RZ rules. Also, the beach resort at Ermal in Udu-pi, while a
state government said the plot has been number of corporate giants, including the
marked for a dispensary and maternity Taj Group of Hotels, surveyed the district
h o m e . The fou n d a t i o n i s a l ready i n for identification of suitable locations for
possession o f the land, and some part of starting beach resorts. A large number of
the developed area will have to be handed proposals were expected to come up for
over to the Brihanmumbai Municipal discussion during the Coastal I nvestors'
Corporation. Meet scheduled to be held in Karwar in
The ministry however, has asked for the Uttara Kannada district in he added.(CRZ
bund to be built without gaps, along the norms hampering tourism development,BL.B,
high-tide line or the land ward boundary 2 7/09/2003, G 1 0).
of the mangroves whichever is farther from G 40 K· Karnataka
the sea, and ensure that the mangroves in I nformation technology and infrastructure
the inertial area are preserved. ( Bund to sectors h ave b e e n able to attract a
save versova mangroves, TOLM, 24/1 0/03, G considerable amount of invest-ment in the
1 0) recentlv concluded Coastal I nvestors' Meet

The strict p rov i s i o n s of t h e C o a s ta l in Karwar, Karnataka.

Regulation Zone (CRZ) are hampering the Apart from the Chief Executive Officer and
enormous tourism potential along the Managing Director ofInfosys Technologies
coastline of Karnataka. Ltd, Mr Nandan Nilekani, announcing his
The S ta te Govern m e n t has already company's decision to invest Rs 300 crore
approached the C en tre for a special for the expa n s i o n of i t s M a ngalore
package to relax the strict norms at least d ev e l o p m e n t c e n tre, two oth e r IT
for the s i x beaches of Kau p , M a l p e companies are planning to expand activities
M aravan t h i , O t t i n e n e , Tras i a n d in the coastal region.
Kurumanjeshwar. Golden Life Assurance Technologies Ltd
The Udupi District Deputy Commissioner, of Mumbai is likely to invest Rs 235 crore
Mr S.R. Umashankar said a host of tourism­ for setting up a facility for IT education in
related activities, including setting up of coastal Karnataka. Robosoft Technologies
beach resorts, parks and private cottages, of U dupi is p lanning to establish an IT
could be taken up w ith private sector centre at Brahmavar or Manipal in the
initia-tive after the Union Govern-ment district with an investment of Rs 1 0 . 8 2
relaxes the CRZ. crore. Investment in this sector will boost
IT-related activities in the The
coastal districts of U dupi and Dakshina Kannada district o r growth centre of
Kannada have an STPI each, apart from Dhanvad.
other 1'1' companies. Frontline Corporation Ltd of Ahmedabad
However, biotechnology is yet to make its has been issued a LoF for setting up a coke
debut in the region. Biogenus India Ltd of oven plant at Achilady in Udupi with an
Nellore in Andhra Pradesh is mulling the investment of Rs 32 crore.
establishment of a biotechnology centre in To produce steel and pig iron and captive
coastal Karnataka with an investment of Rs coke oven battery' a Rs 355-crore mini-blast
1 00 crore.
furnace is likely to be set up by Chaman
There are also plans to cultivate and process Metalics Pvt Ltd of Nagpur at Londa­
medicinal plants for manufacturing herbal Khanapur in Belgaum district.
extract and dietary supplements. Natural An investment of Rs 2 . 5 crore is likely for
Remedies Pvt Ltd of Bangalore is likely to the establishment of granite processing unit
invest Rs 1 3 crore and Prakruthi Products in Karwar with Bhasin International being
of Karwar Rs 4.25 crore in this sector. given LoF in this regard. (Three IT companies
To develop port-related infrastructure in plan expansion in coastal region, AJ. Vinayak,
the c o a s t a l re g i o n , the Karnataka BL.B, 2 7/12/2003, G 40 K)
Government has signed mem-oranda of G 5 0- Coasta l C o n s truc tion s ,
understanding with two companies for urbanization, land ac quisition
facilitating the implementation of projects
in this field and issued letters of facilitation The construc tion on Benaulim beach
(LoF) to two others totalling Rs 545 crore apparently within 1 00 meters of high tide
of investment. The Government has signed line is yet another gross violation of coastal
Mo U with Arcadia Shipping Ltd of Mumbai regulation zone (CRZ) rules in this coastal
for the development of minor port in belt in the recent times.
Karwar or Malpe with an investment of Rs The sub-divisional officer (SDO) (Salcette)
75 crore, and Jindal Vijayanagar Steel Ltd Mr Dipak Desai, who along with town and
of Mumbai for the development of Karwar country p lanner, M r J amesh Mathew,
Port with an investment of Rs 455 crore. inspected the site on Saturday, has issued
Global Oil I ndustries Ltd of Adoni in show cause notice to the offender.
Andhra Pradeshis likely to invest Rs 1 5
The SDO has ordered the offender to stop
crore to develop terminal major port at
further the construction activity at the site,
'radri in U ttara Kannada district, and
which is at the righ t hand s ide of the
Nuziveedu Seeds Ltd of Secunderabad Rs
Benaulim beach area.
1 00 c ro re for port-based activities i n
Karwar.There has also been a proposal for Collect orate sources disclosed that naval
township development in Kanvar with an officials during their routine round over the
i nv e s t m e n t of Rs 2 5 c ro re by Saraf Benaulim beach saw this construction and
Foundations Pvt Ltd of Mumbai. brought it to the notice of the district
administration .The inspection followed
Arbutus S t e e l Ltd of New D e l h i h a s
the complaint. (Constructions on Goan beaches
submitted a n expression of interest for
contmue violating CRZ rules, NTG, 4/9/2003,
investing Rs 375 crore in an integrated steel
G 50).
plant at Mundargi or Ramnagar in Uttara

K. Ka r nata ka

K Karnataka considering that IT outsourcing business

B a ngalore h a s earned t h e l abe l as is regaining momentum.
information technology (IT) capital of the Bajaj says "positive business outlook and
country. I t is all set to acquire another investor friendly government hence fresh
coveted title - hospitality king. Figures investments and expansion at national level
reveal that occupancy rates at hotels in and within the state specific, the promise
Bangalore are rising and will continue to of Bangalore international airport project
remain at the current level in the near and bio-technology park will provide much
future. needed impetus to occupancy rates."
A study conducted by HVS International Elaborating, Chakravorty of The Chancel),
places Bangalore at the top among six cities says the period from November to January
in the country where occupancy rate is has typically been months for exhibitions,
expected to rise during the current financial conventions and host of other activity.
year. Bangalore leads the way with 86 per Added to t h i s , many I T a n d B PO
cent occupancy ; as against 64 per cent two compa-nies have set up their operations in
years back. The average room rate has been Bangalore drawing a stream of guests. For
rising too. example, The Chancery was hosts for Metro
The bottom line is that with room bookings Cash & Carry stores personnel for over two
approaching 90 per cent, hotels need no months.
longer lower tariffs to attract guests. Chakravorty say s there has also been a
The generally brisk economic climate and growth i n tourist numbers from both
the choice as venue of a profusion of major domestic and foreign arrivals. Globalisation
events have pushed up occupancy rates in has made the world smaller with foreign
Bangalore. Be it Bangalore ITcom, Metro nations coming into Bangalore to promote
Cash & C arry stores opening, Nasscom their tourism s p o t s , adding to r i s i ng
conferences or the facility management occupancy numbers.
meet, together they have all helped to fill Echoing his 'views, Ms Lalvani says that
hotel rooms. The positive economic outlook foreign investments in Bangalore are on a
both at the national level and in the State high, with major business coming in from
has also accelerated the current trend. " lo n g - s tayers " ( n am e ly the B PO
Lastly, one should note the large tourist companies).
traffic into Bangalore city, both from within She says with l�j 'Group occupancy rate is
and outside the country. around 1 00 per cent during weekdays and
Growth propellers around 90 per cent at week-ends.

The factors propelling the robust growth D e e p a k Subbaia h , H ead of S a l e s &

of the hospitality industry and behind these Marketing, The Leela Palace, says "the rise
impressive occupancy figures are aplenty. i n occupancy i s prim arily due to the
Stock markets are buoyant with various resurgence of the IT business which went
sectors projecting positive growth in the through a reversionary phase for the last
economy. Bangalore's status as country's IT five years.
capital provided t h a t extra thrus t , Moreover, last avo years have been riddled
with incidents that affected travel on an

international scale. Indiajust happened to M s Lalvani says th i s tren d i s going to
be in a region that was highly volatile and re m a i n , as m a ny B PO o u t fi t s h ave
therefore affected by the events that took announced plans to set up their operations
place. in Bangalore. She says things are likely to
even out by the end of 2005 as most of the
Hence many proj ects in the IT and B PO
hotels in Bangalo re have reach ed the
sectors were put on hold till the climate was
threshold limits in terms of the rooms being
conducive. " He says the last six months
available. "This is a very positive trend and
have been without an event, and travel in
the C ity is perceived very highly. "
these sectors increased in a quantum sense
and B angalore, with its edge over other Subbaiah says the industry in Bangalore
c i t i e s in m a ny re s p e c t s i n c l u d i n g I T should continue to achieve occupancy rates
infrastructure and image, has benefited­ beyond 85 per cent in the next quarter and
from the resurgence in travel . will also lead in Average Room Rates, being
at least 1 0 per cent higher than hotels in
Events like ITcom and Audio-visual Expo
other metros. " The growth will basically
in the city have been helpful in the upward
come from the corporate traffic," he says.
swing and there has been a 1 5 to 1 8 per
cent increase in business. As an industry analyst says "with most of
new supply having entered into the market,
Lastly, they say aggregated economy makes
it will take another 3-4 years for developers
it possible to experience this buoyancy in
to plan and execute additional p roj ects
the hospitality industry.
based on t h e curren t buoy ant market
Future tre n d s . It i s l i kely that ci ti es such a s
The heartening rise in occupancy rates and Bangalore, Mumbai and Hyderabad will do
fee l- g o o d fac tor a p a r t , w h a t are t h e excee d i n gly w e l l i n t e r m s of ro o m
proj ection for the hospitality industry i n occupancies i n the next few years. "
Bangalore? B ajaj says the industry i s going All this bodes well for the Garden City,
to witness a 1 2 per growth annually for the which is also the home for maj ority of IT
next two years and the occupancy in the companies. And going by the current trend,
City is expected to grow from the current Bangalore i s turn i ng out to be a very
average of 80 p ercent to 88 percent. It all gracious host for people pouring into it.
boils down to demand and supply.
(Gracious hosts in the Garden City, DH.B, 1/
He says there are no plans for any new hotel 12/03, K)
until and the end of2005 and even if some
The s tate governmen t has constituted
bodies wants to put up a budget hotel it
Karnataka Bio-diversity Board headed by
would take at least two years.
Environment and Ecology M in ister; the
C hakravorthy says " Thi n gs look very board consists of the I I -member, which has
positive . . . the growth is very good and the been set up under the provisions of the
hospitality industry may record 1 2 to 1 5 per Biological Diversity Act 2002 of the U nion
cent growth for the next two years. Government.
He says the state government has been The state has decided to request the Centre
talking about setting up an IT corridor and to rel a x t h e p rov i s i o n s o f C o a s t a l
if these materialize, things will look even Regulation Zone (CRZ) s o that i t could take
more positive for the industry. up development of ports. The neighboring
For many people coming into Bangalore, Maharashtra had sought such a relaxation.
their business might be on the outskirts of (Bio-diversity board set up: First meeting on
the city but they prefer accommodation in December 1,DH.B-29/l 1/03,K)
the heart of city.

K 1 1 : Planning India was spending Rs 4 crore on Hampi,
In a bid to make the tourism industry the while the Tourism Ministry had allocated
largest revenue earner and employment Rs 5 crore. A sound 'n' light. system at a cost
generator, Karnataka is in the process of of Rs 2 crore would be erected there and
drafting a lO-year tourism development traffic from the main road would also be
regulated she added. Village tourism would
be developed at Anegundi in Karnataka,
A comprehensive audit is underway to the Union Secretary said. (Centre to promote
identifY and evaluate tourist destinations plantation tourism in Kodagu, BL.B, 25/1 1/
that would h elp tri gger growth of the 03, K 1 1).
industry. About 1 . 2 crore domestic tourists
and 2 . 7 lakh foreign tourists visited the
K 5 3 : Heritage Tourism
State last year. H ampi, the renowned world heritage site
is all set to turn more tourists friendly.
The State is planning to run 'Eco-tourism
Efforts of the L nion Ministry of Tourism,
train' and a luxury train, besides working
The m i n i s t ry h a d i n c l u d e d c e r t a i n
on the circuit train planned by the four
prominent destinations last year in its tenth
Southern States.
p l a n , o n e of w h i c h w a s H a m p i i n
The state will promote the Hampi festival Karnataka.
and Mysore's Dussera fete as global tourism
T h e U n i o n M i n i s try o f Tour i s m h a s
even t s , b e s i de s p rov i d i n g world-cla s s
sanctioned Rs 5 crore' for the H am p i
infrastructure at Pattadkal recognised a s a
project. Simultaneously, the Archaeological
world heritage site by Unesco.
Survey of India is also putting in funds to
Karnataka is al so b e t t ing on m e d ica l refurbish the monument of this world
touri s m . Bangalore hous e s the larges t heritage site. The pollution problems in the
number of cardiac hospitals. Besides we area will be dealt with by i ntroducing
bank on the trad itional ayurvedic and battery-operated green buses to transport
naturopathic healing centres, the tourism tourists from one spot to the other.
d e p art m e n t s o u rc e s s a i d . (Karnataka
"Vork for the project began last year. Signs
drajting 1 0-year plan to develop tourism,
have been developed and amenities like
BL.B1 0/08/09,K 1 1)
toilets have been ' pu t' 'up aroun d the
The Centre will e ncourage plantation tourist spots. On its part, the Archaeological
tourism in picturesque Kodagu district, the Survey of India is working on illuminating
Union Tourism Secretary Ms Rathi Vinay the monuments.
Jha said today.
There are also plans of having a site map
While implementing tourism projects in the to enable tourists to find the tourist spots
district, efforts would be made to promote (Centre Sanctions Rs. 5 crJOT Hampi, AA.B 7/
e c o - fri endl y tour i s m to p reserve th e 08/03, K 53).
environment and heritage.
K 55 National Parks and Sanctuaries
D i sc l o s i n g t h a t Rs 5 c rore h a d b e e n
The five-year-old is sue re lated to the
allocated for the development o f tourism
ev i c t i o n o f t r i b a l p e o p l e fro m t h e
proj ects in the district she said Rs 2 crore
Ku dremukh N a t i o n a l Par k ( K N P ) i n
had already been released.
Dakshina Kannada i s poised to take a new
Ms J ha said that domes tic tourists had turn.
touched a high number of 550 million.
Over 3,600 tribal fam ilies living in the
Hampi, which was one among the world
region will participate in a rally against the
heritage centres, was receiving more funds
Fore s t D e p a r t m e n t to b e h e l d a t
a n d atte n t i o n fro m t h e Tou r i sm
Belthangady. The National Wildlife Action
Department. The Archaeological Survey of

Plan 2002-20 1 6, endorsed by the Prime needs are the two important o�jectives of
M inister, A.B . Vajpayee, gives them a firm forest management. The policy emphasizes
backing. The plan states that protection of the importance of people's participation in
wildlife as well as the forest cover should conservation, protection, and management
be ensured with the participation of local of forests. The Center issued a circular to
people. S t a t e gover n m e n t s i n J u l y 1 9 9 0 t o
encourage people's p articipation i n the
The Forest Act of 1 972 covered wildlife
development of forests.
protection and development. I t e nded
i n d iv id u a l c o n tro l over w i l d l i fe . The With the formation or Kudremukh National
Government's move to reserve four per cent Par k in 2 0 0 1 , the Government i s sued
of the geographic area of the country under eviction notice to tribal people and it led
the reserve forest and wildlife sanctuary to a movement by them in the KNP. The
category will help conserve wildlife and movement evoked positive response from
forests. e n v i ro n me n ta l a c t iv i s t s . T h e Fore s t
Department issued notice to tribal people
The c h a i r m a n of t h e Fe d e r a t i o n o f
quoting a Supreme Court order on the
Vo l u n t a ry O rga n i z a t i o n s for Rural
Central Forest Protection Act. This caused
Development-Karnataka ( FEVORD-K),
a maj or controversy as the department
Ranj an Rao Yerdoor said there had been a
issued notice even to " Patta" holders and
shift in formulation of polices over the
to those who had encroached upon the
years, and efforts had been made to devolve
forestland. Many of them have been living
powers to users of forests. Despite these
in the park since the beginning of the last
changes, the devolution of powers had not
. century, and " Patta" was given to a tribal
been achieved a desired, he added. It is in
family as early as 1 899. (Rally today against
the N ational Forest Policy of 1 98 8 that the
C e n te r reco g n i z e d t h a t m e e t i n g
eviction of tribal people, M.Raghuram, TH. B,
environmental concerns and rural people's
20/10/03, K 55)

L. Ke ra la
L 00: KERALA -Land and People included Kerala's Vembanad Lake in the
Plan .
Kerala has quietly faded out of National
River Conservation D irectorate's (NRCD) The project proposes to bring water quality
age nda, ever s ince the e n t ire p roj ec t of God's own country to parameters like
funding from the Centre's kitty was linked BoD level to maximum of 3 mg per litre,
to performance in previous projects. dissolved oxygen (DO) to minimum of 5 mg
It was Kerala government's dragging feet per litre, total coliform count to 1 0,000 mpn
in Rs 320-crore Pampa Action Plan that has per 1 00 mI and faecal coliform count to
th rown its Vembanad Lake out of the 2500 mpn per 1 00 m!.
National Lake Conservation Plan as well. Although i t is nearly a year since the Centre
Vembanad is As! a's large s t fre s hwater disbursed the first installment of Rs 1 2 .9
expanse and rece n tl y s ho u ld e r s t h e crore of the Rs 320-crore Pampa Action Plan
house-boat crest o f Kerala's tourism wave. to Kerala, its three concerned ministries -
The meeting ofNRCD that met in June had health, irrigation and devaswom - are yet

to take the proj ect to imple-mentation according to tourism minister KV Thomas.
level. He told that of this, Rs 732.55 crore would
As plan of the Tenth Plan, Rs I S25 crore come by way of Central assistance and the
has been set aside for cleaning 3 1 rivers s t a t e gov e r n m e n t w o u l d c h i p in t h e
flowing through 1 57 towns fanned out in
I S states. Significantly, no Kerala River has Amo n g t h e p roj ec t s i nc lu d e a n
figures in this set. (Keralafades from National i nt e r n a t i o n a l c o nv e n t io n a l c e n t e r a t
River Conservation Map, Ai. Sarita varma, Akkul a m i n Th iruv a n a n t ha p uram for
FE. C, 7/l0/03, LOO). which Rs 500 crore would come as grant
from the Centre.
L 1 0 : Policy, Economy
The Kerala government offers a special The project proposal was submitted to the
package of incentives to Rs 50-crore plus p r i m e m i n i s te r a n d t h e t o u r i s m
department, which had 5 6 acres o f land,
investors, over and above the usual perks
was p lanning to acquire more.
offered by southern s tates. This will be
fi n a l i s ed on a c a s e -to-case b a s i s , t h e A no th e r p roj e c t p la n n e d w a s a n
Cabinet, has decided. edutainment complex near Kochi a t the
cost of Rs 60 crore for which the Centre had
The priority sectors identified by the state
proposed an assistance of Rs 1 0 crore.
are rubber-based industries, information
technology, agro-based business, including At Kalady, t here was the p ro p o s a l to
food proce s sing, readymade garments, develop it as a hub of cultural and spiritual
ayurvedic medic i n e s , m i n i n g , marine tourism. The total cost of the project was
p ro du c t s , l i g h t e n g i n e e r i n g , b i o ­ Rs 1 9.2 crore with a Central share of Rs 1 4. 5
technology. crore.
Tourism has also been brought within the At t h e p i lgrim c e n ter Guruv ayur, t h e
definition of industry, so that investors in proposal was t o construct a marriage hail
this sector can also avail the incentives. a n d a l s o t h e s e c o n d p ha s e of t h e
development of the Yatri N ivas a t a cost of
All new units in these sectors and 1 00-per
Rs. 1 3. 2 crore.
cent export-oriented units will be eligible
for the state's investment subsidy. This will "rhe state government also proposed to
also include expansion, diversification or develop the Central Tourism C ircuit and
modernisation of existing units. the total cost of the infrastructure projects
would be Rs 21.5 crore with a Central share
The priority sector i nvestors are offered
of Rs I S crore.
investment subsidy of 1 5 percent of fixed
capital invest-ment (FCI) or Rs 1 5 lakh and For p ro m o t i n g backwater tou r i s m i n
those in backward districts of Idukky and Malabar, the touri s m department had
vVayanad are to get 25 per cent of FCI or proposed a project at a cost of Rs 1 1 crore
Rs 25 1 akh. w i t h t h e C e n tre p u t t i n g i n Rs S . 5
crore. Besides, there were plans to upgrade
The state government has also promised
the facil i ties at the Kerala I n s titute of
five-year breather from power tariff hike for
Tourism and Travel Studies, produce CD­
new industrial units, starting commercial
ROM s and holding annual festivals. (Kerala
production between January 1 , 2002 and
December 3 1 , 2006. (Kerala Offers Sops For
Go'ot L ines Up Rs 9 5 0 Cro re - To urism
Rs50-Cr Plus New Investors, FE.B, 24/09/03, ProjectsFE.B6/12/03, L 1 0).
L 1 0). Contrary to its GIM (global inves tor meet)
approach, Kerala has started gearing up for
The Kerala government has firmed up an
its small units B2B meet. The B2B meet i s
Rs 950. 1 crore plan for the tourism sector
n o t a n o t h e r ' gl ob a l ' , t h e s ta t e
III the coming year for several proj ects,

