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JOHN

Sm

LUBBOCK'S

HUNDRED

BOOKS

16

BIOGRAPHICAL

HISTORY

PHILOSOPHY

OF

S/R

JOHN

LUBBOCK*

.ORDER

OF

HERODOTUS.

Babhr,

b}-

BOOKS.

PUBLICATION.

Henry

from

translated

Literally

1.

of

HUNDRED

A.

M.

Cary,

2.

VOYAGE

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"

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3.

OF

BEAGLE."

IN

MARCUS

OF

Translated

NATURALIST

2s.

MEDITATIONS

THE

Text

6d.

3s.

the

from

AURELIUS.

Greek

the

by

Collier.

Jeremy

6d.

IS.

THE

TEACHING

EPICTETUS.

OF

Translated

4.

from
T.

5.

the
W.

Introduction

and

IS.

With

Introduction

an

LL.D.

Morley,

MILL'S

is.

"

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LUBBOCK'S

JOPN

BOOKS

HUNDRED

HISTORY

BIOGRAPHICAL
OF

PHILOSOPHY

BY

G.

"

Man

is not

bom

it, in

attempt
Knowable."

V For

\ And

"

order

to

solve

the
he

that

LEWES

H.

of Existence

mystery

how

learn

may

to

; but

keep

he

nevertheless,

must,

within

the

limits

of

Gothe.

I doubt
ihe

noi through

thoughts

of

the

men

are

ages

one

increasing

widened

by the

purpose

process

runs,

of the

suns."
Tennyson.

LONDON

GEORGE

ROUTLEDGE

Broadway,
GLASGOW,

AND

AND

1892

Limited

Hill

Ludgate

MANCHESTER,

SONS,

NEW

YORK

the

LONDON

PRINTID

BT

J.

S.

AND

VIRTUB

CITY

ROAD.

CO.,

UMITBD,

INTRODUCTION
BY

The

Right

Hon.

Sir

LUBBOCK,

JOHN

F.R.S.,

M.P.,

Bart.,

LL.D.

D.C.L.,

""""

the

In

at

printed

the

I gave
address
an
Men's
College, which

Working
as

of

one

That,

really to
books,

for instance
"

the

of

"

to

enjoyment
books

the

mentioned

directly

or

have

books

of

half

remarkable
all

deny

to
as

300

not

or

that

than

one.

those

be

no

referred

several

deference

the

to

in

no

two

included

suggested

half

of

persons
such

in
are

not

originally appeared, having

284019

books

would
a

entirely

made

inserted

have

to

which

can

changes

Kalidasa's

one

the

among
consider

two

it is

appears
half

concur
no

only good, but


changes

been

addition,

about

only

list,I believe

glad,

many

Moreover,

suggested

and

them,

one.

any

for

proposed

omission.

additional

the

almost

of -the criticisms, and

been

for

suggested
of

to

occur

of

hames

have

have

names

list, many

several

to

I am,
indeed
however,
ready, and
and
willing to make
very
any
be improvements.
I have
indeed
it

in

Principia,"

exclude

appeared, and
it is said
ought to have
omissions
corresponding

list

which

400

one
even

to

the

hand

are

lists, or

would

added
on

I have

dozen

more

books

be

other

while, perhaps,

But
all the
,

the

that

the
in

dozen

well

mentioned

been
On

that, while

find

it would

the

reading

on

criticisms

suggested.

only

that

might

various

'included.
been

"

Newton's

hundred

own.

my

doubt

no

have

iDooks

If

the

others.

which

Indeed,

best

statement

"

suggestions
I

list has

the
hundred

the

judgment
"

I inserted

which

"

and
"

was

year

Life."

living authors, from some


Again, I excluded
stance,
Rusldn
and
and
Tyndall, for inHuxley
Tennyson,
mention
the keftiest
others
I have
no
myself derived
that
I did not
select
especially I expressly stated
; and
those
but
most
own
being
on
as
authority,
frequently
my
writers
who
have
with
referred
approval
by those
the
of
rather
than
to
reading,
indirectly
pleasure
as

of

whom

several

include, and

not

of

correct

in my

are

contain

I did

names,
list of

my

Reading"

following

Pleasures

quite

not

instance

for

Koran,"

judgment

^whtch

"

as

list of what

it would

greatest

since

is

"

hundred

one

to

however,
make

were

in

about

the

in

and

Books

on

in my

chapters

referred

frequently

books."

"

the

it I mentioned

In
been

"

1886

year

**

any
be
in

to

as

would
best.
suggestions,
shown
the

list

Sakoontala,

INTRODUCTION.

VI

Schiller's "William
Tell"; omitting Lucretius,
Ring," and
which
is perhaps rather
Miss
too
difficult,and
Austen, as English
novelists
somewhat
were
over-represented.
The

or

Another
known
words.

every

one,

Every

one,

this.

in his

But

that

Milton.

There

Iddesleigh,
read

books

the

mentioned

; that they
knows
about

by name
said,

been

and

Lord

had

been

rate

any
it has

even

"Life,"

has

at

Shakespeare

Homer,
in

made

objection

to

is, no

Mr.

as

are

are

household

as

and

Herodotus

doubt,

some

has

Lang

Marcus

truth

pointed

and

out

add

Aurelius,
may
for having
warmly
suggested the
"
him.*
Lord
Meditations
to
If,then, even
ably
Iddesleigh, " probwho
the literature
of the last of English
knew
statesmen
one
and
Rome
read
of Greece
Marcus
not
well," had
widely and
well suppose
that others
also may
be in the same
Aurelius, we may
that

he

never

thanked

afterwards

me

"

position. It
an
unusually

and

"

should

one

any

the

very

few

Indeed,
I

chose

Another

choose

for

the

no

"

as

himself.

And

just as

doubt

no

round

so

the

"

But

the

why

best

eleven,

this

remark

duodecimal

up

Greek."

that

thirty,would
given 90, or

even

have

been

made

be
1 10.

instead

number

to

120.

number.

that

he

or

literature,

corrupt

than

well

beautiful

most

other

observed

more

had

have

been

has

books,

notation

the

conjecture."

to

Eleven

doubt

being
objection has
100

hundred,

might

arithmetical

of

one

work

recent

best

point.

no

it is hard

doubt

I should

decimal,

only

in

to

in any
in "crabbed
and

wrote

emperor
writer

Uie

; but
if our

was

indeed

in classical,or

select

entirely misses

called

attention

thirtybooks,

best

what

on

literature
that
Mr.
knowledge
Lang
probably quite correctlyr-Lord Iddesleigh's

popular

commentary
of classical

and

fact that the

the

Again,

of

curious

having had his


improving books

never

or

wide

ascribe

should

to

is also

one

every

must.

No

list

should
can

be

be
more

left to
than

suggestion. But a great literary authority can


hardly perhaps
of selection.
into
An
turned
the difficulty
ordinary person
and
for
has
do so
to
himself,
a
sarcasticallytold to choose
library
book
He
with
almost
at haphazard.
a
an
light
perhaps
upon
may
and
it much
valuable
attractive
after wasting on
time
title,and
find
insteatl
of
either
or
that,
pleasure
profit,he has
patience,
weakened, or perhaps lost^ his love of reading.
the idea of
Messrs.
George
Routledge and Sons have conceived
list in a handy and
contained
in my
cheap
publishing the books
the
editions
which
themselves
form, selecting
they prefer ; and I
who
believe
in doing
that
so
they will confer a benefit on many
funds
have
collect
not
to
or
a large library.
space
a

realize

JOHN
High

LUBBOCK.

Elms,
Kent,

Down,
30
*

Marchy

I have

since

89 1.

had

many

other

letters to the

same

effect

SERIES

ANCIENT

I.

PHILOSOPHY

PREFACE.

write

To

of

expression

There

pardoned,

have
of

some

than

these

of

the

word,

Life

guided

has

and

task,
the

of

attempting

present

unite

to

of

in

schools

"

had

believe,

attempt,

grapher.
bio-

no

which

principles

the

more

development

and

yet,

"

composition

the

is

It

works

in

usual,

instruction,

the

on

reasonable

have
in

stated

are

as

an

is

work

exist,

destined

work

wanted

to

for

excuse

invites

practice

History
for

one's

for

if

and,

express

other

satisfaction
dis-

proper

So

audacity.

own

imitation,

present

work

that

existing

works

of
a

great

abridgment

and

at

even

that
have

should

work,

long

of

it

no

risk

the

the

of

and,

in
Dr.

although

of

which
Enfield
the

may

claim

means

superfluous.

era

when

subject

others,

delight

the

obsolete

Brucker

by

supersede

considering

been

rendered

not

important

an

although

it

Philosophers,'

the

had

is

Philosophy

of

granted

the

though

such

already

them,

public

the

to

presumptuous.

taken

Lives

that

subject

appearing
That

presenting

show

to

at

his

such

of

opinions

critical

others

philosophical

these

little

Introduction.

the

in

schools

being

others

haps
per-

attempt.

philosophical

rise, growth,

Philosophy

of

and

the

But

exhibited

as

and

of

The

may

novel

chronicles

fragments
systems

conception

My

be

of

work.

novel,

characterizes

laborious

and

plans.

Philosophy,

it

numerous

various

of

though

Philosophy,"

graphies
Bio-

the

writing

following

the

of

histories

learned

collection

aim

the

because

been

these

estimates
both

of

Biography

"

be

is

Philosophers

while

Philosophy

of

Biography

the

do

for
think

Stanley's

boyhood,

my

it

was

duced,
pro-

undertook
translation

of

PREFACE.

Kilter's

'

History

Philosophy

of

learned,

of the

shelves

"

its

yet

'

driven

has

and

cost

Enfield

voluminousness

prevented its superseding Enfield with the many.


erudition
Dr. Enfield
a
man
was
equally without
and he simply abridged the ill-digested
work
erudition.

immense

Brucker

from

of the

have

and
of

learned

the

city,
capaof

man

and

patient
industry was
so
indefatigablethat his work
remain
altogether superseded ; \X, must
hardly become
can
one
whence
will
draw.
writer^
source
succeeding
But,
great
title of Father
the
of the
although he deserves
History of
of sagacity, and
of philosophical,no
less
Philosophy, his want
than
his ever
literary attainments, effectually prevent
again
laborious
than as
a
being regarded otherwise
compiler. Dr.
all the
faults
of arrangement
Enfield's Abridgment
possesses
whose

Germans,

of

dulness

and

one

was

work,

Brucker's

which

blundering

and

dulness

to

has

he

of

his

added

consider
in-

no

Moreover,

own.

Yet
his book
has
shamefully inaccurate.
been
it
reprinted in a cheap form, and
extensively bought
extensively read.
certainly has not been
is a work
Ritter's
of reputation.
History of Philosophy
and
This reputation, however, is higher in France
England than

his

references

are

"

'

in

the

; and

Germany

is apparent
have
:
we
that a work
Ritter's
like

reason

the

subject,
Germany
they have
so
acquisition.
in
and
all
styles,that
degrees of excellence
our

upon

own

In

of Ritter

his

"

been

I have

that

of

keenly

are

indebted

much

so

work,

own

becomes

"

his deficiencies

while

of my

erudition

to

ingratitude; but let me hope


appreciation of his merits and demerits
Ritter

quite
and

so

is the

Brucker

learned, and

impartial.
; but

As

where

not

far

quite

so

honest

as

labour

of

ends

the

great

ance,
import-

secondary

Ritter, dvuing the

than

worse

is

little of

of all
works
many
the great advantage

very
felt.

depreciation of

any

so

him

that
will

here
calm

not

nineteenth

dull ; also
labour

his merits

not

goes

end.
his

be

progress
be
would

honest

and

stood.
misunder-

century

quite
there

His

is

so
no

"

not

calm
ciency
defi-

exposition

historical

confused;
ciation,
apprein
from
the
others, superficial
his criticisms
deficient
in speculative
heavy and
extreme;
work
the
whole
ability, and
spirit. He
wanting life and
rises with the greatness of his subject, and
never
perhaps the
to Socrates,
portions of his book are those devoted
very worst
remarkable
because
Plato, and Aristotle ; and this is the more
is

generally purposeless
when

not

and

borrowed

PREFACE.

diligentlystudied

has

he

of materials

for

the
a

; but it is only an
works
Beyond the above

valuable

reader

portions of the
appeared, from
from

systems
which

subject
time

the

Thales

As

last.

two

lection
col-

study of the subject, his book is very


improved supplement to Bnicker.
I know

are

of

Essays
enough ; and

numerous

There

was

in

Plato, given in
in the
'Foreign

to

English

on

distinct
have

there

all of

Reviews,

the

view

of

ar\cient

series

of

articles

connected

the

whence

none

time, articles

to

ability.

less

or

writingsof

gain satisfactoryinformation.

can

more

XI

Quarterly Review,'
the
during 1843
masterly
1844;
which
Essay on
Metaphysical Philosophy,'
appeared in the
Encyclopaedia Metropolitana,* eloquent, ingenious, and
found.
proexcited

attention

and

and

also mention

I must

'

all these

But

always accessible.

something
The

There

materials

because

is

work
for

what

was

been

easier to let my

deemed

in

at

as

has

It is small

sketch.

diffuse

I have

small

list of

by

figure in

the

of miscellaneous

be

is

allowed.

It

of

thinkers

such

Only
phases

have

the

to

erudition

of

character

But

so.

can

add

have, therefore,

standard.

an

erudite

air,that

in

the

The

the

foot-notes

reader

idle

such

to

and
little,
good excuse

different

of

this will appear

It is

erudition

that

names

complete collection

no

tedious

tradition.

been

selected

as

of

execution.

respecting the

two

or

mine

make

progressive development;
such
with
connected
those
opinions as were
phases.
written the Biography, not the Annals, of Philosophy.
word

So
I have

whenever

will not

ostentation

subject; and, if the

be

savant

I make

Its

that
for

little have

only

have

sions
pretena

work

sors.
predeces-

already exist the greatest

as

little of

subsidiaryvalue

wishing

to

avoided

absence

to

be

to

I desired

studiously
their

its

as

may

sent
repre-

and

no

consequently,

insignificantbeside
works

of

space

organic completeness, if the expression

an

the various

have

like
great dis-

to

complete

no

philosophy ; it is
opinions preserved by

annals

completeness

is

only

would

It

the

; not

because

bulky quartos or solid-lookingoctavos


; but
endeavoured
to
"big books," and have
concentration.

for

complete.

into

wander

not

opening

an

selected.

been

materials

works

deficient, but

larger were

essential

be

to

brief and

once

meant

not

voluminous

still seemed

something

new,

present

buried

are

measured

give

by

this work

using references
was

unimportant.
pruned of

thus

se^
my
sorry
which
disfiguresso

pages

History look

superficialin

more

; I

many

works

on

this

conse-

PREFACE.

Xll

it

quence,

is

will

judge

to

Such

which

upon

referred

have

to,

all

discovered

not

of
that

the

in

by

no

me

reference

or

which

of

to,

not

all,

Preface

that

the

and,

List

consequently,

author

derived

by

all

It

of

must

the

abuse

be

not

references

exact

of

my

citation.

but

erudite.
drawn

used

those

by

in

that

in

me

citation

any

from,
is

List,

exactitude

the

responsible.
G.

that

Books

of

for

second-hand,

at

out
with-

the

included

not

self
my-

declare

irksome

duty,

even

comprises

ancient

as

am

for

Series

an

considered

be

to

this

of

historian's

fulfilled

were

availed

whenever

original,

the

by

or

they

second-hand

at

passage

the

rarely

once

this

of

of

part

very

then,

end

writing

the

and

say,

the

at

up

is

it

when

conscientiously

can

verified

This

indispensable,

but

quoted,

liberally

have

accepted

tent
compe-

The

have

verified,

course

others;

previously

possible.

Let

of

which

relied,

Of

are

"second-hand."

not

scrupulously

me.

have

case

having
was

been

industry

is

have

who

all

appearances.*

by

erudition

the

that

know

to

judge

not

is,

it

as

passages

consolation

some

supposed
own

pages

that
will

am

testify

insensible
to

the

to

contrary.

the

rl.

importance
I

speak

L.

of

only

LIST

OF

RiTTER

exfontium

locis

all

of

the

scattered

of

historically.
Unfortunately
first volume.)
my

historian.
of

pletion

is

(There

Z^vort,

the

to

Aristotle

Animd.

De

of

work

been

F.

early philosophers,

highest utility to
it after
possessed

this

of

Ed.

the

Tauchnitz.

Ed.

I have

which

of

notes

the

only

translation

French

good

MetaphysicA.

De

Aristotle:

1838.

fragments

work

arranged
and

Fhilosophice Grceco-Romana

Hamburg,

contexta,

collection

(A

HistoHa

TION
COMPILA-

THE

SERIES.

THIS

Preller

AND

IN

USED

WORKS

OF

the

critic

the

copa-

Leipsic, 1832.
by

Pierron

MM.

sometimes

Trendelenburg.

A.

and

indebted.)

Jena,

1833.
(The

always

not

been

Aristotle:

De

Physicd.

De

Animd.
Ccelo*

De

Generatione

be

is

CorrupHone.

et

Tauchnitz.

Ed.

French

Lipsiae, 1833.

M.

by

translation

Chauffepi"

but

it cannot

trusted.)

Sextus

Folio,

also

I have

Sensu,

Laertius.

(There

; but

\ Paris, 1561.

De

De

Diogenes

useful

is erudite
and
Trendelenburg
able
to verify his references.)

of

commentary

Empiricus

et Adversos

HypotyposeSy

Mathematicos.

Paris, 1621.

(This

is not

first

the

Karsten

Prima.

critical

of the

edition

Gteek

excellent

Plato

(Also
which

tory
which

Xenophon

the

only

one

possess.

It is

Operum

Rdiquice.

Pars

1830.

Brussels,

Berlin^

Bekker.

dialogues

analysed

were
*

it is

work.)

Ed.

four

but

Gracorum

Philosophorum

Xenophanes.

(An

text.)

from

March,
in

occur

my

1828.

Gorgias, Phaedrus,
in the
masterly manner
From
1834 to February. 1835.
have
work
been
taken.)
Protagoras,
in

Memorabilia.

Ed.

Edwards,

and
*"

the

Monthly
these

Oxon,

Apology,
Keposi-

all extracts

1785,

LIST

XIV

Historta

HoRNius:
Brucker

London,

WORKS.

Philosophical Batav., 1756.

History

OF

of Philosophy,

1819.
Critica

Philosophy.

Trans.
Hegel

der

Geschichte

Leipsig, 1767.

Phihsophia,

History of Ancient
Oxford, 1838-9.

RiTTER

Enfield.

by

"

Historta

Brucker:

Abridged

Philosophic,

3 vols.

Ed.

Bande.

English

Michelet.

Berlin, 1833.
the

rather

is

(This

of

Philosophy

found

I have

it

History

than

the

of

History

sophy.
Philo-

suggestive.)

ihrer
:
Philosophic der Gricchen
Charaktcr,
Theil.
und
VorErster
Entwicklung,
Gangy Hauptmomente
sokratischc
Philosophic, Tiibingen, 1844.
Zeller

Die

(Useful.

Rather

Tennemann

Manuel

Cousin.

Victor

(A good

criticism

of

Renouvier

de

than

la

history.)

Philosophic,

Par

Paris, 1830.
able

an

Manuel

historians

VHistoire

dc

vols.

abridgment

other

on

dc

work.)

la

Philosophic Ancienne,

vols.

Paris, 1844.
of

work

(A

learning

Simon
Jules
Paris, 1844.

Cousin

Victor

and

acuteness).
dc

Hisioire

dc

Cours

^Alexandrie,

VEcole

rst

3 vols.

Philosophic,

vol.

Bruxelles,

1840.
Cousin

V.

Bruxelles,

Nouvcaux

Fragmens

Philosophiques,

vol.

1840.

Encyclopccdia Metropoliiana^

"

article,Moral

and

Metaphysical

Philosophy,
Bayle

Dictionnaire

Historique,
*

Wiggers
De

Life of Socrates,

Gerando

Histoire

English Trans., 1840.

Compark

des

Systhncs

dc

Philosophic.

Paris, 1822.
reputation,
enjoys considerable
(This work
discriminating, and well written.)
Van

Heusde

(One
in

Platonicce,

elegant
pleasant Latin,

of the

very

Iniiia

mo^t

and

and

deserves

Trajecti ad

delightful works

on

the

it.

Rhenam,
subject

with
and
abundant
great enthusiasm
valua*ble introduction
to the study of Plato.)

Clear,

1827.
; written

ledge.
know-

INTRODUCTION.

Humanity.
limits

intended

is

work

This

Let
this

of

as

contribution

therefore,

us,

contribution,

at

its

lest

define

once

the

of
and

nature

The

mistaken.

be

object

History

the

to

History

Philosophy

of

speaking,
usually

include

viz.,

use

in

it

compliance

philosophy

in

and
then

all

indeed

ineffectual

"have
not

the

been

within

the
and

so

throughout

of

speak
and

other

shall

by

words,

Philosophy

is

the

by

by

object

what

Methods
"

The

science

of

became
the

of

Human

and

Being.

Positive

shall

we

more

work

ot

restricted
that

Science

Mind

prevent

to

introduction

Inductive,
present

speculations

ontology,

Positive

as

the

ontology^

order

the

earlier

term

known

Philosophy

steps

the

but

metaphysics^

priori

In

and

its

in

sioned
occa-

slight

term

avoid

to

metaphysics

commonly
It

what

as

of

science.

time

same

designate

Speculation

Philosophy.
and

the

at

distasteful

distinguish

to

bounds,

subjects,

term

uncouth,

name

word

the

confusion
The

but

physical

of

use

the

its
lawful

of

this

made.

been

expressive,

scope

as

remedy

forward

brought

confusion,

sense

have

attempts

sometimes

words

To

its

great

no

by

enlarged

sciences
restricted

and

confusion.

great

and

earlier

the

Philosophy

physical

the

is

there

we

earliest

the

all

metaphysics

Greek

when

but

included

As

usage.

one

proving
disap-

philosophy,

word

the

only

to

Though

metaphysical,

designating

Philosophy;

of

general

essentially

was

impropriety
of

with

refer

to

As

sciences.

the

metaphysics.

sense

properly

should,

all

understood

called

restrictive

of

progress

is

science

the

title, and

vague

and

title

the

this

of

rise

the

employed;

science,

is

field

Baconian,

or

to

show

Science
was

how
;

enabled

in

INTRODUCTION.

XVI

for
conquer
present modicum
to

conviction

any

in

believe

the

is

thinkers

ideas

direct

the

greatly err

the

Are

are

write

of

omit

the

of

fount

natural

into

The

to

with

We

Europe.

Philosophy

no

the

Greeks.

only
sophy.
Philo-

historyof

is very
distinct from

whether

Greece

the

Greeks
imbibed

have

of

some

questionable
its Religion ;
was
materially

themselves

the

posed
sup-

wisdom

Oriental

modem

former

the

at

scholars,

on

doctrines

strange

in

inevitable

to

Coincidences

prove
coincidence

deep

to the

and

tendencies
direct

be

to

hereafter.

very
The

coincidences

of

thought.

Something

more

is

filiation.

is the historian's
distant

is attributable

explained
frequent in all speculation,
and
vast
so
a
subject as
vague
but
the
similarityof
nothing
prove

will

prejudice, which

spontaneous
A

modem

therefore,been

in the

thoughts.

that of

It

East.

is,that

acquainted

is attributable

Philosophy.
needed

it

Tme

valid.

and

all

nothing

as

it is, that

teachers

and

has,

Europe

Philosophy

any

line somewhere

the

nation's

Greece

the

blances
recognised in them strong resemsages, have
But
neither of these
of the Greeks.
the doctrines

are

latter

and

Eastern
to

reasons

its

wilderness

vast

feebly imitate

but

True

early

becoming

the

evi

the

countries

confessedly, had

questionable

by it.

their

first

had

East

more

influenced

Eastern

ancient

region of

one

the

out

that

every

to

Romans,

count
; their labours
We
omit
also
the

still

"and

the

of

incontestable, that
in

draw,

must

we

modern

on

in

ourselves

did

; and

own

whether

mark

to

us

historyof

The

influence

indirect

various

it

that

the

Rome.

their

Their

and

our

the

Philosophy

In

numerous

ourselves, therefore,

confine
We

so

on

is obvious

cannot

we

moderns.

signalizingthem.
history of the mind

lose

to

we

It

East?

of

ideas

the

is

requisiteto notice. Are we to follow


include
and
the Antediluvian
to
period? Are we
Egypspeculations of the Scythians, Persians, and tians

Brucker,
?

between

were

in

Having to trace the


activity,it is incumbent
epochs which we deem
trace

admit^that

once

between

parentage

parentage

of this filiation

cannot

we

at

erroneous

belief, that there


epochs ; a direct
dences

ideas, will

filiation of

speculations of the Greeks


science.
It
production of modem

but

and

centuries, its

long struggle of

All
those who
have
certajn knowledge.
of humanity,and
the steady development

direct

to

necessary

the

of
in

curious

the

itself,in

bogs.

He

will-o*-the-wisp,
leading him
the history of
has studied

Xviii
than

INTRODUCTION.

the

over-arch

Science

Positive
it is of

physics ; no bridge can


Philosophy and
separates
This
is a point which
irreconcileable.
are
importance to understand
dearly. Let us

the

which

chasm

the

utmost

brieflyindicate

Newtonian

and

Pythagorean

them.

the characteristics

of each.

Philosophy (metaphysical philosophy,

1) aspires

remember

Science
knowledge
The
one
aspiresonly to the knowledge of Laws.
pretends to
discover
in
their
what
from
themselves, apart
things are
ances
appearand
other
whence
The
to sense,
they came.
only wishes
discover
their modus
to
^s^
apaandi ; observing the constant
existences and
of phenomena
successions
themselves,
amongst
into
Law.*
and
In
other
them
words,
some
one
generalising
the

to

the

of Essences

endeavours

one

knows

limits

the

to

of

Possible.

how

ingenious
many
of Life
^how
many

take

To

All

Causes

that

conditions

is

it manifests

not

futile.

investigation,
examine

it is may

What

The

discovered

be

to

the
ciple!
Prin-

Vital

the

escapes
would
you

it,it

be

safely

and

under

what

discovered

by

proper

ways,

be

itself,may

discover

to

because

are

itself w^ith

popular subject,

respecting

thing which
because
it defies experiment ; when
is gone.
Is Life, then, an
enigma ?
pronounced
an
enigma; but in what
knows

"

Life

that

other

the

contents

made

frivolous

been

knows

been

have

theories

have

science

of

man

such

and

illustration from

an

"

Impossible

faculties

efforts

cause

Positive

Causes.

the

compass

human

the

and

investigations.
origin of things,
whatever
relates to the existence
of things,/dr
ue.^ causes
; and
the proper
sCy /.^., essences^ are
objects of Philosophy, and are
aims and
methods
from the
of
wholly and utterly eliminated
Irreversible

Positive
With

canon

broad

may

by

dear

find radical

prepared
they are guided.
to

Philosophy
The

who

reader
idea
to

and

of

desires

the

make

with.

the

to

nature

himself

and

of

the

of

master

of

John

Deductive.

both

are

conditions

and

who

to

Stuart

than

They

desires,moreover,

Mill's

Inductive,* a work
philosophical students,
intellect

two,

science, is earnestly recommended

and

scientific

the

between

dififerences in tjie Methods

perfect conviction,

System of Logic, Ratiocinative


all occasions, to recommend
education

Science

Positive

the

relates

palpable a distinction

and

be

which

whatever

Science.
so

we

any

work

we
as
we

incomparable
bound, on
for
doing more
feel

are

acquainted

INTRODUCTION.

this in commoD,
conclusions
from

have

that

they

both

are

established

xix

with

occupied

axioms.

here

But

ing
deduc-

the

blance
resem-

ends.
h priori ; that is
Philosophy is deductive
"All
bodies
d priori aixiom, such as
from
some
"

abhors

Nature

or

starting

say,
tend

philosopher

the

vacuum,"

to

rest/'

to

believes

that

deduced
the
from
axioo^ when
logical conclusions
applied to particularfacts,are absolutely true of those facts ;
be indisputable,the
conclusions, if mately
and, if the axiom
legitiall the

Mathematics
is the ideal of a
drawn, will be true.
deductive
science; it is wholly dprioriy and wholly true.
is deductive
Positive Science
d posteriori. It begins by first

ascertaining whether

the

axiom

which

from

it is

deduce

to

experimentalises; it puts nature


much
of "interrogation." After
the test
observation, it
to
the
to
certainty of a Law,
attains,by the inductive
process,
is inversely as the square
"Attraction
of the distance."
such
as
this certain
axiom.
From
deductions
law
A
are
equals an
conclusions

^^

indisputable.

Science

Positive

drawn.

it may
science

carried

be

on

commences

it has

perfect when

pronounced

It

further

and

reached

the

deduction

by

science

that

point

which

at

alone.

is

Such

is'Astronomy.

This

is the

then

the laborious
the

from

axioms

but

proceeds

one

taken

up

without
of

indispensableprocess

axioms
proceeds from
The
proceeds from
one

from

sophy
Philo-

priori
gone
having undercation;
previous verifi-

which
an

of

have

been

Assumption,

the

Fact.

mind

human

of the

law

the

Methods

the

other

rigidly verified.
It is

Science

fe,from

that

"

other

between

Positive

and
axioms

difference

speculationson

that

all ralities
genetruth
is to

to
the only road
begin deductively : and
is to
be
origin*of Positive Science
begin inductively. The
sought in Philosophy. The boldest and the grandest speculations
came

than

reward
of

sions
of the
him

first.

