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Chapter 3

FAC Mechanisms,
Stressors and Operating conditions,
FAC related ageing mechanisms,
Sites of Degradation
S. Trvin, Electricit de France (EDF) - France
G. Tomarov & A Shipkov, Geotherm EM Russia

Chapter 3 Understanding Flow Accelerated Corrosion


3.1 FAC PROCESS

Effect of temperature

Effect of Chemistry
Oxygen
pH and chemical conditionning

Effect of hydrodynamic

fluid velocity
fitting geometry
void fraction and moisture

Effect of Alloy

Division Production Ingnierie Hydraulique - DTG

Chapter 3 Understanding Flow Accelerated Corrosion


3.1 FAC PROCESS
Chemical conditioning in liquid one phase flow to mitigate FAC

Under reducing feedwater


conditions AVT(R)

Under oxydative
feedwater conditions AVT(O)

Division Production Ingnierie Hydraulique - DTG

Chapter 3 Understanding Flow Accelerated Corrosion


3.1 FAC PROCESS
Chemical conditioning in two phase flow to mitigate FAC
Under reducing AVT(R) or oxydative AVT(O) feedwater conditions

Effect of pH on
Fe solubility

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Chapter 3 Understanding Flow Accelerated Corrosion


3.1 FAC PROCESS
3.1.1 Classification of wall thinning degradation
Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC)
General Corrosion

Cavitation Erosion (CavE)


Liquid Droplet Impingement (LDI)

Solid Particle Erosion


Steam or Liquid Erosion

Division Production Ingnierie Hydraulique - DTG

Chapter 3 Understanding Flow Accelerated Corrosion


3.1 FAC PROCESS
3.1.2 Affected Locations in NPPs
Feedwater lines;
Condensate lines;
Extraction lines;
Discharge lines;
Moisture separator and reheater drainage lines;
Condensate drain lines and drain valves;
Cold crossover lines from HP-turbine to reheater;
Connection lines and nozzles on the feedwater tank;
Blow-down lines;
Reactor water clean-up system
Feeder tubes (CANDU);
Heat exchangers such as the feed water heaters (shell, tube bundles), moisture
separator reheaters (shell, internal components and tube bundles), condensers;
Vessels such as drain tanks;
Turbines (if unalloyed or low-alloyed steels are exposed to wet steam flow).
other

areas ????

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Chapter 3 Understanding Flow Accelerated Corrosion


3.1 FAC PROCESS
3.1.2 Affected Locations in NPPs

Other Events Reports ???


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Chapter 3 Understanding Flow Accelerated Corrosion


3.1 FAC PROCESS
3.1.3 Material non-susceptible to FAC
J. Ducreuxs relationship:

Division Production Ingnierie Hydraulique - DTG

Chapter 3 Understanding Flow Accelerated Corrosion


3.1 FAC PROCESS
3.1.3 Material non-susceptible to FAC
EPRI-guidelines
systems made of stainless steel piping, or low-alloy steel piping with nominal
chromium content equal to or greater than 1.25% may be excluded from further
evaluation (with respect to FAC).
If no significant wear is found during the first inspection, components with chromium
content greater than 0.10 % need not be re-inspected.
AREVA states that FAC rate decreases starting with a threshold value of approximately
0.1% Cr. For steels with a chromium content of 2.1 % or more, FAC rates can be
considered negligible.
For a long time, EDF considered 0.1 % Cr content in steel as a good protection against
FAC for 20 to 25 year old NPPs. In order to reach lifetimes up to 60 years, as is the case
for the Flamanville EPR, EDF has imposed 0.7 % Cr minimum requirement in the turbine
hall
Geotherm EM recommendations ..

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Chapter 3 Understanding Flow Accelerated Corrosion


3.2 Stressors and operating conditions
3.2.1 Hydrodynamics
3.2.1.1 Fluid velocity
Mass lost per cm2 per hr
105

k = A.(e/dh)0.2.Re. Sc0.4.D/dh

FAC rate x dh/ D

104
dh = 4mm
dh = 8mm
dh = 10mm

103

Temperature : 180C

104

105

106

Reynoldss number

10

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107

Chapter 3 Understanding Flow Accelerated Corrosion


3.2 Stressors and operating conditions
3.2.1 Hydrodynamics
3.2.1.2 Component geometry
3.2.1.3 Adjacent Element

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Chapter 3 Understanding Flow Accelerated Corrosion


3.2 Stressors and operating conditions
10
3.2.1 Hydrodynamics
k = A.(e/dh)0.2.Re. Sc0.4.D/dh
3.2.1.4 Surface roughness
5

FAC rate x dh/ D

104
dh = 4mm
dh = 8mm
dh = 10mm

103

Temperature : 180C

3.2.1.5 Steam Quality


To be re-write

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104

105

106

Reynoldss number

107

Chapter 3 Understanding Flow Accelerated Corrosion


3.2 Stressors and operating conditions
3.2.2 Environmental
3.2.2.1 Temperature
Organization
Areva
EDF
EPRI

Range Adopted

V = 35 m/s
P = 40 b
T = 200 h
[O2] < 40 g/kg
< 1 S/cm

40C to 270C
75C to 300C
100C to 250C
(no upper temp exclusion for single phase)

3.2.2.2 Water Chemistry


Oxygen effect (O2 concentration, Redox Potential)

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Organization

FAC Exclusion Range Adopted

Areva

> 80 g/kg in water phase for BWRs with neutral pH

EDF

> 5 to 10 g/kg, in water phase depending on flow velocity for


PWR with pH > 9.

EPRI

> 1000 g/kg (e.g. circulating water, service water, fire protection)

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Chapter 3 Understanding Flow Accelerated Corrosion


3.2 Stressors and operating conditions
3.2.2 Environmental
3.2.2.2 Water Chemistry
pH effect (ammonia, amine, concentration)
Effect of pH on
Fe solubility

Hydrazine concentration

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Chapter 3 Understanding Flow Accelerated Corrosion

3.4 Sites of Degradation


3.4.1 Welds joints
local turbulence
non-steady state ?
alloying contents between
welds and pipes
140m

190m

Mn

Si

Cr

Weld Material
0.16

0.12

CrAverage
= 0.025%

CrAverage
= 0.148%

0.08

&

Mn

1.5

Cr contents (%)

Contents (%)

Pipe Material

Si

0.5
0.04

-0.5

25

50

75

100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 425 450 475

Length (m)
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Chapter 3 Understanding Flow Accelerated Corrosion

3.4 Sites of Degradation


3.4.2 Entrance effect

3.4.2 Small Bore piping


data are missing
Socket welded
Low risk
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