administration insists several delegates vested forest land for redistribution among
from the Netherlands, Germany, South landless tribals, the Environment & Forests
Korea a n d t h e U ni te d S tate s have Ministry found that only 7 ,693 hectares was
c o n firmed p a r t i c i p a t i o n , b u t t here is " available which fulfilled the required
nothing 'global' or 'big' about it, p leads statutory conditions" .
industry minister PK Kunj alikutty. M r. A n t o ny d e s c r i b e d i t a s a " maj o r
A p o s e r t h a t n ow n e e d s c a n d i d development" h e was confident that thi s
introspection i s whether Kerala's love for would help the State Government keep its
small units has stood in the way for the promise to provide land to the tribals as
growth of industrial infrastructure in the much of the forestland that would be
pri-vate sector. Not crossing the threshold released is i n vVayanad where there is a high
(Rs 3 crore) of small-scale unit is more concentration of landless tribals.
attractive to a Kerala businessman than
Following an agreement with tribals in 2 00 1
maj or i n g i n to a b i g investor through
as per which, each family would be given at
ex p a n s i o n . I f t h e re a re s u r p lu s e s , a
least an acre, the Antony Government had
seasoned entrepreneur p oints out, one
identified and distributed 2 , 1 98 acres to
could always start another small-scale unit.
1 ,3 1 3 landless Adivasis till the first half of
During 200 1 -02, the number of small-scale this year. H owever, given the land use
industrial units (SSIs) grew by nearly 8 pattern in the' State, the Government has
percent (over the previous year) in the state, h a d p ro b l e m s acq u i r i n g l a n d for
when the corresponding national average redistribution to all the landless tribals, and
was a paltry 2 . 6 percent. Kerala is the first has been urging the C entre to release
to get going in the Planning Commission's 1 2. 1 96 hectares of forestland to fulfill its
cluster approach for small industries. This commitment. (Centre to transfer 7,693 hectares
year its zeal has even defrost the historic ojjorestland to Kerala TH.D,21/10/03, L 20).
ice on bank credit to SSIs. State Bank of The world-renowned Silent Valley is facing
Travancore alone targets Rs 260 crore small
an ecological threat as a former village
industries credit during this fiscal. But what
officer with the connivance of some Forest
is striking amidst the focus on SSIs is that
officials cleared 35 acres of its corridor at
the aggregate government assistance to
Kakkiv a n i M a l av a r a m , u n d e r t h e
medium and large units in the state has
Mannarkkad forest Division, for plantain
remained below Rs 3 , 8 5 8 .4 crore . (After cultivation, allegedly.
GlM, Kerala Is Set For B2B Meet, M. Sarita
Uzrma, FE.B, 1 0/1 1/03, L 1 0) The area that is the core of the Nilgiri
B iosphere Reserve was taken over by the
L 2 0 : Environment and Environment
Governmen t under the Kerala Private
issues in Kerala Forest (Vesting and Assignment) Act, 1 97 1 .
The Centre today agreed to transfer 7 ,693 Th e N e l l i p u z h a R i v e r o r i g i nate s i n
hectares of fores tland for redistribution Malavaram that connects the Silent Valley
among landless tribals in Kerala once the National Park with the Muthikulam Reserve
State Government i s sued a notification Forest.
declaring the p roposed compensatory
The Silent Valley attracts the attention of
afforestation area as a reserved forest. A
scientists worldwide as it has an almost
decision to this effect was taken at a meeting
intact rainforest and the destruction of 35
b e tw e e n t h e U n i on M i n i s t e r for
acres o f t h i s v i rgi n e vergre e n for e s t
E nvironment & Forests, TR. Baalu, and the
endangers i t s existence.
Kerala Chief Minister, A.K Antony.
A recent study of the area by the Kerala
Thou g h the Kerala G ov e rnme nt h a d
Forest Research Institute (KFRI) , Peechi,
sought the transfer of 1 2, 000 hectares of
said "the present stocking of the trees was

essential for the stability of the soil and L 40: Kerala Tourism Policy and Plans
prevention of landslips. Severe land erosion
Kerala will soon have Special Tourism
and degradation can occur in this part of
Zones and Kovalam, Kumaraiotn, 'Koehi
the forest. The area is very rich in endemic
and Munnar are l ikely to be among the
species including rare and endangered
proposed areas.
p la n ts . I t is an u n d i s tu rbed patch of
evergreen tropical forests belonging to the A t o p o ffi c i a l o f t h e s ta t e t o u r i s m
West Coast Tropical Evergreen Forest" . departme n t s a i d t h a t the governm en t
However, this forest tract was cleared in w o uld s ho r tly p romulgate t h e Ke rala
violation of the Supreme Court and Kerala tourism conservation, preservation and
H igh Court orders against felling of any trade ord inance n o ti fy i n g th e special
trees or any non-forestry activity in the tourism zones and constituting a tourism
area.(35 acres in silent valley forests destroyed, conservation and preservation panel.
G. Prashakaran, TH.D 1 8/1 1/2003, L 20). He said only areas w i th h i gh tourism
L 30: Movements in Kerala (General) potential would be declared as special
zones. In many of the destinations like
The Kerala Social Forum (KS F ) which
Kovalam and Kumarakom, it was high time
concluded has left a mixed assessment
t h a t t h e a u t h o r i t i e s i nterv e n e d a n d
about its success with some sections feeling
regulated developmental activities.
that it has been able to make a beginning
of a dialogue between the various sections T h e tow n -p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t i n
opposed to the current globalisation while association with t h e C e n tre for Earth
others expressing strong disillusionment on Science Studies has conducted a study on
its lack of focus. H owever, even those who the carrying capacity of the states touris m
have an o p t i m i s tic assessment of KS F h o t sp o ts s u c h a s Kov a l a m , Koc h i ,
conceded that it could not touch the even Kumarakom and Munnar and submitted its
level of succe s s of the p revious Forum report to the state tourism department, he
meeting in Thiruvananthapuram last year added. U n der the proposed plan, each
in terms of participation and impact and, destination i s to be divided i nto three
that it had numerous shortcomings at the z o n e s - p ro h i b i t iv e , restrictive and
organisational and conceptual level. facilitative. All developmental activities at
these destinations will be monitored and
To the pro-mainstream Left organisations,
controlled. Unauthorized ventures will be
w h i c h w ere in the fo refront of t h e
curbed and any violation of rules checked.
Organisation o f the KSF, its conduct was an
extremely challenging task because they Wi t h t h i s e n d i n v i ew, t h e t ou r i s m
were the subjects of criticisms from different conservation p reservation panel will b e
sides and they lacked a conceptual clarity constituted with adequate powers to suggest
to address them. In fact, there was hardly develop mental activities in the special
anyone to own up the KSF in Thrissur while zones and renovation or modification of
i t s critics were ac tive both within a n d existing assets and utilization of resources
outs i de . T h e N G O s and soc ial action in these areas. Besides, the panel will also
groups on the other side were apprehensive have the power to clear new proj ects in the
that the Left was tryi n g to h ij ack the area. (Kerala To Develop Spl Tourism Zones
Forum s , and make them into another Soon, FE. D, 25/10103,L 40)
feeder unit of the Left. L 50: Tourism! Tourism issues in Kerala
(l'viixed response to Kerala Social Forum, TH. T, The Kumarakom Panchayat has decided to
26/12/ 03, L 3 0) levy tax on houseboats that ply within the
Pan c h a y a t a re a . T h e Kumarako m
Panchayat President Ms. A. G. Ushakumari

said that a number of luxury boats with indication of the growing popularity of
a c c o m m o d a t i o n fac i l i t i e s p l y i n t h e Kerala as the favourite destination among
Vemband Lake and anchor within the limits all type of tourists .
of the Kumarakom Panchayat. (Kumarakom
There has been a credible i ncrease in the
Panchayat to collect taxfrom house boats,jeevan arrival o f b o t h forei gn a n d d o m e s ti c
News, 1 0 PAl, 30/08/2003, L 50) tourists t o Kerala during the first half U an­
The construction work of resorts continues J un) of the current year, when compared
in Vagamon in spite of order from Revenue to the same period in 2002. The figures for
Department. Although the order was issued the fir s t half o f 2 0 0 3 s howed foreign
on August 8th the construction work is still tourists arrival at 1 ,44,482 as compared to
continuing and the Revenue Department 1 , 1 3,223, last year. In the case of domestic
hasn't taken any steps to curb this . The touri s t s , h a l f y e ar l y fi gure s s t a n d a t
ADM issued "Stop Memo" on 4th August. 28,58,769 i n 2003 as against 26,84,756, last
But the revenue department issued the year. The half yearly stats given above
memo to the res ort owners only on 8 th clearly show an increase of 2 7 . 6 1 % in 2003
Augu s t . (Construction work continues in as compared to 2002, while the domestic
Vagamon in spite of order. ((Mathurbhoomi, tourist arrival regis tered an increase of
Thiruvananthapuram 1 \ 08/2003, L 50) 6 .48% when compared to the same period
in 2002.
The fifth report of the Legislative Estimates
Committee has recommended starting of Among the districts, which received the
Eco-Tourism p rojects in 5 6 fore st areas maximum number offoreign tourists, both
taking into account the lessons learnt from duri n g the season and off- season, the
Thenmala EcoTourism Project. d i stricts o f T h i ruvananthapuram a n d
Ernakulam leads the table, followed by
The Tourism Department has identified 56
I dukki and Kottayam. This situation with
forest areas for implementing EcoTourism.
regards to domestic tourist arrival has the
The C hairman of the Committee, Shri. E.T.
district ofThrissur in the lead, followed by
Mohammed Basheer has recommended
Ernakulam and Thiruvananthapuram.
the government to prepare priority list from
t h e i d e n ti fi e d s i t e s a n d i mp l e m e n t Majority of the foreign tourists arrived from
EcoTourism. (Promote EcoTourism Project in countries like United Kingdom, France,
56 Forest A reas, M a dh y a m am , USA, Maldives and Germany. Impressive
Thiruvananthapuram 1 2/08/2003, L 50) growth in tourist inflow to Kerala, (Kerala
The S t ate G o v e r n m e n t has for m e d
Tourism Newsletter, Issue 121, September 2003,
fu n c t i o n al c o m m i t t e e s for gi v i n g L 50)
appropriate directions for developing The state has set a national record with the
projects in Pilgrim, Health and EcoTourism achievement. The number of foreign tourist
sectors. The Committee has been formed arrival in the off-season has catapulted up
based on the recommendations by Prof. by 27 . 6%. The number of foreign tourists
M.S. Swami Nathan Commission ('\-TO) raised from 1 . 1 3 lakhs last off-season to 1 .44
that i ncome for the State from global lakhs this off-season and the number of
tourism s hould reach 5 million US dollars domestic tourists increased from 26 lakhs
by 20 1 0. (Functional Committees formed for last off-season to 28 lakhs this of season,
Pilgrim - Health Eco-Tourism(Madhyamam,
- s ay s Touri s m D i rec tor A lke s h Kum a r
Thiruvananthapuram 28/08/2003, L 50) Sharma. This growth is much above the all
Going by the haIf-yearly statistics released India growth of 9%.
by Kerala Tourism, tourism inflow to the The figure is 2% higher than the forecast
state, both domestic and forei gn have of the World Travel & Tourism Council
�hown rrmnrKnblc iIlcrcll�c, which i:s II dClir (WTTC) made in last December. In 200 1 ,

WTTC and Kerala had initiated a dialogue DirectorofDepartment of Pastoral Care for
to conduct a Tourism Satellite Account Tourists, rece:ntly instituted< by .� Church.
Research (TSA) in the state. The Tourism
The intellectual impetus for � .i�e is the
Satellite Account Researc h is now t h e
direction from fope John Paul lI to treat
accepted measure o f the economic impact
tourism as a drivi n g force fur p overty
of tourism in a defined area. Following on
a l l e v i a t i o n , j o b cre a t i o n a n d s o c i a l
the footsteps of two U S states, Hawaii and
harmony. " Touri st activity c a n play a n
South Carolina, Kerala h ad j oined the
important role i n the fight against poverty,
exclusive club of sub national economies
from the financial as well as the social and
that h ave i nfluenced TSA. Le Meridian
cultural viewpoints. Traveling provides one
H otel Kerala witnessed a spurt of 1 2% in
an opportunity to become acquainted with
room occupancy during the lean season.
different places and situations and to realise
According to WTTC forecast, the tourism what a great gap exists between the rich and
demand is expected to grow by 1 1 .6% per poor countries. It is also possible to make
annum in the coming decade. This is the better use of social resources and activities
highest recorded growth rate in the world forcing the involvement of the poor classes
eclipsing WTTC's fastest growing country of the population, " says Pope in a message
(Turkey 1 0 .2%).
- to be read out in churches on the 24th World
Tourism Day on September 27.
S ignificantly in 200 1 , while India's visit
exports suffered a decline of 4 . 8% as a result M eanwhile the C hanganacherry Social
of 9/ 1 1 eve n t s ; Kerala v i si tor ex ports Service Society, the social service wing of
actually increased by 1 1 % over the 2000 the Changanacherry diocese has launched
resu l t s say WTTC s e c re t a ry Yo g e s h a water conservation p roj ect J a lanid h i,
Chandra. Thi s shows that the visitors are aiming to reach o n e lakh house holds in
feeling more secure in Kerala than in other th e diocese. (Church to play a proactive role in _

parts of the country. Even the mishaps like tourism, IE. TVM, 0 7/09/2003, L 50)
SARS helped to boost the tourism prospects
The Supreme Court has issued a notice to
of the state said S harma. (Kerala sets national
the State Government on 05.09.03 against
record in offseason tourist arrivals, I E, TVM, handing over of Pat hiramanal Island to
03/09/2003, L 50) O b e ro i Group fo r eco to u ri s m . T h e
The Catholic C hurch is sermonising on Kottayam Nature Society whose plea was
issues held close to the heart of the social e a r l i e r rej ec te d by t h e H i g h C o u r t
a c ti v i t i e s w a t e r c o n s e rva t i o n a n d approached t h e Supreme C ourt. Justice
responsible tourism. BrUesh Kumar and Arun Kumar accepted
the peti tion . The petitioner has said that
The Church is embarking on two ambitious
Pathiramanal is a bird sanctuary and also
proj ects. The first one aimed at foreign
included under the Ramsar List. If the hotel
tourists to make them realise that people
comes, that would affect the environment.
must resist the temptation to retreat into
Another argument is that the transfer of
s orts o f h a p py c o c o o n , d is t a n c i n g
land to Oberoi is illegal. The excess land in
themselves from t h e social context. "The
the hands of Anthraper family was taken
tourist j ourney is always an encounter wi th
over by the Government under the Land
different paw n s and culture s . In every
Reforms Act. The Land acquired by this Act
c o u n try e s p ec i a l ly, t h e d ev e l o p i n g
c a n b e t r a n s ferred o n l y t o l a n d l e s s
countries, t h e tourists can hardly avoi d
agriculturists . Both these arguments were
coming into contact with painful reality of
rej e ct e d by t h e H i g h C o u r t . S a m e
p ov erty and hunge r. T h e i r v i s i t is a n
arguments raised by the petitioner in the
o p p or tu n i ty t o i n i t i a t e m e a n i n gfu l
High Court are again being raised in the
di alogue" , says Philip Nelpuraparambil,
Supreme C ourt. (Pathiramanal handover: SC

notice, Mathurbhoomi, Thiruvananthapuram The leased land includes Aranya N ivas
06/09/2003, L 50) (9.96 acres), Periyar House (7 acres), Lake
The sight of migratory birds spreading their Resort (3 acres 50 cents) and Anakkodu
wings and landing in Kumarakom is fast totalling to 2 1 .20 acres. The lease period
disappearing, Kumarakom is ch'a nging ended on 8th Augus t 1 99 6 . The S tate
with the huge number of resorts built for Government and the Tourism Department
welcoming foreign tourists, With the resort had discussions during the time on vacating
construction and Kayal encroachment, from the sanctuary. The Forest Department
Kumarakom forgets the migratory birds offered the forestland at Anavachal on lease
and for the next generation, the bird for mov i n g out t h e re sorts from the
sanctuary will be just memory. sanctuary. But the Tourism Department did
not agree as they were reaping huge profits
The construction of resorts the, plying of from the resorts inside the sanctuary.
speedboats and noise made by the tourists
at the bird sanctuary have resulted in the When Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary was given
decrease of number of birds in Kumarakom. the status of Tiger Reserve, the Forest Acts
The spotlights used by the big hotels also became more stringent. With the wastes
have become a threat to birds. The survey disposed from the resorts became threat to
done by the Kerala Forest Department and the w i l d l i fe , the Fore s t D ep artme n t
Kottayam Nature Society on 1 9th January demanded for moving the resorts out o f the
2 0 0 3 has shown a decrease of 3 3 % of
sanctuary. ( Central government rejects State's
migratory birds. The only rise in number request on renewal of KTDC lease land at
was in the case of Egrets because of drought Thekkady , Madhyarnam, Thiruvananthapuram
in north India.( This bird sanctuary is also in 02/09/2003, L 50)
the path ofreminiscence , Mangalam, Kottayam The Chief Minister, Mr. A. K. Antony in a
02/09/2003, L 50) recent statement said that the cabinet has
The Central Ministry of Environment and given approval for a new industrial policy,
Forests has rejected the State's request on which also provides industry status to
renewal of forestland leased to KTDC at tourism. Before getting the cabinet's nod,
Thekkady. vVith this the KTDC resorts of the draft industrial policy was introduced
Aranya Nivas, Perivar H ouse and Lake in the last session of the State Legislative
Resort are to be shifted out of the sanctuary. Assembly. New industrial firms being set up
i n Kerala will n ow receive all benefits
The lease period ofKTDC was over in 1 996. enj oyed by their counterparts in other
M o E F rej ected the request given for states of India. This means, new projects
renewal by the State Government in 2000. coming up in the tourism sector will also
After t h a t t h e Tourism a n d Fore s t get the benefits e nj oyed by rest of the
departments had jointly requested for the industry in Kerala. (Cabinet approves policy
renewaL Now this request is also rtdected. for granting industry status to tourism, Kerala
The Forest Department has made its laws Tourism Newsletter, Issue 1 22, October 2003,
very strict and has enforced that forestland L 50)
cannot be given for non-forest activities. An ordinance is getting ready for declaring
The Supreme Court has also given verdict places of tourist interest, falling in an area
against using forestland for non-forest with high tourism potential as special
activities. The MoEF has issued this order tourism zones. The ordinance will gain
in connection with this. currency once it gets the approval from the
It was in 1 976 J u n e 3 0 , the S ta te cabinet, and will be k nown as ' Kerala
GoVernment has leased out 2 1 .20 acres of Tourism Conservation, Preservation and
land for 25 years to KTDC . The order was Trade Ordinance.' The special zones will
issued wi th retrospective effect from 1 97 1 . be given extra care, and no developmental

activ i t i e s w i l l b e a l l owed w it h o u t th e Convener respectively. Other members of
permission of the government in these the committee include, Secretary for Local
areas . S trict guidelines will have to be Self Government, Chief Town Planner, and
followed in these zones, and the Tourism also the Chairman and a member of the
Conservation and Preservation Committee corporation/Panchayat of that tourism
(TCPC) will be entrusted with the job to z o n e . The c o m m ittee has been given
check any unauthorized venture s and extensive powers, ranging from choice of
violation of rules. developmental activities to buying of land,
modification of existing assets to resource
TCPC will have the 'Tourism Secretary and
the Director of Tourism as its Chairman and utilization in the project area, and also for
giving approval to any tourism proj ect

A paper p rep ared by E QUA TIONS, a extending from the Silent Valley Biosphere
Bangalore based NGO, says that the project Reserve up to \Vayanad, including areas of
w h i c h was p ro p o s e d by t h e S t a t e the \Ve s tern Ghats around the area of
Government a t the Global Investor Meet Agasthyakoodam.
(GIM), will definitely have an adverse effect
As a logistical extension, the Government
on the environment, the local population,
h a s decided to c o m b i ne tour i s m and
the fragile land in the Silent Valley and the
Ayurveda in the S i le nt Val ley. Specific
unique flora and fauna in the "Wes tern
financial allocations have been made in the
proposal for the development of ecolodges
T h e N G O i s c o nc e r n e d ove r t h e in the Silent Valley.
Government proposal to make this project
At the GIM, the Silent Valley was promoted
the focus of tourism and Ayurveda. Studies
from two angles - as a retreat for ecotourism
on the impact and trend of similar proj ects
and as a region for th e grow i n g a n d
in the past and their cost-benefit analysis
processing o f herbal and medicinal plants.
have proved to be heavier on the cost side,
according to it. The report for the bio-valley The paper prepared by E QUATIONS says
project presented at GIM was part of an that the global demand for herbal and
analysis of the issues related to sustainable ayurvedic medicines has put considerable
agricultural trade security system for the pressure on the Silent Valley, as the region
state in the context of vVTO-led regime. is rich in herbs and medicinal plants. A
report p repared by D r. Swami Nathan
T h e p ro p o sa l for the S i l e n t Va l ley
e nv i sa g e s the exp o r t of Ayurv e d i c
Biosphere Reserve is among the budgetary
medicines worth $ 5 billion b y 20 1 0.
p roposals and the Finance Minister K.
Sankara narayan an, has made a toke n The p a p e r warns t h a t go i n g b y t h e
allocation of Rs. l 0 lakhs i n h i s budget for experience in places where similar proj ects
preliminary work on the project. have been tried, local people will get a raw
deal. 'rhe investors' aim i s to make a fast
I n 2 0 0 1 , a G ov e r n m e n t - s p o n so red
buck and make a quick exit from the project
committee headed b y M S Swami Nathan
area, leaving the local people to fend for
recommended a series of proposals for a
them, it says.
sustainable agricultural trade securi ty
system. AllHm g these was a proposal to set A detailed cost-benefit analysis has to be
up a bio-valley in the Silent Val ley National done and furtber action has to be based on
Park to cater to health and nature tourism that, the report adds.
and to set up an herbal park in Wayanad. (Concern over ecological impact of bio-valley
The herbal bio-valley, the first of its kind, project, TH. T, 2 1/1 1/2003, L 50)
is proposed to be developed over a region

proposed in the project area. (Need to select agreed to give half of the Aaralam Farm to
one from the same news) Inaugurating the Adivasis. Now the move to include Aaralam
C I o ffi c e march b y t h e " Go t hr a in the ecotourism proj ects is part of the
Mahasabha" at Peravoor, M s . C. K. Janu said conspiracy between big groups and the
that the move to start ecotourism would not government. ( Will not allow ecotourism in
be allowed in the Aaralam Farm, which was A aralam Farm: Janu, Madhyamam,
transferred by the Central Government to Thiruvananthapuram 03/10/2003, L 50)
State Government for giving to landless
Adivasi s. Thee S tate Government h ad

Taking inspiration from the Perumatty acres in the coastal region, is breaking all
Grama Panchayat, which won a H igh C ourt the promises on water management and
verdict against the Hindustan Coca-Cola o t h e r fa c i l i t i e s t h e y o ffe re d d u r i n g
Beverages Ltd. Unit in Plachimada, a slew acquisition of the land. If the Corporation
of local bodies i n the State are waking up goes ahead with its proposed p lan to sell
to their rights and going up in arms against off the coastline to the Star Hotel Groups,
various tourism projects in the State over the Panchayat will definitely approach the
i ssues ranging from tax c ol l e c t i o n t o Court for justice," Ajannnore Panchayat
protection o f natural resources. President told.
"The Panchayaths effort to regulate tourism "The Government has done l ittle for
projects and engage in tax collection i s implementing a sustainable tourism plan.
often h indere d b y various government The Forest Department, which collects
orders and interferences. I t's time for the entrance fee fro tourists to Athirapally
local bodies to be aware of their legal rights Waterfalls, i s refusing to pay entertainment
a n d seek i nt ervention of court s , " says tax," says P M Puspangadhan, President of
advocate Raju J o se p h , member o f the Ath i r a p i l ly Pan c h ay a t , w h i c h h a s
Kunnathunadu Panchayat in Ernakulam, approached the High Court over the issue
which has approached the Supreme Court of collection of entertainment tax from a
for right to collect entertainment tax from private water theme park.
a private water theme park. "An effective utilisation of powers devolved
"There are resorts in Kumarakom, which on Panchayat for tourism development can
are functioning without proper license. Our put an end to these unhealthy trends," says
effort to i m p o s e adequate regulatory Saroop Roy of Equitable Tourism Options,
mechanism, by taking into consideration a Bangalore based N G O focussing o n
the fact that that tourism in Kumarakom is to uri s m co n cern s i n I nd i a an d t h e
nature based and protection of nature and developing countries.
biodiversity is fundamental to sustainable "As per th e Kerala Decentralisation o f
tourism development, has hit snags due Powers Act, an d improvement, regulation
l a c k o f govern m e n t s u p p o r t . E v e n
of land use and acquisition of any land
Panchayat officials who took a stand against
within the territory of a local body needs
the erring resorts are being transferred to
the Panchayaths permission.
distant towns, " says P G Padmanabhan,
member o f Kumarakom Panchayat, which According to the Kerala Panchayat Raj Act,
h a s approached the Hi g h C ou r t fo r consumption of natural resources requires
permission to collect building tax from a the permit ofPanchayaths. The local bodies
private resort. should realise the relevance of these Acts,"
Saroop said. (Inspired by the HC verdict against
" The Bekal Re s o r t s D ev e l o p m e n t
Coke Unit Local bodies waking up to legal rights,
Corporation. which h as acquired over 200
IE. T, 28. 12.2003, L 50)