Man
of

that

could

stimulus

the

merely tracing the

Nothing

phenomena.

universe

needed

content

sustained

but

him

of

co-existences

solution

nothing

of

less

some

and

the
could

higher
succes"

mystery
tempt

had
nomy
Astrospeculation. Thus
its first impulse given to it by astrologers. Nightly did
in the hope of wresting
the stars
Chaldeans
the old
watch
the
their secret
influence
them
from
over
destiny of man.
from
Chemistry .came
Alchemy ; Physiology from Auguries
to

the

labour

of

INTRODUCTION.

XX

struggles,were
Many long and weary
years, of long and weary
their efiforts.
of
the
learned
to suspect
vanity
passed before men
First came
knowledge
altogether. Next
scepticism of human
came

arose.

Methods

the

scepticism of

followed.

had

men

Induction

laboriously,but as surely as slowly, did fhis


obtained
Axioms
into the rightpath.
lead men
method
were
:
of proof, that were
the
stood
test
had
axioms
adequate
^hat
expressions of general facts, not simply dogmatical expressions
Slowly and

Deduction

opinions.

of

again

its office ; this time

resumed

to

longer guess-work.
position occupied by Philosophy in the History of
Humanity, is that of the great Initiative to Positive Science.
the
forlorn
It was
perished in its
hope of humanity which
to
did
not
having led the way
perish without
efforts, but
victory. The present work is an attempt to trace the steps by
consists
its
in this attempt
which
this was
accomplished;
and
its unity.
ori'ginality
who
There
altogether deny the fact of progression;
are
many
who
regard Philosophy as something higher and greater than
good

purpose

it

no

was

The

Positive

Science

And

yet finished.

not

reign of Philosophy is
firmation.
point to Germany for conthey would
vidual
of Germans,
to
nothing of indisay
now
Englishmen, are
strugglingwith

believe

; who

Thousands
and

Frenchmen

the

doubts

same

It is very

those

adversaries.

our

belief

our

will

which

in

We

the

finallysweep

cannot
usurping. We
History. If Germany

"

and

great

retrograding :
race
to surprise,though much
even

led
at

Long

the

into

the

present

after

no

obscure

old.

space,

to combat

with

Progression

into the

mistake
is

behihd,

certain

the

minds

of

Greeks

of

claiming
pro-

Science,
of

corners

vidual
indi-

speculations which

of

to

the

ourselves

content

constant

away

all the

crotchets

a-head,

perplexed

have
pity 'tis 'tis true.*' We
occasion, to develop our
views, nor

true

of

which

those

the

and

"

is this the

nor

as

that

is

swamps

Philosophy boasts
of
the legible characters
humanity is marching far

conquests.

Individuals
There

steadilyadvancing.
to deplore, in the number
and

infinite

mists

of

may

is

be

nothing

of eminent

metaphysics,

day.

Astronomy

had

been

science, accepted

by

all

still its individual


investigators, Astrology had
a science,Alchemy
Long after Chemistry had become
after Physiology had
still tempted
become
Long
a
many.
still
and are
arduous
seekers after the Vital
science, there were
competent
votaries.

Xxi

INTRODUCTION.

But

Principle.

these

as

individual

do

errors

affect

not

the

and
general proposition respecting the wondrous
progressive
march
of Science, so also the individual
ever
metaphysicians, howform
proposi-1
real
the
eminent,
exception to
no
general
been
that
has
tion,
Philosophy
gradually
displaced by Positive \
Science, and will finallydisappear.
^
I
Metaphysics has been defined Fart de s'igareravec mtthode:

definition

no

The

of it

of

nature

for

to wander

in the
will

space

many
predecessors. In

Positive

Science

in
the

coincidences

words
each

is further

into

other

track

their

of

doctrine

of

at

inevitable.

are

Philosophy by !

distinguishedfrom

progress it everywhere

makes.

Its methods

daily extending
they are
certainty,because
immense
the
experience of
knowledge ; oecause
out
and of myriads of intelligences
their truth, withconfirms
Science
them.
of suspicion on
then
casting a shadow

years

and
continue
must
to
progresses,
progress.
in the same
circle.
Its first
endless
moves
much

made

with

and

same

moment

hopes of

as

them

of

vital

discussed

being
of

means

The

success.

of

united

be

in

solving them,
force

importance, and
of solution, without
the

in

ago.

Germany

ancient
with

have

Greece;
better

no

of

"

intellects,

made

the

past

problems, supposed
perfectly susceptible

on

believed
least

years

as

movement.

of thousands
that

the

greatest
among
concentrated
has
been
illustrious,
steadily
some

principlesare

thousand

as

were

better

no

Philosophy only

two
they were
although in constant
progress,
questions are being agitated

no

Precisely the
this

dispute

of

matter

has

It

to

scribed
circum-

certain

our

at

this

with

stamped

are

necessarilyfall

from

its followers

condemns

labyrinth,and

same

other

distant

incontestable

the

truer.

or

Philosophy, therefore,

ever

epochs widely

wittier

be

can

be

to

All

result.

this meditation
.

principles.
Centuries
of labour have not produced any perceptibleprogress.
is the history of
The
history of science on the other hand
in the
the same
So far from
questionsbeing discussed
progress.
discussion

and

'same
the

way
same

has

they

as

for

two

not

were

established

even

in ancient

generations.

Greece,
In

few

they

first

do

sciences

some

not
"

remain

Chemistry

behind
^ten
so
a book
example
years suffice to render
almost
useless.
of knowledge
state
to be
Everywhere
as
less
see
more
or
rapid,according to the greater
progress,

for

"

less
In

of
facility

the
we

or

investigation.

this constant

circular

movement

of

Philosophy

and

con*

INTRODUCTION.

Xxn

linear

stant

tion

of

the

has

made

Philosophy

is much

greater time
is

is in

It

yet been

progress
will be
none

is

of Positive

progress
former.

Science, we
vain

made,

we

not

that

limitations

the

and

no

conclude

difhculty of

fore
science,and thereperfection. The
difficulty

because
of

more

successions, is

human

of

to

the

argue
that of any

is made,
Impossibility. No
progress
possible. To aspire to the knowledge
their resemblances

condemna*
because

argue
therefore

to

for its

is needed

that

to

are

; it is in vain
greater than

the

see

faculties.

^'

to

To

certainty
than
mena,
phenocend
aspire to transno

know

more

we

he more."

must

is

This

conviction.

our

majority of thinking

is also

It

conviction

the

Consciously

of

the

unconsciously,they
They discredit,or disregard it. The
proof of this is in the general neglect into which
Philosophy
has
the
Positive
on
fallen,and
greater assiduity bestowed
this
Loud
of
Science.
Great
complaints
neglect are heard.
is
the
rail
Philosophers. They may
expressed by
contempt
will go its way.
and they may
The
empire
sneer, but the world
men.

or

Philosophy.

condemn

of Positive
We

Science
that

trust

is established.*

no

will

one

Philosophy.

think

we

suppose
do not,

of
slightingly

else why
this work?
or
Assuredly we
of our
nights and days, has
Philosophy has usurped too many
the
of
solace
been
the
too
object and
great a portion of our
with
from
Bat we
disrespect
us.
bygone lives,to meet
respect
that has
and
it as a great power
is.
It
the
no
been^
longer
was
the parent of Positive
impulse to all early speculation ; it was
Science.
It nourished
the
infant mind
of humanity
it
; gave
the nobler
aliment, and directed its faculties;rescued
part of
from
the dominion
of brutish
man
ignorance, stirred him with
insatiable

thirst for

knowledge,
toil.

undergo amazing
is no
longer necessary
The
only interest it can
to

leading feature

The

it from

all others

/ History

is

of

de

Let

can

those

master

the

subject

-who

have
doubt

Positive.'

this

All

any.
this
Let

(7^2^ ma^tfm

seek

is
:

it

other

satisfaction

every
of our

fulfilled;it
be

one

age.

who

set

aside.

interest.

which

firmly believes

that

content

was

distinguishes,
peculiarityof being a

one

the

who

one

impossible attempt,

an

Philosophie

Sophy

this work

he
been

should

historical

an

of

Philosophy, by

never

on

is

have

has

and

humanity,

to

which

slake

to

its office

Bat

never

has

historians

that

had
have

sophy
Philo-

any

titude,
cer-

believed

*
in Aug.uste Comte's
Couis
interest
takes an
in,ph^o"

Xxiil

INTRODUCTION.

in

of any
they have

trammels
so

;) but

Hitherto

no

be

suspected the possible truth


defined
merely been free, from
any

sophy
Philo-

system.

interest enough
metaphysician has seen
History of Philosophy ; besides, it c^ld not

the

without

written

the
were

of

not

but

one

in it to write

from

Ritter

and

"

they have

free

sometimes
been
They have
particularsystem
(Brucker

Philosophy.

long acquaintance with

subject, and

the

no

of the science
could well have
formed
sceptic of the possibility
that acquaintance, unless, like the present
writer, he was
a
sceptic after having been many
a believer.
years
We
write therefore
in the interest of Philosophy, but as
not
historians
to the History of Humanity.
Other
a contribution

divided

be

may

The

into

classes

two

opinions

collectingthe

one

erudite

the

the

and

speculative.
; the

philosophers

of

explaining those opinions. O.ur great aim is to trace the


development of philosophy ; and we seek therefore to explain
opinion^, though the latter are
methodsy rather than individual
of course
to our
plan.
necessary
Our
Our
scepticism will secure
plan is purely historical
other

impartiality
: since, believing no
another, though it
appreciate the value
it is

but

the

not

err, and
of
Most

doubtless
errors.

of

plausible,

more

every

be

we

can

Impartialityis

one.

than

truer

calmly
requisite,

Impartiality implies unbiassed


not
We
shall
imply correct judgment.
thankfully accept any indication of our

only

it does

; but

judgment

be

may

to

system

one

shall

one.

the ancient

writers

have

down

come

to

us

in

which
from
the skeleton
to judge
fragments. We have not even
of the livingfigure. Nothing but a thigh-bone here, a jaw-bone
But
the
elsewhere.
as
comparative anatomist
there, an arm
the nature
animal
and
often decide
habits of an
can
only
upon
from
an
inspection of its jaw-bone, being enabled, by his
the
of
the
knowledge
general animal
structure, to fill up
outline

nature

and

only

should

so

of the ancient
have

they
they
or

having

decided

of the
also

former

have
have

believed

believed

have

able

decide

to

philosophicaltheory

who

thinkers

either

be

from

upon
a

the

study of

twa

or

all historians

Now

We

of any

scope

fragment

historian

the

the

that

that

of the

explainthe opinions

to

in this condition

somewhat
to

all animals

of

nature

to

been

all animals

; Ritter

shall have

attempted

of

be

of

were

type.

one
one

specifictype ;
type,without

Hegel is

an

tion
illustra-

latter class.

conjecture what

was

the nature

of

the

Xxiv

INTRODUCTION.

from

system,
the

bias

of

founded

so

How

founded

on

is

much

we

skeleton.

his

the

of

will

much
it

is

the

for

readers

we

anatomist's

animal

be

of

the

decisions
Where

structure.

necessarily
to

will
and

mind,

human

decide.

from

free

are

decisions

Our

comparative

knowledge

erred,

the

of

as

But

theory.

knowledge

conjectural,
have

its

of

metaphysical

speculation

of

far

any

fragment

our

on

history
are

be

erroneous.

26

PHYSIOLOGISTS.

THE

country;

part which

his fellow-citizens.

him

for

the

inconsistent

writers, as

highest

of

esteem

activityin politicshas

immense

His

later

denied, by

earned

with

been

tradition,

the
life of

solitude
by Plato, of his having spent a
his
tude
affection for solithe other hand,
and meditation
; while, on
has been
questioned on the ground of his politicalactivity.
that the two
It seems
to us
things are perfectly compatible.
countenanced

Meditation

does

active

an

necessarilyunfit a man
all his time, leaving

not

life absorb

for action

him

does

; nor

tion.
for medita-

none

by meditation
before he acts ; and he will act, to test the truth of his opinions.
cient
of the Seven
Thales
Sages. This reputation is suffione
was
that
he
could
have
settle the dispute. It shows
not
to
for
the
Greek
been
Speculative Thinker;
a
mere
Sages
rather
than
It
dso
shows
all moralists
metaphysicians.
were
wise

The

that

he

could

will

man

been

have

not

aphorism

strengthen himself

"Know

mere

of action.

man

thyself,"reveals

His

nificent
mag-

tative
solitarymedi-

the

thinker.
Miletus
at
or

was

period we
Lydian yoke

the
a

was

fine

both

constitution

are

crushed

by

the

afforded

energies of

the

development
land

and

sea

flourishingGreek

speaking of, before

now

had
for

scene

commerce

of the most

one

finest

the

of mental

was

colonies
either
its

and,

Persian

population, it
energies. Its

immense.

political

Its

opportunities for individual

Thales
education
would
by birth and
development.
naturally have been fixed there ; and would
not, as it has often
into
have
travelled
been
said,
Egypt and Crete for the prosecution
studies.
of his'
These
assertions, though frequently
no
on
repeated, are based
only ground
trusty authority. The
is
the
fact of Thales
for the conjecture
being a proficientin
mathematical
knowledge ; and from very early times, as we see
both

in Herodotus,

it

was

the

fashion

to

derive

the

originof

almost

So little consistency
knowledge from Egypt,
narrative
his
is there,however,, in this
he is
that
of
voyages,
said to have astonished the Egyptians, by showing them
how
to
their
A
the height of
pyramids by their shadows.
measure
of
the simplest of mathematical
nation
by one
easily astonished
so
little
had
to teach.
problems could have
Perhaps the
travelled
into Egypt
or
that, if
strongest proof that he never
into communication
he travelled
came
there, that he never
of all trace, however
with the priests is the absence
slight,of
every

branch

of

"

"

any

Egyptian

doctrine

in

the

philosophy

of Thales

which

he

THALES,

might
address

found

home.

at

that

To

philosophy

now

we

ourselves.

The
first

have

not

27

characteristic

distinctive

period,
of

that

was

the

of

Ionian

the

physiologicalinquiry into

of

universe.

Thales

this

opened

its

School, in

tution
consti-

the

inquiry.

is

It

said, "Thales

taught that the principleof all things


water."
On
a first glance, this will perhaps appear
a
was
mere
A smile of pity will greet it,accompanied by a
extravagance.
reflection on
of his having
the smiler's part, of the unlikelihood
commonly

in

believed

ever

such

will be

slow

to

and

such

is worth

absurdity.

an

But

serious

the

student

his

The
predecessors of extravagance.
it is not
history of Philosophy may be the history of errors
;
that of follies.
that have
All the systems
appeared have had a
meaning. Only for this could they have been accepted.
pregnant
The
proportionate to the opinions of the epoch,
meaning was
as

accuse

penetrating.

that

extraordinarymen
revolution.

lived, and

ever

Such

Thales

man

was

of the

one

was

produced a
not
likely to

most

most

ordinary
extra-

have

ciated
enun-

child might have


philosophical thought which
any
There
deep meaning in the thought ; to him at
was
Above
all there was
to
deep meaning in the attempt

refuted.
least.
discover

this first of

abortive.

thought
and

Let
; let

growth

endeavour

us

us

problems
if

see

in hid

'

to

cannot

we

although
penetrate
in

some

the

attempt

itself

was

meaning of his
its rise
shape trace
the

mind.

It is characteristic
all

of

most

imaginable diversities

to,

philosophical minds, to
shall
one
principle. We

reduce
see

stances
in-

of our
narrative,to absolve
enough of this in the course
We
from
the
here.
us
necessity of any demonstration
may,
brief example.
it was
As
illustrate it by one
the
however,
inevitable
tendency of religious speculation to reduce
theism
polyto generalize all the supernatural powers
to monotheism
it the
also was
into one
so
expression
tendency of early
all possible modes
of
philosophical speculation to reduce
"

"

existence
Thales
not
"

but
the

generalizationof existence itself.


speculatingon the constitution of the universe could
the one
strive to discover
principle the primary Fact
into

one

"

substance,

modes.

Seeing

of which

around

all

him

special existences
constant

were

transformations

but
"

the

birth

of existence,
change of shape, of size,and of mode
of these variable states
tence
of exishe could
not
regard any one
therefore
Is
asked
existence itself. He
himself, What
as

and

death

"

THE

48

existence of which

that invariable
In

ask

To

world

with

Thales

had

men

contented

what

the

was

of

beginning

the

familiar
There

'"

the

about

With

the

mighty

waters

its

spent
to

wave,

rest

he

of

abroad

saw

him.

around

Ionian

answered

of his meditation

was

Could

mind

anything
the

than

upwards

boyhood

from

not

wandered

science,

nourishmg

and

the

upon

in peace,

the

long

blue

rolling evermore,"
sink
fiery energy,
there

be

Beginning.
an

ing
accept-

they

sea

beach

fairytales

gazing

When

the

to

he

to

looked

He

the

was

Had

water?

with

question

; the result

naturally present

more

universalityof
been

with

themselves

things.

he

be

vital

saw, he meditated
conviction
that Moisture

On

philosophical

of

as

felt that there


to

states t

variable

they found it ; with believing what


adoring what they could not see.

the

relative

the

are

is the

Hitherto

inquiry.
and

these

beginning of things ? *
this question was
the era
to
open

word, what

PHYSIOLOGISTS.

and
into

how

often

youth

result

hearing **the

expanse,

seeing
the

the

cool

he

must

sublime

of time."

red

bosom
have

ing
hav-

sun,

of the
been

led

the
contemplate
all-embracing all-engulphing sea, upon
breast
whose
This
earth
the very
itself reposed.
throbbing
finite ; and
that welling sea
earth how
how
infinite !
Once
the constitution
impressed with this idea, he examined
of the earth.
All
There
also he found
moisture
everywhere.
nourished
clared
itself he dethings he found
by moisture ; warmth
to
proceed from moisture ; the seeds of all things are
to

moist.

Water

Thus

declared

when

condensed

convinced
it

be

universal

the

of

becomes

earth.

presence

the

he
water,
moisture
what

of

beginning of things. Just


is to the ground, it has well been said,necessary
to its being what
it is,yet not
being the ground itself,
just such a thing did
Thales
find in himself, something
which
his body, but
not
was
without
which
which
his body would
it is ; without
be what
not
it would
be a dry husk
fallingto pieces.!
Thales
all the more
would
readilyadopt this notion from
its
*

harmonising
Had
of

"

historians
**

is the

one
'

with
said

things, they would

principle
t

to

has

Used

ancient
that

opinions;

instance

as

the beginning
was
taught that moisture
greatlysimplified the question ; our word

meaning.
by Aristotle, S^wp
art. Moral

for

Thales

have

another

Ency. Metrop.'

such

is the
word
correct
Beginning
'^"^*
i"
r^v dpxvv3*
Metaph, Philos.

ilvai

and

"

; and

'

THALBS.

Hesiod's
as
"

wherein

Theogony,

science

modern

explainingwhat
This

has

before

remark

leads

had

as

for

the

nature.

of Genesis

book

"

rectification

the

to

popular religionthat

the

performed
enigmatical."

to

regarded

were

relation

any

for

was
us

Thetis

and

Oceanus

the parents of all such


deities
He
thus
have
would
performed

which

19

of

serious

error,

which

is very generally entertained.


allude
We
to the supposed
Atheism
of Thales.
It is sufficient to name
the learned
Ritter,

and

the

brilliant,
ingenious Victor

Cousin, as upholders of this


Thales
opinion,to show that its refutation is requisite. Because
held
that water
the beginning of things, it is concluded
that
was
God
the
The
not
or
Gods, were
recognised by him.
only
in support
is the negative
of this conclusion
authorityadduced
it seems
But
that Aristotle's
to us
authority of Aristotle's silence.
silence is directlyagainst such a conclusion.
Would
he
have

silent

been

on

remarkable

so

of water
?
We
only in the existence
Cicero, when
speaking of Thales, expressly
water

which

the

be

to

created

beginning
from

them

things,but

of

think

cannot

that

says

God

lieved
be-

he
the

was

so.

held
mind

certainly object, with

We

water.

that Thales

point as

the conception of God


Hegel, to Cicero's attributing to Thales
vanced
adas
intelligence(vov"); that being the expression of more
Thales
did not
conceive
formative
philosophy.
any
Power
either
which
the primeval
principle,
as
or
Intelligence,by
moisture
fashioned.
had
of
He
was
conception
no
a Creative
in the ancient
believed
in the Gods
Power.
He
logy,
mytho; but,
the gimration of the Gods
fundamental
tenet
was
a
; he
believed,therefore,that the Gods, as all things,were
generated
from
Aristotle's account
bears only this interpretation.
water.
"

i. 3.

Met,

early

date.

period
history of

of the

In

this

is

Indeed,

to

But

the

in

twofold

human

the

of

elements

in

Atheism

any

radically

to

not

at

misconceive

of

so

such

the

race.

may

say

its influence

materia

prima

history,is

world's

conclusion, we

believe

is

Atheism

Atheism.

not

"

all

that

ist,

to

the

step taken

discover

things (17dp^^)

that

which

by Thales was
beginning, the

the

2dly,

select

to

from

omnipotent,
To
the
those
omnipresent.
acquainted with
hisiory of the
human
mind, both these notions will be significantof an entirely
In our
era.
Introduction, we stated the law of the progress
new

among

^nj. Con8ta^t,

Du

element

was

Polyth^isme Romaine,*

most

p.

167.

PHYSIOLOGISTS.

THE

50

of science to be this :

exhausted

mind

human

with a pure deductive method^the


Starting
all possible
its ingenuity,
in developing

satisfied with the vanityof its


theories,and, when
another method, the inductive ; till by means

it
efiforts^
of the

followed

accumulated

again enabled to.


position
occupied by Thales is that

deductively.The
of Philosophy;

reason

since he

of the Father

to furnish a formula

it was

of this method

treasures

which

from

to

CHAPTER

first in Greece

the

was

deductively.

reason

II.

ANAXIMENES.

is

Anaximander
agree

with

reasons

doing we

on

which

follow

of Anaximenes
Anaximander

by

most

Ritter in

our

historians

placed after Thales.

giving that place to

We

Anaximenes.

The
we
ground this arrangement are, ist, in so
safest guide,Aristotle.
2dly,the doctrines

development of those of Thales; whereas


a
totallydifferent line of speculation.
Indeed, the whole ordinaryarrangement of the Ionian School
to have
seems
proceeded on the conviction that each disciple
not
only contradicted his master, but also returned to the
are

the

follows

is made
Thus, Anaximander
Thales, though quite opposed to him ; whereas
of Thales,
Anaximenes, who
only carries out the principles
doctrines ^of his master's teacher.

to

succeed

is made

the

discipleof Anaximander.

When

state

we

that

21a

taken up by the lives of


are
generations,
years, i"e. six or seven
the four individuals said to stand in the successive relations of

teacher

r\

and
pupil,Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes, and
Anaxagoras, the reader will be able to estimate the value of
the traditional relationship.
truth is,only the names
The
of the great leaders in philosophy
were
thought worth preserving; all those who merely
the doctrine were
appliedor extended
very properlyconsigned
to

oblivion.

This

is also the

historyis composed.
placing Anaximenes

No
second

principle
upon

which

will therefore

one

Thales

the present

demur

his

to

our

disciple,
the
but as his historical successor
as
man
who,
taking
;
up the
where
Thales
and his disciples
left it,transmitted
speculation
in a more
il to his successors
developed form.
to

; not

as

DIOGENES

born

was

than

that

Miletus, probably in the

at

di^overed

31

nothingfurthei is known

Of the life of Anaximenes


he

APOLLONli.

OF

the

obliquityof

the

63rd Olympiad ;
of
ecliptic by means

and

the

gnomon.
the

the

truth

moved

him

His

his soul.

also without

not

he

less than

do

ever-present, invisible air?


and

which

was

withoQt

of

he

called

him

it

Soul, was
And, if so,

air
not

him,
a

thing
; some-

This

Was

he

there

ever-moving,

an

within

was

part of

the

this air t'he

not

was

why

air.

which

him

to

something

not

be

to

within

The

him

present.

ever

believed

not

was

knew

he

how,

himself
satisfy

not

Water

but
invisible,

soul

him,

could

felt within

He
not

himself

he

doctrine.

he knew

higher than
called

Thales,

of Thales'

significantelement

most

which

of

the method

Pursuing
with

him,

air which

Beginning

Things?
boked

He

aronnd

resolved

things are
of the

univeraal

nourished

was

This

life.

explanation of

the

reader
not

smile ;
a

All

earth

was

of

his system.

phenomena in a
many
but, as this history is

in
of

it:
in

all

part

that would

record
wilt

the
the

be

may

absurd

as

of

not

water; but

as

it to

applied

He

way
a

record of absurdities,we

mere

air
|"iaciple,
seen

firmed.
con-

broad

by air,as he

nourished

were

Compared with the doctrine


space by ftirthcr detail
this of Anaximeaes
As
presents a decided
progress.
is

from

produced

are

as

he breathed, he drew

things

idea

central

the

and

things

All

into it. When

The

by it.
the

was

thought his conjecture was

and

universal.*

it.

resting upon

leaf

him,

air seemed

The

conception of a principlefounded
stmt,rather than, as with Thales, on

make

Methods,

our
occupy
of Thales
a.

the
on

the

gical
physioloprogress
the analogies

analogies

of the seed.

CHAPTER
DIOGENES

of

Diogenes

although, from
is made
"

we

to

When
must

enei^y

and

undemUnd
form

or

is the

the uncritical

represent

Anaiimenes
Dot

delerminate

Apollonia

III.

on

capableof

no

APOLLONIA.

real

arrangement

epoch

earth, bat
infimie

when

as

elements
as

usually adopted,

whatever.

speaks of Air,
these

of Anaximenes,

successor

as

Water

transmntations,

Thus,
Thales

they appear
and

Air

he

Tennemaon

sjieaksof Waler,
in

thij

pregnant

or

with

that
vital

PHYSIOLOGISTS.

THE

33

places
says

that

know

we

Diogenes
been

to

of

Anaxagoras,

time

the

of the
to

may

the

to

conclusion

gave

the force

to

wider

and
more

of this

its ultimate

him

work

Nature

on

century

he

analogy,

limits.

constitutes

himself, that

asked

have

with

Struck

push the

he

assume

to

of

our

respectingAir as
deeper significathe analogy
to

of Anaximenes

tenet

^is
have

to

it.

from

by attaching himself

tenet,

Soul.

may

His

passages

is said

he

Olympiad.
Simplicius(the 6th

of

era),who extracted some


Diogenes adopted the
the originof things; but
cation

we

8oth

the

about

in

extant

was

state

than

More

at

contemporary

flourished

have

ApoUonia, in Crete.
with certainty
; but, as

bom

was

unable

are

we

Pythagoras.
Hegel, by a strange oversight,
of
nothing
Diogenes but the name.

after

him

What

Air

was

led

is

it,he

origin of

the

Air is a Soul : therefore


The
things ? Clearly its vital force.
it is living and
or
Intelligenceis a
intelligent.But this Force
itself;it
higher thing than the Air, through which it manifests
be the
must,
consequently be prior in point of time ; it must
The
Universe
is a living
philosophers have sought.
ap\ri
deriving its transformation
being, spontaneously evolving itself,
its own
from
vitality.
remarkable
There
two
are
points in this conception, both
first is
indicative of very great progress
in speculation. The
the attribute of Intelligence,with which
the apx^ ^^ endowed.
mated
anibe
the
Anaximenes
to
considered
an
primary substance
; Air

substance
not

the

in his system ; but


Intelligence. He conceived
was

necessarilyimply
vital principle. Diogenes

Force,

Intelligence; the

but

that

saw

Air

which

the

Soul

did

the Soul

Soul

the Soul
not

was

stirred within

him,

as

only
not

analogy oifhis
only prompted
The
soul on
the operations of the world.
to
Air, as the
stance
origin of all things,is necessarily an eternal, imperishable subwith consciousness
soul, it is also necessarily endowed
; but, as
is
another
this
and
it
knows
knowledge
much,"
:
of
for without
its
substance
the
Reason,"
proof
being
primary
;
he says,
all
be
it would
be
for
impossible
to
arranged duly
will be
and
consider
and
whatever
object we
proportionately;
tiful
beaufound
in the best and
ordered
most
to be arranged and
manner."
result
Order
can
only from
Intelligence; the
is therefore
First (apxq). This
Soul
the
doubtedly
unconception was
but

instructed.

carried

He

this

'*

"

"

its

great

importance,

nor

one

; but

suppose

that

the

that

the

reader
rest

of

may

not

exaggerate

Diogenes*

doctiiues

II.

BOOK

MATHEMATICIANS.

THE

I.

CHAPTER

wie

"As

for

now,

with

meet

will

unworthy
is

of

out

the

other

since

tenable,

source

find

between
In
at

the

their
a

elements

time,
The

were

On

it

began

becomes

to

independently
of

the

show

earlier

time

long

times

probable

once

"

in

without
we

"

Ritter,'

any
are

Ionia
external
about

now

p.