L 52 a Sabarimala Mr. Mohan Kumar said work on the luxury
The Trava ncore Devaswom B oard h as resorts tfwt ar� part of the .Bf7kal project is
expected f� commence in � � �nt4J; Of
decided to strictly prohibit the use of plastic
the six resortsites that are p.trt�the Bekal
at Sabarimala Ayyappa temple as part of
project, one each qas been allotre�,to joint
i t s drive to kee p the temp l e a n d i t s venture companies of the TaJ and Oberoi
premises eco-friendly, state minister for groups respectively.
Devaswom, G. Karthikeyan, said.
In addition, during the Global I nvestors
KSRTC had agreed to operate 1 00 new Meet held on Kochi, the Leela group had
buses and 50 mini-buses to temple this year, e ntere d i nto an agreeme n t w i t h the
he said, adding there would be direct bus Government for the development of two
services to Sabarimala from all-important sites. The State Government i s i n the
places of the state. process of finalising the tenders for the
lease of the remaining two resort sites.(Bekal
Taking exception to Union forest and getting ready to receive tourists, BL.B, 05/7/
environment minister T.R. Baalu's recent 2003, L 58 )'

statement that it was not possible for the

The State Government has decided to
Centre to give forest and for Sabarimala
merge B ekal Resorts D ev e l o p m e n t
development, he said chief minister Antony
Corporation (BRDC) and tourist Resorts
would again submit a memo to the Centre Kerala Ltd (TRKL). Confirming the merger,
seeking forestland.TDB chairman N. Babu Mr T. Balakrishnan, Secretary-Tourism,
said that total hundi collection of temple p ointed out that the move made sense
last year was about 68 to 70 crore. (Plastic given the high level of synergy between the
ban at Sabarimala, TOI- T, 1/10/03, L 50 two organisations.
L 58 - Special Tourism Area Bekal-
B RDC has built up an excellent resource
With the state tourism department looking b a s e a n d h a s a numbe r o f s k i l l e d
personnel o n i ts staff, while TRKL has
at promoting the State's Malabar region as
entered into "excellent" partnerships with
a new destination through events such as
the Taj and Oberoi h otel groups . The
the forthcoming Malabar travel Mart, the merged entity will make i t possible for
tourism infrastructure in the area is likely Kerala Tour i sm to l ev erage the j o i n t
to receive increased attention. expertise of the two companies, he said.
In the p rocess of d eveloping touris m While the Government has approved the
related infrastructure in the Malabar is the proposal to merge the avo companies, the
Bekal Resorts Development Corporation details of the merger are still being worked
Ltd ( B RDC). A Government compa ny, out. For instance, it has not yet been decided
entrusted with the task of developing Bekal whether the new entity will be a subsidiary
i n Kerala' s Kasaragod d is t r i c t a s a n of the Kerala State Tourism Development
environment-friendly tourist destination, C o rp or a t i o n ( KTD C ) or w i l l exi s t
the BRDC has already put most of the separately, Mr. Balakrishnan said . The
infrastructure in place. merger process will be completed in a few
According to Mr K.V M oh a n Kumar, months. I t may be recalled that TRKL was
Managing Director, B RDC, the company formed as a fully owned subsidiary o f
has already completed development of 33 KTD C a n d w a s c h arged w i th t h e
roads in the 1 90-odd acres that constitute responsibility o f promoting private sector
the area of the Bekal project. The B RDC investment in Kerala's tourism sector. The
has also developed a water supply system B RDC on the other hand was established
for the project area, said Mr. Mohan Kumar. with the specific objective of developing an
The work on this scheme, which i s still international tourist resort at Bekal i n
b e i n g carrie d o u t , h a s b e e n s l i gh tly North Kerala.
delayed, as some of the pipes carrying water (Tourist resort development corporations to be
have to cross a railway track. merged in Kerala, BL.T, 04/1 1/03 L58)

Excerpts from an interview withJose Dominic

Tourism, Kerala heading on a path back to the future' Mr Jose Dominic, MD, CGH earth.
The Casino Group of Hotels has a new identity, CGH earth experience hotels , and a new
motive and mission on India's tourism landscape. Mr Jose Dominic, Managing Director
of CGH earth, believes that the future of Kerala does not lie in the information technology
(IT), in business process outsourcing (BPO), not in tourism and not even in the services
sector. The future lies embedded in its fertile land, vibrant climate and in its traditional
agricul ture.
When? do you think tourism in Kerala is headed ?
Both tourism and Kerala are headed on a path 'back to the future ' . A few dynamic
entrepreneurs in Kerala had started s mall touris m proj ects in harmony with the
environment, working within the cusp of the community, based on local resources and raw
materials . Most of them started out with low capital. They had to carve out their own path
and had little Government support. Yet, these small i nvestments with large efforts have
begun to pay dividends.
Where do you think Kerala's business potential lies ?
I strongly believe that the future of Kerala does not lie in IT, jn B PO, not in tourism and
not even in the services sector. It i s very much embedded in Kerala's land and in its
agriculture. A whole host of new and varied demands are emanating from the world for
natural products as a substitute for synthetic products. Often for organic products, which
command a premium price. For medicinal herbs, which are getting rare and destroyed?
\Ve have some of the richest and most fertile land and climate in the world .
Corning from you, the future does not lie in tourism. . . a strong statement
It does partly. But we will come back to that. Like the early experiments in tourism , some
entrepreneurs have started dabbling in organic farming, cultivating natural products to
replace artificial products and cultivating herbs for indigenous systems of medicine. The
whole world is ' going back to the future'. And like the early experiments in tourism, it is the
small entrepreneurs in Kerala who are showing the way. They are all small with small
investments and small plots of land. But their products are catching the fancy of the global
Can you give some examples ?
v\That immediately comes to mind is vanilla. I believe that the Rs 3,800 price per kg i s
outrageous and against the interest o f everyone concerned. A t a tenth o f the current price,
it is still remunerative. The revival has stemmed from a demand for natural products,
which has created this crop, this market, and this price . Yet others have been successfully
dabbling in stevia, a natural food sweetener, pathimukham, a natural colouring agent,
safed musli, a herbal aphrodisiac, aswagandhi, which has rejuvenating properties etc.
Cultivating in their small properties, with locally available resources, using locally available
seeds and in sync with the community and culture
Having said all that, where do you think you are headed?
My role would be to mesh my small experiments in organic farming, processing and
marketin g into the fair trade regime of the world. People no longer come on holidays for
luxuries and material comforts, which they are privy to at their homes and offices in the
WC\it. They corne [or tlic cXlloicm:c, [or enlightenment, and for a personal discovery.

They want to find out how the traditional communities cultivated the spices and herbs,
which Vasco da Gama sourced from India 500 years ago. How the traditionalkarimundan
pepper of Kerala is bringing a new lease of life to tribal communities. My role would be
that of a facilitator between these communities and the global tourists. That is where tourism
is heading to, where agriculture is heading to. And where the State's 19rtunes lie. (Saturday,
Dec 2 0, 2 003, The Hindu Business Line, http://www. blonnet. com/2003/1 2/2 0/s tories/
2003 1 22001800200.htm)

obj ective of developing an international of various countries l i ke I n dia, China,

tourist resort at Bekal in North Kerala. Japan and Thailand. The cultural heritage
and sculptural models of Kerala will be a
(Tourist resort development corporations to be
merged in Kerala, BL.]: 04/1 1/03 L58) speciality of this village.
The Kerala Tourism Department is to
Kerala Budget 2003-2004 for Tourism
implement an Air - �raxi Service connecting
Budgetary Allocation for the tourism sector tourist spots and p ilgrim centre s . The
in the Kerala Budget 2003-2004 stands at to ur i s t s p o t s l i ke Kov a l a m , M u n na r,
Rs. 74.25 crores. Rs. 22.55 crores earmarked Kumarakom, Thekkady, Ernakulam, are to
for m aj or t o u r i s m i n fr a s tructure be connected bv this air-taxi service. The

development. Rs. 1 crore for a Master p lan p ilgrim centre chain includes Kanyakumari,
for Eco-Tourism in wildlife sanctuaries and Sabarimala, Guruvayoor, M adurai and
forests. Rame s hw aram . Th e Gover n m e n t has
Vision - 2025, a new tourism policy has been accepted the plan.
a p p ro v e d b y t he G ov e r n m e n t . T h e Another proposal to start small aircraft
highlight o f the State's new tourism policy service connecting Thiruvananthapuram,
is customised incentives for .Foreign Direct Kochi, Kozhikode and Mangalapuram also
Investments in tourism. This would create h a s b e e n sub m i tt e d to t h e C e n t r a l
employment opportun it ie s for 1 0, 0 00 Government for approval.
people every year.
The State Tourism Department is planning
A master plan for development of Eco­ to appoint Hollywood stars as there Brand
tourism in \Vayanad, a master plan for Ambassadors to promote tourism in God's
Kov a l a m , a Rs . l -crore proj e c t a n d a Own Country. They have pre pared a list of
backwater tourism development prqject for stars including Jackie Chan . Other than
Alappuzha are among the other maj or film personalities, the Department is also
projects. c o n s i d e r i n g fa m o u s i n tern a t i o n al
KTD C has p lans to start an Ayurvedic politicians, writers, painters etc. to advertise
massage treatment on Air India flights with and spread messages to promote tourism
the co-operation of lTDC.The road stretch in the State.
i n fro n t of t he Kanakaku n nu p a lac e , The State Tourism Department announced
Thiruvananthapuram will be earmarked as a Project to spearhead improvement of
a model road with the setting up of an i n fr a s truc ture by deve l o p i n g roa d s
electronic d i sp lay system to weed out connecting maj or tourist centres in the
banner and posters in the area. State.
An international tourist village spread over Kaladi, the land that gave the world the
30 acres is to be created on the banks of master of Adv a i d a , S a n karacharya, i s
the river Periyar near N edumbassery. It is gearing u p to get a face-lift through a Rs. 2
a j o i n t v e n ture of K S I D C a n d N R I crore Central Government assisted proj ect.
promoters. The design of the cottages will The proj ect, up on completion will provide
be according to the traditional architecture this tranquil land of the Acharya with a

, ,i ,

'''C1E�: Department of Tourism, Government of Tourism

,,; " "

': ,. , :

Mon th wise statistics for Foreign Tourism 2003


: " ' .
' .'


ALappu1:ha 453 1 289 1 3293 1 755 628 238 989 1 476 1 504 2663 3076 3113 26 1 5 7
Ernakulam 1 2923 1 2 1 93 8308 7277 42 1 4 4598 4579 5953 8 1 61 8 1 88 1 1 1 36 1 245 7 99987
I dukki 5 1 48 4729 3048 2 1 67 894 382 1 038 2 1 53 1 605 2509 3905 4253 3 1 83 1
Hasargod 1 13 1 70 65 47 23 7 22 50 32 23 52 85 689
Hallam 1 290 1 342 750 882 45 1 1 04 349 813 5 15 449 752 923 8620
Hannur 1 69 191 1 32 96 59 247 54 77 41 69 1 36 1 67 1 438
Kozhikode 586 460 295 269 1 84 68 249 279 22 1 171 308 439 3529
Kottayam 2 1 36 2203 1 432 1 630 989 495 902 1 269 2050 28 1 5 294 4 3032 2 1 897
Malappuram 1 29 88 78 96 46 87 1 38 1 72 80 1 35 141 212 1 402
Palakkad 49 1 70 33 22 24 30 25 71 74 28 69 66 66 1
Pathanamthitta 41 48 20 14 13 5 10 26 29 15 36 30 287
1.nrissur 454 1 57 285 247 1 73 53 97 121 1 36 466 225 253 2667
Thiruvananthapuram 1 4200 1 14 1 6 7466 5579 4964 4487 6357 6767 5 746 7117 93 1 2 1 1 424 94835
� Waynad 76 1 05 56 25 13 19 15 13 59 54 73 1 13 62 1
4 1 845 3 6 1 63 25261 20 1 06 1 2675 1 0820 ' 4824 1 9240
-'... _-_.-
20253 24702 3 2 1 65 3 6567 29462 1
Month wise statistics for Domestic Tourism 2003
Alappuzha / 1 75 05 1 2396 1 1 289 1 3092 1 5668 1 1 990 1 2532 1 3394 1 3326 1 6556 1 5450 1 892 1 1 72 1 1 9
Ernaku1am 9288 1 73354 65056 7 8703 9 1 993 7583 1 69 1 72 82760 92850 9 1 726 86582 1 0 1 030 1 00 1 93 8
Idukki 3 5977 26788 23590 334 1 0 43289 4245 1 23085 27254 3 1 234 40677 4 1 384 5 1 82 1 420960
A. Kasargod 1 1 292 1 1 630 9556 1 24 1 3 1 2579 9585 1 1 342 1 1 263 1 1 723 1 1 347 1 2345 1 2582 1 37657
Kollam 9495 9678 7576 9553 8308 6922 7874 9 1 59 8291 8093 8243 8698 1 0 1 890
Kannur 25562 2 1 535 23 1 40 29656 2 8 1 43 2 1 274 22644 25305 2797 1 29437 3 1 967 32704 3 1 9338
Kozhikode 3 9334 37393 3 9920 3757 1 3 729 1 3645 1 36970 38934 38557 40075 40755 38563 46 1 8 14
Kottayam 1 6060 1 1 795 1 0338 1 3795 1 4030 1 1 680 1 1 920 1 2 1 06 1 3285 1 3424 1 68 1 1 1 7535 1 62779
Malappuram 239 1 1 2 1 620 2 1 993 34444 24209 22046 243 87 242 1 7 23465 24499 25 1 58 25 1 53 295 1 02
Palakkad 22238 1 9977 20743 28552 2 56 1 2 1 94 1 5 20 1 92 22375 23432 22309 23269 23055 2 7 1 1 69
Pathanamthitta 6340 5 1 98 489 1 5456 5458 5446 6 1 95 5273 5027 5854 6 1 62 67 1 4 680 1 4
Thrissur 1 20758 90928 82782 1 36060 1 64 1 23 986 1 4 92896 1 07 1 38 1 1 9565 1 1 6 1 25 1 23723 1 37779 1 3 9049 1
Tvm 75689 7 1 77 1 65462 673 1 2 79447 76264 70290 71218 63449 73484 7478 1 7588 1 8650�8 ,
Waynad 1 4354 1 3053 1 4 1 67 1 4 1 96 1 6453 1 2568 1 1 847 1 9524 24802 1 9476 1 9948 2252 1 202 909 ·
Total 5 1 1 396 427 1 16 400503 5 142 1 3 566603 450537 42 1 346 469920 496977 5 13082 526578 572957 5 8 7 1 2 28
(Department of Tourism, Government ofKerala)
p roposition in a bid to square up with the reasons. Their argument is that the dozen
more impoverished northern states. or so resorts that dot the city outskirts 20-
30 kms away will be difficult to monitor for
Mr Chandrababu N aidu has been insisting
the police.
on each state being rewarded according to
i ts performance and the states that perform A meeting of the state tourism promotion
well should not be penalised. Mr Naidu had board including the principal secretary and
been fighting against the raw deal meted chairman of the AP Tourism Development
out to the southern states by the B I MARU C o r p o ra t i o n h a d s u g- ge s t e d t o th e
States - B ihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan government that permission be granted for
and U ttar Pradesh - which show little sense a d iscotheque at Shameerpet to promote
of responsibility. Apparently, the burden of tourism. The officials said the discotheques
h is argument has been that the southern would increase the flow of tourists into the
states do not want to lose out on their hard­ city which argument found favour with
won prosperity or share the taxes, which Chief Minister.
these states pool in the Central Exchequer, H ow e v e r, t h e d e c i s i on o p e n e d t h e
w i t h the northern states (Naidu wants
flo odgates o f opposition from women's
promotion ofSouth as tourist destination, Vimkat groups who maintain that the decision was
Parsa, M.B, 4/9/2003, NOO). both anti-women and undemocratic. The
The p ro p o s a l of the Andhra Pradesh discos will promote sex tourism rather than
government to permit the opening of discos tourism and will push p overty stric ken
ostensibly to promote tourism has run into women into flesh trade, they insist.
a wall of opposition from women groups
They say that the government, apparently
and almost all the Opposition parties have
inspired by the booming sex tourism of
come out in their support.
some South East Asian countries, should
T h e y h a v e t h re a te n e d to l a u n c h a n also look at the social and human costs
agitation if the government goes ahead with those societies are paying to fill government
i ts p lans. Interestingly enough, the police coffers. (No discos in Hydembad, say women's
too have opposed the plan but for different groups, DH.B, 1 7/05/03, NOO, E60).

P. Goa
P 0 0 Goa made special itinerary for celebration of
A chartered train that arrived at Margao the J anmashtami , including holding of
pooja. (First chartemd train brings 850 tourists,
w a s s o m e t h i n g n ew w h i c h at t ra cted
everyone's attention, particularly of those
NT.G, 1 8/8/03, POO, D20).
in the tourism industry. The train with 1 2 CANACONA- Goa's famed Palolem beach
bogies arrived with 8 5 0 people on have may soon be out of the beach shack map of
made s p e c i a l i t i n erary p recaution a ry Goa during the tourism season . the
measure. Canacona Municipal Council (CMC) has
unanimously decided to stop allotting
This is for the first time in the history of
tourism in the state, that a full train was places for shacks this season on the Palolem
Beach . The c ouncil n oted that shacks
chartered to carry to:urists. ·
restrict access to tourists and p icnickers,
The tourists hailing fro m S aurashtra besides blocking space and obstructing
rc:giQ,Il of GuJarat w i l l be celebrating access to schools and family picnics, the
Jan�shtamj festival here. All the hotels council also felt that the shacks spoil the
wfiere :tnt,lOurilts have been put up have nature and beauty of the beach.

I ncidentally, the council has take n the The AGSOA has strongly condemned this
decision only days before the onset of the u n i la tera l d ec i s i o n of the Tour i s m

tourism season. However, to meet the needs Departmen;t to extract such btge
of the tourists and to make provision for of money as' licence fees when there is no
accommodation, the council has agreed to proportionate expenditure on facilities to
a l l o t l i c e n s e s t o s e a s o n al hu t s fro m the shack owners on the beaches of Goa.
September 3 0 t o J u n e 1 5 , inst e ad o f To make the small business of beach shacks
October 1 5 to June 1 5 . The Council has pay up such l arge amounts is to make
also resolved to use its 2 ,800 square metres mockery of the Government p o licy of
of land at the Palolem Beach to convert the promoting small ventures and concern for
spacing into a public pay parking for tourist the local people, D'Souza said.
vehicles, which otherwise had to park their
Such an attitude of the Goa Government
vehicles in an unorganized manner. The
goes contrary to the theme " tourism a
councilors h ave agreed to fix fee s for
driving force for p overty alleviation, j ob
parking which have been spread into three
creation & social harmony" of the World
categories . (CMC to stop allotting places for
Tourism Organi sation for Tourism Day
shacks on Palolem beach this tourism season,
September 27,2003.
Hearld. G, 1 9/9/03, POO)
M eanwhile the AGSOA has convened a
The license fee for setting up beach shacks
general body meeting of the shack owners
has been hiked by the Tourism Department
to discuss issues such as the exorbitant fee
by 500 times. From Rs 1 0, 000, the Tourism
h ike , clean liness and sani tation in the
Department has increased the permission
shacks and plans of AGSOA for the season
fee to Rs 50,000 and Rs 60,000 depending
vis-a.-vis the C harter flight arrivals and the
upon the location of the shack.
forthco m i n g World Travel Mart. ( Govt
The Tour i s m Department h a s invited announces steep hike in licence foe for beach
application for setting up of around 1 88 shacks, Herald. G, 20/9/03, POO).
seasonal beaches, shacks along the 1 7 5-km
Goa will witness the highest ever tourist
long coastline in the State. Two sizes of
inflow at 20 lakh this year as against 1 6 lakh
shacks have been sanctioned - 1 4 mts* 7 mts
Last year, recording an increase of 25 per
and 1 0 mts* 7 mts, the fee for which are Rs
cent. The tourists arrival in Goa would cross
60,000 and Rs 50,000 respectively. In South
20-lakh mark this year," the D irector of Goa
Goa, 67 shacks have been allott� d and the
Tourism, Mr :"J. Suryanarayana, said Out
remaining in North Goa.
of the total inflow by December end, 1 7 . 5
Expressing shock over the exorbitant hike, lakh would b e domestic tourists, while the
the AGSOA said that it is deeply distressed rest 3 . 5 lakh would be foreign tourists.
that the Tourism Department did not hold
Out of the total overseas inflow in 2003,
consultations with the shack owners on the
the highest 1 . 2 lakh came from the U K,
proposed h ike in fees and the rationale
followed by Russia at 4 5, 000, Germany
behind the same.
28,000, and the rest from Scandinavian '
By raising the fees to such an amount the Gulf and South-east Asian countries.
Tourism Dept seeks to make life for the
The tourism industry contributes over a
shack owners difficult, and eliminate the
one-third (33 per cent) towards the State's
main source oflivelihood thereby depriving
Domestic Product and absorbs more than
the common man of a fair' share of the
half of the. Workforce (55 per cent) in Goa.
tourism trade in Goa, according to the
(Tourist arrivals in Goa may touch 20 lakh this
association president.
year, BL.B, 26112/03,POO)

Q. N o rth Easte rn States
Q 00 North Eastern States starts in October and continues up to
March, the Government has been holding
A n n o u n c i n g a s l ew o f m e a s u re s for
an annual " Buddha Mahotsav Festival" at
development of infrastructure and human
Tawang in West Kameng district in the last
resource in Nagaland, the Prime Minister,
week of October for the last three years. The
Atal Bihari Vajpayee, today said the Center
budget for the festival was Rs. 3 0 lakhs.
would provide Rs. 520 crore to the State
Acc o rd i n g to G . N . S i n h a , S e c re t a ry,
within the next two to three years.
Touri s m , about 5 0 0 tourists, i ncludin g
Mr. Vajpayee said the proposed golden seven or eight foreigners, came for t he
quadrilateral would be extended fro m festival. The Tourism Department offered
Silchar (Assam) t o Kohima and the Center them a mixed fare.
would p rovide Rs . 4 0 0 c rore s for the
Apart from monastic and folk dances and
d e v e l o p m e n t of a fo u r - l a n e e xp re s s
tra-ditional games and sports, there were
highway within the next two years.
cultural " nites" by artists from Guwahati
He said the Centre would work together a n d M u mb a i , w h i c h h a d n o t h i ng i n
with the State Government to create 25,000 common with the local culture. However,
j obs in the areas of tourism, agro-based both locals and "outsiders" were apparently
industry, village industry and horticulture. more entertained by the "nites" . Mr. Sinha
(, PM announces Rs. 520-cr. package for said that in 2000, the State Government
Nagaland, TH.B 29/1 0/03, Q OO) had submitted an Rs 1 2-crore scheme to the
The Arunachal Pradesh Government i s C en tre for touris m development, with
trying i ts b e s t t o boost touri s m i n this em-phasis on eco-tourism and adventure
easternmost State bordering Tibet. Situated tourism. It is expected to be cleared by the
at a height of about 1 0,000 feet, Tawang year-end. The North-Eastern Council has
has the second largest Buddhist monastery a l s o j u s t s e t u p a Re g i o n a l Tou r i s m
in the world, founded by the sixth Dalai Board. (Arunachal Beckons tourists, Barun Das
Lama 400 years ago . As the tourist season Gupta, TH.D, 4/1 1 /03, QOO)

S . Other States
S 1 0 Eastern India - Orissa, West Bengal the S tate's cultural, religious and social
The Orissa Tourism Department is in the
midst of a concerted effort to position the Oris s a , for i ns tance, had a number o f
State as the 'Soul of India'. important Buddhist sites and the tourism
The objective is to highlight the "living d e p art m e n t w a s i n t h e p ro ce s s of
tradi tions" o f the S tate, said Mr G . N . developing a package for the " Buddhist
M oh a n ty, D i rec tor-De p a r t m e n t o f tourism circuit" , he said.
Tou r i s m , Government o f O ri s sa a n d The authorities expect these Buddhist
M a n a gi ng D irect or, O ri s sa 'To u r i s m tourism packages to' attract pilgrims from
Develop ment Corporation Ltd. East Asian nations such as Vietnam and
He said the dep artment's focus was on Cambodia.
developing tourism products that leverage

The State Government was also developing S20 North India - Up, Bihar, Up, MP
a ' special tourism areas between the Chilka
Uttaranchal's annual Plan for the current
Lake and Puri. Land for this project had
fiscal has been finalised at R.s h�7 5 crore,
already been acquired and the Government
w h i c h i n c l ude s R s 2 0 c ro re for
will soon being marketing this project. This
strengthening infrastructure in the State
project was expected to attract significant
capital. This was agreed a t a meeting
participation from the private sector.
between the Planning Commission Deputy
Other projects on the anvil include an Rs Chairman, Mr. K.C . Pant, and the State
4-crore project to develop the Puri beach Chief Minister, Mr. N . D . Tiwari.
and an initiative to introduce 'shikara' boats
In his initial observations, M r. Pant lauded
on the C hilka Lake, he said. Efforts were
the efforts of the State Government in the
also on the establish partnerships with
s e c t o r s o f touri s m a n d i n fo r m a t i o n
other States, including Kerala. (Orissa plans
technology and t o promote development
Buddhist tourism packages, BL. B, 21/1 0/03, S of medicinal and aromatic plants. He said
1 0) establishment of export zones f'Or litchi,
S ah a r a I n d i a Tou r i s m D ev e l o p m e n t basmati, herbal and medicinal plants and
Company, a n arm o f Sahara India Parivar, floriculture are steps in the right direction.
on Friday signed an agreement with "Vest As a fol l ow-u p , he s a i d , t h e S tate
Bengal government to make Sunderban a government would soon introduce a new
global destination for tourists. Sahara India i n dus tri a l p o l i cy, w h i c h would fo st er
will pump in Rs 500 crore into its "Floating fav o ra ble c l i mate for e m p l o y m e n t
City" project. The MoU for this project had generation and bolster revenue base.
been s igned.
The State has carved a niche for itself in
An n o u n c i n g t h i s the c h i e f m i n i s te r the tourism sector as tourists flow increased
Buddhadeb Bh attacharjee said, " We've by 1 0 per ce nt last year. Efforts are on to
discussed many other projects with Sahara. take maximum benefit from external and
They will come up one by one, once this traditional financing sources , he added.
floating city project gets off the ground, (Uttaranchal Plan set at Rs 1 , 5 75 CT', BL.B
hopefLl11y this winter. " 04/7/2003, S 20)
M r Bhattacharjee attributed this gestation Tou r i s m b e i n g th e b a c k - b o n e o f
lag to "lots of field work", preparation of a U ttaran c h a l e c o n o my, t h e S t ate
preliminary and a final report by the private G ov e r n m e n t has a n n o u n c e d m aj o r
gro u p . " We are now w a i t i n g for t h e finan-cial incentives to all those interested
c l e a r a n c e from s ta t e a n d c e n tr a l in in-vesting in the tourism sector.
environment departments before actually
Apart from giving a cent-percent waiver in
commencing project work at the site."
income tax, entertainment tax, excise tax
State's contribution in the joint sector and luxury tax, the Government has roped
project would be only land and the state in top private planners and consultants to
cabinet had already approved allotment of develop tourism infrastructure without
required land to Sahara group for the causing damage to the fragile Himalayan
project, the chief minister said. The floating eco-system.
city would cover a total area of 9000 sq km.
"The U ttaranchal Government has also
Sahara India sources said that they had set decided to pursue the matters related to
up an environment institute near Mumbai conversion of land use for hotels, motels,
to take care of the vari-ous environmental resorts, health spa and meditation centres,
aspects of the project. (Sahara to market to uri s t v i l l a g e s a n d a m u s e m e n t a n d
Sunderban to global tourists, ET.D, 29/1 1/ botanical parks. All serious proposals are
2003, C30/S 1 0)

being welcomed, " said the U ttaranchal perspective plan was being prepared for
Tourism Secretary, N . N . Prasad. the tourism sector. " Master plans have been
prepared for the Char Dham pilgrimage
Stating that their main thrust was to first
circuit, a new ski resort at Dayani Bugyal,
develop a world-class infrastructure that
an e c o - t o u r i s m p roj ec t n ea r C o r b e t t
would be accomplished by 2008 after which
National Park, trek routes, development of
the H imalayan State would emerge as the
Tehri Dam as a tourist resort, cave tourism
maj or tourist destination for both domestic
at Patal B huvneshwar besides developing
and global tourists, Mr. Prasad said it had
n ew tourist destin ations such a s Pauri ,
been decided that new tourism units would
Khirsu, Lansdowne, Binsar, Munsiyari and
remain exempt from luxury tax for a period
Pithoragarh" (Sops to promote tourism in
of five years besides 1 00 per cent exemption
from excise tax for 1 0 years and income tax
Uttaranchal, Sandeep Joshi, Tll.D, 29/09/03,
for five years.
S 20).
T h e H i m a c h a l Prade s h Tou r i s m
S im ilarly, new ropeways installed in the
Development C orporation (HPTDC) and
State would be exempted fro m payment of
the Department of Touri s m an d C iv i l
entertainment tax for a period of five years,
Aviation have expressed its inability t o run
waiver of entertainment tax had also been
the newly built "Tourist Hotel Noopur" and
announced for new amusement parks for a
invited bids till December 20 for leasing out
p e r i o d o f fiv e y e a r s an d for a l l new
its incomplete premises. The H PTDC has
mul-tiplex proj ects for a period of three
spent Rs 70 lakh on its construction but the
years. " Moreover, the capital investment
hotel, situated on the Pathan kot-M andi
subsidy at the rate of 1 5 per cent with a
road, i s yet to be connected with the
maximum of Rs. 3 0 lakh s i s also being
approach road. Moreover, i t has not been
offered to the investors, " informed Mr.
p rov i d e d w i t h w a t e r a n d e l e c tr i c i ty
connections. The government has fai led to
Asserting that they were in no hurry to / spend even a penny for providing basic
attract tourists as their first priority was to amenities before offering it for the public .
fully develop the infrastructure ensuring a The hotel h a s a covered area of 2 , 7 2 0
m em o rable s tay fo r t h e t ouris t s , th e square meters. ('llPTDC offers hotel on lease'
Uttaranchal Tourism Secretary said, " The The tribune - online edition, 9/12/03, S 20)
n ew S tate has to offer everything that
Tourism and Culture Minister ] agmohan
tourists want - from p ilgrimage sites to
has drawn up an elaborate plan to give
wildlife, ad-venture and thrill, yoga and
Ayodhya a maj or facelift and develop it as
meditation. The options are unlimited. "
an i m p o r t a n t t ou r i s t a n d p i l g r i m
�n � first-of- i ts- kind e ffort, t he n ewly destination on similar lines a s other places
Instituted U ttaran c h a l Tou r i s m l i ke Var a n a s i , Agra, S a r n a t h a n d
Development Board ( UTDB ) has hired five Kushinagar.
leading experts from the private sector to
The m i n i ster, s a i d the drive aimed at
advise and guide the Government on such
sprucing up the environs of the ancient
matters. Besides, three top professionals are
H indu p i lgrim centre, i m p rovi n g the
looking after matters pertaining to project
formulation, finance and investment, and facilities for visitors and, at the same time,
showcasing the best face of Indian culture
publicity and marketing.
to foreign tourists.
S tating that they have already received
He stated th a t the rej uvenation p lan
projects from the .country' s top hoteliers
envisaged extensive repairs and renovation
and project financers for con structin g
of the Ram ki Paudi complex, cleaning up
hotebJ: � and entertainment parks in
water bodies, developing a seven-km green
1:lte, m\�, Mr. frasad said a 2 0-y e ar

belt and river front on the banks of Saryu places, too, for something other than golf
as well as i mproving the small and big and pony rides in the pine-scented air.
'parikramas' frequented by p ilgrims.
I t was the chief minister's idea. and his wish
J agmohan has also mooted the idea of was a command for Mohammed Yusuf
starting a sound and light show on the Khan, head of the Jammu and Kashmir
theme of ' Rtunayana' epic arr the same Bank.
lines as the ' Mahabharata' show that has
Mr. Khan's men swU ng into action and in
b e e n i n i t i ated at Kuru k s h e tra by h i s
four months, an 'amusement park' was all
ministry some time ago.
in place.
His initiative came soon after Deputy Prime
PCB head S . D . Sutantra has written a
Minister L . K. Advani suggested at a public
pained note on \Vednesday to the Bank
function that Ayodhya should be developed
lamenting that he was not being consulted.
as a prominent centre of tourist and pilgrim
The PCB is aware that it began with the
interest. (fagmohan plans to promote Ayodhya
chief minister, and s ince a functionary
as tourist spot, HT.D, 3 0/09/2003,S20). doesn't tell the boss he did a wrong thing,
S 2 1 Jammu and Kashmir he scolds another subordinate. (Mufti Govt
What do you do when you want to trash
junks paradise for amusement park TOI-A1, 1 0/
paradis e ? B u i l d an amuseme n t park,
1 0/03, S 21)
com-plete with duck-shaped paddleboats S 3 0 Western India - Gujarat
and crocodile-headed rotating chairs and Another Rs 2,500 crore worth of MoUs was
diesel generators spewing smoke under the
sign (largely with NRIs for tourism projects
pine trees. That is what the Jammu and on the 'Vibrant Gujarat' global investors'
Kashmir government has done at the summit, taking the total worth of MoUs to
pristine moun-tain resort of Pahalgam.
Rs 1 3 , 0 0 0 c ro re . N are n d r a M o d i ' s
As if this were not enough, plans are afoot officialdom seems quite optimistic that this
to c o n s tru c t a s i m ilar e y e sore at the time MoUs will not remain on paper.
leg-endary resort of Gulmarg as well.
Yet, apprehensions remain high. Bharat
On paper, the J &K government has rules Shah, a Dubai based NRI, declared amidst
requiring careful s tudy and d i scussion support from the packed house that every
before any construction activity takes place time such an investors' meet is held, the
in places famed for natural beauty The state government should issue a 'white paper' on
pollution control board (PCB ) is supposed the success rate of M o U s signed in the
to give its okay; there is also a development previous meet.
board charged with maintaining a careful M anj i t S i n g h S a n d h u , a U K N R I
balance between development activity and
representing the Vistastar Group, who has
a fragile ecology.
a p ro p osal to set up a Rs 1 , 400 crore
But the reality is otherwise, especially when e n tertai n men t zone, w a s n o t y e t sure
it has to accommodate politics. Pahalgam w h e t h e r t h e p roj e c t ; w o u l d g e t th e
is part of the constituency of Mehbooba permission to serve liquor freely and other
Mufti, daughter of chief minister Mufti tax concessions. He said he could not
Mohammed, and her- the driving force of imagine an entrainment complex without
h i s party. H e r constituents need more liquor.
income , more j ob s ; Kashmir's tourism
Stic Travels, a Goa-based firm with a 30-
mainstay stricken by the regular violence
year standing, signed an MoU for an NRI
needs a big boost. And thus the idea was
firm for a Rs 5 5 1 crore luxury cruise. Its
b o r n of ge t t i n g p e o p l e to c o m e to
managing-director Gursharan Goyal said,
Pahalgam, and maybe Gulmarg and like
"We plan to operate a cruise along Gujarat's

coastal region and link it with Dubai. The The long-awaited tourism policy of the
cruise would pass through all major places Gujarat government, Tourism Policy 2003-
of interest-Dwarka, Porbandar; Somnath, 1 0, announced has poured cold water on
Diu and Daman-before going to Dubai. the hopes of the hospitality industry, which
Smaller places can be reached by small was expecting the government to shed
boats. " s o m e o f i t s i n h i b i t i o n s re gard i n g
Taking a similar view, UK consultant Vijay
Thakkar said, " I f you want to bring in " Proh ibition i s a subj ect matter of the
western touri sts, you must serve them Prohibition Department Therefore, the
chilled beer. That's their requirement in hot Industry and Tourism Department cannot
weather. You must under-stand what they tinker with the policy, " said Anil Patel,
want and act accordingly (Tourism Mo Us Minister of State for Industry and Tourism.
hinge on lasting peace in Gujamt, Rajiv Shah, Any person holding a foreign passport or
TOI.M, 1/1 0/03, S 30) being of non-Guj arati domicile will be
permitted to con-sume liquor whenever he

Gujarat Tourism Policy 2003 - 2 0 1 0 prospective tourists and investors in this

sector and the GDP level can be
The dynamic and growth oriented Govt. of
improved considerably.
Gujarat is determ ined to develop Tourism
as a key industry to make it an important Scope
contributor to the state' s economic and
Holi stic Approach to Tourism
social growth and to offer a right blend of
Development Methodology
Business and Pleasure. This will be achieved
by active participation of private, national • Infrastructure Development
and international corporate bodies to bring • Employment Opportunities 90 jobs Per
in their expertise and investment with Million Rs. Investment
supportive Govt. policies and facilitation .
• Sustainance of rich Heritage of Art &
Government will offer the most conducive
climate for the industry to grow
• Event Based Tourism
Tourism A Growth Engine
• Tourist Circuits
• Hospitality I ndustry Growth
• Infrastructure Development
• Indirect Employment
• Innovative Marketing & Promotional
• Cultural Development
• The current world tourism contribution
• Human Resource Development
to GDP is 1 1 %.
• Private Participation
• The current I ndian tourism contribution
to GDP is 1 . 8% and it is targeted to reach • Facilitating Govt. Policies to ensure rapid
6% in the next decade. If this can be re­ Growth
targeted to reach 1 0% an additional l . 2 • Active Participation of District
crore jobs can be created. Administration
• A majority of the 2 crore N RIs, are (Internet:
Gujaratis who are prosperous as
professionals and traders. This untapped
resource can be motivated to become

visits the state. Let us look on it as a good s p o ke s m a n, "'fhe p e op l e w h o h a d
start," he said. threatened t o m ake Rajasthan another
Gujarat are seemingly still a! it," he said
The state will go for global branding of its
festivals and fairs, besides promoting village (BJP spoiling t(Jurist season: Congress, TR.D,
o l y m p i c s u n der e v e n t - b a s e d t o u r i s m
28/09/2003, 530).
segment, The state also plans t o develop S 40 Union Territories
beaches at Ahmedpur Mandvi, Chorwad,
To improve tourism in the Andaman and
N analajya, M ahdupur, S hivraj pur and
Nicobar I slands the tourism department
has submitted a proposal to the Central
Under the Vi5hwa Gram (Global Village) Government requesting the opening up of
t h e m e , a fu s io n o f structural a n d more islands, the Lt. Governor, N . N . Jha
architectural models o f different countries said.
will be set up on the banks of the Sabarmati
Of a total of 583 islands in the Andaman'
and the Narmada canal to give vis-itors a
and N icobar group, about 52 are inhabited.
feel of their countries blended with Guj arat
The rest have been dec1ared as "reserved
h o s p i ta l i ty. Arc h a e o l o gi cal h e r i t a g e ,
dinosaur theme park and e-marketing of
tourism are part of the new policy. With the help of the National Institute of
Research, the Tourism Department had
All projects with investment less than Rs 50
identi fied 45 hectares of land in these
crore will be approved at the government
islands for promotion. The plots would be
level and projects with investment over. Rs
leased out to tourists for a fixed period.
50 Crore will be approved by the Guj arat
Industrial Promotion Board headed by the The adm inistration would not provide
C hief Minister infrastructural support for the venture and
even water and electricity had to be taken
The p o l icy a l s o p ro p o s e s s e t t i n g u p
care of by th e i nve s t o r, s a i d A k a s h
d i n o s au r fo s s i l p ar k s i n Kutch a n d
Mohapatra, Director, Information, Publicity
B a l a s i no r, c r u i s e deve l op me n t a l o n g
and Tourism.
seacoast, shark watching and EcoTourism.
" The government expects to procure an A s ingle win dow clearance system was
investment of Rs 5,000 crore in the next another key component in promoting
seven years . I t aims at securing private tourism. "Getting separate clearance from
investment. (Dry Gujarat banks on beaches to the Environment and Forest Departments
lure tourists, lE.D, 24/9/03, 5 30). as well as from the local ad-ministration for
setting up a resort i s a hassle that n o
The C ongress today accused the B I P of
fore i g n e r wan t s to d e a l w i t h , " M r.
spoi li ng the curre n t tourist season i n
M ohapatra said, adding that relaxation of
Rajasthan by spreading terror and anarchy.
the coastal zone regulations preventing any
'The B I P strategy of trying to p rovoke
structure from being built within 200 metres
people for violence in order to create a
of th e coastline and the easing up of
bogey of law and order problem in the State
restricted area permits for foreigners had
w ou l d s c are away t our i s t s fro m t h i s
also been p laced with the Centre.
preferred destination i n a n otherwise
pro m i s i n g season , the Congres s p arty The travel operators were p lanning to sign
maintained. a treaty with the Phuke t o p erators o n
sharing o f resources and charter flights.
"Tourism is the mainstay of Raj asthan and
P hu ke t g e t s m o re t h a n 30 l a k h
a good tourist season has come after many
international touris ts a year while the
years. It is unfortunate that the BIP is trying
Andamans get only 1 0, 000 international
to have bandhs and demonstrations in
various parts of the State," noted the PCC

T h e h itch to active tourism, h owever, The plan is to give these islands on long­
continues to be the poor connectiv i ty term lease to int ernational companies of
between t h e mainland and t h e i s land repute, which will undertake infrastructure
gro u p s a n d the l i m i te d a c c e s s to related activities, establish and promote
international travellers. A journey by ship tourism in t h e s e i sland s . C o m p a n i e s ,
takes 48 hours from Chennai or 5 6 hours i n cl ud i n g a J ap a n e s e c o m p a n y ; h ave
from Kolkata. Similarly, flights to Port Blair exp ressed i nterest, senior government
are operated only from these two cities. The officials told To make the project viable, the
recently introduced apex fares by most air 'no development zone' will be reduced from
carriers do n o t ex tend to t h e i s l a n d 500 metres to 50 metres.
groups.(Proposal to open up more Andaman The coastal zone regulation stipulates that
Islands for tourism, Divya Ramamurthi, TH.B, there can be no construction in the no
1 8/08/03, 540, BOO). d ev e l o p m e n t z o n e . T h e travel a n d
The Department of tourism has initiated a h o s p i t a l i ty i n d u s try h a s a s ked fo r a
proposal to develop the An-daman and reduction of this zone.
Ni cobar I slands and Laks hadweep into The ministry of environment has given the
tour i s t d e s t i n at i o n s a t p ar w i t h t h e
go ahead and a core group of secretaries,
h eaded by the cabinet secretary; is now
In order to attract the high-value tourists, fo rward i n g t h e p ro p o s a l to t h e
about 1 0 islands h ave been identified in Cabinet.(Andamans, Lakshadweep on tourism
A n d a m a n a n d N i c o b a r and 1 3 i n map, Nina Mehta, HTD, 08/12/2003, 540).
Lakshadweep cluster.

T. Foreig n Cou ntries

TOO: International Tourism Volumes and The N ational Geographic Traveller has
Patterns also featured India as an "experience of
International tourist arrivals to the country
have shown a steady growth this year. There The winter season has also seen revival of
had been an increase of 1 4. 6 per cent over tourism in Jammu and Kashmir. Hospitality
last year, making I ndia one of the hottest industry sources say that most of the luxury
destinations. h o t e l s i n t h e C a p i tal h ave seen t h ei r
occupancy charts soaring with bookings
While i n October the total number of
going up to 80 to 85 per cent. (Increase in
arrivals was put at 2 .46 Iakhs, in November
foreign tourist arrivals, TH. C, 28/12/03, TOO)
it went up to 2 . 8 1 lakhs, a nearly 1 5 per
cent rise over the last year fig-ure, official T 1 0: South Asia
sources said The prospect of Indian tourists visiting
After d e p re s s i n g t i m e s a n d g l o b a l some of the main sites of the Indus Valley
downturn in the wake o f the September 1 1 Civilisation in Pakistan in large numbers,
terrorist attacks in the U.S., Iraq war and or Pakistani tourists v i siting Agra and
outbreak of SARS, this tourist season has Fatehpur Sikri may be a bit of piped ream
seen India emerging among the top 1 0 right now, given the difficulties of obtaining
"must see" countries in several surveys a visa, to mention just one hurdle. However
undertaken by trav e l and h o s p i t a l i ty this has not prevented the tourism industry
sectors. of both countries from tak-ing the first
tentative steps.