265.

and

the

the

that

nearly

within

only

that
of

result

the
at

semination
disthat

probable

however,
the

was

active

an

for

known

supposition,

the

shall

inadequate

philosophers

for

of

the

extremely

themselves

school

mind

to

indeed
we

nature

it appears

at

and

pursued,

or
mon
com-

one

Wheji

of

an

extensive

evidence

views

carried
from

from

largely

call

these

of

drew

very

prove

drawn

being

from

sufflcient

the

opinions,

systems

to

thought.

more

we

of

impulse

want,

chief

when

circle.

narrow

philosophical
national

their

of

opposite

very

command

respective

very

been

notices

truth,

of

habit

had

these

is far

rocal
recip-

evidence

and

argument

any

the

are

or

revolved

philosophers

national

fail

impossible

ideas

the

therewith,

controversial

universe.
means

one

olden

the

the

"

the

conflict

all

of

in

the

internal

the

is

tion
observa-

that
of

entirely

hand,
it

nevertheless,

directions

two

in

in

other

because

value,

acquaintance

apparent

these

on

ignorance

complete

the

the

evidences

either

sophy,
Philo-

Greek

superfluous,

historical
lines

two

limited

very

in

the

credit

of

deemed

be

of

developments,

philosophy,
of

history

the

contemporaneous

of

influence

in

time

first

perhaps,

not,

times

earliest

the

MILETUS.

OF

AMAXIMANDSR

the
real

various
the

same

connection."*
to

consider

was

Al^AXlMAMDEk

disciple,of Thales.

the
the

is

latter

at

the

sketch

of

and

distance

in

small

him

to

which

work

framed

calculations

were

committed

is said

He

passionately addicted

was

series

to

scientific
.

of the

all

and
size

writing

to

earliest of

the

be

to

inventions

sun-dial

His

heavenly bodies

of the

of the

that

times
some-

historycan

important

many

others

amongst

this

in

relation

politicaland

for

geographicalmap.

phical writings.
and

and

great;

former

in which

one

reputation,both
very

was

ascribed

are

any

the

friend, and

prefer the

We

not

rate

His

regard him.
knowledge,

called the

is sometimes

He

43rd Olympiad.

35

generallydated

is

birth

Miletus, whose

of

Anaximander,

MtLBTVS.

OP

philoso"

mathematics,

He
the
geometrical problems.
was
he
is also reported to
of a colony to ApoUonia
leader
; and
of the T3rrant Polycrates, in Samos,
resided
have
court
at the
also lived Pythagoras and
where
Anacreon.
No

historians

two

of

in their

agreed

are

of
interpretation

Anaxi-

doctrines; few,-indeed, are agreed in the historical


In
view
of the
oflferinga new
position he is to occupy.
call the reader's attention
of his philosophy, we
character
to
mander's

this

point,as

warrant

failure,if we

the

for

and

attempt,

as

an

excuse

for

fail.
is stated

Anaximander

the first

been

have

to

to

use

the

term

things.
term
beginning
by
ancient
the
writers
variously interpreted by
principle
; for,
in
that
unanimous
he
called
it
the
agreeing
although they are
he understood
what
by the infinite is yet
infinite(ro avcipov),

dpX^

What

of

^^^ ^^

he

this

meant

is

undecided.*
On

first view

nothing

Infinite

t^et:

*'The

looks

like the

is the

monotheism

less

well be

can

origin

of

far

of

than
intelligible

this

all

things." It either
later date,f or like the word-

minds
it is- neither
more
nor
jugglery of mysticism. To our
of Thales, that'
the tenet
less difficult of comprehension than
"
is the originof all things." Let us cast ourselves
Water
back
in imagination into those
cannot
see
^ifwe
early days, and
for the

account

rise of such

viewing Anaximander,

On
"

Which

267.
certainlycould not
kind, we may
merely

the

not

even

the

modern

rb

awiiftov

quoted

it

the

in

have
observe

been.
that

Limitless

less the
Power, much
conception. In Anaxagoras, who
to

opinion.
by side

side

with

his

great pre-

prevent any

tion
misconcep-

i.

Ritter/

of

an

be

Ritter.*

no

more

than

vastness."

To
the

Infinite

here

meant,

was

Limitless

Mind, implied in
lived a century later,we
find:
See
Simplicius^ Phys, 33, h.
.

t^

MATHEMATICIANS.

THE

friend

and

dccessor

Thales,

meditative

Thales,
concrete,

effort of
us

maxim,

famous

abstraction.
in him

see

physiologist;

let

presented themselves
mathematics
able

the

was

science

to

him

this

than

the

sciences, and

ultimate

tendency
moralist

how

in the abstract

of

the

things

all

how

form, and

we

shall

or

then

be

his tenets.

understand

to

his mind

to

things,"is

all

understand

to

of

Geometrician.

essentially
whose
Anaximander,

rather

geometrician
endeavour

us

the

was
thyself,"

to

concede

us

with

Instead

struck

the

see

we

Know

originof

Let

the

"

contrast

serve
as
a
may
The
Infinite is the

"

axiom,
let

Metaphysician,

whose

be

tendency of his speculations.

exclusively abstract
the

but

cannot

we

led, as we
Thales, in searching for the origin of things,was
mander,
AnaxiBut
Water
be that origin.
to
seen, to maintain
accustomed
to view
things in the abstract, could not
ultimate
a
thing as Water
accept so concrete
; something more
in the analysis was
which, in common
itself,
required. Water
it
with Thales, he held to be the material
of the universe, was
This
?
conditions
those
not
subject to conditions ? what were
to be
Moisture, of which all things are made, does it not cease

have

moisture

in many

of all,ever
Water

change,

itself is

reject,or

and

Vague

The

appear.

in words.

**

in Greek
in words

things.

cannot

of it

as

will

if it alone

to

said,

All, to atreipov.
theory will doubtless
a

distinction

mere

repeatedly
tinctions
generally equivalentto dis-

were

to

him

dpxrj,he

The

seem

Philosophy,

of

is the

caused

Thales

this

And, if the reader

matician, by the very nature


abstractions
entities,and
as
treat

"

AH

origin
individual
things?
be All Things.

with

Unlimited

profitless enough

But,
in

to

Thing

the

be

abstraction

notice, distinctions

tliat which

can

confounded

; but

; it must

Water

not

Thing

be

ever

And

of
objections to the doctrine
doctrine.
rather
to modify, that

These

was

instances

his

as

we

shall

the Mathe-

reflects how

science, is led

separate

constituted

for

iustBuce

regard
form, and
to

dody, there will

be

no

all
conceiving Anaximander*s
Finite Things and
the Infinite All.
It is thus only we
can
explain his tenet ; and it thus seems
borne
out
by the testimony of Aristotle and Theophrastus, who

in
difficulty

distinction

between

the
multitude
of
that, by the Infinite he understood
individual
which
of
by
things issued
elementary parts out
separation. "By separation^* the phrase is significant. It
agree,

"

means

the

passage

from

the

abstract

to

the

concrete

"

^the AU

realizingitself

Individual

in the

MILETUS.

OF

ANAXIMANDER

37

Call

Thing.

Infinite

the

is Existence

by
and

Existence, and say, "There


/^r se
the
aliud
former
Existence
the
Existence
is,
ever-livii\g
per
flow the various existingThings.** In this way
fountain
whence
Anaximander*s
meaning intelligible.
perhaps, make
you may,
Anaximander
is "represented as
Ritter.
Let
hear
now
us
the

of

name

"

arguing, that

primary

the

limitless

all-sufficient for the

be

substance

have

must

infinite

been

to

thingswith

varietyof produced

N^w, though Aristotle expressly


think
of it
characterizes
not
mixture, we must
a
as
a
multiplicityof primary material elements
mere
as
; for to the
of Anaximander
and
it was
mind
able
imperisha
Unity immortal
This production of individual
ever-producing energy.
an
things he derived from an eternal motion of the Infinite.'*
The
primary Being, according to Anaximander, is unquestionably

which

are

we

encompassed.

this infinite

"

an

itself the

Unity. It is One yet


multiplicityof elements

comprises

All.

It

from

which

within

all mundane

be
to
only need
of nature.
separated fropi it to appear as separate phenomena
this
Creation
is the decomposition of the Infinite. How
does
which
is the
decomposition originate? By the eternal motion
He
of the Infinite.
condition
the
regarded," says Ritter,
of incipiency, which, howInfinite as being in a constant
state
ever,
and
secretion
is nothing but a constant
concretion
of

things

composed

are

and

elements

these

"

immutable

certain

parts

of the

that

might
constantly changing, while

elements

whole

"

are

; so

we

well

the

say,

whole

the

is

unchangeable.*'
reader

The
do
"

True,

so.

the

origin of
to

say,
also
is

were

there

numbers

are

would

there
:

may
the

yet

so

all

"There

smile
idea

but

be

no

of

things
"

are

Number

is baseless

numbers

in the

the

this

logic; we would
elevatingan abstraction

at

into

j it

is

80,
2, 3, ^,
which
of
these
abstract,

concrete

numbers."

enough

i,

realisation
This

difficult is it for the human

is

a
as

100

without

to

Being
if
;

we

but

individual

preciselysimilar
mind

him

have

not

divest

Number
ing
reason-

itself of

than as
abstractions,and to consider them as no more
own
lies at the root
of the majority of
abstractions, that this error
It may
to some
ance
tolerhelp the reader
philosophicalsystems.
Anaximander's
if
inform
of
error
him, that two of the
we
celebrated
of
modern
philosophers
times, Hegel and
most
have
maintained
the
Cousin,
Victor
same
precisely
tenet, though
that
worded
Creation
is God
: they say
j5omewbat differently
its

38

THE

'

MATHEMATICIANS.

but
passing into activity,

by the act ; in other


finite Things
existence of God;
words, Creation is the mundane
but the eternal motion, the manifestation of the All.
are
Anaximander
separated himself from Thales by regarding the
of higher significance than
abstract
the
in
concrete
as
; and
this tendency we
the origin of the Pythagorean school, so
see
Thales

induction

As

his

founded,

and,

of this mathematical

the

earth

in the ratio

base

the limits of the

its

3 to

tendency

The

upon

we

may

point in

central

for, being of

by the aid and

centre

degree,

some

of
an

deduction.

physiologicalspeculations.
was

in

constitution

tion
facts,however
imperfect that inducspeculations of Anaximander
were
wholly
towards
mathematics, the
such, tended

as

example

mopceia

speculationsof

The
material

discoveringthe

were

The

of pure
an

school.

observed

be.

deductive;
science

they

from

might

mathematical

towards

tended

universe

the

the

called

often

exhausted

not

notice
his

cos-'

cylindricalform, with

altitude, it

retained

was

in its

by the equalityof its distances from

all

world.
,

From

foregoing exposition, the reader may


that ordinary historical arrangement

the

judge of the
which
places
the
of Thales.
It is clear, that
he
as
successor
of the great lines of speculative inquiry, and that

proprietyof
Anaximander

originatedone
perhaps, the
one,
one

jyas

remark.

more

held

most

to

be

real

his successors,
; and

was

antiquity. We will make


By Thales, Water, the origin of things,
of
physical element, which, in the hands

became

representativeemblem

Mind)

curious

the

looked

of

upon

into a merely
gradually transformed
something wholly diflferent (Life or
which

element
as

in all

lent its

secondary

name

as

the

tive
representa-

phenomenon,

derived

the emblem.
Water
primary force of which it was
with
the
with
real primary element
Thales
was
Diogenes,
\
but
Water
the
(having previouslybeen displaced for Air) was
from

that

of Mind.

emblem

similar

is observable

course

in the Italian

Anaximander's

conception of the All, though abstract^


is,nevertheless, to a great degree, physical: it is All Thiftgs.
it had not passed
His conception of the Infinite was
ideal
not
into the state of a symbol
^itwas
the mere
descriptionof the
Above
all,it involved no conception
primary fact of existence.
finite thing. His to Siwcipop
of intelligenceexcept as a mundane
Mind;
the
Infinite
This
the Infinite Existence, but not
was
school.

"

"

later

development

we

shall meet

ynth

hereafter

in the

Eleatics.

PYTHAGORAS.

$9

CHAPTER

II.

PYTHAGORAS.

It

will create

surprise^in

some

those

already familiar with

not

connexion
Pythagoras treated of in immediate
with. Anaximander
\ but, although for the strongest evidence
refi^ to the next
the Pythagorean
must
we
chapter, in which
doctrines
will be considered, yet we
adduce
at once
some
may
resided
the
of
at
court
slight collateral proof. Anaximander
So
Polycrates, at Samos, where
runs
Pythagoras also lived.
tradition.
this
tradition
be
Now, although
groundless, as
may
it
indicates
between
thinkers
connexion
the two
a
a
factyyet
firmly credited by ancient writers,and fullyconfirmed
by the

plan, to

our

spiritof

two

life of

The

of

the

see

systems.

Pythagoras

legends, from

which

is enshrouded

the

attempt

examined

in the dim
to

extricate

magnificence
hopeless.

it is

subject in its minutest


almost
details,and
everything that had been written
it.
Guided
on
by no sound principlesof historical scepticism,
with
the force of contradictory
were
we
perfectly bewildered
inclined
We
evidence.
to think that these
are
now
opposing
of
value
value
of
whatever.
testimonies
are
no
: that is,
equal
indications
trusted
Certain
doubtless
to be
are
general
; but
will endeavour
sketch
few
and
We
to
a
they are
vague.
Many

years

memoir

from

we
ago
consulted

this

them.

specimen of the trouble necessary


point in this biography, we will here cite the
As

settle any
various dates
to

inquiries into

one

given

his

birth,
Scholars, as
Bentley says 43rd Olympiad; Stanley, S3rd Oly. ; Gale, 6oth
Siculus,6ist Oly. ; Lloyd,
Oly. ; Dacier, 47 th Oly. ; Diodorus
Alex., 62nd
Oly. "
43rd Oly. ; Dodweli, 52nd Oly. ; Clemens
Eusebius, 63rd or 64th Oly. ; Thirwall, 51st Oly. ; Ritter,49th
within the limits of eighty-four
Oly. ; so that the accounts
vary
If we
with
should
decide
make
must
choice, we
a
years.
the

by

results

of

only from respect


; not
it agree^ with the
because

Bentley
but

their

for

; and

this receives

of the general scope

of hi"

magnificent scholar,
date

probable

and contemporary,
Pythagoras' friei\d
Pythagoras is usuallyclassed among
Mathematics

that

of

the

birth

of

Anaximander.
the

confirmation

founders
of
great
know
from what we

labours, and from the

statement

that

MATHEMATICIANS.

THE

40

chiefly
occupiedwith the determination of extension and
and
gravity, measuring the ratios of musical tones. His science
and skill are of course
absurdly exaggerated; as, indeed, is
his
life.
Fable assignshim the placeof a saint ;
of
every portion
he

was

miracles, and

of

worker

His

wisdom.

very
the son

birth

the
was

teacher

of

marvellous

than

more

human

accounts

some

of Hermes, others of Apollo : in proof


making
he is said to have exhibited a golden thigh.
of the latter,
the Daunian
With a word he tamed
bear, which was
laying
from
the country ; with a whisper he restrained an
waste
ox
him

He
heard to lecture at different places,
was
devouring beans.
such as Metapontum and Tauromenium, on the same
day and
he crossed the river,the river-god
As
hour.
at the same
saluted him with *' Hail, Pythagoras! " and to him the harmony
audible music.
of the Spheres was
these
Fable ens^irines
wonders.
But that they could exist,
is
of the greatness of Pythalore,
significant
as
even
legendary
goras.
It is well said by Sir Lytton Bulwer, in his brilliant
and thoughtful
work on Athens, that not only all the traditions
respectingPythagoras,but the certain fact of the mighty effect
that, in his single person, he afterwards wrought in Italy,
art of making
prove him also to have possessedthat nameless
and
mankind,
creatingindividual
a personalimpressionupon
is
who
which
obtain a moral
those
to
enthusiasm,
necessary

the founders of sects and institutions. It


of the time and the
conformitywith the manners
so
objectsof Pythagoras,tp believe that he diligently
explored
and political
the ancient religious
systems of Greece, from which

command,
is

and

much

he had

are

in

been

tions
long a stranger, that'we cannot
rejectthe tradiwith fable)
that he visited Delos, and
(howeverdisfigured
affected to receive instructions from the pious ministrants of
that Fable exalts into its
Delphi.* It is no ordinaryman
Whenever
find rotnanlic or miraculous
poeticalregion.
you
attributed to any man,
be certain
that that man
was
sustain
the weightof this crown
of fabulous
great enough to
glory. So with Pythagoras,we accept the evidence of Fable.
deeds

the fact thus indicated is to us


ordinarytradition of his havingborrowed
philosophyfrom the East. Could not
But

foreignteachers?

with
"

"

Athens

it Rise

and

refutation

all his
so

of

the

learningand

great

Assuredly he could

man

and

pense
disdid.

Fall,*vol. ii. p. 412,

"J

MATHEMATICIANS.

THE

42

king's authority

The

Priests

admit

to

Pythagoras therefore
Priests

Theban

to admit

loath

resolved
twenty

to

in

years

But

were

be

discouraged. He
patience, that they

not

such

returned

but

ceremonies, among

severe

could

with

Egypt, and

the

disgustthe novice,

To

into their confidence.

him

take

royal mandate,

several

injunctions

all their

as

he

prevail on

mysteries. They referred


antiq^ty. The

their rites.

undergo

to

to

of greater

the

by
to

circumcision.

was

obeyed

awed

stranger

him

they forced
which

Thebes,

to

were

their

to

stranger

"

sufficient

not

was

He

two-and-

spent

perfect

of

master

all

science.
is not

This
is not

bad

substantiated.

philosopher is
asked

am

beard

To

ascribed.

the

When

by Leontius,
philosopher,'' was

was

it has, however, one


Pythagoras the invention

story

what

he
his

was

the

This

"

gravely-answered
for, as
games;

art

be

"I

have

compared

to

he
I

art^.

no

having

never

it meant.

what

life may

it

of the woixi

Peloponnesus,

Leontius

reply.

before, asked

name

in

was

objection;

Pythagoras
the Olympic

this

seek
assembly some
glory and the
crowns
by the purchase or by the sale of merchandise
; some
seek gain ; and others, more
noble than either,go there neither
for gain nor
for applause, but solely to enjoy this wonderful
spectacle, and to see and know all that passes ; we, in the same
into the
quit our country, which is heaven, and come
manner,
for profit,many
work
world, which is an assembly where many
few
lor gain, and where
but
there
are
who, despising avarice
last
and
whom
It is these
I call
vanity, study nature.
noble
than to be a
philosophers; for,as there is nothing more
personal interest, so in this life the
spectator without
any
contemplation and knowledge of nature, are
infinitelymore
honourable

observe,

than
that

Pythagoras
the

where

Wisdom

the

meant

be

philosopher, and
mistress,to whom
The
Pythagoras.
man,

the

was

it,a

by system.
we

**

lover

extension
the
not

wisdom," is only
is given to
the word

"be-all

of

and

the

simply a taste,

or

his life is devoted.


which

word

vf/i)6%. But

sophoif or
what

application.''It is necessary
ordinary interpretatipnof Philosopher,

utmost

must

other

any

he

wished

pursuit.

This

had
to

before

by

wise

man,

"

lover."
of

It must

be his

the

distinguish himself

as

the

meaning of
designated a wise

was

philosophers of his day, by name,


What
the meaning of Spphos
was
mean

as

accurate

here"

end-all

to.

distinct

as

he

had

from
done

Unquestionably
from
philor
a

PYTHAGORAS.

sopher

wisdom

whose

one

who

loves

impractical,and
wisdom

; one
purposes
for the sake
as

of its

its

Contemplation

of
of

sake.

own

43

for its

not

him

to

was

who

those

Wisdom

Lover

of

sought

Wisdom

"

sake,

own

only

as

exercise

from

himself
be

for

purposes
sopher
Philoa

therefore

to

power

wisdom

base

demarcate

to

"

the

much

so

highest

the

down
To
to
bring wisdom
humanity.
He
desecration.
called himself
life,was

practical

to

Pythagoras loved

Now

uses.

turned

for

used

rior
ulte-

ends.
this

Does
of his

interpretationof

opinions
of

except

after

condemned

believe

We

his Secret
a

to

the word
so"

silence.

Many

all it

Above

Society,into
initiation.

severe

Philosopher explain any

which

For

five

no

explains the
one

years
relinquishedthe

admitted,

was
was

task

stitution
con-

the
in

novice

despair;

of the contemplation of pure


wisdom.
unworthy
they were
the tendency to loquacity was
observed
to be
Others, in whom

less, had

the

period
Various

commuted.

Various

humiliations

had

to

of their powers
made
experiments were
of self-denial.
By these Pythagoras judged whether
they were
into
fit to be admitted
worldly-minded, or whether
they were
the
of science.
Having purged their souls of the
sanctuary
and
baser particlesby purifications,
sacrifices,
initiations,
thejr
admitted
the higher part -of the
to the
were
sanctuary, where
the
soul
consists in
purged by
was
knowledge of truth, which
of
immaterial
eternal
For
this purand
the knowledge
things.
pose
he commenced
with Mathematics,
because, as they just
medium
and
the
between
incorporeal things,
corporeal
preserve
off
the
Sensible
mind
from
alone
draw
things and
they can
them
conduct
to
Intelligibles.
Shall we
venerated
He
wonder, then, that he was
a God.
as
all
who
could
transcend
so
earthly struggles,and the great
ambitions
of the greatest men,
to live only for the sake
of
as
he
than
of a higher stamp
not
wisdom, was
ordinary mortals ?
Well
historians
him
later
clothed
in robes of
might
as
picture
with gold,his aspect grave, majesticai,
white, his head crowned
calm
the manifestation
and
of any
human
joy, of any
; above
human
in
of
the deeper myssorrow
contemplation
; enwrapt
teries
of existence; listening to
the
of
music, and
hymns
and
Thales
Hesiod,
Homer,
listeningto the harmony of
; or
the spheres.
He
the first of Mystics.
was
And, to a lively,talkative,
quibbling,active,versatile people like the Greeks, what a grand
be

endured,

MATHEMATICIANS.

THE

"4

this solemn, earnest, silent,meditative


must
man
phenomenon
have
appeared.
borrow
the following
From
Sir Lytton Bulwcr's
Athens
we
of the political career
of Pythagoras :
account
Pythagoras
arrived
in Italy during the reign of Tarquinius Superbus, according
and
the
Aulus
to
Gellius, and
testimony of Cicero
his
residence
in
in
fixed
the Bay of Tarentum,
Croton, a city
'

'

**

"

colonized

by Greeks

partial credit
deavouring to

the

to

times,

Dissensions

from

soon

rose

the

body

arrival and

influence

himself

lent

the

native
of

power

organised

and

as

was

not

eloquent

office,and

sisting
(conrace

posterity of the
itself of the

philosopher.

aristocracies,and
his

But

tyranny.

least

at

contented

was

in

legislator.

different

availed

he refused,

unusual

senate

renowned

of

and

The

first the

and

the

to

of

population)

equally inimical to democracy


that of no
was
vulgar ambition
ostensible

appeared

objects.

; the

consolidation

the

to

an

first

doubtless

people

lend

may

he

preceptor

his

members,

the

that

youth, and,

from

of the

last

of

we

later

disciples,en*
superaddition some
original

seem,

city favoured

thousand

settlers,the
He

teacher

If

of

fables

florid

truth, it would

in the

of

from

tribe.

Achaean

extravagant

extract

of simple
germ
the character
of

in those

of the

for

with

was

policya

time,

instituting

formidable

and

society,not wholly dissimilar to


that
mighty order founded
by Loyola in times comparatively
The
into this society underwent
recent.
disciples admitted
and
examination
probation ; it was
through degrees that they
admitted
into its
passed into its higher honours, and were
the basis of the fraternity,
but
Religion made
deeper secrets.
with
of
ends
human
advancement
and
religion connected
He
selected the three hundred,' who, at Croton, formed
power.
his order, from
the noblest
families,and they were
professedly
know
reared
to
themselves, that so they might be fitted to
world.
the
command
It was
not
long before this society,of
which
the
to have
Pythagoras was
head, appears
supplanted
an

the

ancient
In

founder

he

also

senate,

the

ornaments

the

this
of

institution,
Pythagoras
Greek
philosophy resembles

differed

from

importance
and
taught them.
fifteen disciples of
of

obtained

and

the

of

other

He

women.

His
the

of his school.

sages

wife
softer

An

was
sex

administration.
legislative

stands

ot

alone

no

other

him.

By all accounts,
his time, in his estimate

is said to

have

herseif

philosopher, and

rank

among

order based

upon

lectured

the
so

to,

prominent

profound

PYTHAGORAS.

knowledge of
fail

to

all that

in

fascinate

can

Croton

"

mankind, could

cheat

or

His

temporary

secure

45

power.
^it extended

influence
Italian

other

to

not

was

bounded
un-

cities-=-it

overturned
or
political constitutions
amended,
and, had
;
and personal ambition, he
coarse
Pythagoras possessed a more
might, perhaps, have founded
a
mighty dynasty, and enriched
social annals
with the result of a new
his
But
our
experiment.
wished
He
the ambition, not
of a
was
hero, but a sage.
rather
than to exalt himself; his immediate
to establish
a system
followers
all the consequences
that
not
saw
might be derived
from
the fraternityhe founded
the political
designs of his
: and
and
philosophy, only for a while successful,
august
gorgeous
left behind
but
the mummeries
of
them
masonry,
an
impotent free-

"

had,

It

the

by

this

when

was

enthusiastic

the

and

mystic

so

power,

half-witted

of

and

cetics,
as-

revolutionary,

so

societies, established

branch

of

means

ceremonies

itself

throughout a considerable
portion of Italy, that a general
feeling of alarm and suspicion broke out against the sage and
his sectarians.
ti-Pythagorean
The
an
risings,according to
and active to be rememPorphyry, were
sufficiently
numerous
bered
of
generations afterwards.
Many
said to have
it is doubtful
perished, and

for

friends

long

are

himself

victim

the

sage's

whether

fell a
of his enemies, or
to
Pythagoras
rage
his
Nor
disciplesat Metapontum.
died, a fugitive,amongst
until
it
the
whole
of
Lower
torn
Italy was
was
nearly
by
into
herself
drawn
the contest, as
Greece
convulsions, and
that
the
ferment
arbiter,
pacificator and
was
allayed: the
institutions
abolished, and the timocratic
were
Pythagorean
the

"

democracies

the

of

intellectual

but

Achseans

rose

the

upon

ruins

of

those

ungenial oligarchies.

fatal error
when, in his attempt to
a
Pythagoras committed
revolutionise
aristocracies
for his
to
society,he had recourse
influenced
Revolutions, especially those
by religion,
agents.
"

can

from

be

never

this

worked
of

by popular

but

out

that

judgment

he

emotions.

enlisted

It

was

the

people against
account
Neanthes, related by Porphyry,
; for, by
from
all other testimony,it is clearlyevident
and indeed
that to
his
fall
be
ascribed.
must
It is
popular, not party, commotion,
error

him

no

the

less

clear

remained,
"own

by

his

of

that, after his death, while

politicalcode

philosophers, which

crumbled

spring

his

philosophical sect

away.

up

into

The

Great

only seeds

States,are

THE

46
those
of the

We

for

that,whether
Many,"
cannot

respecting
day, in the

MATHEMATICIANS.

good

planted in the hearts

evil,are

or

omit

the story which


so
long amused
his discovery of the musical chords.
of

shop

the world

Hearing one
men
striking

blacksmith, a
that all the
iron, he remarked
successively
hammers
chords, viz.,the
produced harmonious
except one
and the third; but the sound between
the fifth
octave, the fifth,
discordant.
On
and third was
entering the workshop, he found
the diversity
of sounds
was
owing to the difference in the weight
of

number

piece of heated

of the hammers.

He

took

the

weights,and

reaching
suspended
equal dimensions, and, hanging
of
the strings,
the
end
each
of
a weight at
equal to the weight
and found
of each hammer,
he struck the strings,
the sounds
He
then
proceeded
correspond with those of the hammers.
home

to

the

four

formation

of

musical
in

this. Dr. Bumey,


Though both hammers
On

**

ftncients and

on

scale.
his

History of Music,

anvil have

and
with

moderns

examination

exact

stringsof

been

ostrich-like

most

remarks

swallowed

"

by

digestion; yet,

of
experiment,it appears that hammers
will
no
more
weight
produce different tones
the
than
bows
same
anvil,
or
clappers of different size
upon
will from the same
stringor bell."
of the life of Pythagoras with
We
close here our
account
for the fabulous and
reminding the reader that one great reason
upon

and

different size and

contradictory assertions
biographies, arises from
authorities

"

been

collected

together in histories

uncritical

the
used.

in

manner

which

and
the
"

"

authority
only one
his life of Pythagoras, with a
example
wrote
: lamblicus
as
an
of Christianity,
view
of combating the risingdoctrine
and of
Christ.
opposing, by implication,a Pagan philosopher to
**

If

miracles

the

Hence
our

have

account

certain materials

that

for

better

"ri-

take

attributed

were

is 'somewhat

lWiii*i"rn

iMj^'^H

To

him.

to

slender, it is
one

"

are

"^^MiM".MM""

extant.

"

so

because

no

OF

PHILOSOPHIC

PYTHAGORAS.

III.

CHAPTER

PHILOSOPHY

There

is

no

difficult

to

seize and

known
the

the

as

world

It has

air

An

class, surrounds

it.

be

to

as

so

of

often

historymore

our

than

that

commonly

prodigious

made

mystery,

confounded

with

always imdting

to

marvellous

The

of

course

accurately

represent

much

Echoes.

founder;

whole

Pythagorean.

so

PYTHAGORAS.

OF

in the

system

47

relations

of

noise

in

its distant

large

its illustrious

the

of
assimilation
it contains
various
supposed
of Eastern
elements
speculation ; and the supposed symbolical
of its doctrines, have
all equally combined
it
nature
to render
attractive
in it has
and
been
contradictory. Every dogma

traced

to

the property

called

be

priorphilosophy.

some

of the

Not

teacher

vestigewill
himself,if we
a

remain
restore

to
to

Jews, Indians, Egyptians,Chaldeans, Phoenicians, nay even


Thracians, those various portions which he is declared to have
the

borrowed
this

All

and,

show

to

were

"

this

what

on

false

here, however,

can

incline

plagiarism we

pretended

improbable
We

them.

from

think

to

extremely

critical

history,we should
assumptions it is grounded.
record

merely

deavour
en-

conviction

our

that

of Anaximander
that his
a
Pythagoras was
; and
consequence
doctrines,in a:s far as we can gather from their leading tendency,

but

were

At

continuation

of

which

the

outset

be -in

that

of

Anaximander

was

premise,

must

we

abstract

deductive

and

sophy
philo-

the chief.

interest there

that whatever

as
particular opinions recorded
is
such
a process
quite incompatible
belonging to Pythagoras,
still
with our
The
exists,and must
plan.
greatest uncertainty
for ever
scholars, respecting the genuineness of
exist,amongst
such as are recorded
those opinions. Even
by trusty authorities,
attributed
the Pythagoreans,*'
them
to
by
are
always vaguely
criticism
that
Modern
has
to Pythagoras.
not
clearly shown

may

following

the

out

"

that
The

the

supposed

All

Plato

and

cannot

to Timseus

treatise of
even

have

Aristotle, the

in this matter,
Pythagoras. The

trusted
to

attributed

works

the

do
reason

and

Ocellus
been

only
not

Archytas
Lucanus

written

ancient

spurious;

are
on

by

writers

tlie

nature

and

of

Pythagorean.

who

are

to

"be

peculiar doctrines
is simple. Pythagoras taught only
attribute

any

MATHEMATICIANS.

THE

48
in secret

; and

impossible accurately
His

taught.
school

influence
this

; and

immense

distinctive

from

learn

to

those

what

their minds

over

influence

not

to

his

doctrine

accordant

one

is

selves
disciplesthemwas
ably
unquestion-

communicate

would

but

tendency

taught his disciplesit

he

What

wrote.

never

tendency in the direction


carry
best suited his taste and
which
powers.*
of ascertainingaccurately what
The
extreme
difficulty
goras
Pythahis disciples thought, will not
what
thought, or even
but ascertain
the general tendency of
embarrass
can
us, if we

renders

tendency
it does

compel

not

our

country

this

to

we

were

school

The

materials

of

that

to

method

school

"

of

Simon.
of

Like

his

system.

over

their

took

deep

Leroux,

was

be

the

case,

communicated
almost

Pytliagoras,makes
the

yet

with
reader

"

Le

it to

P^re

very
will

his Titan

highest of the sciences


aifvoXC' Prom,, 451.

in

names

but

; for

country

the

Pythagorean
tendency wholly

we

do

it groundlessly.
assume
Saint
by the cdebraled
account
published no complete
not

his

disciples, and,

tendency

in

M.

his

philosophy

different

minds.

appreciate this

Thierry, Auguste
results

his influence

as

of

Bazard,

when

Pierre
Comte,
"c., all disciples

disciple of
for men.
having
Number,
t^Qxov "ro^i"rfidinav,
^i)v djoi0/i6v,
c^cvpoy
remember

boast

; Kai

and

afforded

Enfantin,

different

mathematics

subsequently Hippar-

fruits
different
very
French
writers will

Augustin

Chevalier,

classical

of

; the

unparalleled, the

MM.

enumerate

Simon,

The

Deductive

Philolaus,and

root,

Michel

Saint

He

of that

geologists.

tendency

by the striking analogy


Pythagoras, the Frenchman

minds

simply

of

to

also

greatest

though producing
moderately acquainted with

Those
we

this

assume

guided

are

to

of

and

and
We

We

the

Archytas
Ptolemy, t

astronomy

of

abstractions, as the only true


Hence
the name
not
unfrequently given
Mathematical."
The
the
list of Pythagoreans

science.

embraces

chus

purely

consideration

the

towards

and

sake

the great outlines


of
do without
absolutely

varieties

be

to

method

the

map

enabled

internal

the

; but

encounter
we
may
of the philosophical

ascertain

to

and

opinion

the

out

be

may

being acquainted with the


geographers are not bound
What

of

fortress

careful

be

must

method

for

march

our

torian
his-

indirectly; it

us

liable to contradiction

more

trace

critical

the

characteristic

the

interrupt

to

us

have

We

we

and

individual

every

way.

world

to

hazardous

more

storming

each

endeavour

our

seize

tiieir

peculiarityof

the

all,

difficulty,which, for
insuperable, only affects

believe

we

above

this

Because

method.

that

out

speculations, and,

their

on

would

scholar

for each

of

that

^schylus,

discovered

THB

50

Infinite ;
In
One.

MATHEMATICIANS.

all numbers

so

original One,

the

relations

numerical

but

are

all numbers

of

the

containedi and

are

of the whole
world.
consequently the elements
the
is necessarily the apx^
that One
Observe, moreover,
beginning of things,so eagerly sought by philosophers,since,
wherever
Suppose the
begin ivith One.
begin, you must
you
to make
number
be three, and
you strike off the initial number
"

the

two,

Beginning
The

quibble

verbal

need

mistook
has
to

distinctions
said

well

been

of

abstract

unmeaning.
that

and

Greeks

this,

One

as

indeed

the

were

and,

as

natural

"

that

all the

the

those

there

But

be

to

but

clear

more

able

the

tion
introduc-

not

therefore

fixed,so
securely
this

making

of

ways

and
them

employ

to

two

were

first attempts

philosophising,necessarily,

abstractions

vague

coherently.

indeed,

vague

step in

next

led

the

consequence,
in things. It

distinctions

for

Whewell,

conceptions,

whole

sincerity
unfortunately acquainted

suspicion of

any

their own;
in language

logicalfaculty should

the

is the

word

operations of Nature,

And

make

to

excite

by Mr.

the

comprehend

was

but

language

no

In

One,

which

on

not

The

Pythagoras.

with

be

things.

of all

system, reposes,
of

will

then

second

the
by examining the words
only, and
the
other
thoughts which
they call up;
by attending to the
fact" and things which
into use.
The
bring these abstract terms
the

attempt;

followed

Greeks
It is
any
of

one

the

only by

of

means

or

the

Pythagoras ; it is only thus


that
could
have
held
Numbers
this

philosophy

which

course,

that

existence

sensible

half

the

only

reason

explanation ?
entirelywith

of

The

so

we

the

things

that

but

mathematicians

those

how

Aristotle

he

butes
attri-

for mathematics,

Pythagoras
abstract

"

can

we
as

understand

Beings.
of

failed.'* *

wire-drawn

can

were

itself with

concerns

and

explanation

above

the fondness

to

material

to

notional

the belief in distinctions

credit

way

verbal

with

not

the

surely this is only


in our
day not

the
stand
as
symbols, which
sentative
repreof things, without
having the least affinityor resemblance
the things (being wholly arbitrary marks)
but very
,

many

of

inspecting
symbols.
those

who

these

never

things about

the
Much

of

never

"

men

the

use

History

trouble

themselves

at

which

all

with

of
they reason
by means
is carried on
science
of Astronomy
by
is
it
carried
on
telescope ;
by figures

of the

Inductive

Sciences/

i. p. 34.

PHILOSOPHY

upon

they
numbers

distinction.

he

and

in

to

with

variance'

all

we

When

*'

of

were

Ritter

be

great

centuries

numbers
therefore

only

can

commit

to

know

that

symbol.

formula

us
appears
several
antedate
by

to

believed

He

merely
Pythagorean

the

S"

those

of

not
reality,

that

PYTHAGORAS.

ever,
figures. Because, howas
symbols, they do not suJ)posethat
able
not
symbols. But Pythagoras was

than

more

this

things in
says

calculations

numbers

use

are

make

to

and

paper,

OF

mode

bolically,"
sym-

anachronism,
thought at

of

Philosophy

Greek

taken

variance

; at

The
Aristotle,who
says :
from
Pythagoreans did not separate Numbers
Things.
They
Number
be the Principle and
held
to
Material
of things, no
their
and
i.
than
less
notion
Met^
essence
5.* The
power."
in
of
the
because
that
state
philosophy, cannot
present
we,
otherwise
coriceive
Numbers
than
as
symbols, that therefore
in the same
have conceived
them
is one
Pythagoras must
way,
which
has been
hold
to be
widely spread, but which
we
very
Shakspeare*s making Hector
as
as
great an anachronism
quote
with

also

the

of

testimony

express

''

"

Aristode,
the

Racine's

or

Aulis.

at

camp

considerable

with

admits

the

that

world

all in the

All

from

or

Ritter

And

essential

points in

doctrine

of

rests

proceeds

the
or

on

''

this
the

philosophy,

derivation

relations,and
time

and

space

from

pluralityof units

the

himself, after having stated

mathematical

from

etiquetteof Versailles,in

various

detail the

relations

of the
numbers.

exhibiting the

into

originalone,

on

of

lution
reso-

of units

those

or

primary number,

or

into

numbers

the

which

the

in

one

that this
life-developmentdivides itself." Now, to suppose
doctrine was
simply mathematical, and not mathematico-cosmological is to violate all principlesof historical philosophy ; for it
the opinions of our
is to throw
day into the period of Pythagoras.
its

For

proof, consider

dpiOfiMv. "Things

Toiv

oma

final

formula, which

will

combating,
meaning of Pythagoras
are

we

on

the

to be

defined

xad)/
("i"C
The

re

fiXjyas
cut

whole

symbolical

copies of Numbers."
favourable

the

to

directlythe

of

reverse

say, ''Numbers
existence
(OXi^v

materialise cap.

3),

and

of

notion

the

real

symbolical.
the

are

rdiq

their

ra

This

inspection exhibit

to

"tvai

fufirf"rw

ovai

ning
beginhe

has

modifications

!f^"tc).**

chapter
use

causa

formula,

most

close

be more
accurate
Perhaps it would
their
of things, the cause
material
of

before

.^See

are

is the

of all others

the

of

'Appendix

should

be

consulted

by

had
belief Aristotle
numbers,
a
translation of the
A."' where
a

those

who

believe

in

the

certainlyno suspicion of.


chapter is given.

MATHEMATICIANS.

THE

52

feymbolsare

arbitrarymarks, bearing
fl, ^, r,
makes
them

things they represent;


mathematician

the

; but

things

This

is

call

would

one

no

far clear.

so

is

it

is

One

realization
be

stone

stone

another
This

One

dust,

to

copy

o^the

may

appear

of

a* concrete

One
stone.

particleof dust

it is the
;
Let
the

is stilla copy,'

One.

metaphysical

somewhat

it is thus

sophistical
;

but

doctrine

Pythagoras.

of

the

original
Thus

Numbers.*
copy

abstract

frincipia

iht

be

to

shall

We

the
tilings,

are

it is
into

and

said

are

Things

essence

of

existences

material

of

in

explanations.

concrete

Of

tity.
quan-

of

meaning

Numbers

are

in anterior
the

unknown

an

is the

what

such

of the abstract

ground

copy of

the

invariable,
as

or
symbols of quantities,

ihey

forms

remain

which

essences,
stone

the

that

meant

the

Numbers

when

that

and

alphabet

but

if

of the

letters

the

to

are

But

being copies of Numbers,


seek
The
meaning we must
find
that
there
Things are
Existence;

resemblance

no

that

to

represent

we

will

reader

The

and

bear

not

little

ourselves

mind

in

the

the

only a few mystical expressions,


is the
Number
such
that
principle of Things," handed
as
of a Thinker, who
the doctrines
created
down
to us
as
a conniably
undesiderable
influence
on
philosophy was
school, and whose
these
We
immense.
have
to intierpret
as
we
expressions
of

fiaiure

have

We

task.

our

"

best

Above

can.

all, we

plausibility;and

of

have

to

not

so

this

give

them

much

some

appearance

an

appearance
have
would

of

modern
what
been
thinkers
as
plausibility to
have familiarized
Now, as far as we
plausible to the ancients.
with the antique mode
ourselves
of thought, our
interpretation
of Pythagoras is one
which, if not the true, is at any rate very
he
analogous to it ; by such a logical process
might have

arrived
the

his

at
as

same

The
Numbers

could
The
effect

"

Numbers

tion.

arrived

at

for

our

them

purpose

this is almost

by it.'

questions are these two : Did Pythagoras regard


as
symbols, or as Entities?
and, if as Entities,how
such an
opinion have originated?
first question is decisively answered
by Aristotle,to the
that Numbers
the real Beings, and
were
Essences, were

Hence

the

had

and

great

had
are

essences

See

must

we

Pythagoras
but

conclusions,

if he

our

at

not

the
which

caution

against supposing, as is not unfrcquent, that


definite proportions."
anticipated the theory of
laws
of combination, nor
the expression of those laws,

aU

*'

remain

Introduction.

invariable

under

every

vaiietyof
"

combina**

PHILOSOPHY

OF

PYTHAGORAS,

5j

thrown
have
shown.
Doubts
merely Symbols, as we
are
Aristotle's authority ; he is said to have
misunderstood
and
on
be
It may
have
misrepresented Pythagoras.
so
no
; but we
either accept or
must
authority at all equal to him, and
we
the
be silent on
reject him entirely : and, if the latter,we must
whole
subject. Now, we not only accept his testimony as the
but
find
it quite consonant
with
the
we
Only valuable
one,
to
opihions antecedent
Pythagoras ; those namely of his friend
Anaximander.
We
such
should
opinions
say d priori that some
mander.
of Pythagoras
those
have
followed
those of Anaximust
as
not

The

first

remained
to

do

question

for

us

to

of

this

then

being
the

answer

answered

second

by
have

we

Aristotle, it
endeavoured

so.

The

nature

various

opinions

attributed

we

instance

his

may

forbids

work

to

him

celebrated

detailed

any

of the

account

subsidiary points.

on

of

theory

music

the

But

of

the

method
good specimen of the deductive
employed
that everything in the great Arrangement
Assuming
which
be
he called
the world, must
harmoniously
(#co"r/Aos),
the
that the
at
arranged, and, assuming
planets were
same
the divisions
another
from
of
proportionate distances
as
one
in
he
that
the
concluded
monochord,
passing through the
make
would
ether
sound, and that this sound
a
they must
vary
of
their magnitude,
velocity, and
according to the diversity
the
Saturn
relative distance.
deepest tone, as being the
gave

spheres
by him.

as

farthest

the

from

nearest

be

It may

the

Moon

shrillest,as

the

gave

being

earth.

the

to

earth

just

necessary

to

that

state

the

to

attempt

make

solid basis, and


is utterly without
Pythagoras a Monotheist
unworthy of refutation.
The
is of too great and
of Transmigration
doctrine
of Souls

general
been

also

rather

ue.

regarded

with

no

course

the

perfect.

for
as

us

to

was

all.

two

therefore

was

accursed.

as

De

soul

to

or

be
i.

AnimA^
was

it is moved,

regain its
departure from
to

It has

little reason,

number,

far

silence.

the

Aristy

"

it strives
called

very

defined

He

it was
as
soul, inasmuch
all perfection, in as
But

into

in

over

with

self-moved.

imperfection,whence
perfection. Imperfection he
pass

it

pass

symbolical
at

reason

(unity)which

monad
Of

interest

an

a
2.

One,
must
state

of

unity;

in

soul

The
it has

three

MATHEMATICIANS.

THE

'

54

is in

man

comparative imperfection: ^
(m)s)yIntelligence("^V)9 ^^^

of

state

elements, Reason

has in common
last man
(^v/ao$)
; the two
characteristic.
It
first is his distinguishing

with

Desire
the

brutes

hence

has

been

maintained
the
have
not
Pythagoras could
of transmigration ; his distinguishingman
doctrine
from brutes
being a refutation df those who charge him with the doctrine, t
concluded

that

Without

the

disputing

this

of

ingenuity

argument,

The
wholly unconvinced
Soul, being
by it. \
is
itself with two
it connect
One, whether
monad,
in other

words
The

festations.

Desire,

and

the

essence

One
in

as

remains

soul

brutes

may

aspects

two

with

or

have

three

three;

its mani"

whatever

same

it may

or

the

have

are

we

self-moved

Intelligence

aspects,

as

in

predominate, and the


will then
become
eminently rational,or able, or sensual ;
man
beast
of
he will be a philosopher, a man
the world, or
a
of
and
the
Hence
importance of the Pythagorean initiation,
studies

the

shrivel

What
"

why

may

condition
itself

of

that

thing

has. its peculiarevil tastes,

of

different

which

itself;
in

the
abiding
adapted and reduced

necessity of

the

to

beneath

creatures

it had

?""

closing this

In

have

which
mander

there
science

Thus

maintained

nnmbers,
t

Pierre

Plato
And

is

It

it

of

account

further

only

philosophy.

45.

not

law

soul

under

be

And, if something higher


accurately determining its

Each

likeness

the

to

than

Aijd, if something lower

be

not

and

before

become

there
may
and
descent

it

look

something higher

not

bringing it

of

lower,

elevation

we

shrink and
after,can
incapacityof contemplating aught but the
what
depths of degeneracy it is capable I

it may

beast

may

Music.

and

can

an

moment,

itself,why
and

aspects

of Mathematics

itself into

present

these

soul, which

This

"

of

each

But

man.

remained

in
a

its relation

offshoot

clearly an

of

frankly mathematical.

Aristotle

expresses

the

and

himself

when

to

the

preceding

Anaximander*s

of

logical

more

trace

doctrine,

imperfectlyknown

very

exhibit

to

develops

is

trine,
doc-

In Anaxi-

manner.

goras
physicalinquiry; in PythaNumber
that
Assuming
he

the

that

Pythagoreans
combination
of
intelligence to be a certain
Se Toiovdi {sc,rwv
i.
to
Met,,
ipiOfA"v)if'vxi)
"""
5,
vovc*
De
vol. i. p. 390-426.
THamanit^/
Leroux,
the transmigration to beasts.
distinctlymentions
PJuedrus, p.
the
of the
Pythagorean Timseus, in his statement
doctrine, as
soul

says

"

"

beasts.
Tttrueus, p. 45.
expressly includes
and
f *Ency. Metrop.'" art. Moral
Metaphy,
"

Pkihs.

PHILOSOPHY

is

the

invariable

real

deduction
and

that

from

OF

is

world
the

all

doctrine

system

which

the

developed.
of

One

is

an

maintained
the

that

world."
than

more

later

as

the

the

its

an

the

the

Ionian

its

who

those
in

the

of
the

for

Pythagorean

transmigration,
Number

invariable

represents

Philosophy;

argue

second

the
he

is

parallel

his

the

as

epoch
with

this

the

of

be

the

World

second

as

doctrine
of

Essence

Anaximenes.

renounce

central

the

only

Essence

must

the

come
be-

to

abdication
to

of

doctrine,
and

sively
succes-

^p^v,

invariable
Soul

pass

can

it

them

the

trine
doc-

very

state

not

prove

of

num5er.

self-moved,
which

does

distinctly

(phenomena)

in

much

menon
pheno-

as

Intelligence,

concupiscible,

and

doctrine

system,

Pythagoras
of

and

in

plant,

i^ovs,

Intelligence

Intelligence,

both
of

and

manifestations

Assuredly

or

lie

to

is

is

essential

an

take
which

Monad,

Reason,

and

Reason

of

no

anxiously

so

Mind

Mind

regarded

we

of

writers

of

soul

"

opinion

the

Infinite

an

frequently
of

for

later
of

only

assertion
the

sensual

merely

which

manifestation

brute,

ground

He

If

of

solid

no

conception

this

soul.

taught

Theism,

The

of

state

variable

his

peculiar

the

loses

of

of

proof

of

into

that

is

Pythagoras.

the

there

him.

to

than

And

But
for

attributed

Pythagoras

the

systems

been

doctrine

the

goras
Pytha-

of

these

of
has

It

sketch

daring

became

neifcer

in

quence.
conse-

genius

Infinite.

the

of

as

and

Anaximander

that

Observe,

attribute

rude

of

Infinite

Pythagoras.

Mind

proportions;

followed

mathematical

great

The

but

natural

was

numerical

system
is

it

world,
by

his

of

55

the

regulated

rest

Anaximander's
of

of

essence

the

this

PYTHAGORAS.

things.
Branch

III.

BOOK

THE

ELEATICS.

I.

CHAPTER

XEMOPHANES.

The

contradictory

the

have

to

assert,

was

born

in

hundred

Minor

gnomic

youth

city,

till his

death,

inexhaustible.

grand

of

those

He
of

men

"

will

is well
is of

The

by
poems
of feasts.

Fragmens
observe

worthy

very

us

great

of

the

to

Rhapscdists
heart

Homer

and

over

apparently
with

the

the

the

the

184

1.

but

on

deur.
gran-

able
remark-

most

sincerest.

this

templation
con-

poetical

worldly

essay,
Carminum
'Xcnophanis

Karsten's

treasures

in

little of

little

he, above

him

was

of

very

But

enwrapt

Bnixelles,
in

wandered

within

one

of

one

from

poor.

was

been

certainly

had

He

critical

^The
"

whole

the

Minstrels

the
them

to

rhapsodist,

assembled
and

of

antiquity.

crowds

rhapsodised

and
his

own

learned

They
on

it

Reliqnae*

student.

were

recited
was

have

Philosophiques,'

perusal.

died

but

need

Banished

Plutarch,

vocation

whose

mis-statements

some

value

and

soul

could

to

credit

riches, having
whole

ideas,

antiquity

*Nouveaux

reader

with

ideas, and

to

seems

poor,

whose

of

to

he

his

tion
consola-

the

exercised

he

its

from

poetry

age.

is unknown,

are

lived

He

He

expression

we

dispense

could

men,

if

old

and

amongst

youthhood,

and

city

elegiac

of

of

species

profession

an

seat

nearly

Ionian

Minmermus

his

of

joy

cause

:t

though,

this

manhood

what

from

benefit.

pecuniary
all

his

Rhapsodist

as

the

was

of

support

native

Sicily

it

the

as

poet

cultivated

He

upwards

the

lived

Colophon,

was

famous

ranking

and

men.

and

birth-place

city long

poetry,

celebrated

his

His

We

Xenophanes

that
he

that

and

Cousin's

unconvinced.*

probability,

some

said

be

now

Victor

M.

readers

Olympiad,

40th

the

years.

Asia

of

with

therefore,

birth, may
up.

few

leave

obscured

long, had

so

Xenophanes*

of

will

subject

the

may

date

satisfactorily cleared

been
on

essay

the

of

question

for

which,

statements

the

occasions

divine

verses.

ELEATICS.

TBB

S"

of which

confirmation

In

who

their

represent

while

gods

Thracians

the

of the

clear

Godhead,
abroad,

which
around
who

raise
who

recognitionof
the

it became

that conviction

hid

the

him, and
speculated

yielded

to

tear

black

and

and

his life

of

colour;

ruddy

unity

the

object

Ethiopians,

the

of

plexions.
com-

perfection
spread

to

thick veil of stition


superof truth.
He
looked

the

down

c6unteoance

divided

into

; those

classes

two

of things,and
endeavoured
to
recognition of the Divine, and those
the
to
tions
superstiunreflecting assent
easy

the

u]) to

an

to

mankind

on

themselves

and

august

saw

referred

flat noses,
and
them
blue
eyes

give

attained

Having

satire he
with

easy

nature

religion. The first class speculated; but


they kept their speculations to themselves, and to a small circle
communicate
of disciples. If they sought truth, it was
to
not
it to all minds
work
not
fpr humanity, but for the
; they did
few.
Even
thinker
he was, could
not
as
Pythagoras, earnest
which

be

made

had

believe

to

two

whom

he

Not

listen.

The

what

was

he

Xenophanes.

so

Truth

with

chose

to

latter

in the fitness
doctrine

of

sorts

pleased
the

compose

for all

was

former

was

for

one

what

all

men

for

no

such

to

truth ;
receive.

distinction.

endeavoured

of

as

the

fitted
such

He

disciples,

{q:w

other

were

he

believed

he

thought the mass


He
recognised
to

for truth.

multitude

of the
teach

caution; the

extieme

; and

men

to

to

did

sent
pre-

a
he,
it;
three-quarters
great
century
his countryman
the great
Homer,
Rhapsodist of Truth, emalate
wander
into many
lands, uttering
Rhapsodist of Beauty, and
What
is prethe thought that was
contrast
a
working in him.
sented
Ionian
these
in
in
two
by
singers1 contrast
purpose,
and
The
in fate.
rfiapsodiesof the philosopher once
so
means,
listened
and
affectionatelypreserved in traditionary
eagerly
to,
in briefest extracts
contained
in
only extant
fragments, are now
ancient
ancient
and so
books, so
uninterestingas to be visited
old
and
few
dilettanti
scholar
rare
only by some
a
spiders;
the
while
rhapsodies of the blind old bard are
living in the

and

for

the

^
*

brain

and

heart

as

of

antique

an

thousands

fountain-source

them

Because

the

of

world

the

How

of

thousands,

poetry,

and

as

who
the

go

back

to

crystal mirror

is this ?

in pictures,to
presented itself to Homer
The
Xenophanes
one
problems.
existence, enjoyed it,
saw
also saw
other
and painted it. The
existence, but questioned
is sunny
clear ;
it,and wrestled with it. Every trait in Homer
in

world

and

XENOPHANBS.

in

59

In Homer
there
indecision, confusion.
is a resonance
of gladness, a sense
of manifold
life,activity,
is bitterness,activity,
and
there
enjoytnent. In Xenophanes
infinite sadness.
but of a spasmodic sort, infinite doubt, and
The
was
one
a poet
singing as the bird sings,carolling for very
also of
of life ; the other was
exuberance
a Thinker,, somewhat
a

Xenophanes

fanatic.

is

there

did

He

**

should
philosopher

earnest

him

l^oet, opposed

degraded

actions

is natural

; but

unlike

with

even

motives

and

have

bitterness, on
which

of

account

attributed

he

the sunny

opposed

the

the

gods,
this opposition and

distinguishbetween

must

we

early Gods

of the

"

the

! how

'

That

Ah

large utteratice

that

To

recited

sing^he

not

to

satire.

bitter,not satirical. The


statement
was
Xenophanes
derived
from
satires against Homer
Diogenes, that he wrote
and
Those
think
who
otherwise
Hesiod, is incredible.*
are
referred

the

to

Rhapsodising philosophy, and


of all that
wandered
settled.

he

availinghimself,

of

such

in

fact

Parmenides

speaks

of

silent

respecting Xenophanes,
He

Elea.'*

This
we

various

by

no

with

with

maintain

that he

must

is

referred

to

may,

he

terminated

Ttypa^t
of

meters

Sk Kal

Here,

'Oit^pov.
a

his hexameters

words

says

there

he

the

pose,
pur-

the Eleats

long and

lived

wrote
on

lived

writers

this

on

active

there.

point.

life without

are

to

sent

theless,
Neverfrom

who,

to

verses

there.

in his

observable
resided

Laertius

colony

he

is

there, but

thousand

two

and

on

justly holds

Diogenes

of

writers

describing Elea,

Hegel

modem

Cousin

M.

when

which

actually have

Iv iTmriv,

copyist, as
by Diogenes.

; and

tioned,
men-

for that

ancient

having

as

implies that

means

concur

connexions

again

Zeno

the

the

book,

Xenophanes
of
Colophon,

"

of

any

"

says
foundation

the

on

and

Indeed

suspicious.

vagjie.

before

the

Contrary, Strabo, in his sixth

be

Cousin,

philosophers of his time had discovered, he


from place to place, and at last came
to Elea, where
he finds no
tinct
disHegel questions this. He
says

mention
the

Victor

of

essay

Ritter.

to

or

excellent

the

fragments,
The

Be

reader

that

having

as

it

solved

*Hfft6dov
gal
IXiyiiaQycat IdfiPovQ Kara
the
word
is
either an
Cousin,
lation
interpolanPovQ
statement
and
Feuerlin
Rossi
conjecture,or else it is a miscat

M.

is not

opposes

Iambics
a

could

single iambic
Homer

and

never
verse

Hesiod,

be
of
as

the
his
we

designation
remaining.
have

seen.

of

hex""
But

in

6o

the

great

the

seeds

large
only

part

to

know

in

Timon

by

that

Long,
And

am,

Of

It

the

One

remains

that

we

owe

**

To

Beyond
should

we

of

path

despair

of

nothing
to

the

nothingness
Xenophanes

attained

its climax

bead

at

the

is

sufficient

of the
to

in

thus

Pyrrho.
his

in

although

been

not

many

star,

thought," f
the

on

terrestrial

secure

impossible

consent

to

limit

And

it

series

speculations

of

should

to

head
an

to

the

was

the

cry

men's

knowledge

as

the

has

be

their endeavours

first called

he
at

may.

desire

which

and

to

early thinkers

these

to

human

reputation
fiagments")f

But

XetTophanes,

opens
That

answer

the

the

there

knowledge,

monotheists,

entitle

it is

at

early thinkers

possible.

from

of

conclusions

perhaps,

us.

The

the

certainly known,

be

conceived.

of

sides

distraction

the

these

travel

will

men

escaped

can

of

aviXvtro,)*

vav

not,

sinking

of

to

both

to

and

of

Had

science.

before

which

of

like

able

been

compassing

the

to

finely

heguiied,

rk

to

bound

utmost

looking

Pythagoras,

spirityearning

inductive

slow

impossible,

proved

the

mouth

justified by
jill

knowledge,

have

not

with

science.