A conference -'Tourism, Bridge for World the 7 , 0 QO i m l ong national hi ghwa y s
Peace" - t o b r i n g together trade p roj ec t �y 20 0 7 a n d �J!f! e d that
professionals from both the countries, will N ational liighways Auf . f"t1n(lia
be held in Lahore in April '04. Over 250 (NHAI) take up the up gradatro:r otroads
travel & trade professionals from India, from city-centres tfillatioD:<!I, highway s. (CIl
which includes, airline, hoteliers and tour Tourism Meet sees open skies, IT As Growth
operators will participate in this conference. Drives, FEB, 12/1 1/2003, T20)
It is learnt that the tourism ministry officials T 3 0 Communist Asia
from both the countries are likely to attend
the conference to support the outlined In an effort to fully capitalise on the growing
initiatives. interest among Chinese tourists to visit
India, the India Tourist Office is to open
W h i l e , t h e p o l i c ie s h av e y e t to b e its doors at the soon to be launched 'India
formalised, stringent visa norms that are Club' in Shanghai.
being considered include the following visas
to be i ssued by both the countries only for The India Club is being promoted by the
the fixed itinerary or for the cities or towns C I l t h a t i s to l o c a t e i t s E as t-As i a
likely to be visited. Further' tours will be headquarters there. T h e C lub aims to
managed only by government approved provide a platform for enhancing trade,
tour operators of both the countries. (1 ndo­ investment and s trategic partner s h i p
Pak tourism takes first step, Meena Nichani, between Indian and Chinese businesses.
E1:D, 20/1 1/03, T 1 0) The decision to open an India Tourist office
T 20: South East Asia at the Club comes shortly after the Chinese
Government accorded India 'ap proved'
E x t e n d i n g t h e o p e n s k i e s p o l ic y t o tourist destination status late last year. The
countries beyond those i n the Association granting of 'approved destination' status to
of South East Asian N ational (Asean ) I ndia i s exp ected to see C hinese tour
region, continuing with the ' I n credible o perators p romote I n d i a as a tour i s t
I ndia' campaign and extensive use of destination and i s likely to facilitate the visit
information technology (IT) are some of the of Chinese tourists to I ndia in greater
proposals mooted to boost India's tourism numbers. (India Club in Shanghai to boost
at the Confederation of Indian Industry's trade, tourism, BL.B, 4/7/2003, T 30)
( C I l ) fourth I nternational Tourism
Conference at Hyderabad. T 40 Russia

The event also saw participation from a 1 9- An agreement on tourism, film festivals and
member Chinese delegation, led by China cultural ex-changes are s om e of the
N ational Tourism Admin istration v ice­ initia-tives taken by the tourism ministries
chairman Gu Zhaoxi, p articipated in of India and Croatia to increase tourist
deliberations to provide a thrust to regional traffic in both the countries. Both India and
tourism. Croatia are working to ease visa regulations
for smooth flow of tourists. Tourism has
A chief executive officers (CEOs) conclave emerged as a key industry in the country,
as a part of the conference agreed upon the which was crippled by a three-year-old war.
need to continue with the 'Incredible India' Croatia earned $7.2 billion from tourism
campaign, as i t was a defin ite success last year, which was 21 % of the country's
compared to previous marketing efforts. GDP. It hopes to earn $8 billion this year.
They felt that unilateral peak-season 'Open Seven to 8 million tourists visit Croatia
Sky Policy' for Asean nations should be every year, most of them from Eu-rope ,
replicated for other countries to make India mainly Germany. (India & Croatia to promote
an easier and accessible destination. They tourism, ETD, 3 0/09/03, T 40/BOO)
also stressed on the need for completion of

T 70 -North America trips with the Russian Aviation and Space
Two Americans have won the go-ahead to
become the next tourists in space, and two W h e n t h e u p co m i n g l a u n c h e s w e re
more spots for a Russian rocket trip to the announced in June, about a dozen people
International Space Station are now on the had undergone medical tests for the two
market, the US firm selling the spots said available flights and paid certain fees.
on Tuesday. Most of the $20 million per -ticket cost goes
Two thrill-seeking civilians, whose names to building the Soyuz rockets, which are not
are still being withheld, have agreed to shell reusable. But the cash also helps boost
out $20 million each for separate eight- to Russia's space' program. Russia's Soyuz
1 0-day trips into orbit. craft is currently the only working link to
the International Space Station, after the
Two more seats are up for sale, locking up
February crash of the Columbia space
all the spots available on Russian Soyuz -
shuttle grounded Nasa's shuttle fleet. -
rockets through 2007, according to Space
Reuters ( US millionaires will be next space
Adventures, a private US firm running the
tourists, julie Maclntosh, FE. CT, 18/12/2003,
T 70).

U. I nternati o n a l Economy
U 30 GATTS/World Trade Organisation c o nv e rge n c e w h i l e worki n g for a n
acceptable overall outcome ."
World trade talks held at Cancun, to firm
up the modalities for negotiations to launch Many Trade Ministers frankly said that the
the Doha Development Round in 2005 Cancun M inisterial served notice to the
collapsed on the final day in the face of t r a d e m aj o rs t h a t a s i d e fro m t h e i r
d e e p d i v i s i o n s a n d fi s s ures a m o n g ascendancy, there has emerged a group of
d ev e l o p e d , dev e l o p i n g and t h e l e a s t 2 1 developing countries led by Brazil, India
developed countries over issues ranging and China which captured centre stage by
from agricultural reforms in rich countries being cohesive and presenting a strong case
to new issues to make global trade free and on the need to reform the farm sector of
fair. rich countries which has been primarily
responsible for the distortions of the global
The Chairperson and M exico's Foreign
grain market and the attendant depression
Minister, Mr. Luis Ernesto Derbez, said that
of prices of com-modities being produced
d e s p i t e consi derab l e i m p rovement i n
a n d tra d e d by t h e p o o r d e v e l o p i n g
c o n s u l t a ti o n s , m e m b e rs re m a i n e d
countries (Cancun trade talks collapse, C.
entrenched particularly o n the Singapore

i s s u e s of i n v e s t m e n t , c o m p e t i t i o n , Rammanohar Reddy, U 30, BL-1 6/9/03)

transparency in Government procurement India is set to file its 'offers' on the services
and trade facilitation. sector to the World Trade Organization
The Ministerial statement of the meet said: (WTO ) . T h e offers would cov er m o s t
sectors, barring distribu-tion services, legal
"We will bring with us into this new phase
services, postal and courier services, audio
all the valuable work that has been done at
visuals, energy entertainment, culture and
this conference. In those areas where we
have reached a high level of convergence sports, R Gopalan, joint secretary in the
on texts, we undertake to maintain thi s
commerce ministry, said.

He referred to the Doha declaration, which
had talked about technical assistance and
capacity building so that I n dia coul d
participate in the negoti-ations on the
services sector.
(Services Sector: India to File Offer At WTO
Soon, FE.D, 20/1 1/03, U 30)

x. Cu ltu re a n d Society
X 04 - Local Heritage Sites has decayed considerably over the past two
The World Monument Fund (WMF) has decades due to heavy use of the building,
p o or m ai n ten ance and i na p p rop riate
declared four sites in I ndia-the Darbargarh
in Bhuj , Dalhousie Square i n Kolkata, re p a i r s . (Four heritage -sites figure in
Osmania University College for Women in
'endangered' list/ TOI.M/ /3/12/2003 X04)
Hyderabad and Quila Mubarak in Patiala­ Xl l - Social! political system
to be a m o n g t o p 1 0 0 e n d a n ge re d
Book Review
monuments i n the world.
The 73rd Amendment to the Constitution
The Darbargarh or palace complex within
in 1 993 gave the panchayats in the country
Bhuj was started by the princes of Kutch in
a new lease of life. They were politically
1 5 4 8 . After independence, the palace
empow-ered to function as the third tier of
c o m p lex became a p r ivately ow n e d
the Indian federal structure.
museum . B ut a maj o r e art hqu a ke i n
J a n uary 2 0 0 1 seriously dam aged t h e The political empowerment ofpanchayats,
structure. INTAC H immediately identified however, was not matched by financial
it for emergency restoration and engaged empowerment. They still do not have a
govern-ment and private groups to prepare fiscal domain worth a mention . More often
a pilot con-servation project. than not, the panchayats are delegated to
carry out agency functions, with funds
Dalhousie Square is one of I ndia's few
devolved from the Ce ntral a n d state
remaining colonial city centres that have
gov e rn m e n t s , a l o n g with d e t a i l e d
retained several period buildings. However,
guidelines o n how these funds should be
the square has suffered gross neglect and
spent. I n other words, the p an chayats
many of its build-ings have been totally lost,
hardly have any taxing powers and little
says WMF.
autonomy on expenditure . The lack of
Local effo r t s are b e g i n n i n g to g a i n i n d e p e n d e n t s ource s of revenue a n d
momentum, b u t a s trong gove rnment limited dis-cretion on expenditure severely
commitment to the preservation efforts and limit the autonomy of the panchayats.
funds to undertake emergency repairs and
Dr Indira Raj araman's book, comes out
develop a conservation strategy for the
with a recipe for filling up this hiatus in the
square are needed if this vestige of colonial Fiscal Domain Of The Pan-chayats. The author
India is to endure , says the Fund The
makes out a strong case for transferring the
Osmania University College for Women, a
powers to tax agriculture to the panchayats.
part of the British re sidency and built
The power to tax agriculture, which has
between 1 803 and 1 8 08, is one of the most
constitutionally been in the state domain
important Anglo-I n dian structures still (going by the division of taxing powers),
standing in India. However, WMF says it

has hardly been exercised by the states, Even though the i nformation required
except by a few in the plantation sector. adminis tering the proposed levy at the
Panchayat level may not seem too much, in
The last time a serious proposal was mooted
actual practice it may turn out to be
for a levy on agriculture, was over three
p ro b l e m a t i c to g a t h e r. Th i s w i ll b e
decades ago . A C o m m ittee o n Taxon
especially true of information o n the area
Agricultural Wealth and I ncome (the K N
covered by high value crops on an annual
Raj C o m m i tt e e ) rec o m m e n d ed a
basis. An alternative sugges tion worth
pro gressive Agricu ltural H o l d i n g Tax
considering i s whether the levy and land
(ART) in 1 97 2 .
revenue could emerged and a single tax,
The author attributes the non-acceptance based on area and quality ofland (irrigated!
of the Agricultural Holding Tax by any state unir-rigated) be easy to administer. With
government principally to its faulty design. relatively low rates and progressively, there
One cannot, however, be sure about this. A may not be a strong case for exemp tions.
more p la u s i b le rea s o n for t h e n o n ­
Another issue that needs to be considered
acceptance o f ART seems to b e the dout
is whether the panchayats should levy and
a c qu i re d by t h e pros perous far m i n g
collect taxes or should only levy taxes and
community, which benefited from the green
leave the collection to the state machineries.
revolution technology by the early 1 970s.
The proceeds could be passed on to the
The expenditure responsibilities of the panchayats or the state governments could
panchayats are likely to increase manifold levy the tax, but the panchayats could
if, and when, all the 29 subj ec t areas listed collect and retain them. Each of the above
in t h e E l e v e n t h S c h e d u l e of t h e arrangements may have their merits and
C onstitution are transferred t o them. The d e m er i t s . C o l l e c t i n g a n d reta i n i n g
chances of resource transfer to match these agricultural levy a t the Panchayat level may
are, however, remote in view of the highly raise the issue of equity, since the revenue
stressed fiscal situation in almost all the garnering potentials of the Panchayaths will
states. It is in this content than attempt to vary.
resurrect the idea of taxing agriculture by
Panchayaths i n agriculturally backward
the p an c hayats s h o u l d b e w e l c o m e d .
regions may not be in a position to raise
Pro p e r ty tax a t i o n i s u n iv e r s a l ly
much revenue and, therefore, their ability
acknowledged as the legitimate domain of
to build up agricultural infrastructure for
local governments. I n the Indian context
the principal property/asset in the rural future growth will also be limited. This
areas is agricultural land. aspect could be taken care of by the State
Finance Commissions in their devolution
The author believes that an agriculture levy schemes. A final concern is whether the
will have, smooth sailing if the panchayats prospe rous farmers, who have already
are allowed to retain the entire revenues invested in agricultural infrastructure, and
and encouraged to spend on productivity are not in great need of additional support
augmenting infrastructure in agriculture. from the: Panchayaths, would be willing
The scheme proposed in the book is simple participants in the proposed levy scheme.
and requires only minimum information T'he book puts forward a new scheme,
i n p u t s . I t is neither p ro - gres s ive nor which, if implemented, would certainly
comprehensive to begin with. I t is a crop­ widen the fiscal domain of the panchayats,
specific levy princip a l ly on h i gh value quite significantly.
commercial erops. The proposed levy will
pilot. replace the land revenue but will Dr Kurian is adviser (FR) at the Planning
supplement it. Commission. ( (If Only Panchayaths had the
rights to tax, FE.B, 7- I 2-04, XI I)

The Department of Rural Development implerrienl ,the i nter- Gram Panchaya t,
a n d Panch ayat R aj has issued orders p roj e c t s . (Confttsion over ��yat wor/l
notirying the functions of the Panchayat cleared, MadtJ:n Mohan, T�iJil8{;l�},
XJ 1)

bodies, putting an end to the confusion on


Wi th a n u mber of women c aI1.didates

the issue. Called activity mapping, the
winning in the recent Assembly elections
concept was first mooted by the Task Force,
in four States, women Councilors of the
constituted by the Union M inistry of Rural
rul i n g C on gres s i n the M u n i c i p a l
Development to go into the devolution of
Corporation o f Delhi are demanding their
powers and functions of the Panchayat Raj
"share" in the decision-making process of
i nstitution s , i n its report sub mitted in
the civ-ic body.
August 200 1 .
Arguing that they no longer want to be
L a t e r, t h e Wor k i n g Group on
vested with decorative posts and serve as
D e c e n t ra l i sa t io n , c o m p r i s i n g S t a t e
m e re rubber s ta m p o f t h e i r m a l e
Gov e r n m e n t o ffi c i a l s , e n do r s e d t h e
c o u n t e r p a r t s , t h e C o n g re s s w o m e n
concept, with some modification in its
Councilors have u rged t h e party high
report in March 2002. The Government
c o m m a n d t h a t t hey b e gi ven a n
took time to introduce an amendment Bill
opportunity to perform and show their
to the Panchayat Raj Act making far­
mettle in the administrative arena.
reaching changes in the concept.
At least three senior women Councilors
The notification is expected to make the
have entered the race for the prestigious
Panchayat bodies' more meaningful. For
post of C hair-manshi p of the Standing
activity mapping, the activities ofthe three­
Commit-tee and the Leader of the House
tier set-up has been divided into 26 clusters
in the civic body that has fal len vacant
covering crucial sectors such as housing and
fol l ow i n g t h e electi on of th e pre s e n t
education for delineation of the functions
incumbent, Ram Babu Sharma, to the Delhi
of zilla, taluk, and gram panchayats. The
Assembly. All three are second-timers and
delineation of functions revolved rounds
rue that so far they have not been entrusted
the z i l l a p a n ch ay a t s fo rmu l a t i n g the
with administrative responsibilities in the
schemes, the taluk panchayats coordinating
Corporation. (Women demand their share of
the implementa-tion between the zilla and
power, Lalit.Klha, TH.D, 1 1/1 2.2003,Xl l)
gram panchayats and the gram panchayats
implementing the scheme. X3 1 - Status of Women (General)

The taluk panchayat gets the responsibility O bj ec t i fi c a t i o n of w o men' m ig h t be

of implementation only in cases of work distorted English but how appropriate it is
involving more than one-gram panchayat. can only be realised by closely watching
The work not allotted to the zilla and gram s o m e of t h e l e a d i n g c o m m e rc i a l
Panchayaths, come under the purview of advertisements i n India and abroad. It's a
ta-Iuk Panchayaths. disease effectively exported from the West
and fast catching up in India.
I n M in o r I r r i ga t i o n a n d Wa- t e r s h e d
Management, the gram Panchayaths have Indian ads are generally somewhat more
to i d e n t i fy locations and execute th e re s t r a i n e d but m ov i n g i n t h e s a m e
projects, construct purification tanks, and direction.
check dams, enforce inter-well distance, Examples can be multiplied but the issues
identify the beneficiaries under various are simple. One, we all likes to see such
programmes while the zilla Panchayaths titillating images and may even admire the
fo r m u l a t e p l a n s , a s s i g n s t h e m , a n d c re a t iv i ty a n d the d o u b l e e n t e n d re s .
coordinate among the various departments Second, the frequent use o f the body parts
a n d fun d i n g w h i l e taluk Panchayath s of the female, (legs, breasts and stomach)

w i t h o u t e v e n s howi n g t h e fac e , i s X33- Women's Work! Women Workers
objectification of women at its worst - worse The study titled-Gender I mpact ofWTO on
than its milder form of using women in
Women's Livelihood in I ndia- has been
tra d i t i o n a l rol e s o n ly ( i . e . wives a n d
c o n d u c te d on an a l l I nd i a b a s i s i n
mothers). Third, detailed empirical and
collaboration with the U nited N ations
s ta t i s t i c a l s t u d i e s e s tab l i sh t h a t m e n
Conference on Trade and Development
exposed to such overt sexually suggestive
( U N CTA) and U n i te d N a t i o ns
ads featuri ng females wi l l themse lves
Development Fund for \Vomen (UNIFEM).
indulge in greater objectification ofwomen
than those not exposed to such ads. That The findings of the study are significant
does not augur well for our law, order, rape especially in the light of the fact that the
and sexual assault statistics. Cancun WTO Ministerial talks have failed
due to the North-South perception gap in
But, fourth, one must counterbalance the
looking at the evolving trade arrangements
need to protect women by pointing out that
in the post liberalisation and globalisation
their cause is hardly helped when several
scenario. India's tough stand taken at the
of their gender proudly declare (as was
Cancun is also ratified by the study as trade
recently done by an actress trying to 'make
continues to become more and more unfair
it') that "a heroine must necessarily be the
v i s - a . -v i s worki n g w o m e n a n d o t h e r
object of lust. . . I want people to throw coins
marginalised groups.
on the screen".
TEXTILE SECTOR: The study based on
Fifth, the remedy cannot be pompous
secondary research also found that the
pontification or moral policing. Existing
increasing mechanisation of the textile
advertisement guidelines not only need to
sector could pose a threat to women's jobs
b e t i g h t e n e d b u t , m ore i m po rt an tly ;
because women tend to be employed in
stringently imposed and operationalised
greater numbers in the more labour­
voluntarily through mature peer pressure
intensive processes.
and through industry associations. External
interference or paternalistic laws will not The study emphasised that many of thejobs
help - the line can be best drawn by a self­ created in the food-processing sector were
awareness of when enough is enough. very casual in nature and that women
workers are over-represented in part time
Sixth, when we draw guidelines, we have to
work and in the unorganized sector.
be careful to be reasonable, balanced and
not lean too much in favour of the so-called The s tudy reco m m e n d s t h a t p o l i cy
exploited and harassed woman . There is formulation should focus on welfare of
another side of the story, which is best workers, particularly women workers, in the
illustrated by reference to the related issue industry.
of sexual harassment. The Supreme Court I t has also recommended that there is a
in Vishakha ( 1 997) did yeoman service to need for the central government and
gender j us tice by stipulating guidelines employers to impart training to women to
1 : 0 0 breach of which constitutes sexual up-grade their skills so that they can adapt
harass m e n t a t t h e workp lace a s a l s o to changing needs. (Women workers languish
violation o f fundamental rights - including in 'casual' sectors, DH.B, 21/9/03, X33)
the right to equality; to practice trade
I ndia' s national carrier, Air- India, has
profession and to life and liberty.(Objects of
determinedly s tuck to the differe ntial
Desire, Abhishek Singhvi, DA.B, 1 7/12/2003,
cate go r i s a t i o n o f m a l e a n d fe m a l e
crewmembers. And instead o f accepting the
far-sighted Bombay H igh Court judgment
that merged the two categories and ensured

that they had the same service conditions, staff until 58 while the men can continue
it chose to go to the Supreme Court in to work as cabin crew until they are 5 8 .
appeal. The apex court has now ruled that
The court has stated, "Air-India is a travel
there is nothing discriminatory if the airline
industry. Pleasing appearance, manners
insists that women crew members retire
and physical fi tness are re-quired for
from Hying at 50 and opt to work as ground
members of the crew of both sexes". If these

Interview with Dr.Poornima Advani

D r. Poo rni m a Adv a n i , c h a i r p e r s o n , How diffirent is the Billfrom the Supreme Court
National Commission for \Vomen (NCW), guide-lines ?
is an acknowledged authority on criminal
I ' d day it' s better organised. It's more
jurisprudence and family laws. Dr Advani
detailed and it gives in a very organised
has' taught at the University of Mumbai and
manner details ofwhat should be done after
has also lectured at the U n iversity of a case of sexual harassment. Who is the
London in the U K and the University of
officer concerned, how to file a report, what
Sydney in Australia. She is also a medical
is the penalty and other such details.
profe ss i o n a l a n d is a s sociated with a
physiotherapy Clinic in South Mumbai. After the Bill is passed, how would we compare
with say developed countries on the issue ?
Her three years at the commission have
been notable for the scholarly work she has vVhat is a developed nation ? They have
undertaken in studying gender-related laws more divorce cases than us. They have more
and proposing amendments in as many as broken families. Why should we compare
three dozen statutes. Also, notable are her with other countries? For me the ultimate
efforts in focusing national attention on the aim to is give dignity to every woman. Every
enforcement of existing women-related woman should be able to work with dignity
laws, and the need for gender-sensitisation and walk without fear. My aim is to give to
in the government machin-ery and civil her what the constitution willed her to get­
society. Dr Advani spoke to Prachi Raturi on a life of dignity.
the statl�) of the Sexual Harassment of Women While NCW has been leading the government
at their Workplace (Prevention) Bill, 2000, and bodies and PSUs on the issue, what is happening
other related issues. Excerpts: in the private sector?
What is the status of the Bill? Even places that say that they adhere to the
\Ve've been consulting agencies, NGOs, and Supreme Court guidelines are only doing
other agencies. I t should be ready by the lip service. Phaneesh Murthy's is just one
end of this year. case that has come out. There are thousands
others, which are n o t even reporte d .
And how would the Bill help ? Besides, passing the Bill, we need t o bring
'Vell, it will at least be taken I more seriously. in change in attitude. The birth of girl child
People would probably be more aware of it is not welcomed. There are rape leases
than thev are now, since what we have at
allover the country. We need to change our
present are only guidelines given by the attitude towards women. That is when such
Supreme Court. But a lot of people are not a Bill would matter. (('Every Woman Should
even aware that such guidelines exist. Infact Be Able To Work With Dignity', Prachi Raturi,
• there are Companies that have formed F.EIDAI1 2- 1 0-20031X3 3)
committees for redressal of problems of
sexual harassment at workplace but the
employees are not even aware of it.