Gray

the

will

forget that

never

follow

into

doubt

to

descended

modem

our

puts

some

conclusions

us

is

error,

They

seems

have

the

mind

raitrd

state

; as,

wisdom

trivial,let

appear

to

arrived.

which

of

consider,

to

(iif%v

"

us

of

exposed

yet

Ally

man

science

modem

road

I turn

and

him

enabled

state

and

prudent

the

expectation

reader's

wisdom

that

mind,
on

years,

for

extraordinary

for

of

so

"

deep

strayed

hoary

this great

the

; for, wherever

in

now

which

the

were

now,

lost

am

words

! have

all kinds

to

mine

alas

who

play

to

knowledge

His

knew.

sinograph,

the

these

Xenophanes
Oh,

little he

how

sowed

mind

acute

hereafter

was

his

All

philosophy.

his

of

which

scepticism

that

of

indecision

The

problem.

described

'^

ELEATICS.

THE

was

cry
that

tion
atten-

then

thinkers, which
thus
of

have

been

the

sceptics,

extended

deration
consi-

here.

"

also

Preserved

by

Ritter

Tennyson,

by Sextus
i. 443.

Empiricus:

Hypot.

Pyrrho

n.

i. 224

and

quoted

THE

PHILpSQPHY^

OF

XBNOPHANES.

CHAPTER
THE

The

mind

and

the

nor

which

mathematical
him.

XENOPHANES.

early presented itself


that
problem
by Thales
had

existence

of

unsatisfied.

all sides

On

could

he

Neither

could

explanation

doctrines

these

mind
^*

of

left him

had

within

rose

OF

resolution

the

Pythagoras,

II.

?|IILOSOPHY

great problem

not

The

One

him

and

all

Thales

had

things ;

is God

his

thai

gazed abroad

it

great

was

and

sun

mystery,
whirled

moon

earth

was

of

souls

the

yearnings.

"

Overarching

the

proclaimed

heart

the

sea,

and

It

was

It

Many

was
were

his

of

Aristotle's

of

heaven,
him

he

the

was

embracing

be

God.

gazed

As

he

above

was

him

encompassed
by it. Moreover,
inviting yet defying scrutiny. The
and
fro through it ; the stars
were
in its intense

of

centre

The

of

was

dim

the

mysteries,

felt that

Xenophanes

; so

to

and

which

state

unchangeable,

inane.'*

constantly aspiring to it in the


perpetually aspiring
men
were

itself.
bosom

to

Pinnacled

"

The

upon

resting on its infinite bosom


at the sky, and
felt that he

The

-phrase
immensity

to his

physiological
doubts

one

blue, infinite vault, immoveable,

deep

still the

penetrate.

graphically painted in that


the
Casting his eyes
at
upwards
that

the

oppressed with

was

is

declared

6i

all

The

One.

of

shape

it with

to

existence.

It

was

in

Immoveable

vapour,
vague

ence
existwhose

moved.

buted
explanation of that opinion universally attriGod
is a
to
him, but always variously interpreted,
The
Heaven
encompassing him and all things, was
sphere ?
he proclaimed
God
?
The
One
to be
it not
Sphere which
that this explanation does
not
It is very
true
exactly accord
'

Is

this

not

the

"

"

his

with

earth

by

being

which

relates
the
that part which
to
infinite ;
inferior regions are
whose
flat surface
M.
Cousin,
explained the fixityof the earth.

Physics, especiallywith
he

in consequence

interpret
discrepancy, would
The
the phrase as metaphorical.
epithet spherical is simply a
absolute
locution
indicate
the
Greek
to
perfect equality and
The
of which
be
an
image.
unity of God, and
a
sphere may

therefore,

of

this
"

of ihe .Greeks
a-"bQ.i"ps^o%

is the

roiundus

of

the

Latins.

It is

6a

THE

BLBATICS,

metaphorical expression such


though
an
expression which
is

and

it,

science

of mathematical

birth

in

found

most

Simonides

z"ihaXoi

square^

become

now

meaning per/ed

trivial,had

something noble and


elevated
compositions

at

elevated
of

the
in

poetry.

to his feet, his bands,


man
speaks of a
as
square
the
meta"
a,nd his mind,' meaning an accomplished man
; and
It is not, therefore
phor is also used by Aristotle.
surprising
that Xenophanes,
a
poet as well as a philosopher, writing in
and
incapable of finding the metaphysical expression
verse,
his ideas, should
which
answered
have
borrowed
from
the
to
would
best
language of imagination, the expression which
*

his idea."

render

adopt tliis explanation could


we
be satisfied that the Physics of Xenophanes
were
preciselywhat
such
the
it is said they were,
that they were
at
or
epoch in
should

We

which

he

is
A

tempted

maintained

the

insuperable
lives

who

man

be

to

sphericityof
has

; but

been

hundred

God.

This

unobserved

years,

by

culty
latter diffiall critics.

necessarilychanges

his

such

subjects ; and, when


opinions are
lightly
so
those
of
philosophers at that epoch, it is but
grounded as were
admit
that the changes may
have been
natural to
frequent and
this
In
of
specialinstance, scholars have been aware
abrupt.
opinions

the

on

great

very

irreconcileable

and

contradictions

existing

authentic

ceitain

to
opinions equally
;, showing him
in
have
been
decidedly Physiological (Ionian)
one
department,
and as decidedly Mathematical
(Pythagorean) in another.
in
the
As
of
to
statement
point, Aristotle's express
case
looked
at
having
heaven, and
Xenophanes
pronounced
up
is
One
be
The
to
with
God,"
manifestly at variance
any
of the lower
belief in the infinity
The
regions of the earth.

between

"

One

be

must

the

Infinite.

return, however,

To

to

his

peculiarityof his doctrine.


of
and

He

multiplicityof Gods, but


Intelligence of The One.

God

must

is

be

Self-existent

impossible.

Nothing

monotheism, which is the great


not
only destroyed the notion

he

proclaimed

; for

to

be

conceive

the

self-existence

Being

as

pient
inci-

Nothing.
produced from
itself?
From
therefore, was
Whence,
Being produced?
No;
have
in
it
then
for
must
been
existence
to
already
produce
otherwise
it
would
have
been
itself;
produced from nothing.
the primary law : Being is self-existent
Hence
If self-existent,
consequently eternal.
can

PHILOSOPHY

THE

follows

It also
All

**

unmoved

Without

"

that The

All

he

labour

the

as

Let

was
verses

resemble

it

man

respiraiionV

place,
changes appearance.'*

nothing

so, it must

same

to

external

motion

to

He

it

move

be

remark
have

to

the

on

it

to

itself.

finite

things

maintained

only

soul

maintained, that

air.

was

of man,

that

in

passage

and
saw
; for he heard
is manifestly in allusion

that the

utterly unlike

in the

moved
things were
by God :
nileth all things by reason
and
insight.**
carefullydistinguished from anthromorquoted at page
fied.
60, have already exempli-

he is said

This

Anaximenes

being

as

Finite

only further

us

Laertius, wherein
toot

is

; there

unmoved.

was

monotheism

phism,

times

that he denied
suppose
denied
it to the Infinite.

he

His

remains

ever

at

not

must

without

place

itself;for,to do

because

"

it

when

unmoved

be

must

move

We

considered

when

immoveable,

unmoving

and
in its

change

All

cannot

is

God

that

:"

Wholly

The

63

it is

this

wise, and
The

XENOPHANES.

is all-powerful,and
allimplied that God
all-existent ; a ilkultiplicity
is inccaiceivable.
of Gods

in

As

OF

to

God

things

did

without

doctrine

the

of

intelligenceof

The

is said

all

Diogenes
**

to

be

God,
independent of

with
doctrine
respiration. Only by
connecting one
ancient
another, can
we
hope to understand
philosophy. It is
in vain that we
to
puzzle ourselves with the attempt
penetrate
of these antique fragments of thought, unless
the meaning
we
in relation to the opinions of their epoch.
view
them
This
remark
applies also to the negative portion of Xenohave
the positivenotions
given above
phanes* opinions. We
arrived
in speculating on
he
which
the
at
great problem "A
thus

existence.

But

sidedness.

All

to

of
we

they were
sceptical. He
to

reason

said,

and,

as

he

he

proclaimed
he

the

which

was

had

peculiarityof

one

was

his

the

great
a

is its double-

by the conclusions
dogmatical ; Xenophanes

were

confessed

the

impotence

of philosophy.
exalted^aims

spirit struggling with

earnest

discovery,

philosophy

abided

first who

wide

glimpse

announced.

before

They
the

was

compass

obtained

thinkers

other
led.

his

of

however

celestial
it

travel

might

Truth,

countenance,
contradict

he

what

; various

experience ;
new
contradictory
systems;
the
of
he
desirous
of
was
problem
solving these
glimpses
'working together, produced in his mind a sceptism of a noble,
somewhat
touching sort, wholly unlike that of his successors.
examination

of

different

Long

her

As

and

"

It

ELEATICS.

THE

64
combat

the

was

contradictoryopinions

of

in his mind

rather

steady ; his opinions


knowledge. His faith was
of the existence
of
vacillating. He had a profound conviction
belief
he
but
infinite
this
was
able
unBeing;
eternal, all-wise,
an
is
consistent
There
ness
sadformula.
to
to reduce
deep
a
than

'**

disdain

of

in these

verses

mortal

Certainly no

wists

He

are

recorded
The

out

turn

that

times

for

lived

had

great influence

is

would

his

find

held

unmoved,

to

him

these

prove

of the

many

tendency.

same

convictions
of

truth
; it did

of

any

not

vent
pre-

be .the truth ; it did

not

his

had

system

it awhile.

consider

day) taught

him

could

that

he

having neither

as

(infinite).

ning,
beginfinite,

Not

and

by another,

God,
finite.

be

is

God

logic teach

unmoved.

Not

him,

moved,

that

God

because

neither

was

thing

one

is one, not
by another ; and God
many.
because
is
alone
inasmuch
unmoved',
non-being

goes
such

darken

perfect.

tkingsy

cherished

infinite,neither

be

not

did

manner

moved, nor
only be moved

With

so

the

many.

like

to

must

on

because
infinite,
non-being alone,
middle, nor
end, is unlimited
because
thing can
one
only be limited

neither

attempt

negative portion of

Not

In

all

most

to

his successors,
we
his
of
the
(thatis,
Logic

not

true

of:

treat

we

and

truth.

the

as

he

one

over

spread

be

what

after

Infinite,could

one,

the

utter

be

nature

sceptical of the
this scepticism was
vague

But

prevent
Nevertheless,

to

well

might

proclaiming

Reason

shall there

All, whose

may

error

Cousin

M.

his search

the

ne'er
the

sceptical; especially when


of the
are
opinions of Xenophanes

errors,

his

and
and

not

opinions.

his

at

unconscious

who

man

he

by chance,
not

It is in vain
verses

yet knew,
wel)" the Grods

both

Knowing
For
when,

to

another,

nor

does

another

to

come

can

Not
as

it

it.

verbal

quibbles as these did this great thinker


his conception of the Deity.
not
They were
quibbles
real
the
involved
conclusions
in the
they were
;

premisses from
validity,would
He

which

he

have
was

characterises
clownish"

conceptions were
systematized.

reasoned.

been

to

doubt

To

have

the

their

doubted

of philosophy.
possibility

And
quite prepared for that.
this inconsequence by calling him

totle
Aris-

not

dypotKorcpos (Met.
mde

and

i.

5); meaning

undigested,

instead

"

what
some-

that

of

his

being

ELEATICS^

THE

66

III.

CHAPTER
PARMENIDES.

dialogue
forget the remarkable
in which
tribute
the dialectical
he
to
subtlety of Para
pays
the outset
caution
menides
at
must
against any belief
we
; but
him
in the genuineness of the opinions attributed
to
by Plato.
reconcile
himself
the propriety of altering
If Plato
could
to
readers

The

sentiments

the

to
reason

Let

us

him

his

of

such

could

he

which

were

read

will

Plato

of

the

as

beloved

he

put

had
into

the
/

not

entertained

never

the

mouth

invention

Parmenides/

Socrates, and

master

of

of

one

his

own

; with

far advanced

in

greater

caution

extreme

the

us

Rhapsodist

far

ments
long dead, sentidramatic
genius.

therefore, with

prefer the authority of Aristotle,and


been
which
have
preserved.
Parmenides
born
at
was
Elea, somewhere
This date does not
contradict
Olympiad.
him
to have
according to Aristotle,asserted
listened
whom
he might have
Xenophanes

let

ing
attribut-

of

verses

about,
the

The

the

;
menides
Par-

6ist

which,

rumour

been
to

of

discipleof

when

that great

positive
however, is that by Sotion, of his having been taught
statement,
But
both
the Pythagorean.
by Ameinias, and Diochoetes
may
be

was

years.

most

true.

Born

to

wealth

and

splendour,enjoying

the

and

esteem

which

envy

always follow splendour and talents,it is conjectured that


his early career
that of a dissipated
was
voluptuary; but Diochoetea
taught him the nothingness of wealth
(at times, perhaps, when
satiety had taught him the nothingness of enjoyment), and led
him
from
the dull monotony
endless
of noisy revelry to the
excitement
He
of philosophic thought.
forsook
variety and
the feverish
the bright
pursuit of enjoyment to contemplate
of Truth, in the
countenance
quiet and still air of delightful
studies."*
this devotion
studies
But
to
was
no
egotistical
seclusion.
It did not
prevent his taking an active share in the
political affairs of his native city. On the contrary, the fruits
shown
in a
which
of his study were
drew
he
of laws
code
which
and
deemed
wise
and
so
were
salutary that the
up,
"

"

Milton.

PARMENIDBS,

citizens
of

at

first

And

fearless virtue

first characteristic

The

to

ideas

obtained

through Sense.
of

this notion.

clearness.
all

over

absolute

faith.

abide

by the laws

obtain

aware

; in other
Reason
and

the

noticed

we

it attained

decided

tinction
dis-

words, between
obtained

those

vague
to

throw

to

the

glimmering

something like
an
uncertainty

have
become
logicalthinker,would
saved
from
scepticism by his
was
it by his philosophy. He
from
saved
the deceitful nature
of opinion ; but he

was

of

perfectly aware

gain."

philosophy, is

it contrived

In

Xenophanes
things ; which, in
scepticism. But

boundless

Opinion

Parmenides

In

Parmenides

also

his

of

through
Xenophanes

In

his worth

bringeth

and

Truth

between
the

greater did

something

For

was

their oath

yearly renewed

Parmenides.
**

was

67

he

that within

him

there

certain

were

ineradicable

convictions, in which, like Xenophanes, he had perfect faith,but


he wished
he
led
Thus
"which
to explain by reason.
was
in
doctrine
of innate
ideas.
sort to anticipate the celebrated
some
ideas were
These
truths ; they were
true
concerning necessary
other
ideas
All
uncertain.
were
knowledge.
that they recognised
The
Eleatse, as Ritter remarks, believed
demonstrate
that the truth of all things is one
could
and
and
that the human
unchangeable
faculty of
; perceiving, however,
follow
constrained
of
the
to
things, and
thought is
appearance
and
the
the
forced
changeable
they were
apprehend
to
many,
divine
the
unable
confess
that we
are
fullyto comprehend
to
in its reality,
rightlyapprehend a few
truth
although we may
in conformity
general principles. Nevertheless, to suppose,
human
thought, that there is actually both a plurality and
with
a

change,

would

hand,

be

but

delusion

of

the
that

While,

senses.

in all that

on

acknowledge
appears
all
changeable, including
particular
as
to
us
the
the
in
Godlike
is
evolved
mind,
present, un perthought as
ceived
indeed
blindness^ and
become, as it were
by human
veil, indistinguishable.
a
beneath
this conception more
make
if we
recal
intelligible
We
may
the
whole
of this school.
Their
mathematical
tendency of
the
of
delusive.
Physics was
regarded as contingent
knowledge
of
eternal
Mathematics
self-evident.
menides
Parknowledge
Their
the
led by Xenophanes
thus
one
hand, and
on
was
of the
the
dualityof
other, to the conviction
on
Diochcetes
the

other

we

manifold

must

and

"

"

ELEATICS.

THE

68

His

thought.

human

the

reason"/.^.,

Pythagorean

logic
(which he

is

"

naught existingbut the One


did not, with
Xenophanes, call God, but Being). His sense,
the other
hand, taught him that there were
Many
Things,
on
taught him

that

his

of

because

there

maintained

manifold

two

and

the

other

satisfythe

Reason,

of

His

Sense.

two

work

in

parts;

two

accord

to

with

'

Nature

expounded
in the
second,

it ;

he
to

explanations

the

therefore,divided

was,

is

first

proclaims

Reason

'

on

the

impressions. Hence
Principles. The
one

sensuous

Causes

absolute

the
human

into

Truth*

opinion

as

tomed
accus-

to
**

the rash

Follow

which

is but
is

there

of this

is

there

be

not

maintained

He

rioging sounds

confused, and

imagined

is also

; there

seeming

doctrine

general notion

and

with

ears

seeming (Sofa,appearance)

mere

cause

It must

and

eye,

appropriate

nevertheless,

principle;

sequently,
con-

it.

to

Parmenides

that

tongue,"

had

mere

vague

uncertainty of human
knowledge.
delusive
because
thought was
dependent
the

of

that

distinct
had
as
organisation. He
a conception of this
celebrated
theory as any of his later imitators,as may be seen
in the passage
is the passage.
Here
preserved by Aristotle.
the
of his Metaphysics, is
Aristotle,in
Sth chap. 4th book
of
the materialism
of Democritus, in whose
speaking
system
sensation
this
was
thought ; he adds that others have shared
affirms
and
that
Empedocles
opinion,
proceeds thus :
a
in
condition
in
our
{rqv eiiv) causes
a
our
change
change
thought.
upon

"

"

^'

is in

Thought

in another

and
** *

It is

there

Parmenides
Such

also

The

is the

in

change

and

one

"

TTpoc

t The

vaptbv
last

of

the

changes

of

for

in the

each

the

thought."

which

thoughts.'

of his

nature

impression

of the

moment

'*

"

man

which
(organization)

in all

take

place

in

men

"

style.

same

many-jointed limbs.
; for

it is

thinketh

highest degree

of

in men,

organization gives the

ydp ftrJTtgak^eTat "v9pd"7roiin",


for the highest degiee of organization gives the
thought," is a translation which, differing from that of

sentence,

highest degree

says

himself

intelligenceof

highest degree

to the

in their

is the

man

of limbs

nature

Both

is

to

expresses

to each

as

Such

he

passage

always according

That

**

according

men

*"

PARMBNIDES.

69

organization,and as
thought was
dependent on
organization differed in degree from every other, so would
differ. If thought be sensation, it requires
opinions of men

Now,
each
the

as

little reflection
differ

according

differ

is

not

of certain
a

the

than

That

men.

are

is the

alone

indeed

and

therefore,one
equally false.

person,

all

object

same

persons,

another, and

in all

same

same

the

of

different

of

with

true

more

sensations

as

senses

times

is the

Reason

that

the

to

different

at

opinion
But

show

to

fountain

is but
from
sense
thought derived
from
lutely
is absoReason
("j|a). But thought derived
seemtttg
his antithesis to 8o"a is always viari^,
Hence
true.
faith.
This
is the central
He
was
point in his system.
thereby
All

knowledge.

time to
scepticism,and at the same
fore,
He
the uncertainty of ordinary knowledge.
had, theredistinct
two
doctrines, each proportioned to the faculty

enabled
admit

to

avert

to

it.

adapted

absolute

TO.

ftcTOL
was

concerned,

the

"science

of

Knowledge,

or

his

from

there

that

The

the

which

but

was

reader

not

we

would

opinion.
to

Being

It

is

amounts

only

"

**

Many
the

like],which
fo be ;

from

He

taught
sible.
impos-

was

that non-existence

extremely trivial

appear

metaphysical speculations; but


him
it is a
as
despise,inasmuch
of human
respecting the march

of

one

the

illustrations

many

of

the

dency
ten-

positivequalities to words, as if they were


of things. A tendency admirably
simply marks

our

Mill, and

in

reasons

critical

with

differ much

attribute

It would

Appendix.

saying

to

will

not

in

have

and
have seen,
other we
cveiy
the interpretationof Parmenides'
tuU

and

was

Appearance.

one

evidence

of

of

Pythagoras.
that non-Being

versed

thtngSy and not


exposed by James

at

science

Sense,

did

not

piece

from

of

positionwhich

valuable

itate

the

called

be

may

latter assertion

exist.

cannot
to

science

derived

Thought,

or

Being, Parmenides
and
predecessors Xenophanes

the

On

which

and

of

of Relative
doctrine
The
other
Being."
with which
the
Opinion (Physics,ra KJAJcruca)

faculty of Intelligence,
concerned,

Absolute

physics,
(MetaKnowledge
with which
the faculty of pure Reason
"l"v"riKa)
a dpctnne
called, in the language of that day,
doctrine

One

be

remarks

volumes
nature

have

arisen

supposing

being,

of the
be

kind.

from

believe, of

we

with
"

it

reader

plan
*

Ens

mvolous

it necessary
is referred
to

in
to

the

B.'
cerning
speculationscon-

Entitas, Essentia,

this double

was

interruptthe exposition

to

Appendix

the

ovaia,

overlooking
when

the

It

importance

some

deemed

have

our

See

filled with

Being (r6 ov
that

as

system, we
note, for which

inconsistent

might
of

subsequently by his son.*

meaning

signifiesto existsand

when

and

of the
it

the

words

signifies

THE

70

E LEA

TICS.

tendency which so greatly puzzled the early thinkers,who,


when
theless
they said that *'a thing "" not," believed that they neverof
non-existence.
existence
the
predicted existence,viz.,
These
assertions seerned
A thing is ; and
two
a thing is not.
,to
this

affirmations

be

of

from

which, under

been

free.

Parmenides,
existed, and

however,

of

was

He
sophism.
be,
Nothing can come
phanes taught him);
as, therefore, being
embrace

error

have

not

affirming that Being alone


impossible,did not see the
argued that non-Being could
out
of Nothing (as Xeno-

the

because

not

An

other,later thinkers

or

though

non-Being

existence.

of

states

shape

some

that

real ground

different

two

existed, it

must

all existence.

tical,
existence, idenborn
nor
unique, neither
dying, neither moving
nor
It
The
bold
the
of
changing.
finity
a
was
step to postulate
declared
be
had
to
One, whom
necessarily in*
Xenophanes
Hence

he

finite.

concluded

But

that

have

we

The

One

all

was

evidence

abundant

to

that

prove

menides
Par-

'

regarded
the

distinction

of

Parmenides

That

but

the
the

was

Parmenides
a

it

was

speaks
The
Melissos,

it

of

as

unity

"

and

unity (tov Kara


Xttyov ivos).
unity {tov Kara
rrjy vXrjv).

One

infinite

ancients

the

Aristotle

material

said that The

former

that

as

finite.

rational

was

latter said

appears
limited

One

between

Melissos

of

Hence

The

finite

was

(TrcTrcpao-ftcvov

the

conceived

it

which

From
(airetpov).*'

Rational

unity

as

stand.
under-

it is difficult for

to
us
by itself ; a conception
One
be
because
to
Probably it was
they held The
spherical; all tlie parts being equal ; having neither beginning,
middle, nor end ; and yet self-limited.

His

conception

of the

identityof thought

in

remarkable
expressed
some
been
has
drawn
opinion

which,
them, we

of

verses,

from

existence

and
as

very

shall

is
ferent
dif-

give

literal translation.
**

For

without

You

cannot

Except
be

to
a

some

phantom,

the

same

all these

vol. i. p.
"

is the

Thought

same

thing

the

as

thing
find the thought
existing.''

the

the

in which

; for there

to
specifiedthing, as to be a man,
to be a nonentity, it must
or
even

idea
cases."

104.

and

;
"

that

thought

of

cause

it is announced

meaning

must

is

be

be

yohn Mill, System ofLogic^

nothings

Socrates,

still at the
found

shall be

nor

to

be seen,

bottom

for it which

Raiiocinative

"

and

be

to

to

answer

shall

suit

Inductive

ZENO

OF

ELBA.

71

The
that
only Existence
One, it followed
was
identical.
A conclusion
and
which
The
One
are
Thought
by
contradicts
tity
no
means
the^opinion before noticed of the idensensation
human
of
of these
thought and
being
; both
of existence.
merely transitory modes
or
physical doctrine of Parmenides,
Respecting the second
to
brieflysay that believing it necessary
we
give a science
may

Now,

of

as

the

Appearances,

sketched

he

in

principlesreigning

the

abstract,

admitted

but

out

his

day.

denied

He

according

that

according

programme

to

motion

in

there

appearance

to

the
was

motion.

logicaland

represents the

Parmenides

rigorous side of

more

which
from
the
Xenophanes,
physiological
element
is almost
to the region
banished, by being condemned
ideal
The
of uncertain
alone was
element
Knowledge.
sense
Although
really nourished
by the speculations of Parmenides,
he preserved himself
from
scepticism,as we saw, nevertheless,
the tendency of his doctrine
to forward
was
scepticism. In his
exposition of the uncertainty of knowledge, he retained a saving
It only
clause; that, namely, of the certainty of Reason.
remained
the
for successors
to
same
apply
scepticism to the
and
ideas of Reason,
Pyrrhonism was
complete.
the

doctrine

of

"

'

IV.

CHAPTER
ZEND

Zeno, by Plato

called

OF

with

of the

distinguishedof

most

in his actions

68th

and,

as

The

study.

in

impetuous,

strong,
the

as

or
some

first

his

Stoic
the

works

He

ancient

; and

disinterested

was

Elea,

must

all"accounts

on

philosophers ;
in

remarkable

spirit.

be

not

Bom

at

as

each,
Elea,

one

great
for

about

the pupil of Parmenides,


69th Olympiad, he became
say, the adopted son.
solitudes
of
period of his life was
spent in the calm
his beloved

From

appreciate

the

of

Palamedes

the

confounded

Zeno

ELEA.

the

friend

superiorityof

and

he

master

intellectual

him
From
pleasures that do not satiate.
to
despise the tinsel splendours of rank

had

learned

pleasures
also
and

he

had

the

to

only

learned

fortune, without

Tith

71

misanthropical

becoming
of

benefit
rank

of

or

his fellow

His

thus

have

with

the

of ambition

so

indifference

or

him

made

in

shun

His

office.

impetuous soul, extremely


be

may

he

was

did

hurt

so

not

cause

brave
who

blame

by

timid

In

spiritswho
accept

no

it had

not

minds

Perhaps

to

If the

The

one

that shrink

sensitiveness

battle

the

root

of

those

men

was

was

for

Truth

him

fellow
not

as

why

citizens

cause

me

ridicule

coarse

is fatal ; but

at

lies

the

an

blame;

asked

of my
would

from

than

less

no

who

blame

nothing but their


approbation but such as
One

the

been

heart,

own

integrity.

praise and

to

fear

endeavour.

battle, but

reply
"

ratify,this sensitiveness
noble

delicate

sensitive

knaves, this

and

of his

of its

pain, their approbation

me

pleasure."
of fools

was

in his admirable

seen

voice

consciousness

recompense
have
repaid

would

they
the

was

the

for the

fieryand exalted a mind, might well


of antiquity ; for it was
wonderment
no
sceptical
disdain for the opinions of his fellow men,
which

the

been

which

recompense

beating calmly in

absence

only declined

He

men.

worked

egotistical. He

or

honours

worldly

labours.

those

ELEATJC3.

in

those

consciences, and

own

consciences

their
of

heroism,
His

Zeno.

; it ended

can

and

life

all
was

but
tragically,

in vain.

of all his moral

renowned.

lived

qualitieshis patriotismhas

the

liberty'sawakening,
when
Greece
was
everywhere enfranchisingherself, everywhere
loosening the Persian yoke, and endeavouring to found national
and
institutions on
thusiasm
enLiberty. In the general eflfcrvescence
His
have
Zeno
cold.
not
politicalactivitywe
was
it
know
that
ficial.
of judging ; but we
was
no
means
great and beneElea
but a small
preferred it to
was
colony ; but Zeno
whose
the magnificence of Athens,
luxurious,restless,quibbling,
and
frivolous,passionate,
unprincipled citizens,he contrasted
with
the provincial modesty and
honesty of Elea.
He
there
did, however, occasionally visit Athens, and
mulgated
proof his master,
the
the doctrines
as
by
we
see
ing
openthe
of Plato's
Zeno
also
Parmenides.'
dialogue,
taught
most

He

at

the

period

been

of

Pericles.
On
fallen

the

occasion

into the

hands

of

his

of the

last

return

tyrant

to

Nearchus

Elea

he

found

it had

(or Diomedon,

or

writers)*
diflferently
given by
his
failed
in
He,
project and
conspired against him,
It was
was
then, as Cicero observes, that he proved
captured.
the excellence
of his master's
doctrines, and
proved that a
Demylos;

the

of course,

name

is

ancient

THE

74

dty

city,intent

to

ELEATICS.

startlingenunciation
stirringconfusedly within him

mighty thoughts that were


intent
more
great Logician was

the
the

of

and

earnest

upon

upon

tion
convincing exposi-

alleged againsthis system,


than
itself;for he held
propaganda of the system
upon
any
is exposed.
be accepted when
that the truth must
error
once
not poems,
Antiquity," says M. Cousin, "attests that he wrote
like Xenophanes
and
Parmenides, but treatises,and treatises
of a"
eminently prosaic character, that is to say, refutations."
The
of this may
be easilyguessed.
Coming, as a
reason
of Parmenides, he
to Athens, to preach the doctrine
man
young
of the

of
futility

the

arguments

"

have

must

been

startled

met

with

from

who

had

already

the

doctrine.

the

at

erected

Zeno,

the

have

soon

assailers.

his

empirical Athenians,
ing
philosophy into the reignstunned
first
at
by the

Ionian

doubt,

no

on
noisy objections
also
of the keenest
being
one

would

doctrine

that

subtle,quick-witted,and

which

he

opposition which

all

of

him

surrounded

sides

of

wits, and

his balance,

recovered

Instead

was

one

of the

and

in

but,

readiest,
assailed

turn

teaching dogmatically, he began to


of pure
of resting in the domain

dialectically. Instead
science, and
expounding the ideas of Reason, he descended
the
the
ground of
ground occupied by his adversaries
upon
sense
daily experience and
knowledge,
and, turning their
it was
ridicule
admit
that
them
to
themselves, forced
upon
conceive
The
One,
more
Many as a produce of The
easy to
than
The
the
One
to conceive
assumption of the existing
on
his
Hence
discovery of his Dialectics.
many.
the partisans
The
polemical method
entirelydisconcerted
teach

"

"

of

Ionian

the

lively

philosophy,"

curiosity and

interest

(Pythagorean) school;
civilization

Greek

the

and

says

Cousin,

M.

for the
thus

doctrines

was

fruitful germ

of

"

of
in

excited
the

Italian

the

capital of
higher development of

sown
a

and

philosophy."
Plato

has

Parmenides
the

succincdy
and

existence

of

Zeno
The

characterised

the

difference

between

established
by saying,that the master
One, and the discipleproved the nonexistence

of The

Many.
he argued that there was
When
but One
thing reallyexisting,
aJl the others being only modifications
of that
or
appearances
One, he did not deny that there were
appearances, he only
many
denied their being real existences.
he denied
So, in like manner,

motion^

but

not

the

appearance

of

motion.

Diogenes

the

ELBA.

OF

ZENO

75

walked, as a refutation of Zeno, entirely


his walking was
mistook
more
the ailment
a refutation
no
;
of
of Zeno, than Dr. Johnson's kicking a stone
was
a refutation
would
have answered
Zeno
: Very
Berkeley's denial of matter.

C)naic,who

true

in

walk

you

and

rose

motion

according

according

; but

opinion (to Sofa^ov), you

to

Reason

to

What

rest.

at

are

you

are

given to a series of similar


conditions, each of which, separately considered, is rest. Thus,
object fillingspace equal to its bulk is necessarily at rest
every
call motion

you

in that space

given
the

straightlines

or

called

same

rest

way,
; the

in

; not

of

one

all these

lines

these

points,
individually be

can

lines,considered

of these

number

name

of individual

number

as

totality,

circle.

given them, viz., a


individual
point of space

total of

spaces in which
illustration of the

the

Take

is but

another

intermediate

all these

of

to

name

each

sum

spot

one

composed

general

one

name

is at rest.

circle ; but

have

of

moment

circle is

the

from

total

sum

each

objectat

circle

; motion

the

to

is but

the

object is

of rest

states

the

In

at

is called

motion.
is a things
fallacyis in the supposition,that Motion
In
it is only a condition.
whereas, as Zeno
a
clearly saw,
there
is not
and
the
"stone"
falling stone
thing called
a
"
motion
otherwise
there
would
be also another
thing called
\
** rest.*'
But both
and
motion
rest
are
names
given to express
The

"

conditions
rest

is

Motion

of the stone.

positive exertion
is force

in motion
is

such

no

The

amounts

thing as

other

oi

the

same

proved

that

even

is force

resistent,and
is always
that matter

follows

It

to

has

Rest

force.

triumphant.

which

science

Modem

as

Zeno's

saying,there

motion.
of

arguments

against the possibilityof

Zeno

Motion

have
we
four, the third of which
(and he maintained
above
explained),are given by Aristotle \ but they seem more
like the ingenious puzzles of dialectical subtlety than
the real
of

arguments
that

they
of

ness

were

the

only brought

fallen

as

from

dupe of their
Here

are

own

his two

not, however,

logical net,

others.

Greater

asserted,

ridicule the unskilful-

to

must

own

verbal

has, therefore, been

forward

We

his

easilyas

It

man.

his adversaries.

rescuing Zeno
have

earnest

an

men

into

be

which

than

hasty in
he

he have

may

been

distinctions.

first arguments

"

is impossible,because
before that
1st, Motion
motion
reach the end, it must
reach the dKddle
can

which

is

in

point ; but

76

THE

point

this middle

applies
traverse

it :

to

becomes

since

the

and

so

is infinitelydivisible.
it

before
paces,
then
the second

half of the

can

the

object

first pace,

ad
half ; and so on
2nd, This is his famous

refutation

and

statement

end,

be

stone

reach

must

four

cast

second

the

the first pace


the middle
;
it must
the
the first pace
reach

before

of that

it

fourth

reach

can

and

if

Thus,

the

becomes

the

before

reach

end, and the same


tion
objecit the object in motion
must
o^ infinitum^seeing that
on

reach

to

point ;

middle

matter

but

then

ELEATICS.

and

half

the

it

reach

must

half

the

infinitum.
Achilles
puzzle. We give both the
find it in John Mill's
as
we
'Logic'

(vol.ii. p. 453).
The

is, let Achilles

argument

tortoise,yet, if
overtake

him

interval

of

Achilles
ten, and
without

jof time
does

has

as

**

that

for

argument
embraced

that

them

to

may
proves

within

be

start, Achilles
be

first

at

will have

run

the

therefore

will

has

hundred,

as
never

separated by

Achilles

when

in the

an

run

these

and

when

tortoise

will

have

Achilles

may

run

conclusion

got
for

on

ever

for any

means,

length

supposed ; bnt in the premisses ever


number
length of time ; it means
of
any
"

"

It

that

means

we

divide

may

quotient again by ten,


there

be

need

never

distance, nor,
it is

fast

as

tortoise.

ever

that

the

which

"

of time.

of

subdivisions

ever

any

mean

the

hundred

the

be

can

by ten, and
we
please;
in

for

overtaking

not

time

those

on

has

feet ;

tortoise

the
run

so

subdivisions
feet

thousand

the

Now

for, suppose

feet

thousand

tortoise

the

times

ten

run

performed.

But

which

five

other

an

consequently,

made

no

and

of that

infinityof

minutes.

As

so

on

end

to

to

those

unlimited

an

thousand

often

as

the
of

long

as

the

the

number

is itself limited.
duration

divisions
sub-

than
five

of
The

may

be

minutes

of them
remains
be
divided
expired, but what
may
by ten, and again by ten as often as we like,which is perfectly
compatible with there being only five minutes
altogether. It
in short, that to pass through this finite space
requires
proves,
time
which
but
is infinitely
a
not
divisible^
an
time; the
infinite
had already seen
to
confounding of which distinction Hobbes
be the gist of the fallacy.
Although the credit of seeing the ground of the fallacyis
in the above
also
must
given to Hobbes
we
observe,
passage,
it in the same
that Aristotle had
light. His answer
clearlyseen
to
^ayle thinks
pitiable,"was, that -a foot of
Zeno, which
are

not

"

OF

ZENO

being

space

easily

be

against

existence

The

exist,

then

those

there

something

that

// also

thing,

same

ad

infinitum.

for

all

opened

by

Xenophanes,

and

Mathematical

or

Physiological
But

arrival

the

created

of

Empirical

all

in

Zeno

at

Zeno,

the
so

on

substratum

these

Athens.

two

The

and

of

had

been

did

they

together

the

Dialectics.

method

constant.

influence

result

Ionian,

the

clashed

systems

the

as

systems

little

so

Pythagoras,

to

radical

was

two

by

opposition

Its

inquiry,

characterise

may

lines,

The

new

we

parallel

Sophists

on

conflict
This

was

method

"

and

succeeding
great

one

the

continued

system

of

other.

of

the

and

independent

of

and

system.

coming

the

creation

the

Absolute

each

upon

if not

then,

as

is

What

limited

exist

can

line

great

Parmenides,

almost

developed
exert

second

Anaximander,

or

to

up

thing

to

between

them.

But,

and

separated

One

interval

an

thing.

things

two

limiting

and

divisible,

appearances.
the

which,

be

only

be

suppose

If

suppose

being

To

it finite.

But,

position
one

infinite.

suppose

other

some

must

closes

2Ieno

is

Thus

inanifold

to

separating
It

but

is

and

necessarily

something

two,

is

must

His

things.

^There

divisible.

infinitely

be

must

arguments

"

indivisible

divisible,

is

various

his

of

thus:

up

necessarily

One

in

Z^no

multitude

summed

is

who

of

finite^ it could

actually

time.

follow

to

77

but

infinite^

finite

2i

space

briefly

existing,
that

in

no

the
be

may

potentially

traversed

have

We

it

ov\y

ELBA.

the

schools,

peculiarity

of

Sceptics.
and

It
be

may

and

Socrates

also
said

fluenced
in-

greatly
to

Plato,

have
as

stituted
con-

will

be

shown.
We

which

preceded

must,

however,

philosophy
the

era

previously
took,

of

before

Socrates.

trace

the

the^
crftis

intermediate
of

sophistry,

steps
which

Jbeconb

Wbt

ON

SPECULATIONS

ON

AND

?Epoc]^"

KNOWLEDGE.

OF

ORIGIN

THE

UNIVERSE;

THE

OF

CREATION

THE

I.

CHAPTER

HERACLITUS.

*'

is

Life

comedy

This,

feel."

Democritus
the

and

laughing
One

pitied

One

laugh'd

''

criticism

Modem

"each

which
"

The

be

fables

the

discarded,

wholly

with

the

came

forth

history
in

his

personal

being,

violence

as

"

and

If

bodily

him

which

been

frame,
he

from

it without

drawn

have

ruled

could

not

found

sense,

helpless,

his

call

himself^
isolated

so

he

that
creature

and

power

functions

and
was

it

own

sufferer.
him

within

without

his
effort

an

the

from

yet

an

not

which

from

such

and

must

connexion

no

torn

there

in

said,

thoughts

acts

that
own,

or

had

the

all

over

sigh

that

Heraclitus

highest
poor,

fragments

discovered
which

nothing,

had

The

aggerations
ex-

round

well

philosopher

like

are

torn

needs

Anaximenes

his

very

system
not

meant

been

has

speculations.

his

and

must

principle

as

of

nucleus

crying

the

as

if it

only

are

something

the

it

teristics
charac-

these

been

formed

Heraclitus

him

of

notion

vulgar

both

have

must

which
Of

grew.

as

crimes."

themselves

fables

there

philosophers

these

of

to

antiquity

times
o'er

wept

one

pronounced

but

and

truth,

of

and

indeed

has

fabulous

be

to

follies,

at

woful

the

condemned

one

"

applied

be

may

who

philosophers.

weeping

the

those

to

throughout

celebrated

Heraclitus,

tragedy

epigram,

Walpole's

Horace
and

think,

who

those

to

it
he

universal

life

was,

would

of
within

in

the
have

life, which

HERACLITUS.

with

him

connected

Heraclitus
the

about

the supreme

him,

account

on

Laertius

as

he

declined

to

think

Is

cause.

with

keeping

else

Ephesus,

at

morals, according to Diogenes


ofifer in favour

the

of his brother,

rejectionwas grounded
rejection of magistracy

his

his

not

what

source

he
temper,
offered
his fellow-citizens

magistracy which

disposed

other

Of

Blyson, and was bom


haughty melancholy
a

of their dissolute

; but

are

we

of

son

69th Olym.

refused

absolute

of life/'*

the

was

fellow-men, with the

his

originalfountain

and

79

of him

know

we

perfect
:
ing
Play-

instance

For

some

on

in

temple of Diana, he answered


those who
expressed surprise at seeing him thus occupied, Is
the
it not
better
to play with
children, than to share with you
which
The
administration
of affairs ?
pierces through
contempt
thropy,
misanbecame
confirmed
which
this reply, and
subsequently
of morbid
the
is rather
result
meditation, than of
with

children

some

the

near

"

"

virtuous
he

refused

himself

exert

to

the citizens

because

there

and

Ephesus
him

it because

Was

scorn.

on

home

there

was

of?

retired

the

not

fled

He

virtuous

roots, like

and

herbs

dissolute,

was

make

to

lived

that he

to

the

tains,
moun-

ascetic

an

If

of Greece

rest

it

Was

mountains, that

the

to

that

corrupt

were

them

make

to

conupt

were

citizens

the

for
he

He
heart.
was
a mismight there, in secret, prey on his own
anSirope; but misanthropy is madness, not virtuous indignation
consciousness
is
morbid
of
not
self,
a
a
; misanthrophy

opinion

sorrowful

been,

been

the

former

it is morbid

view

our

his

life had

time

to the

latter it is science.
declined
at

his

the courteous
court,

will best

"

King

Darius^

son

of Hystaspes^

All

to

vain-glory with

attachment

malice

am

vanity of courts,

ground.

the

depart from

men

no

not

he

some

of his character

have
a

in which

spend

to

of Ephesus

Heraclitus

health
*'

Darius

of

; in the

anatomy
letter

contemptuous

invitation

*'

of

This
nature.
says, to explore the depths of his own
the aim of all ascetics,as of all philosophers : but in

has

explain

aim

The

others.

of

he

as

The

formed

Content

kind

of any

the

the
and

with

paths

never

of

of

no

will

little,I live
f

Ency.

truth

avarice

but

obstinacy

envy

of

folly.

one.

place

my

as

Metrop.*

justice. They
they only aspire

and
;

As

for me,

I know

utterly despise the


foot

please."

on

Persian

mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm

80

HERACLITUS.

the nucleus of the fable of Heraclitus as


Misanthropy was
weeping philospher,who refused the magistracybecause the

citizens

throwinghimself
the

cause

The

attemptingto
on

Philosophy of

cure

to

ascertain.

cannot

we

himself

dunghill,hoping

within him

water

than this

More

corrupt.

were

story of his

The

of

that

dropsy by

the

heat

would

evaporate, is apocryphal.

Heraclitus

is,the subjectof

and

was,

expressed himself in such enigmatical


terms, that
the Obscure." ^ A
few
called
fragments have been
us.*
From
it
down
these
would
be vain to hope
to

dispute.He
he

"

was

handed

consistent system could be evolved ; but from

that

from

other

sources

we

may

them

and

gather the general tendency of his

doctrines.

tradition which

The
borne

out

assignshim Xenophanes

the evident

by

as

relation of their systems.

teacher is
Heraclitus

Xenophanes, that is to say, in


him the physiological
explanationof the universe is more
minent
prothan the Eleatic explanation
clitus
Herathe
at
same
time,
\
is neither frankly an Ionian,nor an
Italian ; he wavers
the two.
between
The pupilof Xenophanes would
naturally
regard human
knowledge as a mist of error, through which the
sunlightonly gleamed at intervals. But the inheritor of the
matical
Ionian doctrines would not adopt the conclusion of the Matheof this uncertaintyof
school, viz., that the cause
is somewhat

knowledge,was
that

the

was

led

was

maintained

to

that

than

uncertaintyof

impressions
; and

sensuous

of truth.
only
mathematician
not
enough for such a doctrine.
maintain a doctrine directly
opposed to it. He

consequently Reason

Heraclitus
He

Ionian

more

the

was

the

are

the

senses

fountain

of all true

sources

ledge,
know-

The senses
they drink in the universal intelligence.
deceive only when
they belong to barbarian souls ; in other
the
ill-educated
sense
words,
givesfalse impressions
; the rightlyfor

educated
whatever
false.
to

sense

receive the

Wolf

mark

Unhidden,

the

the

distinction

Schleiermacher
has corected, and
*
and
Museum
der
Butmann's

part iii.
r6 /ii)
t ""Xi}dic
X^dov.

This

thinkers,and
metaphysical

is common

is

Whatever

is remote
from the common,
True
is
The
the Unhidden.!

open
As if to
*

gives truth.

play

is true;
is
exceptional,

common

the

ue.

Those

whose

senses

are

Universal,attain truth.
between

endeavoured

himself
to

and

Xeno-

interpretthem,

Alteithumswissenschaften,'vol.
words
upon
to all ages.

is very

in
i.

chaiacteristic of

di

MERACLITUS.

(soul)within

Ether

vision

the

that the

thought

Xenophanes

intellectual

the

clouded

him.

counselled

one

senses

let

to

man

itself in his soul

mirror

the
through^ the senses;
himself
regard
other counselled
to shut
up within himself, to disthe senses,
with
ideas.
and
to commune
only
between
It seems
that
so
palpable a contradiction
strange

Universal

the

him

doctrines

two

the

should

Heraclitus

fact.

have

ever

overlooked.

been

is said

have

to

the

regarded

is

such

Yet

of

world

perpetual delusion; and this is said in the very


latest
and not
the least intelligentof Histories, to say nothing
the
of former
works.
this opinion ? Simply from
Whence
admitted
Heraclitus
and
scepticism of both
Xenophanes,
with
(appearances). It is true they
respect to Phenomena
the
denied
both
certainty of human
knowledge ; but they
certain
denied
ledge,"
knowhas no
this on
different grounds.
Man
sense

as

"

said
God

from

human

Heraclitus

just

the

boy

part

can

it is that the

Hence

sense) must
opinion of

(common
than

the

consequent

his view

on

lation
accumu-

an

and

Xenophanes,

of

truth

the

to

the Whole.

to

sense-knowledge, was

of

gence;
Intelli-

imperfect.
subject
any

it is

; because

the doctrine

from

upon

approach

nearer

than

approximation

nearer

individual

any

deviation

Another

otherwise

be

conception

Universal

the

of

learns

man

his

In

of all mankind

opinion

making

of parts,

portion

never

be

man."

the

vain

; and

has

God

from

but

intelligencewas
but

as

but

"

the

one

attributing

arrived
activity,Xenophanes
that
God.
at the conception of Unity, and
Unity he named
and
imitate
he did not
his Ionian
But
that
clothe
teachers,
material
element.
He
called it simply-The
Unity in some
One,
clothed
He
Heraclitus
his
God.
called
it
fire.
To
Unity.
or
God

to

him

distinctive

Fire

the

was

flame, which
dry vapour
"

The

is,and
enkindled,
this is but

was

oSrc

rtc

course,

Life

9cc5v
one

and

this

was

be,

an

measure

and

force

intensity of
his

by God*

Fire,

activity;
but

Beginning,
nor

man

; and

of the

Ionian

system,

the

not

warm,

He

fire in due measure


ever-living
How
self-extinguished."

says:

it was,
self-

clearly

reader

will

the
demihere
stands
Fire, which
as
of its spontaneous
Intelligence, because

translation

is the

of the

The

an

neither

made

modification

is the

This

only
Ether;

in due

and
a

of

symbol

type of spontaneous

shall

ever

discern.

once

"

an

"

world

and

at

was

and

element

given by Ritter.
original, i,e,y *" neither one

PolytheisticDeities.

It

is

of

the

not, however,

exact

Gods/' meaning,

of

HERACLITUS.

activity,is
Air

of

Those

but

modification

Anaximenes

who

it

accept

the

is in

only demi-symbolical.
the
other
symbol overlook

pure

which

system

respect

one

the

it is

the

proclaims

deviation

time

the

Ionian

the

from

senses

itself to

knowledge, necessarjly attaches


the
the same
At
primary one.
a^

element

system

very

and

Thales,

of all

source

material

as

The

of

Water

of the

moreover,

parts of the system.


as

Zi

in

ledge.
sense-knowledge and reflective knowHence
placed Diogenes of Apolloniaas the last of
we
the pure
lonians
came
some
; although, chronologically, he
time
his doctrine
is in many
after Heraclitus, and
respects

distinction

the

the

same

between

of Heraclitus.

that

as

which
made
Eleatics
the
Scepticism of phenomena
delusion
assumed
of the
declare
that all opinion was
senses
a
The
the
different aspect in Herg.clitus.
Declaring
great Being,
The

One,

the

of All

Cause

in due

both
self-extinguished,
that

Fire,

be

to

self-enkindled,and

ever

he

measure,

in

a
perpetual flux.
things were
is not
All
and
is/*
said
he,
celebrity.

all

it does

was

being, yet it forthwith

into

come

phrase had great


for though in truth

This

"

"

ever

led to pronounce

This

tp be."

ceases

that it is a distinct
variously interpreted. Hegel declares
affirmation
of the
grpund-principle of Logic, viz. that das

has

been

Seyn

Nichts^

ist das

It is very
obscure, but
of his theory oi

to

seems

us

only

enigmatical expression
is
but
always

an

that

nothing
flux:
perpetually kindling and extinguishing,
becoming. The
its modes
Is constantly changing its phenomena
Existence
/."f.,
of existence.
The
plants ; plants
cjarbon in the air nourishes
is

is

Fire

"

nourish
nourish
it

not

^*

be

to

No

has

one

waters

"

his

Take

been

ever

"

It

the

an

on

"

the

^^

illustration

of

air

flux

to

is

forthwith

being, yet

River

same
; for different
and
; it dissipatesits waters
it overflows
and it recedes

the

constantly
it approaches
again

them

into

comes

beautiful

twice

into

carbon

illustratioii of

flowing down

are

gathers

is

This

plants.
also of the phrase

ceases

back

breathe

men

men;
fresh

stream

"

"

f.^.,

tinction

Hegel
was

have

and

"Being
the

to

said

that

non-Being are
**
Nothing

position
**

No-Existence,

Existence
as

Nothing

was

those

who

No

the
can

Nothing,"
so

This

same."
from

come

he

did

not

feebly ridicule

is in contra-dis-

Nothing."
mean

him

that
suppose
Few

When

Existence
him

to

was
Things t,e., no phenomenon.
persons
logician's right to treat of Existence
/tf/'j# (dcu Seyn) and
"zisteoce/^r aliudf that is, existingthings.

will

meant.

question

the

ANAXAGOkAS.

?4

of^the fluX atid


evidently but a statement
all is in motion
reflux,as in his aphorism that
; there is no
rest
or
quietude." Let us also add here what Ritter says :
"
notion
The
of life implies that of alteration,which
by the
ancients
Life
motion.
Universal
The
was
generally conceived
as
This

fails/*

and

is

**

"

is therefore
motion

towards

must,
of the

course

transition

supposed

certain

which

it

parent

of all

therefore

tends,

every

as

end, even
though this end, in the
of life,present
itself to us as a mere

ulterior

some

and

some

evolution

to
a

motion,

eternal

an

longing

end.
to

be

Heraclitus
inherent

this

on

in

Fire,

ground
gratify

to

itself into some


determinate
constantly transformed
form
of being, without, however,
wish to maintain
it,but
any
in the mere
desire
into
of transmuting itself from
form
one
another.
Therefore
is Jove's pastime."
worlds
to make
other
There
of his on
this point which
tenets
some
are
are
but vaguely connected
with the above.
He
explained phenomena
the
and
efforts
of opposite tendencies
as
concurrence
in the emotion
of the ever
results the
livingFire, out of which
beautiful
All is composed
of contraries, so
most
harmony.
that the good is also evil,the livingis dead, "c.
The
harmony
is one
of conflicting impulses, like that of the lyre
of the world
The
and
the
strife between
is the
bow.
opposite tendencies

The

view

explain the
to

contrary
one

but

he

foot
his
has

things.

order
the

on

the

attempt
to

have

we

taken

doctrines

of Heraclitus*

will

at

once

of

development in which we have placed them,


practice of our
predecessors. He stands with
Ionian
path, and with the other on the Italian :
is not
these two
tor unite
: his office is negative ;

criticise both.

CHAPTER

IL

ANAXAGORAS.

is

AnaxagoAas
in

Lydia,

not

far

generallysaid

and

have

from' Colophon.

splendid patrimony,
but

to

he

seemed

born

l^armenides, he disregarded
elsewhere.
placed his ambition

year,*thepassion

born

at

for

to

all such

figure

Clazomenae
his

Inheriting from

like

his twentieth

been

family

in the

external

State

greatness,

Early in life,so

early as

philosophy engrossed

him.

ANAXAGORAS.

ambitious
all young
men,
in his
intellect exhibited

Like
the

for the

capital.

The

Athens,
youth

word,

in

busy

contempt

His

upon

city.
panted
the growing importance
it,as the amyearned towards
bitious
native

He

provincial town
yearns
for
theatre
a fitting
longs

all energy

as

with

looked

he

soul

and
activity,

him.

solicited

of

85

for

London

on

which

; in

play

to

its part.
He

of

resolute

had

been

stirringepoch.

and

great

scattered

politicalimportance
Greece, was
growing

The

men.

was

oif Persia

hosts

countless

The

It

Athens.

to

came

of

by a handiul
Greece, and of

of
The
to a climax.
Queen
of tlie most
glorious in the long annals of
Age of Pericles, one
The
Poems
of Homer
formed
the
dawning.
mankind, was
of silent heartfelt enjoyment.
subject of literaryconversation, and
had created
The
a
Drama,
early triumphs of -^schylus
the

Athens

such

still remains

as

critics.

The

art,

was

then

was

hereafter

the

delight of

and

scholars

and

Sophocles, that perfect flower of antique


that
in his bloom, meditating on
he
art which

young

bring

to

Philoctetes.
and

wonder

the

perfectionin
philosophy had

to

Ionian

The

shared

Anaxagoras

young

his

Antigone

the

found

with

time

there

home

tlie

and

and

Homer

Anaximenes.*

Philosophy

obtained

soon

universe

the

mysteries of

The

the

declared
fascination,and
of his life was
to
contemplate the
affairs

him.

tempted

that

the

to

His

given up.
solving problems. But
was

estates

in his affections.

place

supreme

He

aim

the

heavens.

and

All

self
him-

purpose

for his

care

whilst

waste,

to

ran

yielded

he

was

day he found himself a beggar, he


** To
exclaimed
Philosophy I owe
worldly ruin, and my
:
my
commenced
had
he
soul's prosperity." He
teaching, and
illustrious pupils in Pericles,Euripides, and Socrates.
He
not
long without
was
paying the penalty of success.
and
uncharitableness
The
of some,
joined to the bigotry of
envy
of impiety to
be
accusation
an
others, caused
brought against
*

this

By

roost

we

no

intimate

more

assert) than

historians

ambiguous
phrase
disciple of Anaximenes
such

at

Olymp.
years
middle

old
of

his

with

vaiiance

that
at

of

the

as

that

was

that in the

have

arisen.

statement,

he

that
he

for he

was
a

So

disciple of

friend

of
the

text, must
Brucker's

own

places the

Anaxagoras, 70th Olymp.


birth of the
pupil, and the

life.

his

simplest facts

the

little griticism

have

Homer.
error

Anaximenes

of

calling

chronology
birth

is

(as
in

But

him

some

the

strangely

of Anaximenes

56th

iTjaslcr
fifty-six
making
such
in the
pupil only became

thus

JiistQrians bestpwed

on

the

ANAXAGORAS.

S6

him.

He

tried

was

his

mitigation of
his friend
of

cause

condemned
into

sentence

death

to

banishment

Some
pupil, Pericles.
his persecution was
this very
and

the

that

and

and

struck

the

eloquence of
supposed that the

to

have

owed

; but

the

Pericles

friendshipof

unpopular
through
philosopher. The supposition is gratuitous,and belongs, rather,
modern
to the perverted ingenuity of
to the
scholarship, than
facts of history. In the persecution of Anaxagoras
sober
we
see
occurred
afterwards
natural, what
was
nothing but what
very
what
has
in the case
of Socrates, and
a
subsequently occurred
in the
thousand
It is the
times
history of mankind.
simple
effect of outraged convictions.
controverted
the
Anaxagoras
he
tried and
in concondemned
was
religion of his time:
sequence.
his

After

statesman

was

banishment

he

resided

preserved his tranquillityof mind


who

have

lost

Athenians

the

the

at

in

**

until his death.


it is the

there

and

Lampsacus,
Athenians

It is not

have

who

his

his studies,
proud reflection.- He continued
and was
highly respected by the citizens,who, wishing to pay
of esteem
his memory,
mark
bed,
asked
to
him, on his deathsome
in what
do so ?
He
manner
begged that the
they could
day of his death might be annually kept as a holiday in all the
this request was
fulfilled.
schools
of Lampsacus.
For centuries
He
died in his seventy-third year.
A tomb
erected
to him
was

me,"

lost

in the

was

city with
**

This

tomb

Whose

His
or

this

inscription:
"

confines,

great Anaxagoras

explored

mind

philosophy

contains

the

heavenly paths

so

many

be more
correct
perhaps it would
attributed
principles are

vain

to

confine

attempt

ourselves

of Truth.

)"

contradictory principles,
to

say,

that

so

many

tradictory
con-

be
him, that it would
them.
We
shall,as usual,
to

systematicview \)f
to leading doctrines.

with

ledge,
subject of the origin and certainty of our knowand
Heraclitus.
He
he differs from Xenophanes
thought,
the former, that all our
delusive
sehse-knowledgeis
; and,

with

the

On

the great

flere is
6een
he

latter,th^tallour
a

held
could

double
that
not

question this

knowledge

scepticism
these

brought

opinions

maintained

have
; for

two

we

denying certaintyto

the
cimiesniirmip;h
into

contradict

both.

connecting

see

the

the

senses

was

play!
We

link.

somewhat

It has

each
may

His

senses,

usually

other

; that

venture

to

reason

for

simiUr

to

that

ANAXAGORAS.