are the criteria, then both men and women mainly because of exclusion of women
should be tested and if either fail, they wo rkers from non-agricultural l abour
should be reassigned to ground duties. Are average annual earnings ofwomen workers
all men over 50 fitter, more " pleasant" are very low in absolute terms (Rs. 1 ,839 in
looking, than women crew of that then why Dhcuitar and Rs 1 ,584 in Birdhana) and in
is this argument being used only to restrict relation to earnings of male workers (Rs
women? 6 , 1 6 2 in D h a m a r a n d R s 6 , 6 2 6 i n
Bird-hana) . Another disturbing trend that
(Flying backwards, TH.B, 2 7/07/03, X33/C24)
came up in the study was the revival of 'si ri'
The 'informalisation' of labour sector has system of contract labour in Birdhana where
virtually ended the concept of minimum agricultural production was based on hiring
wages structure for the women agricultural of long-term workers under a kind o f
labour in rural Haryana where workers are sharecropping contract. These workers are
n ow u s u a l l y p a id p ie c e - r a t e ' w a ge s . called siris' and they work under a contract
M inimum wages are ' fixed o n a daily basis that provided them a small share in the
a n d i t i s t h e e m p l oye r who fixes the output. In return they were required to give
duration of working hours also. an equivalent share in the material costs
A s tudy on the c h a n g i n g p a t te rn s of and provide all labour. The share of the siri
women's work in rural Haryana conducted in the 'output is so small that they seldom
by the Indian School of Women's Studies make any profit, the study says adding that
and Development (affiliated to All India the siri contract is designed to make the
Democratic Women's Association) , found workers maximize the use of family labour
that women workers were almost totally and minimise hiring of casual work-ers. U se
excluded from the employment generation of female and child la-bour i s central to the
programmes as a result of 'inappropriate' siri contract system.
choice of the public works and frequent use The findings, carried out last year by a team
of c o ntractors a n d labour d i s p la c i n g lead by Vikas Rawal, will be handed over to
machines. Whenever h ired, workers are the M i n istry by the end of the month .
paid piece- the rated wages and earnings (Women bear a heavier burden, TH. B, 1 6/12/
of about 90 per cent of the women (workers 03, X33)
under e m p l oy m e n t generation
programmes are) lower than the minimum
wages. Sponsored by the U nion Labour • U R BAN I nd i a ' s workforce seem be
Ministry, the study is based on a survey of headed for a greater gender imbalance
445 landless manual worker households even as rural areas are witnessing larger
-from two villages in Haryana -Dhamar in number of women coming out to seek
Rohtak district and Birdhana in Patehabad employment. Not only has the number of
district -both different in terms of size, caste women in the labour force in urban areas
composition, land d istribution, cropping declined i n the recent years but their
pattern and systems of labour hiring. The s u c c e s s w i t h fin d i n g and ret a i n i n g
d a t a o n e m p l oy m e n t from t h e s e two employment has dropped.
villages, however, bring out some striking
• In contrast, in the rural areas, women
are rel a t iv ely more successful finding
About 8Q �.centofwo:rnen in the working employment, although the number ofj ob
age-gtoup �16 t9 6(} years) did some hired seekers has outstripped the number ofjobs
WQrk but QQ an a;verage, a woman manual available.
worker found employment for only about • This has emerged in the latest report of
40 days ill: a year as against a man who
the National Sample Survey Organisation
f�n�d errtplrJfmf'nt for 1 00 days. This was
( N S S O ) r e l e a s e d recently, w h i c h

summarises the results of the 57th round sto�j"lS a lot happier fur men, both:.:
for 200 1 -02 . III ai\ d urb a T 11I
• The report based on data collected unemploy�nt rate for �i�d
between July 2 00 1 and June 2002 shows
in the rural areaS to 1 % from'
0 intI'.
the urban are a�� il. bas ,IDQre o r l e s s
participation rate of urban women in labour
force has declined 4% to 1 93 per 1 .000 from
remained constant at 3.9%.
I II both rural
20 1 per 1 .000 registered in the 56th round and urban areas, the rate at which men are
of the survey carried out in the previous findingjobs is higher than the rate at which
t h e i r p re s ence i n the labour force i s
• I n the rural areas , on the other hand,
Overall the employment situation in the
the number of women in the labour force
country can be described as stable, thanks
has burgeoned 8% to 463 per 1 .000 from
to the drop in rural male unemployment.(
433 per 1 ,000.
Women labour on a decline in urban areas, finds
• The labour force comprises all employed survey, Tina Edwin, ET.D, 1 8/1 2/2003,X33)
and those seeking employment while the
employed for m a subset referred to as
X40- Children
work-force. In other words the workforce is In an unprecedented legislation against
a large subset of the labour force. paedophilia and other child abuse, which
are believed to be scourging the tourist
• The d e c l i ne in workforce o f u rb a n
state, a clause in the Goa Children's Act,
women was sharper at 5 .2%. The number
brou g h t i n J uly t h i s y e a r, m a ke s i t
of urban women in the workforce reduced
I to 1 85 per 1 .000 from 1 95 per 1 .000. The mandatory for touris t s escorting a n
unrelated child to welfare department.
unemployment rate has increased to 4. 1 %
in the 5 7 th round from 3% reported in the The fine for not informing the director
56th round. within three months will be Rs 1 lakh and
simple imprisonment for one year.
• U ne m p loy m e n t r a t e a m o n g rural
women too rose, from 0 . 5% in 2 000-0 1 to Although the Act is still to be implemented,
1 .5% in 200 1 -02, but that's because the i t p ro m i s e s to revol u t i o n i z e t h e way
increase in number of workingwomen did authorities with the recent sharp spurt in
not keep pace at 6.9% with the increase in child trafficking in the tourist state several
labour force. l o c a l N G O s a nd i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c i a l
a g e n c i e s ha d c o m p l a i n e d a bout G o a
• Planning Commission adviser Pronab
becoming a paedophiles haven. H owever,
Sen reckons the decline in the number of
t h e re w o u l d b e prob l e m s i n t h e
women joining the labour force in urban
implementation o f the new Act, said child
areas could, to some extent, be attributed
rights expert and lawyers at a workshop on
to w o m e n s p e n d i n g m o re y e a r s o n
'Child Rights and the Law' organised by the
I ndia Centre for Human Rights and Law.
H owever, a disturbing factor that emerges For one, figuring out whether a child is
from the data is that the number of girls in related to the adult or not and awareness
the age group 5- 1 4 who work rather than among tourists about this rule would be
go to school has gone up. The number of difficult to achieve, they said. Also, a three­
girls under 1 4 years in the workforce has month period to report the case was too
increased from 2 1 per 1 , 000 persons in the long, as most tourists do not spend so much
56th round to 35 per 1 ,0000 in the 57th time there.
round in the urban areas, and from 39 to
But the move i s excepted to i ncrease
53 per 1 ,000 persons in rural areas.
vigilance in hotels and lodges. "No child
will be allowed to enter any room of any

hotel or establishment which provi des t h e i r w i d e s p re a d p reval e n c e arid
boarding or lodging, " I t states. Also, hotels acceptability in society."
will have to ensure that children are safe
Lawy er and gay rights a ctivi s t Adi tya
n o t o n l y o n i t s p re m i se s b u t a l s o i n
B a n dhopadhy ay s a i d the s e c t i o n was
adjoining beaches and parks.
repeatedly used to vi () late the constitutional
" I t was d i fficult to take action again s t ri ghts to equality (Article 1 4), freedom
paedophiles until now because the law had (Article 1 9) and personal liberty (Article 2 1 )
no teeth. Action could have been taken in of gay s , lesbians, bisexual s and hijras.
the five recent paedophilia cases if this law Police, the medical establishment and even
was in place," said Nishta Desai of the Child the family used it as a tool of abuse ranging
Welfare Committee, Goa. The Act also from sexual assault in police custody and
prohibits child prostitution and anybody extortion to electric shock treatment to
exploiting a child may be fined Rs l lakh "cure" homosexuality.
and given a year in jail .( Clea n-up act: Goa
The Government's claim that no rights
gives child sex the broom, TOi.M,22/09!03,X40) violations were involved was false as was its
Rights activists have called for the repeal c a l l i n g on " I nd i a n tra d i t i o n" for
of Section 377 of the I ndian Penal Code, justification. There was nothing "Indian"
which criminalizes consensual sex between about the law. It was a colonial law that even
same sex adults. They also called for a new H arish Salve, who had appeared for the
law to deal with child sexual abuse. state i n related m atters, had called a
"vestige and cobweb of colonialism that
At a press conference organised by "Voices
needs to be done away with."
Against Section 3 7 7" , representatives of gay
rights, women's groups, child rights, health Enakshi Ganguly Thukral of the �ational
and human rights organisations said the Campaign against Child Abuse said the
section criminalised homosexual sex while Government had justified the retention of
failing to protect children from abuse. Section 3 7 7 on the ground that it was
necessary to prosecute child abusers. This
The campaign was in re spo nse to the
w a s simply a means to pit chi ld rights
Government stand on a public interest
against gay rights and to suggest that all
litigation petition filed in the Delhi High
paedophiles were homosexual men. This
Court by the N az Foundation seeking the
reflected the state's lack of anv real concern
removal of adult, private , consen -sual I

for the chi ld ' s se arch for justice. The

homosexual sex from the ambit of Section
Government itself had acknowledged the
3 77 . The Govern-ment opposed the plea
need for a separate law to deal with child
saying that public opinion did not favour a
sexual abuse in its first periodic report to
change in the law.
the U . N . Committee on the Rights of the
Vij ay � agraj , D ire c t o r, A m n e s t y Child.
International India, said the Government's
response was a " del iberate and wi ll ful She said double standards exemplified the
state ' s de term i n e d c r i m i n a l i s ation of
violation" of international human rights
law. It was trying to "preserve a colonial law homosexual sex for "the prevalence of rape
through the creation of sociological and ofwomen by men, or of girl children by men
had not lead the s tate to question the
legal fiction." The law had to be based on
human rights principles a n d " cannot legality of heterosexuality. "
blindly follow public opinion". If this were The group felt there was a need not only to
to be the c as e , " the p r a c t i c e o f change the law but -also social attitudes. But
untouchability, child marriage, child labour the law is a marker in a democracy. "There
etc. woul d all have to be legalised given i s n o pl ace for a state to i n terfere in
consensual a dult sexual activi ty 1I1 a

democracy," Mr. Nagaraj said. (Activists for X 42 Child Labour
new law to deal with child abuse / TH. D, 20/
If you are one of those who employ a child
1 1/2003, X40)
as domestic help at home or at a restaurant,
In an attempt to highlight the serious issue you could be in trouble if you don't send
of c h i l d traffi c k i n g , several n o n­ them to school. That is, if the draft :Free
government organisations working for the and Compulsory Education for Chil-dren
rights of children. Shouting slogans to end Bill is passed in its present form. If passed
child labour, it was also an occasion for those employing children in a manner that
children to demand a right over their own p re - v e n t s them fro m atte n d i n g a n
life. approved formal or alternative school
Defining child trafficking as a movement would face a fine of Rs 500 and a further
of children from place to place through fine of Rs 5 0 for every day after being
force, coercion or deception into situations notified of their transgress.
of economic and sexual explo i ta tion, 'While child labour is illegal in the country,
activists demanded that the government the fact is children do take up employment
should take a firm stand on this issue. and are lost to the formal education system.
" Prostitution is the most recognized form Intere s t i n gly, the draft b i l l i s rather
of traflicking. Millions of children forced pragmatic. Instead of pretending that child
to beg, sell drugs, work as domestic servants labour doesn't happen or can be prevented
or sold into marriage are often left out of in a single stroke, it only states that nobody
the " s tandard d e fi n i t i o n " , ''''hile the can "employ or engage' a child in a manner
I n ternational Labour O rga n i s a ti o n w h i c h w o u l d p revent the c h i l d fro m
estimates that roughly 5 per cent of children attaining a n "approved" school. (Bill to make
in India form part of the total labour force, schooling mandatory for child employees on the
this is an area that is still being ignored," anvil, Urmi. A . Goswami, E1.'B, 3 1/1 0/03, X
stated Rishi Kant ofShakti Vahini.(Children
demand a right OlJer their lives / TH. D, 13-12-
2003 X 40)

Interview with Shantha Sinha

Shantha Sinha was awarded the 2003 Ramon Magsaysay award for Community Leadership,
for "guiding the people of Andhra Pradesh to end the scourge of child labour and send all
their children to school". Her organisation, Mamidipudi Venkata-rangaiya Foundation
(.\1VF), has helped over 2.4 1 lakh village children get regular education in Andhra Pradesh.
The MVF has introduced the unique concept of community teachers who double as child

labour activists, thus ensuring children's To find a solution, we have to turn the
attendance at school. She spoke to Sarika argument upside down. The tragedy lies in
Jain Antony: the assumption that child labour is an issue
Why is child labour so widespread in India ? Is of survival. r\ othing could be farther from
poverty responsible for this ? the truth. During our work in Andhra
Pradesh villages we found that rural schools
\Ve have a culture of child labour: \Ve think
were full of very poor children , while
it is perfectly normal for poor children to
children from relatively better off families
work. This acceptance of child labour is so
were working.
deeply enmeshed in society that it stifles
all original thought. It is not poverty but We asked ourselves how this was possible.
the poverty argument that is so debilitating. We realised there were non-economic

factors at play too. About 80 per cent of the c h ildren to schoo l . Peer pressure also
parents who sent their children to work helped.
didn't really need their wages. Work was
Today we work with village youth, gram
tradition-ally seen as a more natural activity
panchayats, school education committees,
than going to school.
women's groups, and young girls' groups ­
What was MVF's approach to child labour ? ­ a l l fed e r a t e d i n t o t h e C h il d R i gh t s
Pro t e c t i o n C om m i t tee ( C R P C ) . Th i s
T he v i l l ag e r s k n ew t h e d i ffere n ce
network works as a local counseling centre
educa-tion could make and wanted proper
in every MandaI or village. Sometimes, all
s c h oo ls . We h a d to c re a t e t h e r i g h t
that is required is taking care of logistics
environment, and give them moral support.
such as getting birth certificates, talking to
The value system had to be changed. We
teachers to secure admission into a school
believe that the surest way of eliminating
or hostel, and other paperwork.
child labour is by harnessing the parents'
desire to ensure a better future for their Does caste and gender discrimination play a role
children. Once children show progress in in perpetuating child labour?
school, parents are willing to make sacrifices
Girls are more vulnerable because our value
for them. Far from worrying about the lost
s y s t e m h as a g e n d e r b i a s . B u t o n c e
income, they end up spending more on
convinced, parents are a s willing t o invest
pampering the child.
in the education of their daughters as their
What challenges did you face when you began sons. We just have to break the pattern in
work in 1 991 ? t h e i r t h i n k i n g . C o n t i n u i ty i n b o y s '
educa t i o n i s e a s i e r a s t h ey h a v e l e s s
Initially, the organisation was small, and our
housework t o d o . We form schoolgirls '
credibility low. The villagers would tell us,
committees and explain to parents that
"You have a salary a n d we don' t " . We
d a u g h t e r s s h o u l d b e rel ie v e d fro m
encountered heavy resistance; they felt we
household duties, and given time for leisure
couldn't understand their problems. Child
and study, especially before examinations.
l a b o u r was s e e n as a ' p ri v a t e ' i ss u e .
We also intervene in cases of early marriage
Moreover, the existing school infrastructure
and try to convince both sides to allow girls
was weak, making i t d i fficul t for u s to
to complete their education. We did not
m oti vate p a re n t s . Th e re was l i t t l e
face resistance from any particular caste
appreciation for children's rights. The first
once we established the norm that every
positive response we got was from those
child must go to school. Of course, work
v illage youth who we nt to school and
with girl children continues to be more
became literate. Since they had siblings and
cousins who were child laborers, their
proximity to the issue was greater. They also So, what's lacking in the gov�rnment's approach
reali sed the value of e ducation. So we to child labour?
anchored our work on them. We mobilized
Policy makers think that child labour is 'a
youth groups, teachers and employers. The
harsh reality', that it is inevitable for poor
youth, often 1 00 strong, went from village
children to work. So they concentrate on
to village telling parents to send their
the more ' exploitative' aspects of child
children to SCh09', The fact that their own
labour - the employment of children i n
youth w;eJi'� . lril 'to
them made a
'hazardous' , industries like carpet weaving,
gre� , , ' )�" .<�IlJ�'S. We spoke to
glass and match factories, for instance. This
la '.i �'
rall i es . . . Once the
emphasis takes the attention away from all
Ie from o ther villages
other aspects, especially the large-scale use
g us for sending their
of child labour in agriculture. The paucity

of res o u rc e s i s a n o t h e r fac to r. A t 'mainst:rta� d'. Actually, aU children must
international conferences, policy makers go to schooK \Ve mush�t:i t;ll ake any
o ft e n argue t h a t t h ey have l i m i ted distinction between diffe�� � 5 of cbild
resources, so they focus o n the worst labour.
affected children. I n other words, it is we
(Child's Play, SarikaJain Antony, X42 /TO!. B
who decide which children should b e
28/8/03,X 42)

An nexu re 1

MINISTRY OF And whereas, the Hon'ble Supreme Court

ENVIRONMENT AND FORESTS in the Writ Petition (C) No. 725 of 1 994 with
NOTIFICATION I .A. No.20,2 1 , 1 207, 1 1 83, 1 2 1 6 and 1 25 1 in
Writ Petition No.4677 (C) of 1 985 in the
New Delhi, the 2 7th October, 2 003 matter of news item Hindustan Times titled
s.o. 1 2 3 6 (E)- Where a s , the Central "And Quiet Flows the Maily Yamuna" Vs.
Government recognising the need for Central Pollution Control B oard and
evolving procedures for the environmental others, observed on 4th December, 200 1, as
impact assessment of proposed new towns under:
as also laying down broad guidelines for "The learned Solicitor General submits that
such assessment, constituted an Expert in relation to town planning the provisions
Group which submitted its report during of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1 986
1 989. The Government is implementing would be applicable and whenever any
various measures for control of pollution d e c i s i o n is take n i n re gard to town
from various sources including industrial, planning, environment impact assessment
domestic, bio-medical wastes etc. Under the m u s t fir s t be u ndertake n , cle arance
National River Conservation Plan (NRCP), obtained and then the decision taken.
the pollution abatement works in 1 57 towns U n fo r t u nately, the Rule s under
along 3 1 rivers in 1 8 States have been Environment (Protection) Act as such do
undertaken in addition to Ganga Action not cover town planning. In regard to this
Plan Phase-I. Despite these efforts, the aspect, the learned Solicitor General wants
sewerage system and sewage treatment to address arguments and give suggestions
capacity already provided under N RCP to the Court as to what effective orders can
including the Ganga Action Plan are not be passed with a view to prevent the river
adequately maintained by the respective Yamuna fro m becoming his tory. The
local b o d i e s , re s u l t i n g i n pa rt ia l Central Government should also consider
achievement of the objectives of NRCP; and inform the Court on the next date of
And whereas, such projects have adverse hearing whether it should not amend the
impact on environment including wetlands, Rules under the Environment (Protection)
lakes, rivers and coastal waters posing Act so as to require the environment impact
serious health hazard s to the l o c a l assessment for the purposes of the town
population including children. Even for planning Acts."
construction of a house in a Panchayat area, And whereas, the Central Government took
plans are approved only after the provision a serious view of continuing pollution of
of a septic tank. For an industrial project, rivers and other water bodies and in order
an effiuent treatment plant is necessary and to control further deterioration of water
for an industrial estate a common effiuent quality in these water bodies , it is felt
treatment plant is necessary. On the other necessary that new projects relating to
hand, local bodies/development authorities construction of new townships, industrial
i n town s have b e e n a p p rovi n g new townships, settlement colonies, commercial
construction projects of various categories complexes , hotel complexes, hospitals,
and sizes without any concern for the office complexes for 1 ,000 persons and
environment; above or discharging sewage of 50,000

litres/day and above or with an investment environmental clearance within 30 days ' of
of R s . 5 0 c rores a n d above and n ew finalization of this draft Notification.
industrial estates having an area of 5 0 A n d where a s , by N o ti fic a t io n o f t h e
hectares a n d above and the industrial Government of India i n the Ministry of
estates irrespective of area iftheir pollution Environment and Forests No. S.O.60(E),
potential is high, are proposed to be dated the 27th January, 1 994 the Central
brought under the purview of Environment Government imposed certain restrictions
Impact Assessment Notification; and prohibitions on the expansion and
And whereas, the proposal shall be subj ect modernisation of any activity or the
to the following conditions, namely: u nd ertakin g o f any p roj ec t u n l e s s
( 1 ) Proj ec t p ro p o n e n t i n t e n d i n g to environmental clearance has been accorded
implement the p roposed p roject in a by the Central Government or the State
phased manner or in modules, shall be Gover n m e n t in acc ordan c e w i t h t h e
required to submit the detailed project procedure specified therein;
report of the entire proj ect covering all N ow, t herefore, t h e fol low i n g d raft
phases or modules for appraisal under amendments to the said Notification, which
Environment I mpact Assessment. the Central Government proposes to make
(2) Proj ect proponent intending to take up in exercise of the powers conferred by sub­
proj ects of very urgent nature during the section ( 1 ) read with clause (v) of sub-section
pendency of the draft Notification shall be ( 2 ) o f s e c t i o n 3 o f t h e E n v i ro n me n t
required to submit a certificate from the (Protection) Act, 1 986 (29 o f 1 986) read
concerned local bodies/authorities with with clause (d) of sub-rule (3) of rule 5 of
regard to t h e avai l a b i li ty o f sewage the Environment (Protection) Rules, 1 986,
treatment capacity in their existing sewage for the information of all persons likely to
treatment plant for incremental quantity to be affected thereby; and notice is hereby
be generated by the proj ect. Such projects given that the said draft amendments shall
can be considered by the Government for be taken into consideration after the expiry
environmental clearance on a priority basis of a period of sixty days from the date on
on the receipt of the complete proposal with which copies of the Gazette containing the
a l l relevant d o c u m e n t s subj ect to said draft amendments are made available
verification of such documents. to the public;

( 3 ) N ew c o n s truct i o n p roj e c ts where Any p e r s o n d e s irou s o f maki n g any

construction work has not come up to the obj ection or suggestion in respect of the
plinth level on the date of issue of this draft said draft amendments may forward the
Notification shall require clearance under same in writing for consideration of the
t h e Enviro n m e n t I m p act Ass e s sm e n t Central Government within the period so
Notification. specified to the Secretary, Ministry of
E nvironment and Forests, Paryavaran
(4) In the case of new Industrial Estates, Bhawan, eGO Complex, Lodhi RO'ad, New
where the construction work has not Delhi- l l 0 003 .
commenced or the expenditure does not
exceed 25% of the total sanctioned cost on DRAFT AMENDMENTS
the date of issue of this draft Notification In the said N otification , -
shall require clearance under Environment (i) in para 3, after sub-para (f), the following
Impact Assessment Notification. sub-paras shall be inserted, namely :-
(5)In respect of projects covered under
" (g) any construction project falling under
Clauses 3 and 4 above, t h e p roj ect
e ntry 3 1 of Schedule-I including new
proponent shall submit application for
townships, industrial townships, settlement

colonies, commerc ial complexes, hotel ( ii) The quantum and quality of water in
complexes, hospitals, office complexes for the receiving body before and alter disposal
1 ,000 (one thousand) persons or below or of solid wastes including mWlkipal solid
d i schargin g s ew a ge of 5 0 , 00 0 ( fifty wastes , b i omed ical wastes, hazardous
thousand) litres per day or below or with wastes, industrial effiuents and domestic
an investment of Rs.50,00,00,000 ( Rupees sewage;
fifty crores) or below; (iii) The quantum of industrial effiuents and
(h) any industrial estate falling under entry domestic sewage to be released on land and
32 of Schedule-I including industrial estates type of land";
accommodating industrial units in an area (iv) In para 6, for sub-para (a), the following
of fifty hectares or below but excluding the sub-para shall be substituted, namely:-
industrial estates irrespective of area if their
pollution p otential is high; " (a) Nature and quantity of solid wastes
generated including municipal solid wastes,
Explanation. Any project proponent biomedical wastes, hazardous wastes and
intending to implement the proposed industrial wastes."
project under sub-paras (g) and (h) in a
phased manner or in modules, shall be [No. Z- 1 1 0 1 1/ l/2002-IA-I]
required to submit the detailed project R. Chandra Mohan, J t. Secy.
report of the entire proj ect covering all
Note : The principal Notification was
phases or modules for appraisal under
published in the Gazette of I ndia v ide
E nv i ro n m e n t I mp a c t Ass e s s m e n t
number S .0.60 (E) dated 27- 1 - 1 994 and
N otification" ;
subsequently amended vide S.O. 356(E)
( i i ) i n Schedul e - I , after i t e m 3 0 , the dated 4th May, 1 994, S.O 3 1 8 (E), dated 1 0th
following items shall be added namely:- April, 1 997, S.O. 73(E) dated 27th January,
" 3 1 . new construction projects 2 0 0 0 , S . O . 1 1 1 9 ( E ) d a t e d t h e 1 3 th
December, 2000, S.O., 737(E) dated 1 st
32. new industrial estates"; August, 200 1 , SO.0 1 1 48 (E) dated 2 pt
(iii) in Schedule-II, in para 5, for sub-para November, 200 1 , S.O. 632 (E) dated the 1 3th
( f) , t h e fol l ow i n g sub - p ara s h a l l b e June, 2002, S . O. 248 ( E) dated the 28th
substituted, namely: - February, 2003, S.O. 506(E) dated the 7th
" (f) ( i ) The quantum o f existing industrial
May, 2003, S.O. 89 1 (E) dated the 4th August,
e ffluents a n d d o m e s t i c sewage w i th 2003 and S . O. 1 08 7( E ) dated the 22nd
incremental load to be released in the September, 2003.
receiving water body due to the proposed (Source:!eia/so1236 (e).
activities along with treatment details ; Doc)