87

Xenophanes, viz.,their incapacity of distinguishingall the


real objective elements
of which
Thus
the
things are made.
which
call a flower; but of that
a complex
mass
we
eye discerns
of which
is composed
the flower
In
other
nothing.
we
see
words
but do
the senses
cannot
perceive phenomena
not, and
observe
naumena^"^zxi,
anticipationof the greatest discovery
of modem
dimly and
confusedly by
psychology, though seen
Perhaps the most
convincing proof of his having
Anaxagoras.
conceived
knowledge, is in the passage
quoted by Aristotle :
so
of

"

Things
Tct

avTOiS

according as they seem


vTroXafiwri), What

to each

are

ola

ovra,

av

"

him

to

is this

(on

rotavra

the

but

tion
asser-

It is
?
to
being confined
phenomena
knowledge
in Sextus
further strengthened by the passage
Empiricus, that
the criteria of our
knowledge of things beyond
are
phenomena
sense," i.e, things inevident are evident in phenomena
(t^s toii^
d^XMV icaroXi^^eQ)?,
ra
(fxuvofjia/a).
be
It must
the above, that
concluded, from
not, however,
Anaxagoras regarded Sense as the sole origin of Knowledge.
the
He
that
the
held
regulating faculty
reason
(Xoyos)was
of the universe.
of the mind, as
The
intelligence(voOs) was

of all

"

senses

copies

accurate

reflect them

Let

us

of

these

as

their

control

in

accurate

are

their reports

things.
They
objects appear

impressions.

reflect

has

to

the

to

objects

them.

to

Reason

apply this doctrine

now

their reports

; but

black.
not

black, because
to

appear

the

that
As

this

useful

word

which

will

senses

our

forbids

knowledge
him

this he

in

Now,

is

the

the

Senses

white
an

we

which

have

not

which

to

is not

did

snow

of

sense-

Reason

But
;

is

composed

doctrine

reports

have

Snow

that

meant

intepretation.
inaccurate

that

it is

; his express

gave

first time

noumenay
be attached

could

such

of

water

has

verify their reports.


explanation of some

those, apparently, contradictory statements


puzzled all the critics. For instance, he says
but

they

but

Reason

of

white

not

are

told

and, in this

but extremely
employed the uncouth
invariable
to explain the
meaning

have

be
it may
necessary
to it in the course

of

these

volumes.

Phenomenon

The
is the
antithesis
it.
former
to
understood, noumenon
the latter means
the
the scholastic
means
Appearance^
Substratum^ or, to use
the
article
the
in
word, the Substance,
Substance,'
(See
Penny
is recognised by us
Cyclopaedia,* by the present writer.) Thus, as matter
still distinguish logically
only in its manifestations
(phenomena), we
may
And
those
the
the
from
manifestations
thing manifested
(noumenon).
will be
in
former
the
materia
materia
the
the
circa
latter,
quani ;
qua,
is

pretty well

Noumenon

is

manifestation.

therefore

equivalent

to

the

Essence

phenomenon

to

the

ANAXAGORAS.

88

instance,

Water

since

the

is the

whole

theory

Take

how

; reSectibn

could

Water

black

from

was

is white

Snow

that

their report was


contradictory^
white.
Snow
the
black, yet
Here, then,
of knowledge
Sense
exemplified :
asserting
him

showed

reason

liquids,white

two

discern

it

and

will be

he

Heraclitus.

marked

From

at

from

once

it will

only
and

Xenophanes

admitting

former, because

the

on

one

discern

to

intervals.

himself

separate

the

pour

unable

made

tion.
illustra-

another

black, and

the eye

certain

at

did

Thus

had

He

drop by drop:
change as it is gradually going

actual

the

white.

be

not

the other

into

assertingthat Snow, being

Sense

be

to

of knowledge, he
only criterion of things,the only source
of truth,
could
not
regard the Xoyos as the unfailing source
but merely as th""reflective
whereby the reports of sense
power,
the

were

controlled.

him

that

the

From

reports

izS"^ \*
objectively

the

of

Heraclitus

senses

maintained

certain.

alone

the other

annihilated

subjectivelytrue,

were

Sense,

the. former, by

that

Both

be

to

that

reports

; the

and

one

principle.

that

showing

the

but

Xenophanes

certitude

principles of absolute

had

Reason,
goras

the

Heraclitus

zxA

were

senses

of

convinced

reflection

latter,because

the

the

claimed
pro-

Anaxa-

reason

was

he annihilated
the
for materials ; and
dependent on the senses
fallacious.
other by showing that the materials
were
Having thus, not without considerable
difficulty,
brought his
under
human
various opinions on
one
knowledge
system, let
for his cosmology.
endeavour
do the same
to
And, as in
us
had to cut almost
have
inch of
the foregoing attempt, we
every
the
the
of

for

way

ourselves,

tolerance

some

arbitraryuse we have made


scattered
passages) ; so, in

it necessary

depart from

to

greatly respect

we

neither
*

do

case

we

and

Subjective

naturalized

amongst
feel

at

of

the

tools

our

that

to

views

be

may

now

so

come,

of those

much

for

(the interpretation

others, Aristotle
liberty to supply

objective are

demanded

used

also feel

we

may
whose
and

Plato.

any
as

authority

passage
almost

In
:

to

we

have

be

superfluous,nevertheless, to explain
Mind
of the Thinker
them.
The
the
subject means
("go), the object
the
means
Thing thought of
(See also, 'Penny Cydop.,'
{Non-Ego)*
art. Subjective^for a full explanation.)
"' the
In the above
being subjectivelytrue "
reports of the senses
passage
that
the
their
of
inform
pressions
senses
means
us
truly
impressions ; but these imall
like
actual
the
not
at
are
objects(as may be shown
by the broken

become

it may

not

'

'

of

qppearance

reports

are

"

stick half

of

which

fals^,"
objectively

is

dipped i4

water

^,and

therefore

th^

ANAXAGORAS.

90

something

it become

does

it is bone

before, and

mingling

beginning

the

In

of homceomericBt

therefore

The

of elements

mass

them

What

harmonious
This

bone

not

was

only be blood,
mingled it is a

can
are

would

Thus

Anaxa-

rejected Fate as
Chance
as
being

This

to

the

an

empty

in

his

by

But

Many.
was

famous

to

mix
one

the

; on

than

glimpse

the

the

on

other

he

jected
re-

unperceived
oydpayn-Cvi]^
Xoyc-cr/i^).
science

what^ modern

of

one

Cause

disclaimed

thus

had

He

name

Intelligence

these

two

powers,

he

Chance,

and

proclaim Intelligenceas

to

equally

arranged in

become

to

early speculation,Fate
left than

course

the

more

Having

be

Thales

What

Universe.

of

remarkable

establish.

potent

other

All

and

a"rfXov alndv
logic (j^v r6)(riv,

is another
to

of

the

them

no

composed
infinite variety. So far

yet unmixed.

as

caused

force

Infinite

the

was

Parmenides

as

all-embracing system
question he answered

human

so

One,

were

power

(vovs)the moving
hand

there

proclaimed

taught, Anaxagoras

was

blood

as

elementary seeds

or

being

All

the

from

by

But,

now.

it

for

reason.

goras

the

nothing,

they
only be bone, whenever
of two
elements, homcBomericB,

bone

and

of

out

the

had

no

Arranging

Power,*
remarkable
whole, the most
indeed
is so
speculation of all the pre-Socratic epoch ; and
the
scientific precision of modern
times, that it is
very near
its original simplicity. We
with difficulty
will cite
we
preserve
a
portion of the fragment preserved by Simplicius, wherein
Intelligence (vovs)is infinite,and
Intelligence is spoken of :
in and
autocratic ; it is mixed
up with nothing, but exists alone
it mixed
it otherwise, were
for itself. Were
up with anything,
it would
of all things : for in all there
participatein the nature
This

to

seems

as,

us

the

on

"

is

part of all ; and

would

prevent

Here
modern

Will
*

We

not

have

no

the
his

was

mixed

with

over
exercising power
distinct an
expression as

as

conception

laws, but in

that which

it from

have

we

so

way

of

Deity

the

mixed

up

with

foregoing remarks
own

words

all

enable

acted

matter
us

to

reported by Diogenes,

who

all things were


confused
"Formerly
a
opened thus:
into worlds.'*
Intelligence coming, arranged them

This

i. 2, and

passage
"

so

Metaph.'

perfectlyaccords
i, 7, that

we

need

with

what

only

things:"!

possible of

acting through
the

intelligence

Aristotle

refer to them.

meet

says
mass;

"

the

invariable
on.

Aristotle's
that

his work

afterwards.

says, *De

Anim^,'

ANAXAGORAS.

91

that
"he
objection to Anaxagoras,
machine,* in respect to the formation
when

is embarrassed

he

that, he introduces
surely, this is

world

the
the

as

this

things

other

that,

so

;
of

cause

all

or

it is

things." Now,
only be valid
everywhere.
Anaxagoras

produces

could

criticism, and

unfair

very

in

but

intelligence which

oi

explain

to

Intelligence;

but

cause

any

how

Intelligence

uses

God
against a Malebranche, who saw
of the homaoassigned to Intelligencethe great Arrangement
tnericB ; but of course
supposed that subordinate
arrangements
of the
take
the case
Let
carried on
us
were
by themselves.
Christian

Thinker

centuries

some

His

back.

being

creed

when

all things ; nevertheless,


Deity created and ordained
he attributed
of the burn
his finger,the cause
he burnt
the

and

God

to

not

attributed

he

with

case

that

that

explain,
God.

these

It is here

we

Chance
effect

causes;

he

whatever

he

is

unascertained
he

cause

called

the

to

opinion respecting

what

to

attributes

he

effect

others

of

the

called

universal

Intelligence.
the

On

have

who

Those

grounds

same

read

have
the

remember
his

misty
the
Phsedo,

read

in

passage

which

poignant disappointment

which

had

he

at

first been
It

expresses

the

of

Socrates,

authenticity.
disappointment

firmly that Socrates

believe
This

from

is

Olympus,

tnachinSL

charge
i. p.

Uchen

this

is to

objection
the

the

to

solve

to

is the

the

it is

; and
of

Plato.

of

merely

the

has

passage

disappointment,

artifice

difficultyof

express

Anaxagoras,

This

speaker

theatrical

to

denouement,

"

that

rare

the

the
and
We

down

bringing

to

God

Dens

ex

that

the

of Horace.

make

We

for

allusion

an

not

of

"

doubtless

say,
made

real

it,in

Plato's

translator?

is

attracted.

so

air of

of

will

we

Plato.

read

not

some

doctrine

the

of

splendour
of

Socrates

at

has

who

forlorn

version

and

reasoning

to *the

^and

"

either;in the

shape or other,
diction, or in the dim
who

Phsedo

the

some

those

object

we

the

in

has

error

"

not

latest
Die

227 :
Charakter
"

remark

to

caution

the

reader

mechanical

There

Intelligence.
adopted
unfrequently been

German

bekannten
s$iner

work,
Klagen

Lehre*^

"

Zeller, Die

^He

der

Alten

then

against supposing
is

need

; and

of

this

it is made

Phiios.
iiber den

embarrassed

does

Chance

sky

parallel /
explain he does /

can

not
understand,
contradictory?
opinions
the
force of Anaxagoras'
see

he

an

as

of

What

fire, I

to

the

in

this

Is not

God.

but

cause

no

muttered

thunder

Anaxagoras?

of

whatever

Are

the

to

natural

explain by

the

when

but

that

der

caution
a

Griechen.*

vol.

einseitig mechan*

quotes Aristotle

and

special

Plato.

ANAXAGORAS.

91

can

we

august

his

of

name

opinions promulgated

of

so

say

But

master.

by Plato

believe

we

the

under
that

also

Plato

participatedin it.
is

Here

Taylor:

the
make

we

in

passage

version

misty

the

alterations,otherwise
whole, which

no

responsiblefor the

ourselves

should

we
we

Thomas

of

hold

disinclined

are

do.

to

*'

But, having

book,

composed

as

things,I

all

that in
to

he

part in which

that

of

be

If

manner.
cause

or

is,he

manner,
of this,

that

it

was

^l, and

this

an

adorn

situation

in

anyone,

therefore, should

therefore, it is proper
himself

excellent,

most

who

about

knows

that

place

subsist

in

this

best

the

willing to discover
generated, or corrupted,
the

best

consequence

consider

others, except

that

it is necessary
that
which
is

but

best:

know

also

in

should

man

about

the

should

case,
thing
every-

be

or

and

the

was

through
everything
subsist
how
it may
ought to discover
In
or
suffer,or perform any thing else.

i^ the
he

is

intellect

for

and

cause

thought

and

thing

it would

which

to

came

is the

and

if this

things,

all

certain

he

cause,

excellent

considered

would

nothing else,either
which

with

from

when

by Anaxagoras,

which

the

reading

person

that intellect orders

says

respect

intellect

in that

said

delighted

of

cause

disposing

he

was

certain

the

heard

once

science
of both.
the same
and
subordinate, since there, is one
that
with
I
I had
rejoiced,thinking
But, thus reasoning
myself
would
instruct
found
in
a
me
preceptor in Anaxagoras, who
the
of things agreeable to my
own
causes
conceptions ; and
inform
in
first
the
whether
the earth is
that he would
me
place
of its being so;
afterwards
flat or round
explain the cause
; and

adducing
that
he

should

besides
and

for

this

it is better
say

that
purpose
for the earth
to

that it is situated
that it

this, show
should

if he

render

was

all

which
exist

is better, and
in this

in the

better
this

if

And

manner.

middle, that

he

would

in the middle

for it to be

apparent

showing

to

me,

was

so

require any other species of cause


; for I by
that
after
said
all
he
had
these
means
no
thought,
were
introduce
would
he
other
intellect,
disposed
orderly
by
any
shows
for their subsistence, except
that which
that it is
cause
I
exist
in
this
for
them
Hence
better
to
manner.
thought that

disposed

as

not

to

common
rendering the cause
explain that
things,he would
all.
of
And,
common
good

in

to

which

and
particular,

each

is best

indeed,

for

would

each, and
not

to

all

is the

have

ex-

AkA^AGOkAS.

93

""

-"

changed

nopca

with

his books

that
celerity,

"

admirable

this

hope,

my

of my
reading,
certain
causes
employ

in the

when,

away,

with

them

read

great
is best

that which

is base.

from

But

But, having obtained

might with great celerityknow

that which

and

for

mighty gain I
I
prodigious eagerness,

tnese

course

friend, I
I

forced

was

him

saw

make

no

the purpose
of
intellect,nor
and
orderly disposing particulars,but assign air, aether,
water,
other
and
of things.
things equally absurd, as the causes
many
in
similar
he
And
be affected
to
a
manner
appeared to me
of

use

to

him

who

produced
the

should

intellect ; and

by

of each

causes

that

assert

all the

for

actions

of

Socrates

afterwards, endeavouring

particularaction, should

say,

that

to

are

relate

sit

now

body is composed of bones


solid and are
and
and that the bones
are
separated by
nerves,
which
intervals from
but
that
the
each other ;
are
by
nerves,
of
intension
and
the
nature
remission, cover
bones,
capable
contained.
The
which
with
skin
in
the
together
they are
bones, therefore, being suspended from their joints,the nerves,
limbs
to bend
by strainingand relaxing them, enable
me
my
inflected
I here sit in an
at present ; and
as
through this cause
of
position.
And, again, should
assign other such like causes
conversing with you, viz.,voice and air, and hearing,
now
my
other
thousand
and
a
particulars,neglecting the true cause,
better
to condemn
that, since it appeared to the Athenians
me
this account,
it also appeared to me
better and more
on
just to
sit here and, thus abiding, sustain the punishment which
they
ordained
have
: for otherwise, by the
me
dog, as it appears to
carried long ago
these bones
and nerves
have
been
would
me,
either into Megara or Boeotia, through an opinion of that which
is best, if I had
not
thought it more
just and becoming to
the punishment
sustain
it
ordered
by my
country, whatever
But
call
to
might be, than to withdraw
myself and run away.
is extremely absurd.
things of this kind causes
Indeed, if
should
that, without
possessing such things as
say
anyone
bones
I could
and
I do, he would
not
act
as
speak the
nerves,
that I act, as I do at present, through these,
truth ; but to assert
and
that I operate with this intellect,
and
the choice of
from
not
is best, would
what
be an
assertion full of extreme
negligence
here

because,

and

sloth

able

to

in the

for

this

first

place, my

would

be

collect,by division,that

different from

that without

which

the
the
a

of

consequence
true

cause

cause

would

of

not

not

being

thing is
be

very

cause*''

anaxagoras.

04

this

Now

reasoning we

take

be

to

ignoroHo denchu

an

The

is

and
would
nothing to the purpose,
in
the least
be
admitted
as
by Anaxagoras
true, without
from
what
Indeed,
can
we
impugning his argurnent.
gather,
that
in
should
not
we
was
comprehended
Anaxagoras
say
ancient
his philosophy was, in certain respects,
times, because
in advance
much
of all ancient
The
appointme
distoo
speculation.
of Socrates
natural.
He
was
expected to find a
moral
the
he
and
found
universe^
tJuory of
a metaphysieo-physical
theory.* He expected to find that, on the theory of an arranging
Intelligence(by which he understood
a human
Intelligence
could be established
idealized),the whole operations of nature
d priori rht
of
found
that this theory was
only an enunciation
the fact of the operations of Nature
being guided by fixed and

illustration

made

immutable

causes

causes

the

could

disappointment, and

he

and

laws) ;

these

that

of Chance, but
Necessity nor
uncongenial to Socrates
theory more
of

result

Intelligence. Now, a
scarcely be found

of

call

modems

(which

neither

were

of

use

therefore

he

it with

read

it with

read

haste

and

misunderstanding.

which

was
in
Intelligence
no
^Anaxagoras conceived
the
wise a moral
it
was
Intelligence;
primum
simply
mobile^
the arrangement
force by which
motive
of
the all-knowing and
the elements
in Aristotle,
affected.
was
Hence, from a passage
inferred that the i/oSs was
have
only a physical principle,
some

The

whose

sole

error

office
of

easy

in

matter

set

to

was

explanation.

Men

motion.

.still

are

is

This
accustomed

so

an

to

Intelligence as only a more


perfect and
of
human
exalted
traces
Intelligence, that where they see
no
of the
latter
to
the
question the existence
they are
prone
creative
When
the
former.
was
Anaxagoras says that Nous
Notis
similar
a
instantly figure to themselves
principle, men
On
gence
to their own.
examination, they find that such an Intellithe
doctrine.
in
conceive
has
no
they
place
They
as
then
declare
It is a
that no
intelligence has any place there.
It means
than Motion, aud
mere
name.
more
might have
no
conceive

been

divine

the

called

Motion.

But, fortunately, Simplicius has


*

Socrates

But

himself

is

Anaxagoras, since
but only of those things that
makes

to

AyaBdv,
moral

"

Repulf,^

theory.

lib. ii"

open
he

(o

says

are

This

good

the
that
:

also

preserved

objection

same

God

is not

atnov

rrdvnov
fij)
shows

the

how

long

that

as

author
top

passage
which

of all

Obov

dXKd

exclusivelyhis

he

things,
twv

was

ANAXAGORAS.

from

the

before, and
NouSy

as

shall

indebted

select

now

cognitive

these

quote

of Anaxagoras

work

the

for

the

is, of all
of

knowledge

95

one

set
distinctively

readily

more

has

passage,

and

portion of it
in which

the

forth ; and
whom
we
"

them

"

we
are

gence
Intelli-

has entire
purest, and
has
a
soul, whether

which

Everything

to

translated

subtlest

things, the
all.

Ritter,

as

not.

sentences

two

or

is

power,

quoted

have

we

by the Intelligence (voOsicparct).


all things (wavra
those
Intelligence knows
cyyco vovs), both
mixed
that are
that are
and
those
the things
separated ; and
and
which
the
those
things which
ought to be, and
were,
will be ; all are
which
which
those
now
arranged by
are, and
vovs*)." Here, the creative,or
Intelligence {iravro.SitKoafirftre
rather disposing,faculty is not
more
distinctlyexpressed than
/\/ous both
knows
and
The
the cognitive.
acts; this is its
that in ancient
A grand conception ; one
duplicate existence.
seldom
far in advance
rivalled ; one
that was
so
speculation was
of its chronologicalepoch, as to be a puzzle to all critics.
The
relation in which
stands
of Anaxagoras
to
the system
Infinite
be briefly characterized.
of others
The
those
may
great

small, is governed

or

Matter

Instead

of

lonians

the
One

of

in his

became

Substance,

such

hands

Water,

as

the

Air,

homcBomeria.

Fire, he

or

saw

substances.
At
the
necessity of admitting Many
same
carried
the
out
Eleatic
time, he
Pythagorean and
principle of
thus
dialectical
The
the
thrusts
of Zeno
One,
avoiding
against
the upholders of The
M.
Cousin
would
Hegel and
Many,
call this eclecticism,and, in one
be
correct
sense, they would
;
inasmuch
led
his
doctrine
the
to
but,
as
by
Anaxagoras was
Ionian
Eleatic
which
and
the
the
development
principles
eclectical
and
had
led
it
method, we
not
to
taken,
was
by any
such
There
of
must
a name.
protest against the application
truth dimly recognised by the lonians, namely,
that
was
a
all reducible
the material
to some
are
noumenon
phenomena
What
that
or
some
beginning was,
they
noumena,
oj^y^.
his
also
but
doctrine
it
variouslysought. Anaxagoras
sought
;
of perception convinced
that it could not be one
him
principle,

the

but
But
*

many
there

also

was

It would

Arbtotle,

in

be

of the

truth

dimly

needless, after this,to

confirmation.

Trendelenburg,

speaking

his homceomertce.

hence

Comment.

vovq^

adds

The

itai

seen

refer

criticsd
de

Aristot.

^vxv*

"

So

far

he

to the

Anim.,'

Craty.y p.

expressions of

numerous

will
p.

400.

Ionian.

an

Elealics, namely,

by the

reader

was

do

466

weU
et

siq.

to

consult

Plato, in

ANA)tAGORAS.

96

that

The

without

there

One

only

there

The

One

could

existent

necessity
Up

this

to

chasm

could
He

be

the
the

was

Many).
and

Matter
horn

more

to

the

These

history

uniformly
doctrine

of

others

of

Stagyrite
he

was

thrown

admitted

entitle
;

not

combating.

him

the
He

One)
the

be

worlds

and

Matter.

He

how

to

as

the

itself.

neva:

thing

other

some

and

became

thing could

one

how

to

as

into

on

Anaxogoras
of

theory

and

admitted

Mind

of

clearly

regret

him,

deep

chasm

with

respect

both

either

we

the

over

Rationalists,

Anaxagoras

disparagingly
did

claimed
pro-

dilemma

the

namely,

dualistic

by

from

only

Philosophy

speaks

flnd

(The

unmixed,

upon

his

by

knowledge.
had

have
act

skill.

fashioned.

was

points

two

since

must

cannot

Sensualists

origin

Reason

it

horns,

Matter

bridge

separating

it

these

and

similar

great

for

act;

fashioning,

the

thing

one

mixed

and

and

pure

was

which

chasm

of

horn

Eleatics,

the

It

{homaomerue,

only

can

gored

who

impure

both

escaped

which

One,

Many,

itself

by

difference.

fashioned

became

Matter

tion
inven-

consummate

lonians,

the

also

Zeno's

Matter

each

Anaxa-

variance

at

Intelligence

Infinite

Self-

saw

modifications,

some

escaped

he

the

with

Infinite

gored

Infinite

than

which

he

means

which

Infinite

the

Infinite

the

the

that

escaped

of

since

beings;

be

Architect

the

why

why

the

that

escaped

he

of

been

over

so

with

existence

this

By

did

He

up.

the

Eleatic.

an

profound

bridge

be

the

by

them.

this

to

doctrines,

both

accepted

who

filled

had

between

of

Anaxagoras

was

many

derived,

and

things

as

must

accepted

he

doctrines

result

far

so

yawned

was

for

In

is

AH

was

Many

were

two

depth

Dialectics

not

there

the

The

the

God

as

ind,

with

things

of

as

Ohe

and

words,

reasoning

One.

point

reserved

was

This

The

infinite

of
of

to

for

One

The

that

saw

other

multiplicity

admitting

He

Many,

in
;

One

into

resolved

be

not

the

proved.

was

goras.

be

whom

of

be

never

could

not

from

necessity

the

could

Many

Sense
to

to

but

apprehend

Reason.

or

very
see

high
that

believe
the

and

Sense

force

in

rank

Aristotle
that
of

the
the

98

EMPEDOCLBS.

^
^

antithesis

the real meaning of that


totle ; and
not
in the Appendix,* the present

critical
bom

about

consent,

is said

was

to

flourished

have

place for such


side.
our
Anaxagoras
Empedocles, by general

on

70th Olympiad

the

in

the

Anaxagoras at least 64 years old at


Empedocles published his doctrine, after which
written ;
have
could
probable that Anaxagoras
when

probabilityvanishes
who

teaching in

was

died

have

to

time

discussion, we
Empedocles

Athens

age
and

it is

barely

even

this

the

point

above

will

now

commence

was

born

in

unworthy

spent in

in

Agrigentum

singularand

dowries
rank

and

supposed

on

Like

have

to

lands

displayed.

Only

secrets

of

been

great

in

the

far East

Medicine

and

rival

them

have

to

namely, in
to

young

been

ing
bestowmen

of

early philosophers,he is
traveller,and to have
gathered
of knowledge
which
he
store

all

the wondrous

that

is said

manner

marrying

girls,and

poor

consequence.

distant

potent

honourable

brief

period in
to Syracuse.
illustrious family,
espousal of the
at

was

his wealth

of

Much

of

flourished

Sicily,and

and

party.
a

77 th
88th

or

narrative.

our

formidable
a
splendour,
height
descended
from
wealthy and
a
Empedocles,
acquired a high reputation by his resolute
democratic

76th

the

not

was

Agrigentum,

of its

the

life of Anaxagoras,

the

upon
about

at

84th Olympiad.

the

about

back

when

flourished.

that

Trusting

in

the

Lampsacus, in exile, in the


Empedocles
years after the epoch at which

Olympiad, and who


01)niapiad,viz.,16
is said

look

we

; this

84th Olympiad

make

would

examine

being the

is

inquiries. Chronology

will

we

the

could

he

have

learned

the'

Magic.

the EgypOnly from


tian
the art of prophecy.
he
did travel into Italy and to

Magi could he have learned


that
It is probable, however,
in
little of his personal
mention
Athens.
But,
can
truth, we
rivals that of
history that is not open to question. His name
The
same
Pythagoras in the regions of Fable.
august majesty
the same
of demeanour, and
marvellous
nature, are
power over
attributed
Miracles
both.
his
to
were
pastimes. In prophesying,
the
in medicine, in power
winds
and
over
rains, his
wonders
and
he
were
so
numerous
so
renowned, that when
all eyes were
appeared at the Olympic Games
reverentially
fixed

upon

him.

His

dress

and

demeanour

reputation. Haughty, impassioned, and


*

See

Appendix

C*

accorded

eminently

with

his

disinterested

EMPEDOCLES.

refused

in character, he
him

offered

the

of

tyranny

the citizens \ but

by

99

Agrigentum

his love

of

when

freely

distinction

showed

golden girdle, the Delphic crown,


train of attendants.
He
and
proclaimed himself
a numerous
and women
whom
God
But
men
to be
a
reverently adored.
take this literally. He
not
assumed
must
probably only
we
which
he promised all soothsayers,
by anticipationan honour
priests,physicians and princes of the people."
has also taken
Fable
advantage of the mystery which
hangs
overof
it various
his death, to create
stories of marvel.
out
after
h
e
sacred
drawn
One
festival,
was
a
relates,that,
to
up
heaven
in a splendour of celestial effulgence. Another
and
threw
himself
that
is
he
into
the
more
headlong
popular one
of Mount
crater
-^tna, in order that he might pass for a god,
itself in

priestlygarments,

'^

of his brazen
being unknown
; but one
sandals, thrown
eruption,revealed the secret.
up in an
his Teachers
A
similar
his
and
to
uncertainty exists as
Writings. Pythagoras, Farmenides, Xenophanes, and Anaxaall been
his Teachers.
have
Unless
as
positivelynamed
.goras
of his death

the

cause

we

understand

the

word

absolutely reject these

must

who

them,

reports

absence
that

there

does

at

was,

so

least, one

statements.

in

his

criticism,remarkable

of

in

Teachers

figurative sense, we
Diogenes Laertius,

dullest
in

even

hundred

and

with

manner,

him.*

an

Considering

forty years

between

need
further argument
to
no
Pythagoras and Empedocles, we
between
them.
^disprove any connection
Diogenes, on the authority of Aristotle (as he says),attributes
of Rhetoric;
the invention
and
to
Empedocles
Quinctilian
We
have
longer the
(iiLc. i) has repeated the statement.
no
of Aristotle

work

arisen

from

but,

as

Ritter

says,

misunderstanding,

the

have

assertion
been

have

must

said in

jest by
the
teacher
of Gorgias;
Aristotle, because
was
Empedocles
most
likely from a misunderstanding, since Sextus Empiricus
mentions
Aristotle as having said that Empedocles
first incited^
Rhetoric
or
an
(irpSrrovK"Kivr)Kiv"a. Adv.
impulse to
gave
Mat.
his
in
and
'Rhetoric,' says that Corax
vii.). Aristotle,
Tisias were
the first to publish a written Treatise
on
Eloquence.
in rejecting the statement
We
feel the less hesitation
of Diogenes,
which
in the very passage
because
succeeds
he is guilty
a

or

"

work
lor

Diogenes
is useful

anything

of the

stupidestof

is

one

as

containing occasional

else.

the

stupid race

extracts, but

can

compilers. His
rarelybe^reliedon

of

EMPEDOCLES.

loo

of

misquotation of Aristotle,who, as
gross
'
of * the
Poets
speaks of Empedocles

very

his book

rich

his
eloquence,
powerful
poetical figures." Diog, viii. c. iL "
in

in

of

Aristotle, on

the

the

reverse

very
"

passage
with the

"

Poets,

fortunatelyextant

Diogenes alleges.
indeed, connecting the poetry

denominated

has

other

this work

Now,

57.