An nexu re 2
MESSAGE OF JOHN PAUL II FOR everyone" (Messagefor Lent 2003, n. 2; ORE,
THE 24th WORLD DAY OF TOURISM 1 2 February 2003, p . 6).
(2 7 September 2003) 2. It is impossible to remain indifferent and
i n ert i n t h e face of pov erty a n d
1 . 27 September we observes the World Day
underdevelopment. We cannot withdraw
of Tourism, whose theme will be: "Tourism:
into our own selfish interests, abandoning
an impetus in the fight against poverty, the
countless brothers and sisters to a wretched
creation ofjobs and social harmony". With a
plight, and even worse, leaving many of
view to this important celebration, I would
like to propose to everyone, especially the them to meet with a relentless death.
Catholic faithful, some reflections on this It is vital to find satisfactory economic,
topic in the light of the Church's social financial, technical and political solutions,
teaching and the changes occurring on our making use of the creative capacity and
Planet, which also affect the tourism sector. generosity that humanity has at its disposal,
Tourism, in fact, should be considered as a to put an end to this social and moral
special expres s i o n of social life with scourge . H owever, as I h ave had the
e c o n o m I C , fi n a n c i a l a n d cultural opportunity to recall on another occasion,
implications, as well as consequences that "it should not be forgotten that all these
are crucial to individuals and peoples. Its measures would be insufficient if they were
d ire ct re l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the i n tegral not inspired by authentic ethical and
development of the person must orient its s p iritual valu e s " (Addres s to t h e
service, as with other human activities, to Ambassador o f Bolivia, n. 3 ; ORE, 28 June
building civilization in the most authentic 2000, p. 4).
and complete sense, that is, the civilization Tourist activity can play an important role
of love (cf. Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, n. 33). i n the fight against poverty, from the
The next World Day will focus attention on financial as well as the social and cultural
tourism in relation to those pockets of viewp o i n t s . Trav e l l i n g p rov i d es an
poverty that exist on every continent. The opportunity to become acquainted with
drama of poverty is one of the greatest different places and situations and to realize
challenges today, when the rift between the what a great gap exists between the rich and
different areas of the world is growing poor Countries. It is also possible to make
deeper despite the availability of the a better use oflocal resources and activities,
necessary means to remedy it, for humanity fostering the involvement of the poorer
has ac h i ev e d an extraord i n ary classes of the population.
development in science and technology. It The tourist journey or stay is always an
is therefore particularly timely "to reaffirm encounter with different p ersons and
a principle which is self-evident yet often cultures. Everywhere, but especially in
ignored: our go a l should not be the developing Countries, the visitor and the
benefit of a privileged few, but rather the tourist can hardly avoid coming into contact
improvement of the living conditions of all. with the painful reality of poverty and
Only on this foundati on can we build that hunger. In this case, people must not only
international order truly marked by justice resist the temptation to retreat into a sort
a n d s o lidar i ty w h i c h is the hope of of "happy cocoon", distancing themselves

from the social context; rather, they should of that "new " creativity' in charity" which
refrain from p rofiting from their own makes us close""to those who suffer, so that
privileged position to exploit the "needs" the hand that h e l p s is seeR uot as a
of the locals. May their visit, therefore, be humiliating handout but as a sharing
an opportunity for dialogue among persons b e tween b ro then and s i s ters" ( N ov o
of equal dignity; may it generate a greater Millennio Ineunte, n. 50).
knowledge of the local inhabitants, their This solidarity is expressed above all in
history and their culture; and may it prompt respect for the personal dignity of the local
sincere openness to an understanding of people, their culture and their customs, in
others that is expressed in concrete gestures a willingness to get to know them through
of solidarity. dialogue, aimed at promoting the integral
We m u s t work to e n s ure t h a t the development of each one. On a tourist trip,
a c h i ev e m e n t of wel l -b e i n g for a few this attitude becomes yet more demanding
privi leged i n d ividuals i s never to the the more tangible the d i fferences i n
detriment of the quality of life of the many civilization, culture, social conditions and
others. Here can be applied what I wrote religion become.
in a more general sense in my Encyclical I warmly hope that tourist activity will
S o l l i c i tudo Rei Sociali s on economic always be an effective means of alleviating
relat i on s : "One m u s t d e n ounce the poverty, of fostering the personal and social
existence of economic, financial and social growth of individuals and peoples, and of
mechanisms which, although they are the consolidation of participation and
manipulate d by people, often function cooperation among nations, cultures and
almost automatically, thus accentuating the religions.
situation of wealth for some and poverty
for the rest.. .. Later on these mechanisms May the Blessed Virgin Mary protect all
will have to be subjected to a careful analysis those who in their various capacities are
under the ethical-moral aspect" (n. 1 6). involved in the vast sector of tourism and
keep them ever sensitive to those who suffer
3 . The theme of the next World Day of because of poverty, inj ustice, war and
Tourism reminds us ofJesus' words: "Blessed discrimination. U pon each one I invoke an
are the poor in spirit. . . " (Mt 5 : 3), an ever abundance of divine gifts, as I cordially bless
timely invitation to show solidarity to the you all.
poor, the hungry and the needy, which
challenges believers. J OHN PAU L II
As the Catechism of the Catholic Church ( h t tp ://w w w. v a t i ca n . v a /h o ly Ja t h e r/
rec a l l s , " Th e B e a t i t u d e s d e p i ct the john-Paulji/messages/tourism/documents/hjjp­
countenance ofJesus Christ . . . they express ii_mes _20030626_xxiv-giornata-mondiale­
the vocation of the faithful. . . they shed light turismo_en.html)
on the actions and attitudes characteristic
of the Christian life" (n. 1 7 1 7). It would be
serious if the disciple of Christ were to
forget this precisely in his leisure time or
during a tourist trip, that is, when he could
be d e d i c a t i n g h i m s e l f to a broader
contemplation of the "face of Christ" in the
n e ighbour with whom h e comes i nto
contact. When it is the Lord's teaching that
sheds light on life, let us feel bound to
ensure that all our activities, including
tourist activities, should be an expression

An n exu re 3
Message From The WTO Secretary­ (WSSD), held last year in Johannesburg,
General For World Tourism Day 2003 South Africa, to play an increasingly active
Tourism: A Driving Force
role in "promoting sustainable tourism
For Poverty Alleviation,job Creation
development. . . . . in order to increase the
And Social Harmony
benefits from tourism resources for the
population in host communities " . Thi s
In our apparently wealthy world, poverty c e ntral rol e o f ''''TO w i l l s o o n b e
still affects four billion people throughout strengthened, as t h e Organization will
the world, of which two billion are l iving become a fullfledged agency of the United
with less than one dollar a day. I t is with Nations.
this dramatic fi gure in m i n d that the
M i llennium Declaration of the U nited Thus, ,,\lTO has j oined forces with the
Nations identifies Poverty Alleviation as one United Nations Conference on Trade and
of the most crucial challenges that the Development (UNCTAD), and with other
international community is facing in the multilateral and bilateral donor agencies
twenty-first century. to implement tourism policies and projects
that can assist developing countries, and
By selecting "Poverty A lleviatio n ", 'Job particularly least d eveloped countries
Creation" and "Social Harmony" as the ''''orld (LDCs) in reducing poverty levels through
Tourism Day t heme for 2003, our 1 4th sustainable tourism. I n a year shaken by
General Assembly firmly expressed its will p o l i t ical turmo i l , e nv iron me ntal a n d
to fully support one of the key issues stated natural disasters, international conflicts and
in the U N Millennium Development Goals new d iseases that h ave affected tourist
a n d , a t t h e same t i m e , reca l l e d t h e movements, we are more confident than
fundamental role o f tourism as a positive ever that tourism h a s the capacity to
i n s trume n t towards t h e reduc tion of contribute to the alleviation of some of the
poverty, the creation of job opportunities main factors which are at the root of such
as well as contributing to social harmony. problems, especially extreme poverty and
There is an evident ethical need for tourism social harmony. We invite all t ourism
to support such goals. stakeholders, particularly national tourism
A maj or sector of the services economy, administrations and the private tourism
tourism i s i nc reasingly recognize d as sector, to strengthen their activities with this
c o n tribut i n g t o social and e c o n o m ic new, p overty-reduction focus. We are
development as well as a beneficial activity convinced that they will find numerous ways
for host countries and local communities to combine solidarity with profitability,
to combat unemployment by creating direct national tourism growth with employment
and indirect jobs. opportunities for the poor, and long-term
b u s i n e s s s u cc e s s w it h s oc i oecon o m ic
Tourism can also contribute significantly to
su s t a i n ab i l i ty. The \Vorld Tou r i s m
rural development, especially in depressed
Organization i s available t o help them in
rural areas threatened by the decline of
their efforts.
traditional agricultural activities. And it is
p recisely in rural areas of developing Madrid, June 2003
countries where most poor people live. It Francesco Frangialli
is in this framework that the World Tourism
Organization has been called by the World (http://www.alternativegreece.grlWebForms/
Summit on Sustainable Development CategoryDisplay.aspx?ID =48)

Annexu re 4
Foreign Tourist Arrivals
Foreign tourist arrivals went up by 22.5% During July 2003 and by '1 3 . 1 % during January
- July 2003. Foreign exchange earnings during the first seven months of 2003 amounted to
USS 1 ,9 1 0 .47 million, a 1 7.6% increase over J anuary-July 2002 earning of US$ 1 ,624.06
200 1 2002 2003 Domestic Tourist Arrivals
J anuary 2 83750 2 28 1 50 278298 Month Tourist arrivals % chg
February 2 62306 24 11 33 272688 in 2003 over 2002
March 248965 2 1 6839 220308 June 1 ,7 1 ,57 1 27.5
April 1 85338 1 85338 1 67778 July 2, 1 8,333 22.5
May 1 5 1 098 1 5 1 098 1 44860 August 2,00,803 23.5
June 1 767 1 6 1 767 1 6 1 7 1 5 7 1 September 1 ,89,999 1 6.5
July 224432 224432 2 1 8333 October 2,46, 1 1 0 1 5.4
Jan-July 1 532605 1 532 605 1 473836
Source: Department ofTournm, Govt. ofIndia

I Tourism sector back with a bang in 2003

I Foreign Tourist Arrivals Percentage Change
• Month 2001 2002 2003 2002/0 1 2003/02
January 2,83,750 2,28, 1 50 2 ,78,298 - 1 9.6 22.0
February 2,62,306 2 ,4 1 , 1 33 2 ,72,688 -8. 1 13.1
March 2,48,965 2 , 1 6,839 2 ,20,308 - 12.9 1 .6
April 1 , 85,338 1 ,59,789 1 ,67,778 - 1 3.8 5.0
May 1 , 5 1 ,098 1 ,44,57 1 1 ,44,860 -4.3 0.2
June 1 , 76,7 1 6 1 ,34,566 1 ,7 1 ,5 7 1 -23.9 27.5
July 2 ,25,432 1 ,78,23 1 2 , 1 8,333 -20.6 22.5
August 1 ,96,5 1 7 1 ,62,594 2,00,803 - 1 7.3 23.5
September 1 ,62,326 1 ,63,089 1 ,89,999 0.5 1 6.5
October 1 ,8 1 ,605 2, 1 3,267 2,46, 1 1 0 1 7.4 1 5.4
November 2,09,685 2 ,45,66 1 2,8 1 ,527 1 7. 2 14.6
December 2,54,544 2,96,474 3,58,0 15 1 6.5 20.8
Total 25,37,282 23,84,364 27,50,290 -6.0 1 5.3

After suffering a major setback in 2002, the Tourism experts are hopeful that the trend
fortunes of the tourism sector shone in 2003 is going to continue in 2004 as well and the
with foreign exchange earnings increas9ng flow of tourists is going to be on the rise.
by a whopping Rs. 2,855 crares (23.3 per In 2002, foreign tourist arrivals had decline
cent) to Rs. 1 7,050 crare compared to Rs. by 6 percent to 23.8 lakh against a total of
1 4, 1 95 crore earned in the previous year. 2 5 . 3 7 lakh foreign tourists visiting the
Foreign tourist arrivals increased by 1 5.3 country in 200 I . ( Tourism Sector Back with
per cent to 2 7 . 5 lakh during the year. Bang in 2003, FE.B, 7/1/04, C 24)

An nexu re 5

NATIONAL TOURISM POLICY community, particularly in the interior and

1 . The Preamble
remote areas and to strive towards balanced
and sustainable development and preserve,
Tourism emerged as the largest global enrich and p romote I nd i a ' s cultural
industry of the 20th century and is projected heritage. One of the major objectives is the
to grow even faster in the 2 1 st century. India preservation and protection of natural
has immense possibilities of growth in the resources and environment to achieve
tourism sector with vast cultural and sustainable development.
reli giou s h eritage, varied natural
attractions, but a comparatively small role Given the low cost of employment creation
in the world tourism scene. A New Tourism in the tourism sector and the low level of
Policy, which builds on the strength of the exploitation of India's tourism potential,
national Tourism Policy of 1 982, but which the new tourism policy seeks to expand
envisages new initiatives towards making foreign tourist arrivals and faci l i tate
tour i s m the cataly s t i n e m p loy m e n t domestic tourism i n a manner that is
generation, environmental re-generation, sustainable by ensurin g that possible
dev e l o p m e n t of remote areas and adverse effects such as cultural pollution
d ev e l o p m e n t of w o m e n and other and d egrad ation of environment are
disadvantaged groups i n the country, minimised.
besides promoting social integration is, The N ew Tourism Policy also aims at
therefore, vital to our economy. It would lead making the stay of foreign tourists in India,
to larger foreign exchange earnings and create a memorable and pleasant one with reliable
conditions for more Foreign Direct Investment. services at predictable costs, so that they are
2. The Mission encouraged to undertake repeated visits to
India, as friends. This would be in tune with
Our mission is to promote sustainable India's traditional philosophy of giving the
tourism as a means of economic growth and highest honour to a guest (Atithi debo
social integration and to promote the image bhava).
of India abroad as a country with a glorious
past, a vibrant present and a bright future. 4. Tourism A Multi-Dimensional Activity
Policies to achieve this will be evolved (a) The Government will aim to achieve
around six broad areas such as Welcome necessary linkages and synergies in the
( swagat)..... I nformation ( s u c h an a ) , policies and programmes of all concerned
Facilitation (suvidha), Safety (suraksha), Dep artments/agencies by establishing
Cooperation (Sahyog) and Infrastructure effective co-ordination mechanisms at
Development (Samrachana). Conservation Central, State and District levels.The focus
of heritage, natural environments, etc., and of national policy, therefore, will also be to
development and promotion of tourist products develop tourism as a common endeavour
would also be given importance. of all the agencies vitally concerned with it
3. Objectives at the Central and State levels, public sector
undertakings and the private sector.
The objectives oftourism development are
to foster understand in g between people, to (b) It will be the policy of government to
create employment opportunities and encourage peoples participation in tourism
bring about socio-economic benefits to the development including Panchayati Raj
institutions, local bodies, Co-operatives,

n on- governm e n ta l organisations and • Introdueeregulatory measures to ensure
enterprising local youth to create public s o c i a l , cul tural a n d uviranm e n t.d
awareness and to achieve a wider spread of sustainabilb�y as well as saf�� s�ty
tou r i s t fac i li t i e s . H owever, foc u s sed of tourists.
attention will be given for the integrated
• Ensure that the type and scale of tourism
development of identified centres with well develo p m e n t i s c o m p a ti b l e w i t h t h e
directed public participation. environment and socio-cultural milieu of
(c) Public and Private S e c to r the area.
Partnership: • Ensure that the local community is fully

A constructive and mutual ly beneficial involved and the benefits of tourism accrue
partnership between the public and the to them.
private sectors through all feasible means • Fac i l i ta te availab i l i ty o f t ra i n e d
is an absolute necessity for the sustained manpower particularly from amongst the
growth of tourism. It is, therefore, the policy local population jointly with the industry.
o f t h e Gove r n m e n t to e ncourage
emergence of such a partnership. This will • Undertake research, prepare master
be a c hieved by c re a t i ng a Tou r i s m p l a n s , and fac i l i ta te for m u l a t i o n o f
Development Authority consisting of senior marketing strategies.
officials of the Government and tourism • O rgani s e overseas p ro m o t i o n a n d
experts and professionals from the private marketing jointly with the industry.
• Initiate specific measures to ensure safety
(d) Role of the Government : and security of touri s t s and effi c i e n t
Tourism is a multi-sectoral activity and the facilitation services.
industry is affected by many other sectors • Faci li tate the growth of a dynamic
of the national economy. The State has to, tourism sector.
t he refo re , e n su re i n t e rgov e r n m e n t a l
(e) Role of Private Sector :
linkages and co-ordination. It also has to
play a pivotal role in tourism management Tourism has emerged as the largest export
and promotion. The specific role of the industry globally and all over the globe
Government will be to:- private sector has played the lead role in
this growth. The private sector has to
• Provide basic infrastructural facilities
consider investment in tourism from a long
includi n g l ocal p l a n n i n g and zoning
term perspective and create the required
facilities including accommodation, time
• Plan tourism development as a part of share, restaurants, entertainment facilities,
the over all area development strategy. shopping complexes, etc. in areas identified
• Create nucleus infrastructure in the for touri s m devel o p m e n t . N o n-core
i n i t ial stages of dev e l o p m e n t to activities in all airports, major stations and
demonstrate the potential of the area. interstate bus terminus such as cleanliness
and maintenance, luggage transportation,
• Provide the required support facilities
vehicles parking facilities, etc. should be
and incentives to both domestic and foreign opened up to private operators to increase
investors to encourage private investment efficiency and profitability. The specific role
in the tourism sector. of the Private Sector will be to:-
• Rationalise taxation and land policies in • Build and manage the required tourist
the tourism sector in all the States and facilities in all places of tourist interest.
Union Territories and in respect of land
owned by Gov e r n m e n t agenc i e s l i ke

• Assume collective responsibility for 6. Foreign Investments and Incentives
laying down industry standards, ethics and and Rationalization of Taxes
fair practices. (a) In view oflarge investment requirements
• Ensure preservation and protection of in the tourism sector and the need for
tourist attractions and give lead in green maintaining high quality s tandards in
practices. serv i c e s , h o t e l s a n d tour i s m related
industries will continue to be in the priority
• Sponsor maintenance of monuments,
list of industries for foreign investment.
museums and parks and provision of public
conveniences and facilities. Export-house status has been accorded to
Hotels, Travel Agents, Tour Operators and
• I nvolve the local community in tourism Tour i s t Tra n s p ort O perators v i d e
proj ects and ensure that the benefits of N o ti fi cation N 0. 3 3 ( R E - 9 8 ) 1 9 9 7 - 2 0 0 2
tourism accrue to them in right measure. d a t e d 2 6 . 1 1 . 9 8 o f the M i n is try o f
• Undertake industry training and man­ C o mm e rc e . The s t a tu s n e e d s to b e
power development to achieve excellence extended to all tourism units irrespective
in quality of services. of the annual turnover.
• Part i c i p a te in the p re paratio n o f (b) In order to off-set the specific constraints
investment guidelines and marketing of tourism industry and to put in place the
strategies and assist in database creation requ i red i n fr a s tructu re a s quickly as
and research. possible, particularly in less developed
areas, appropriate incentive schemes would
• Facilitate safety and security of tourists
b e c o n s i dere d . I t w o u l d a l s o b e the
• Endeavour to promote tourism on a endeavour of the Government to persuade
sustained and long term perspective. the State/UT Governments to rationalise
• Collaborate with Govt. in the promotion taxes, to put a cap of 20% on all taxes taken
and marketing of destinations. together on the accommodation and
hospitality units, to allocate suitable land
(f) Role of voluntary efforts : for tourism purposes at reasonable prices,
Voluntary agencies and volunteers have to harmonize movement of tourist transport
c o n tribute the i r expertise and across State borders, etc.
understanding oflocal ethos to supplement 7. Adoption of New Technologies
the efforts of other sectors to provide the
human touch to tourism and foster local • Efforts w i ll b e made to adopt t h e
i n i ti a t i v e s . All s u c h e fforts s h a l l be technological advances in the tourism
encouraged. sector to provide better facilities to tourists
and to market the tourism product, to the
5 . Tourism Development Fund and benefit of all concerned.
Resources for Development
• Information technology shall be given
It would be the polic!, of the Government the pride of place in the efforts to promote
to facilitate larger flow of funds to tourism Indian tourism. Evey endeavour in this
infrastructure and to create a Tourism regard would i ncre a s i n gly rely o n
Development Fun d to bridge critical optimising t h e u s e of e-commerce/m­
infrastructural gaps. Priority would be given commerce, use of internet for disemination
for development of tourist infrastructure in of tourism related information, increasing
selected areas of tourist importance and for use of portals as gateway to accessibility to
those products which are considered to be
tourism i nformati o n , development o f
in demand in the existin g and future
Handy Audio Reach Kit ( HARK) Tourist
markets so that limited resources are put
Guidance System at important monuments
to the best use.
and heritage sites, networking of States,

setting of tourist information Kiosks , 9. Facildation Services
encouorage m e n t to i n formation
Tourists have to pass through several
technology and eco-friendly practices by
Government agencies so as to meet the
the private industries and above all keeping
requirements under various laws. These
abreast with the global technologies for include obtai n i n g visas, undergo i n g
promoting and facilitating tourism. It shall immigration checks, obtaining permits to
be e nsure d that I n form a t i o n visit certain areas, payment of fees for
Technology(IT) and Indian Tourism(IT) certain facilities, etc. The endeavour of the
become synonymous. Government would be to improve efficiency
• The Central Government will set up a in providing such facilitation services and
Paryatan Bhawan in New Delhi as a modern make travel to and within India a pleasant
Tourist Interpretation Centre to cater to experience. Introduction of issue of Visa on
various needs of travelers, foreign as well arrival at least for 1 5 days at all the airports,
as domestic and to offer facilities for air and computerisation of the system of issue of
train reservation, money changing counters Visa, streamlining of luggage handling
and information about all tourist centres system at airp orts i m p roving tourist
in the country. The Centre will be equipped facilitation servi ces at the airp orts by
with e-connectivity and networking facility adopting technological solutions are some
to all state tourist offices. Efforts will be of the important facilitation serVIces
made to have similar state level Paryatan proposed in this regard.
Bhawans in state Capitals. 1 0. Tourism Economic Zone, Tourist
The economic and social benefits of tourism Circuits, Special Tourism Area and Areas
and its importance as an instrument of of Special Interests
economic growth have to be fu lly (a) Tourism Economic Zones will be created
recognised by all sections of the society. It with private participation based on the
would, therefore, be the endeavour of the i n tr i n s i c attra c t i o n s , p o te n t i a l for
Government to bridge the information gap development and availability of resources
through proper statistical documentation i n t h e s e z o n e s . Air, ro ad a n d rail
of the impact of tourism and its wide c o n n e c t i v i ty to these areas will be
publicity to create awareness so that the established to facilitate direct and easy
economic and social significance of tourism access to these zones from international and
is well recognised and tourism is given due domestic destinations. Adequate backward
attention and national priority. and forward linkages will also be established
8. Safety and Security to ensure flow of benefits to the local
The safety and security of tourists are of community. The development of such zones
primary importance both from the point will be guided by well conceived Master
of view of tourism development and the Plans and executed by specific Tourism
national pride. It will be, therefore, given Development Authorities which will be
high priority in the national strategy for created by the Government involving
tourism development. Central Government senior officers from the Department of
will take up with the State Government to Tourism, and other relevant Ministries/
enact suitable legislation on travel trade/ Departments of the Gov t . of I n dia,
tourist police for protection and security of professionals from tourism industry and
tourists and for providing institutional re p re se n tatives of I n dus try & Trade
mecha n i s m to deal w i t h c o m p l a i n ts Associations
received from tourists and the industry so (b) India with vast cultural and religious
as to create a better security perception heritage and varied natural attractions has
amongst actual and potential visitors. immensed p otential of growth in the

tourism sector. 2 5 travel c ircuits and 1 2 . Conservation and Development
destinations have already been identified Tourism development needs to be properly
for development throughjoint efforts of the guided and regulated to avoid adverse
Central Govt., the State Governments and impact on the natural environment and
the private sector. State Governments of cultural heritage, which constitute the
Kerala , Tam i l N adu , Orissa a n d tourist attraction. Ajudicious balance needs
M aharashtra and U n i o n Territory to be maintained between conservation and
Administration of Daman & Diu have also development. Government will continue its
d e c lare d B e k a l B e a c h , Puri - Ko n ar k , policy of trying to maintain balance through
Sindhudurg, Muttakadu-Mamallapuram planning restrictions and by educating the people
and D i u as S p e c i al Tourism Area for in appreciating their rich heritage and by eliciting
integrated development. Steps will be taken their co-operation in preserving and protecting
to work t owards t h e i n tegrated it.
development of all the tourist circuits of the
country with the involvement of all the 1 3 . Promotions and Marketing
i nfrastructural departments, S ta te Promotion and marketing is an important
Governments and the private sector. component of tourism development and
(c) Areas of Special Interest : needs to be undertaken along with product
development in conformity with consumer
Government would initiate and support special profiles and product characteristics. The
programmes and schemes for the development of policy of the Government therefore will be to
tourism in North Eastern States, Himalayan develop and implement cost effective marketing
region and island States/v. Ts with a view to strategies based on market research and
achieve overall economic development of the segmentation analysis in each of the tourist
regions, and as part ofthe strategy for removing generating countries.
regional imbalances.
14. International Co-operation
1 1 . S u stainable Deve l o pment and
' Tourism is a global industry requiring
Perspective Plans
inputs from various international agencies
"rhe principle of sustainable development and collaborations with other countries.
stipulates that the level of development The policy of the Government therefore will
does not exceed the carrying capacity of the be to foster positive win win partnership
area. It will be governments' policy to ensure with all the international agencies and
adherence to such limits through appropriate other countries.
planning instruments, guidelines and enabling
regu.lations and their enforcement. E.1forts will 15. Professional Excellence
be made to diversify the tourism products in such Tourism being a service i ndustry i t is
a way that it supplements the main stream of necessary to enhance its service efficiency.
cultural tourism. Comprehensive perspective The new policy will strive towards excellence by
plans for developing sustainable tourism by introducing professionalism through training and
assessing the existing tourism scenario in re-training of human resources and providing
each State!U nion Territory with respect to memorable visitor experience to both domestic and
availability of natural resources, heritage international tourists.
and other socio-cultural assets, quantitative!
1 6. Placing Tourism in the Concurrent
demographic factors like p opulati o n ,
List of the Constitution of India
employment, occupation, income levels etc,
services and i n frastructure w i l l b e Tourism as a separate subject does not find
developed by initiating immediate action a place in the Seventh Schedule of the
in this direction. Consti tu t i o n of I n d i a even though a
number of its components are either in the
Union List or in the State List or in the

Concurrent List. Under the new Pol icy,
Tourism will be placed in the Concurrent
L i s t a s such a s t e p w i l l p rov id e a
Constitutional recognition to the tourism
s ector a n d h e l p i n c h an n e l i s ing
development of tourism in a systematic
m a n n e r by enabl i n g t h e C e ntral
Gov e r n m e n t to b r i n g i n l e g i s l at i o n
governing the activities o f various service
providers in the tourism sector 1 1 . It has
emerged that the domestic drugs and
p harmaceuticals i n du s t ry needs
reor i e n t a t i o n i n o rd e r to m e e t t h e
challenges a n d harnes s opportunities
arising out of the l iberalisation of the
economy and the impending advent of the
product patent regime. It has been decided
that the span of price control over drugs
and pharmaceuticals would be reduced
substantially. However, keeping in view the
interest of the weaker sections of the society,
it is proposed that the Government will
retai n t h e p ower to i n terven e
comprehensively in cases w here prices
behave abnormally.

An n exu re 6

CANCUN CONCLAVE: A new sunrise for called the Doha Development Agenda.
developing countries Though d ev e l o p i n g countries w ere
By Benny Kuruvilla reluctant to launch a new round of complex
negotiations, Robert Zoellick, the United
Peoples Reporter Vol " 6, No: 1 8, Mumbai S tates Trade Rep re s entative and the
(September 25-0ctoberl O 2003) European Trade C ommissioner Pascal
As tired trade del egates and j ubilant Lamy successfully used the sympathy wave
protestors left the Mexican resort ofCancun post the September 200 I terrorist attacks
after the collapse of the \Vorld Trade to successfully argue that the failure to
Organisations 5th ministerial conference advance trade negotiations in Doha would
(September 1 0- 1 4, 2003) it s ignaled an be a boost to terrorism. Doha mandated key
important shift in power equations in the negotiations on Agriculture, Services and
1 48 member organisation. \Vhen a massive T RI PS (Agre e m e n t on Trade related
grouping of African, Asian, Caribbean and aspects of Intellectual Property Rights)
Least developed countries refused to Cancun was to mark an important stop on
kowtow the diktats of the EU (European the road to completing the ambitious Doha
U n io n ) a n d t h e U S , l e a d i n g t o t h e round of negotiations, which supposedly
breakdown o f talks o n the last day, the put development at the core of its agenda.
significance of this combined act of defiance But in the path from Doha to Cancun,
was not lost to many. The \Vorld Bank chief n egotia tors in G e n ev a ( a t the WTO
James Wolfensohn said the Cancun alliance h ea d quarte r s ) m i s s e d every maj o r
marked the creation of a " new paradigm deadline. By failing t o make adequate
in global financial relations for the 2 1 progress on issues the developing countries
c en tu ry " that e mp owers dev e l o p i n g b e l i ev e d c o n s t i t u t e d a genume
countries against the rich industrial nations. development round what was a routine
Developing countries, comprising two fuelling station became a landmine.
thirds of the organizations membership, led
The Hypocrisy:
the s how at C a n cu n , p u t t i n g a s i d e
significant differences to for m strong The question ofagricultural reform was the
alliances (which to the surprise of many most contentious issue at Cancun. I t is now
stood the test of time and pressure) and well documented that while developing
submitted well researched and technically countries made substantive liberalisation
sound negotiating proposals. commitments, farm subsidies in the EU and
From Doha to Cancun: the US have actually increased since the
\\lTO's Agreement on Agriculture came
trade m i n i s ters make up the h ighest into effect. Economists at the U N DP
decision making body of the v-v'TO and are (United Nations Development Programme)
expected to meet at least once every I:\\'o recently e stimated t h at w h i le the E U
years; Cancun was the fifth in the series of provides a daily subsidy of US $ 2 . 7 per cow,
ministerial meetings that began with the half of I ndia's population live on less than
1 996 Singapore ministerial. After the $ 2 a day. This hypocrisy allows countries
failure of the 1 999 Seattle ministerial, the like the EU to both protect its farm sector
2 0 0 1 D oha m i n i s terial succeeded i n and dump its subsidised p roducts in
launching an ambitious work programme
devel o p i n g c o u ntry m a r ke t s . N o t

surprisingly the removal of quanti tative have cODsi5tently opposed the creation of
restrictions in April 200 1 (following WTO a new set,vf cOOlplex agreements on these
stipulations) in agricultural commodities issues. At the 200 1 Doha _�ial lftdia's
has been devastating for I ndia's small then Comm�� Minister Murasoli Maran
farmers. Before Cancun, the European was widely credited with ensuring that any
U nion and the O n ited S tates set up a decision would need to be taken by 'explicit
common negotiating framework to revive consensus' from all member countries of the
the s talled talks o n agricul tural vVTO at the Cancun ministerial. On the
l i b e ra l i sa t i o n . Deve l o p i n g countries second day of the conference, in a defiant
immediately responded by critiquing it as show of strength, a group of 70 developing
failing on all three counts of reducing coun trie s h e l d a p re s s confe rence
domestic support, improving market access reiterating their opposition to the launch
for developing countries and phasing out of a new round of negotiations on the
export subsidies. further they formed the Singapore issues. The Malaysian Minister
G-22, which comprised several leading for I n ternational Trade and I ndustry
developing countries such as China, India, Rafi dah A z i z a n d I n d i a n C o m merce
Brazil, Argentina and South Africa, and M i n i s ter Arun J ai tIey even formally
subm i t t e d a counter p ro po s a l for presented a l e tter o n behalf of these
agricultural reform as opposed to the paper countries to the facilitator of the working
submitted by the EO and the US. group on Singapore issues stating that the
Addressing a packed press conference on clarificatory process in Geneva should
the opening day of the ministerial Brazilian continue.
minister Celso Amorim speaking on behalf Fundamentally flawed:
of the group, emphasized that their cause I t w a s expected that the u n i t e d a n d
was a just one as they represented 50% of professional approach o f the developing
the world's p opulation and over 65% of countries would be reflected in the draft,
farmers. which would form the basis for the Cancun
A group of four Wes tern and Central Ministerial declaration. But the document
African countries ( Burkino Faso, Chad, released on 1 3 September by the facilitators
Benin and Mali) also submitted a well­ of t h e five work i n g group s w a s
crafted joint initiative on Cotton calling for fundamentally flawed; i t showed that the
the total elimination of cotton subsidies by views expressed by the EU and US o n
devel o p e d c o u n t r i e s a n d fina n c ia l virtually all issues prevailed.
compensation for lost income while the On agricultural reform, the draft through
subsidies were being phased out. Cotton a means of cynical legal jugglery allowed
growers are amon g the m o s t heavily the EU and the US to continue with their
subsidised farmers in the US, receiving domestic subsidies by simply shifting them
more than $3 billion a year in subsidies, from the trade distorting section to the non­
according to the ''\Torld Bank. trade-distorting one. On the issue of market
Singapore issues: access the developing countries were
Another potential battle loomed in Cancun subjected to even more tariff reductions. On
over what is termed as the four Singapore the crucial issue of elimination of export
issues. Since the 1 996 Singapore ministerial subsidies provided by developed countries
the EU and other developed countries have there was no date mentioned for their
been trying to create new wro rules on: e l i m i nation . Addre s s i n g t h e p re s s
Investment, C o m pe t i t i o n p o l i cy, immediately after his formal response to
Govern m e n t p rocure m e n t and trade the draft at the Heads of Delegation
facilitation. Since then developing countries meeting Mr. Arun J aitley did not hide his
disappointment," Instead of being sensitive

to the concerns of developing and least there was no explicit consensus. Despite
developed countries this draft indicates that this, the draft we were discussing this
the special and differential treatment in morning mandated negotiations on three
favour of developed countries has been of them. I cannot understand how issues
allowed to continue" . not on the agenda can take precedence.
The way the WTO is managed leaves a lot
Even the cotton initiative, which received
to be desired," said Minister George of Saint
overwh e l m i ng sup port fro m b o t h
Lucia speaking on behalf of the Caribbean
developed and developing countries, was
A victory for the developing world:
Final Collapse:
Addressing the press the I ndian Commerce
The most bitterly contested insertion in the
minister ArunJaitley said, " Success cannot
new draft was the p roposal to launch
be judged on the ability of getting or not
negotiations on three of the Singapore
getting a declaration. The fact that the
i s s u e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r o n the h i gh l y
ministerial did not pass a statement that
controversial issue of Investment.
did not enjoy a consensus is indeed a victory
Ministers then entered into the final lap of for the developing world. The draft text
round the clock negotiations in an attempt clearly did not reflect the aspirations of the
to find enough common ground to avert developing and LDCs".
to t a l fa i lu re . B u t A s i a n a n d A fr i c a n
Instead of the Ministerial declaration that
countries were determined t o hold onto
would have mandated a work programme
their principled positions and the meeting
finally collapsed during the final session on a nd s e t dead l i n e s for comp l et i o n o f
negotiations the ministers i ssued a one­
1 4 September when the EU and the US
page statement admitting failure and their
continued to push a draft that did not give
resolve to go back to Geneva and try to iron
anything meaningful on agriculture but
out differences.
mandated negotiations on three of the
Singapore issues. A watershed:
Undemocratic: Success at C ancun would have meant a
mockery of both developing countries and
Speaking to the press after the collapse
the so-called Doha development agenda.
U g a nd a n del egate Yas h Tan d o n w a s
Cancun's blockade does not mean the end
furious, "The assumption made by the E U
of the road either for the WTO or for the
and the US was that within about two or
Doha round or for the dominant neo­
three days they can just carry out rapid
liberal paradigm that governs international
decisions for everybody. They wanted a text
passed that was profoundly biased - The trade today. But C ancun will remain a
watershed in the history of the WTO; it
process of arriving at this draft has been
marks a new dynamic to the organisation,
opaque and undemocratic - thi s text is
standing as a useful reminder to the E U
unacceptable to us because it condemns
and the U S that the views of developing
m i l l i o n s of A fri cans to p er p e t u a l
underdevelopment and abj ect poverty". countries can no longer be ignored.

"We are indeed disappoin ted with this

result. 1Jie :Carihbean countries came
unit�� t() � tlJlr with a very p ositive
. . de
. al for our farmers.
to u s . N�arly 7 0
were unwilling (() launch
:the Singapore issues i.e.

An n exu re 7

Incoming materials Guly-December 2003} • Karnataka Right to I nformation Act

2000, published by Government of
• Granta Travel, Penguine Publisher
• Seeds of Protest, Public Interest Research
• International Tourism, Sterling Group
Publishers Ltd.
• Guidelines for implementation of new
• Tourism in the 2 1 S( Century, Continum tour i s m p o l i cy, G ov e r n m e n t
• Visas of S u s t a i n a b i l i ty, ATL A S , of Karnataka
Volume 2 • Coastal Ecosystems of the Karnataka
• Cooperating for sustainable tourism, State, Ananda Rao & Dr. A.N . Sherieff
Kasparek Verlag • Tourism Statistics, 1 999-2000,
• CONTOURS - Volume 1 , Economical department of Government of Kerala
Coalition on Third 'World Tourism • The Tamil N adu District Development
• CONTO U RS - Volume 1 , Economical Councils Act 1 95 8 , Governme n t of
Coalition on Third World Tourism Tamil Nadu

• Directory of Alternative travel resources, • The Tamil N adu Panchayat Act 1 994,
Dianne. G. Brause Government of Tamil Nadu

• I n d ia : Tou r i s m H er i t a g e , D i a n n e . ' • Social Welfare Policy Note 2000-200 1 ,

G. Brause Government of Tamil Nadu

• Experience a thousand Delights, ITDC • Andhra Pradesh : Vision 2020 over view,
Government of Andhra Pradesh
• Poverty through tourism, Goyal
publishers • Tou r i s m Pol icy 2 0 5 2 , D ep ar t m e n t
o f Tourism
• Competition Policy & Law made easy,
C UTS • Financial upheaval in East Asian
Countries, Aung San Suukyi
• Where Communities Care, Ashish B .
N eema, Farhad • The Third world in the age of
globalization, C UTS
• Water Atlas of Kerala, CWRDM ,
Kozhikode • The U nited National Set of Principles
and Rules on Competition, U nited
• The law relating to protection of coastal
areas, PB.Strasranaman
• U ttaranchal Panchayat Raj Act, PLAN
• Pelagic Sharks in the Indian Seas, P P
Pillai & Biju Parakal • Local study of Tribal Settlements of
Orissa, Lark Books
• Motorization of country craft in Kerala,
Central Marine Fisheries Research • Status of Rural Women in Karnataka,
Institute. National Institute of Advance Studies

• Statistical Bulletin of Fisheries, • Right of Women in India, Socio-Iegal Aid

Directorate of Fisheries, Government Research Centre
of India

• National Consultation of women in • Forestry in Karnataka, Karnataka Forest
G overnance, N ational C o m m i s si on Department
for Women • Seminar on role of voluntary
• Directory on Panchayat Raj and Women organization in development of
in I ndia, U N IFEM Karnataka, N ational institute of public
cooperation and child development.
• Karnataka 'Tourism Annual Report,
• \\,TO-UNCTAD Presentation of STEP
Karnataka Tourism, Government of
initiative, World Trade Organization
• Tourism and Poverty Alleviation, World
• Tourism Vision 2025 (Draft)
Trade Organization
• Biodiversitv and Tourism, Berlin
• Participatory Approach, EQUATIONS

• Periyar Tiger Reserve, Dr. Amit Mallick,
• Convention on B iological Diversity,
I FS & Dr. A. Veeramani
• Tourism Carrying Capacity Study, World
• India Infrastructure Report 2002, 3 I
Tourism Organisation
• I nfrastructure Development Action Plan
• Approach paper to the 1 0th Five Year
for Chattisgarh-Final Report
Plan 2002-07
• Reforms and marginalized communities,
• Economic Survey 200 1 -2002,
Samaji k Nyay, Prathisthan
Government of India, Ministry of
Finance, Economic Div ision • C arrying capacity based developmental
planning for implementation of Master
• Who's Who's in WATA, 'VATA
Tourism Plan in Andaman I slands, U N
• vVWF I ndia, Areas Programme, Ministry Development Programme, New Delhi
of Environment and Forest
• Parliament of the Democratic Socialist
• Challenge of H IV AIDS in the work Republic of Srilanka.
place, UNAIDS
• World Forum on Globalization and
• Save our sisters, save the children i n Trade, Arad NGO Network for
India Development.
• Child Sex Tourism in ASIA, Children • UN's Conference on Environment and
Ombudsman 1 996 Development, UN -General Assembly
• Environment Outlooks, UNEP • Women and Panchayat Raj I nstitutions,
• CMFRI-Bulletin 30 A National Commission for "Women

• Mud banks of Kerala Coast, C MFRI­ • Human Trafficking in South Asia,

bulletin 3 1 PRAYAS

• Eco Labelling and Stainable fisheries, • Reaching Out, N ational Commission of

Carolyn Deere Women

• Sea Turtle Research and Conversation, • The Fallen learn to Rise, DMSC
CMFRI • A step towards a new horizon, Institute
• Economics of the indigenous fishing of social work.
units at Cochin, C MFRI special • A practical guide to good practice, Tour
publication operators initiative

• Integrating Biodiversity into the
Tourism Sector, Hector Ceballor
• Livelihoods, Lifestyles, B iodiversity,
• Coastal Regulation Zone Notification
and its amendments, EQLATIONS
• The Convention on the rights of the
child, UNICEF
• Orientation course for representatives of
voluntary organisation on promotion of
child rights
• A report on problems and Prospects of
Palace on ""'heels in Karnataka
• Sustainable Development in Dynamic

I n d i a n To u ri s m : Cu rre nt I ss u es

A Statement of Concern
As EQUATIONS enters its 19th year of experience and existence in
critiquing tourism issues in India, it is challenged by several concerns
on the horizon today, a scenario that is likely to persist and extend
in both magnitude and implications as we approach the 21st century.

Towards a Critique: Some Statements

In the context of neo-colonisation

• Tourism has to be viewed in the context of a development model

which has a political character;

• Tourism development has taken place along with i ncrease

elitism, authoritarian ism, militarism and various forms of state
repression in d ifferent parts of the World: all of these are threats
to the culture, economy and empowerment of communities;

• Tourism development along with globalisation process threatens

the sovereignty of a nation (in the broadest definition of nation) ;

• Tourism eulogises a certain consumptive and luxurious lifestyle

which is unsustainable by any means;

• Tourism promotes net outflow of capital to global market

economy especially to the so called development nations ;

• Tourism is based on the objectifies view of the world where

beaches, sanctuaries and so on are seen as objects of pleasure
which negates the sanctity of the objects as well as of possible
meaningful relationships between peoples and their

Our vision for Tourism

An EQUATION seeks a world where wealth, resources and benefits
are much more equitably distributed between North and South .
Our vision of tourism fits within that framework. While there is no
one transposable model which will work in all situations, we are
working towards tourism which

• Bring economic benefits directly to all segments of the host

community, particularly including women and indigenous

• I s subject to local, democratic control, so that communities are
making their own decisions about how tourism should be
permitted and regulated;

• Is integrated into other community activities, so that it is

culturally appropriate and sensitive to the inequities between
hosts and guests;

• Enriches both host (economically, developmentally and in terms

of control) and guests (culturally, recreationally).

This is in contrast to many current tourism models, which are

imposed from the North , requires the extensive use .of imports, is
overly commercialized, and reinforced inequities rather than
challenges them.

EQUATIONS sees tourism not as a means to bring Southern

communities into the Northern mainstream, but rather as one of
the way to work towards a more just world .

What w e do
The varying roles that EQUATIONS plays includes advocacy, center
for i nformation resources, educator, watchdog, helping hand,
publisher and producer of materials.

At the local level

• Focus on a particular place or issue

• Documents the tourism movement itself

• Conduct survey with local groups

• Produce background materials on particular situations

• Facilitate scientific research on environmental and related issues.

At the national level

• EQUATIONS identifies itself as an I ndian group, not a global

• EQUATIONS historical role is as a pioneer who put tourism on

the agenda of the national development debate

• EQUATION provides research and publications and is a

resources center.

At the international level

• Provide direct support for local action in South Asia

• Provide resources and information for local action elsewhere

develop training and seminars for groups worldwide

• Participate integrally in the new global tourism structure when
it emerges.

Information Collection and Dissemination

• Collaborate with local groups to collect information/inform them
about parameters and standards

• Produce brief fact sheets in Basis English so they can readily be

translated, and some in local languages

• Produce guidelines for assessing tourism from different


• Make the concerns and interest of local communities visible

• Empower them to lobby for themselves and training

• Offer workshops on fundamental tourism issues

• Provide "how to" sessions on: participatory research, communications

(including how to publish a newsletter and present audiovisual
programs), options for strategy (including legal options)

• Tailor each subject to the particular groups situation and priorities.

• Learn about hotels entering India, including their investments,
corporate behavior elsewhere, and structures.
• Monitor tourism policy, and legislation when will affect tourism issues
• Network with others who can be "eyes and ears"
• Follow global development that affect tourism
• Produce an annual audit showing how tourism in India is faring, from
a critical perspective.

Sou rces I ndex

AAD Asian Age, Delhi

AAB Asian Age, Bangalore
BL.B Business Line, Bangalore
BL.C Business Line, Chennai
BL.D Business Line, Delhi
BS.D Business standards, Delhi
DH.B Deccan Herald, Bangalore
ET.B Economic Times, Bangalore
ET.C Economic Times, Chennai
EHC Express Hotelier and Caterer
ETT Express Travel and Tourism
FE.B Financial Express, Bangalore
FE.D Financial Express, Delhi
GT.G Gomatak, Goa
GN.G Goan Times, Goa
HT.D Hindustan Times, Delhi
HE.G The Herald, Goa
IE.C Indian Express, Chennai
IE.D Indian Express, Delhi
NT.G Navhind Times, Goa
TOLB Times ofIndia, Bangalore
TOLD Times of India, Delhi
Readers are welcome to write to us for any
TOLM Times ofIndia, Mumbai
of the material listed in the Update, though
TH.B The Hindu, Bangalore we request contribution towards photocopy
TH.B The Hindu, Bhuvaneshwar and mailing expenses. The data at the end
of each item indicates the sources. Please
TH.C The Hindu, Chennai refer the source index for abbreviations
TH.D The Hindu, Delhi used.
TH.O The Hindu, Orissa EQUATIONS (Equitable Tourism Options)
seek to situate the tourism crtique within
TP Travel Plus
the overal l development debate. Our
actIv I t I e s i n c l ude documen tati on ,
publication s, research and supporting
i n d i v i d u a l s and group involved III
concerted action on tourism issues.

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