In

Homeric,
and

of what

Custom,

mdrey

is

"

says,

as

metaphors,

3, p.

"

he

and

it proclaims

Here

is the

making

or

elegaicpoets, others epic


according to the nature of

some

thus

distinguishing poets not


their imitation, but
according to that of their metre
only ; for
Natural
treatises of Medicine, or
even
they who
composed
Poets : yet Homer
and
denominated
Philosophy in verse, are
the
except their metre;
Empedocles have
nothing in common
the
of Poet ; the other
name
former, therefore, justly merits
Poet."
De
rather
be
called
a
should
a
Physiologist than
poets

"

Poet,,

c.

this, and

After
we

i.
indeed

reasonably

may

tragedies attributed
philosopher.

diversityof

The

the

accept
to

Empedocles

opinion

Tenneman
cannot

destroy

each

should

see

be

without

other

; but

works

of

the

the

position of
opening of this chapter, is not
such as Hegel, Ritter, Zeller,

strong

reasons

importance
it does

not,
Each

to

respect

false grounds.
upon
in
it
truth
being the whole
; but, not
of the difference
The
to
seems
cause
all build

the

not

were

with

the
at
Empedocles, indicated
without
significance.- That men
and

strength of this very passage,


suspicion of critics,that the

the

on

to

for different
the

cation
classifi-

Historian*

therefore, follow
of their views

truth, it

has

that
a

They
they*

certain

prevail.
has
: Empedocles
of
the
and
Anaxasomething
Pythagorean, Eleatic, Heraclitic,
in
each
his
that
historian,detecting
systems
system ; so
gorean
of
these
and
to
one
give due importance to
omitting
elements,
the others, has connected
Empedocles vith the system to which
that one
Ritter
and Zeller have, however,
element
belongs.
relations of the doctrin",
been
of some
of the complex
aware
but failed,we
think, in giving it its true position.
belongs partly to
knowledge, Empedocles
Respecting human
With
the Eleatics.
them, he complained of the imperfection
of the Senses
for truth only in Reason, which
is
looked
; and
and
in other words, partly clouded
partly divine
partly human
is opposed to the senThe
divine
suous
by the senses.
knowledge
cannot
knowledge ; for man
approach the divine,neither
"

be

this

cannot

EMPBDOCLES.

seize it with

he

can

the

conjoined
he

duty

the eye.
contemplating God

of

have

to

appears

the hand

loi

nor

proclaimed

Hence

Empedocles

in

mind.

But

this

divine

the

existence

the

of

without
its relation
to
attempting to determine
knowledge
human
In
this respect he resembles
rather Xenoknowledge.
phanes than Parmenides.*
have no
We
clear testimony of his having studied
the worka
of Anaxagoras ; but, if we
difficult to
be
had, it might not
explain his inferior theory of knowledge ; for, in truth, the
far in advance
of the age to be
too
theory of Anaxagoras was
the
to
rightly apprehended.
.Empedocles, therefore, adhered
With
Eleatic theory.
delusion
the
Xenophanes, he bewailed
of the

Like
Each
On

Nor

neither

find

These

by eye nor
grasped by mind
that

verses

of

as

further

no

the Senses

the
from

revealing
Mundane
body.

The

Fall

If with

of

Thrice

ten

thousand

Hence, doomed
To
raging strife
But
when
Divine

had

he
he

other

Nature.

thought

Gods

of the

poUuteth

Dsemonf

he

must

years

olden

an

wander

t An

immortal

in

the

from

doom

Heaven.

"

members.

and

from

blessed.

the

outcast

an

to

He

philosophical ground

more

existence

the

prove

maintained
we

we

that

learn
learn

of
like

this respect he
soul.

ranks

with

to

Reason

go

and

upon
of

the

could

only be known
the
earth, through fire we
and
strife,
through love we

Having quoted (p. 70) Aristotle's


testimony of
in
the
need
knowledge
Kmpedoclean
theory, we
in

upheld

enactment,
his

that

as

submissive."

by like : through earth


learn
fire,through strife

adding

he

system,

apart
Gods

fugitivefrom

Reason

imprisoned

disgraced

been

wandered,

only prevented

was

his

in

was,

of
that

was

it

distinctlyenunciated

thus

Fate,

show

because

hast

of mortals."

scepticism

he

had

as

man,
thus
thou

knowledge

passages

truth

I stray,

some

wished

which

murder

guiltor

the

\ but

whole

he

is the law

This

"

thou, when

indicate

souls

of Man

existence

immortal

such

of

and

reaches

Reason,
the

perceptible to

ear

to

seem

integrityof

the

"

and

to he

Wilt

well

wind-ddven

the

vain

In

his lament

to

brief is life's pleasnreless portion !


conscious, how
and
backwards
smoke, they are camed
forwards,
his
what
to
save
vouches,
experience
nought
trusting
find out the whole
all sides distracted
truth.
; yet wishing to

Swiil-fated

"

Listen

experience.

and

senses

Parmenides

the

nature

sensuous

only

here

rather

refer
than

to

of
it

phanes.
Xeno-

MMPBDOCLES.

to2

by like,
If,therefore,* like could 'only be known
Divine
known
the Divine
could
be
Reason
by
only
; and,
is
Divine
inasmuch
it
is
the
recognised by man
a
as
proof
and
Divine
exists.
Existence
that the
Knowledge
mutually
learn

love.

imply

each

other.

in his attacks
also
resembles
Empedocles
Xenophanes
God, he says, has neither head adjusted
anthromorphism.
limbs like human
hands
beings, nor legs, nor
:
**

ineffable,holy,
is,wholly and perfectly,mind
rapid and swilt-glancing thought pervading the whole

He
With

We

these

compare

may

with

verses

the

on

to

world."

lines

of

phanes
Xeno-

"

Without

"

Thus

Empedocles
Pythagoras are
analogies which

of

those

detected.!

In' his

resemblance

strong

Heraclitus
of

fewer

; for

in

his

Eleatics.

cannot

regard

moral

his

the

and

also

only

an

said

these

there

nothing

was

world

there

arrangement.

views.

"

that

**

Or,

that

truth

there

but

Which

was
Empedocles
he exclaims,
to

unfold

be

which

perish and

is, can

now

creation

no

no

natural

of mortal

Nothing

is
are

philosophy

perpetual flux
was
as
a flowing

things, nor death's


there but a mingling^ and
called

birth

and

death

Anaxagoras
of

now

formerly was
not,
utterlydecay. J
birth

destruction
then

elements, but
to
amalgamate

final ;

separation of the mingled^


by ignorant mortals.}
a

"

We

The

extant.

f agments

faculty ;
All
t

we

See

have
them

and

d"ne

tell

us

also

that

is to

supply

noticed

we

here
are
thinking for Empedocles
is, we
; that
authority for this statement, than that something of the kind
make
out
a
plausibleexplanation of what is only implied in
"

nence
absti-

consequent

of

was

begin

aught can
aught which

Another
Is

Fools

"

think

Who

is

food.

the whole

said

such

as

there

precepts,
in

but

The

critics has

some

phenomena
river, ever-changing yet apparently the same.
had

insight."

the

to
we

and

reason

ingenuity of

the

Pythagoras ;
metempsychosis,

had

things,that

belonged

life,and

animal

from

things by

to

beyond

none

see

all

ruleth

he

far

traces

all

labour

in

that

Reason

he
did

bielieved in Reason
in

some

way

is
the

to

fragments

the

recognise

other

no

wanting

the

dent
transcen-

Divine.

the

link wanting.
Zeller, Philos. der Grriechen/ p.

j Compare

as

have

169-173.

do
the
as
Greeks
Anaxagoras,
quoted, p. 89 :
Wrongly
that
be.''
to
or
ceases
begins
aught
suppose
\ Compare Anaxagoras :
So
that all-becoming might more
properly
be called Decoming mixed, and all-cairuptionbecoming
separate."
"

"

EMPEDOCLES.

So

distinct

103

relationshipas

these

manifest

verses

towards

cation
will account
for the classifiAnaxagoras
the same
adopted by Hegel, Zeller, and Renouvier
\ at
time, it gives greater strength to our
opinion of Empedocles

both

Heraclitus

the

as

and

of these

successor

The

differences

Haviftg asserted
separation, he
primary elements
Heraclitus
the

two.

however,

are,

things

all

that

which

Fire

affirmed

had

existence

the

of

and

certain

mingled.

principle and

the

both

be

to

mingling

materials

the

were

resemblances.

the

as

but

were

admitted

have

must

great

as

moving, mingling force, and the mingled


matter.
Anaxagoras, with great logical consistency, affirmed
that
the
homcBomericb^ since nothing
were
primary elements
whatever
could
arranged must,
was
proceed from nothing, and
of primary elements.
Empedocles
therefore,be an arrangement
that the primary elements
affirmed
Four, viz..Earth, Air,
were
Fire, and Water : out of these all other things proceed ; all
element

; both

things are

will
of

this is

that

being

four.

preceding

the

both

on

ceptions
con-

indubitable
evidence
; it bears
modification
and
of its antecedents.
a

conception,

although superior as

Ig^calconsistency of

the

not

of these

denied

be

Nevertheless,
it has

advance

an

scarcely

later

minglings

various

the

but

Now,

the

physiological view

maintained

that

goras
by Anaxa-

taught that like can


only be known
identical
and
were
knowledge
that
ever
whatmaintained
mutually impH/g^ve,he ought to have
distinct
be
is regp^isedby the
mind
distinct,must
as
;

for, a"/Empedocles

eirfstence
and
by like,/5^"^at

in

esse

With

respect

to

the

Heraclitus

and

Heraclitus

maintained

Desire

Anaxagoras

architect

Mind

that

itself,the

Nous
from

that

these

two

Both

Here

we

see

He

there

the

the

all

the

proportion.

same

impelled by
determinate

irresistible

existence.

Intelligence was
material
elements;

Matter.

of

traces

The

great

the
the
tinction
dis-

is,that the Fire transforms


is radically
something which
these
conceptions were
mated
amalgathe
creative
Love
that
was
taught

systems

transforms

by Empedocles.

see

infinite

fashioned

and

we

the

some

the

arranged

itself.

Wherever
power.
Love
is exerted.

was

itselfinto

controlled

between

different

who

about

Fire

that

maintained

great

Power,

in

Anaxagoras

transform

to

Formative

is

Desire

mixture

of

of

Heraclitus

different

elements

sublimed

into

its

wmm^m

/"

"MPED0CLES.

104

and
highestexpression,

of

the Nous

Anaxagoras rediK^ed

to

its moral

The
difficultiesof the Heraclitean
expression,Love.
how
Fire
become
can
ever
doctrine,namely, as to
anything
f
rom
avoided
the
of
the
Anaxaare
Fire,
adoption
different
by
dualism; while the difficulties of the Anaxagorean
gorean
moved
the great Arranger was
doctrine,namely, as to how

incited

and

to

avoided

the primary elements, are in some*


arrange
by the natural desire of Love (Aphrodite),

sure
mea-

If Love
still to be overcome.
difficulty
the creator, that is,the Mingler, what
caused
separation?
As the perfectstate
to Hate.
explainthis,he had recourse
supra-mundane existence was Harmony, the imperfectstate

But
was

To
of
of

there

was

existence

mundane

Formative
said that
This

Discord.

was

Principle,and

Hate

L6ve

is but

Destructive.

the

the

of God

phrase

Heraclitus

of

is, nevertheless, most


things."
hate
as
regarded
only a mundane
the

theatre

of the

of

Gods.*

the

For, inasmuch

perverted God,

doomed

but
sky-aspiring,

sense-clouded

to

so

may
Does

space.

with what

opinions?

Man

is

the

on

I^ve, strugglingthrough

power,
nowise

as

as

wander

that

probable

and

world,

the other"

Strife is the parent of

"

docles
abode

he

Hence

after

one
together,

war

It

on

therefore,the

was,

"

All the members

"

all

Hate
not

Empe-

only operating

the
jiisturbing
a

fallen

face of the
be

and

earth,

only perverted

this idea

accord

conception
we
God,
in
the
bosom
that of a
of
is, of The One, was
sphere
harmony fixed in calm rest, gladlyrejoicing." This quiescent
the moved
is Love, exists above and around
sphere, which
World.
Certain points are loosened
from the combination
of the elements, but the unity established by Love
continues.
Ritter is convinced
the
smaller
that Hate
has only power
over
portion of existence,over that part which, disconnecting itself
from
the
itself with crime, and thereby
whole, contaminates
know

of his

that

Our

the

to

account

errors

of

of mortals.

Empedocles

will be found

from
the

that
true.

of

"

devolves

by

His

that in Aristotle ; but our


great Stagyrite himself,who

excuse

to vary

ably
consider-

is that furnished

constantly tellingus
for his opinions. This is
Empedocles gave no reason
that his interpretaMoreover, Aristotle makes us aware
tion
is open to question; for, he says, that his interpreta-

An

opinion subsequentlyput

Plato in the

"

Phaedrus.'

forth with

is

great splendourof diction by

lo6

DEMOCRITUS.

experienced

wisest

and, in the calculations


hath
of line-measuring no
the
one
surpassed me, not
even
I sojourned five years."
whom
In travel
Egyptians, amongst
he spent his patrimony ; but he exchanged
it for an amount
of
had
Abone
knowledge which
no
previously equalled. The
The
him with vague
wonder.
derites,on his return, looked
on
traveller brought with him knowledge
sun-burnt
which, to them,
have
divine.
He
must
Curiosity encompassed him.
appeared
exhibited
few samples of his lore, foretold unexpected changes
a
most

in the weather,

and

which

to

power

and

political
supremacy,
It would
tradition

be
hands

impossible
put
be

soul,

which

to

credit
his

the

dying

the

at

even

parts

so

its due

the various

here

They

of

He

oflfered

was

mostly either

are

his

that he

order

undisturbedly acquainted

his

the

great inlets.

having

led

quiet sober

advanced

More

age.

we

having
might

with

theory of

very

of

one

was

his

to

that

which

anecdotes

instance, of

for

contradiction

very

summit

it.

burning-glass, in

and

eye
of

account

his
the

We

may
and of
life,

credit.

cannot

certain evidence
Philosophy we have
more
;
is
in
and
that has been
variously interpreted,
so
many
loss
been
at a
to give it
obscure, that historians have
Reinhold, Branposition in relation to other systems.

Respecting
but

with

is in violent

reason,

bow.

wiselydeclined

improbable. That,

or

perfectly

more

pride to

the

to

respecting him*.

down

his eyes

out

nation's

detail

to

exalted

but

idle

men

once

at

was

it is

of

his

and

dis, Marbach,
Tennemann,

him

view

Hermann

Eleatic

an

as

Ionian

; Buhleand

the

of Herasuccessor
Hegel, as
clitus,and the predecessor of Anaxagoras; Ritter,as a Sophist ;
and
of Anaxagoras.
the
Of all these
Zeller, as
precursor
is the worst
that by Ritter
at
classification,
: it is
attempts
has
Democritus
occasional
plying
an
phrase impitiable. Because
mentioned
and those
to
by Ritter seem
great vanity
^he is a Sophist. That
is a
kind
to imply nothing of the
us
sample of Ritter's arguing !
an

as

"

"

We

and

convinced

are

for

similar

classification
from

the

primary
existence
same

from

that all the above

reason

to

that which

Empedocles.
lonians, by the denial
of

elements
of

; from

the

of
multiplicity

is

Democritus
of

all

the

erroneous,

sensible

distinguished
quality to

by his affirmation
; from

elements
as

are

guided historians,in their

Eleatics

ground ; from Anaxagoras,


Empedocles, by denying

attempts

we

shall
Four

Heraclitus

the

of the
on

the

presently ; and
Elements, and the
see

DEMOCRITUS.

Formative

Love.
such

resemblances,
derived

or

and

All

from

one

did

What
to

This

teach

no

question

we

Parmenides

will endeavour

principles.

its central

from

with

commence

Democritus

Knowledge
accredited

universally
Aristotle,
"

from
historians ; but
diflferently
our
certain
evidence,
precise and
on
wholly grounded
than
other
that of developing the
originality

shall be

We

coincidences,

been

thinkers

later

The

somewhat

with

system

have

may

radical.

are

example.

Democritus

answer

answer

are,

of the

two

or

for

Anaxagoras

differences

these

they

as

107

says,

is

the

; or, if so,

true

of

passage

variously enij^loyed ;

though

nothing

that

with

and

it is

not

dent
evi-

Nevertheless, as, in his system, the sensation


time is but a change
the same
at
constitutes the thought, and
in the spntient beiiig,
the sensible pha"nomena;(i.e.sensations)
this pregnant
What
does
of necessity true." *
3xe
passage
is
inasmuch
it
?
that
It
sensation,
sensation,
as
mean
means
to

us.

be

must

true

it is

as

thinks

that is true

sensation,

; but

cannot

Democritus

that

established

the

was

first to

will remember

readers

our

sensation, inasmuch
subjectively
; but
be
true
objectively, M. Renouvier
tion
this distinc-

introduce

that it

was

the distinction

Empiricus quotes the very


exists only informjWiQ
"The
of Democritus:
words
sweet
cold
in form^ colour
in fornix the
in
bitter in form, the hot
and
exist.
only atoms
form \ but in causal reality(iirii))!
space
sensible things which
The
supposed by opinion to exist
are
real existence,but only atoms
and
Adv.
have
no
space exist."
that
vii. p. 163.
he says
Mathem.
When
colour, "c., exist in
sensible
that they are
images constantly
form only, he means
shall
emanating from things ; a notion
explain presently.
we
little further
A
Sextus
opinion, that we only
on
reports the
perceive that which falls in upon us according to the disposition
Sextus

by Anaxagoras.

"

"

of

Neither
identified

Condillac

and

he

does

But

We

feel bouDd

'faZr\Kov* "OXbic
ravTt)v

dXi}d^C
t

d'c7vai
tlvau

Modem

preserve

the

"

thought,

quote

l\. Zia

Met

in the

so

to

dXXocoxrcv,

editors
old

to

Destutt

nor

sensation

passages.

is hidden

; all else

bodies

our

rb

de

from

us.

Tracy have

than

Democritus

spiritof

distinctly

more

in .the above
rather

Kant

than

that

the

original: ^roc ohQiv {Ivai ciXiyOcc4 hv^^


virokayipavtiVf^p6vi\ffivfikv Ttjv alaOrifriv,
icard
aiaOijtnVt i^ AvdyKtiQ
^aivofitvov
rrjv

Iv. 5.
read

reading,

lr"^,
as

more

**

in

reality.''We

antithetical

to

are

incliaed, however,

vofitf.

to

DEMOCRtTVS.

io8

of
**

Condillac;

c'est sentir," yet

Penser

distinction
But

nothing
there

between

did

he

phenomenal

and

constitute
but

man

with

would

the former

draw

Was

knowledge?
his

of

reports

say,
the

perception.

noumenal

all

the

he

latter

there
Yes

senses

Refleciionr

was

This

guide

the

would

sensation

to

with

for, although

Reflection, as with

the source
of
not
Anaxagoras, was
truth, but fulfilled a controllingoffice,and established
could
be certitude
in human
ledge.
knowcertitude,as far as there
And
the
existence
he
of this Reflection, very
proved
in the style of the
much
addition
celebrated
the aphorism,
to
Mind
the
which
Nothing is in
not
was
previously in the

absolute

**

Senses

;"

Leibnitz

which

to

added,

"

the

except

itself."

Mind

of our
most
Democritus, aware
conceptions are derived
the
also
that
of them
through
was
aware
were
senses,
many
in
and
the
defiance
Thus
to
utterly independent of,
senses.
the "infinitelysmall"
the ** infinitelygreat" escape
and
sense,
that

but

are

Reason

affirmed
told

far

Thus

him

we

Anaxagoras

but,

seen

the

as

the

view

some

So

the

also

which

atoms

primary elements

of

Democritus

as

his

things,he could

sense.

epoch

may

we

ofJlv
are

attention

greater

considerable

devoted
nated

by

have

distinguished by
of knowledge, we

the

were

known

have

never

Reflection.

by

the

inheritor

considering

now

bestowed
that

the

on

of his

had

was

origin

Democritus

reasonably expect
the
thought on
subject, and

of

had

origi-r

own.

with

the

There
Anaxagoras.
remained
unsolved
deed,
difficulties which
were
by it ; which, inhad
been
the grand probappreciated. This was
never
lem
Democritus
himself
solve:
How
do
set
to
we
perceive
It is no
external things ?
to say that we
answer
perceive them
This is no
better
that of
by the senses.
explanation than
an
the
occult
quality of opium, given by Molibre's
physician :
vertu
L'opium endormit
parcequ*il a une
soporifique." Ifow
is it that the senses
perceive?
He

was

not

content

theory

of

"

one

Siavoia

translation.

had

asked

this

to
question ; to have asked it was
form
in the
Men
an
era
history of philosophy.
began by
of the
the reports
of any
reasoning on
unsuspicious
senses,
If they saw
that
what
error.
anything, they concluded
they

No

etymology,

no

less

than

pyschology,

seems

to

support

our

ZXEMOCRITUS.

existed,and existed as
began to question the

saw

who

denied

who

those

be

to

reports

the mind

on

they

of the

senses

what

In

"

settle the

Once

The

the

itself

forced
the

senses

operandi

and

real

ingenious and

both

was

before

pronounced

modus

be estimated.
efficacymay
he attempted
hypothesis by which

the

then

lastly.
came

could

manner

others

came

question

the

Thus

things?

perceive external

Then

altogether,and

accuracy
delusions.

of Democritus

it.

saw

accurswy

that

mere

109

better

one

bold

; and

explain

to

tion
percep-

centuries

many

elapsed

He

supposed that all


off images of themselves

suggested.

was

constantly throwing
the
ing
surround(ctSwXa),which, after assimilatingto themselves
sensitive
of the
The
the soul by the pores
air,enter
organ.
humours
of aqueous
water
; and
eye, for example, is composed

things

were

water

of whatever

is

how

image

the

does

But

sees.

and

material

did

and

that

they

This

it.

to

will confess

hypothesis,we

things?

sions of

presented

centuries, believe

for

It is diaphanous and

see

their

but

\
senses

is

did

receives
very

rude

philosophers,
received
impress
they had imager
not

that
suppose
this latter
Now

not

things reflected in the mind?


hypothesis is
perhaps, less obviously fantastic and gratuitous ; but it is alsro
be ^ mirror
less logical; for, if the mind
reflecting the images
it that
the
of things, how
comes
images vary with different
of

with

and

minds,

is it that

But,

appearances?
as

the

all, how

The

states?

things, but

And

how

only

their

is it that

mind

the

The
hypothesis
reflecting the images?
it
in need
of explanation as
the phenomenon

much

explain.
hypothesis of Democritus

pretends

of

nature

than

more

difterent

at

mirror

stands

mind

same

know

never

we

becomes

the

to

admitted

once

considerable

its pose
purexternal

serves

Only the
off in the
of a body is thrown
surface
shape of an v.liiiKov or
that only imperfectly and
even
obscurely. The
image^ and
off is not a perfect image of the object tiirowing
figure thrown
it off.
It is only an image of the external
form, and is subject
; at

least, to

in its passage

variations

to

the

sindXy phenomenal

exhibited.

The

knowledge

our

With
other
that

this

greater
he

nature

idols
is

to

or

extent.

the
of

This

mind.
all

being
is

knowledge

images, being themselves

the

case,

accurately
imperfect,

imperfect.

theory of knowledge

question

rejected The

of Creation

One

of

the

how
?

We

could
shall

Eleatics, The

he

exhibit

see.

It is

Four

of

the

said,
Empe-

DEMOCRITUS.

lid

the

docles, and
invisible

homaomericB

of

intangibleto

and

declared

Anaxagoras, and

be^the

elements

primary

Atoms
that

; and

of the triplearrangements,
of one
but modes
things were
being
Viz.,configuration^combination^ and position* The atom
is necessarily
is necessarily one ; and, being one,
indivisible
fied
satisself-existent.
By this hypothesis,therefore,Democritus
all

demands

the

things
the

Eleatic

and

Anaxagoras

; or,

Democritus

schools

would

say,

idea

in this

primitivenature
which
qualities
are
arrangement.

idea

other

speculationsbears

the

question

tate
hesi-

cannot

we

betrays its

more

positivequalities atoms,
by combination
or

affected

or

divested

its

changing

quality,and

of all

tion
combina-

in

when

phenomenal,

as

than

to

of the atom

and

atoms,

later
becomes

homceomeruB

it dXtnbMies

only assuming that quaUty


with

this

of

changed

not

The

On

of

homceomericR

the

from

of these

idea

The

He

place Anaxagoras
It
originated this idea.

question, therefore,as to
impress of greater maturity.
pronounce.

many
than

more

who

which

to

never

Many.

this

those

as

were

be

the
amalgamated
in his speculation,correcting both.

the

derived

could

One

self-existent

the

that there

declared

who

the

become

never

doubtless,

He,

that

that

declared

who

of those

existing,and

One,

Ionian

; and

One

be

must

of those

quality

with

every

scientific

hx

indubitably a
moi:e
combination,
change
in
it
is
of
also
later
development.
speculation;
point
obviously
of

is

goras
like,"AnaxaDemocritus
his homceomerice,'
formed
accepted the
act
axiom, but gave it a wider
application. If only like can
alike
said
be
then
all
in
and
must
like,
things
he,
esse;
upon
of
the only differences
tation;
manifesthose
of
phenomena,
are
/.^.,

axiom

the

From

these
Atomism

that

depend

on

Atomism

be

of

in the

celebrated

was

fact

the

had

**

the

led

Monadologie

Leibnitz

prima

of

called

materia.

weight ; they
impulsion given by superior

atoms

arrangement.

any

of

qualities. It is,

been

not

sufficiently
preciated
ap-

it appears
us
one
subtlety. Some

To

terminology.
him

and

has

Democritus

seen

upon

stripped
greatly improved.

afterwards, having been


His

act

caii

combination

speculation.
yet reached
by human
as

foundest
may

like

is homaeomerianism

therefore, Anaxagoras
The

"

only

centuries

is but

his Monad
So

essentiallysimilar.
Atomism, with a new
that to
2i force; and

doctrine

a
"

pro-

proof of this

great Leibnitz, many

to

the

of

Democritus

denied

only force, and

it

also

had

force

which

constituted

was

that

the

weight.

DBMOCRJTUS.

iix

It is

that not
worthy of remark
only did these thinkers concur
in their doctrine
of atomism, but also, as we
have
Jn their
seen
doctrine
which
of the originof knowledge, a coincidence
gives

weight

dependent

in

supposition that

the

to

the

on

said,the

already been
assertion,that it would
profounder view in the theory

Ritter's

all mechanical

to

from

"

vain

seek

to

Democritus

of

than

physiologistswho

bias

that this theory is the


We

for

mechanical

the

difference

the

neither

were

Ritter's

believe,

attributed

these

to

authority,!and
maintain

the

vwepoxvv.)

But

vidually be heavy
of
We

made,
deduce
gorean

; er^o,

combination

enter

can

from
an

of

into

certain

atomic

says,

of

Only

very

his

even

text

he

physical property

This

Aristotle

from

passage

they
in

worst

the

one

weight."

"

have

point, and

every

meaning
"

Philosophy.*

the

of

is

there

two

nor

way,

one

almost

the

and

same

is

weight

is in defiance
which

is

ol

quoted

See

our

is

not

of each

property

atom,

atoms.

further

details.

Attempts have been


to
expressions attributed
Democritus, to
no

similar

Intelligence,somewhat

doctrine, as
"

declares

next

is this :
believe,against it. The passage
are
heavy according to excess"
(xara rrpf
of what?
of aggregation,
Clearly excess
if only heavy
indi'in excess, they cannot

Excess

/"., of force.
but

theory but

the

Science

the

the

atoms

very

first

it,is, we
indeed,

"Atoms,

seize

to

instance, he

For

quotes.

to

in

at

misrepresented

has

He

failed,we
was

arrived

signification.
Democritus
chapter on

same

book.

Positive

of

of

theory.
palm of
atomic
theory is the
theory is merely the

puzzled
opinion we
modem
The
misconception.
law
of definiteproportions ; the ancient
Between
combinations.
affirmationof indefinite
They

reduce

to

Having

award

shall

historical

preciselythe

mon
com-

consideration

that of the modem

as

same

to which

are

any

assertion

here

He

for

that

sought

himself.
grossly contradicts
that there was
declared
nothing in the Democritian
had
what
the lonians
previously discovered, he
Nature.

estimate

may

conceptions ; an
as
posterous
preDemocritus
follows
it,namely, that
in
the
modern
as
theory
logists,
physiosame
way

his atomic

at

was

which

that

as

arrived

in

be

reader

mathematical

everything to

doctrine

one

other.

has

what

From

minds

both

the

Formative

Introduction.'

to

that

Principle.
See

Renouvier,*

in the Anaxa-

We

cannot

i. 245, 6.

see

.-'

DBMOCRITVS.

112

our

on

way

that

refrain

we

In

it
the

and

impossible

opening

mistake
new

is

line

which
a

in

very

each

Certain

his
In

we

questionable
it

is

but

that

he

whether

uncertain.

that

observe

so

Destiny;

to

not

or

and

it.

things

predecessors.

physics,

to

of

may

his

of

that

psychology
is

we

small

so

on

of

intelligent

was

conclusion,
on

pronouncing

formation

Destiny

that

is

Evidence

path.
from

the

attributed

of

this

have

decided

department.

system

the

two

considered
progress,

was

an

great
at

as

vance
ad-

points
length,
well

as

SOPHISTS.

'^HE

114

as

class

thinkers,Aristotle,if

: as

the

work

represent
his,also mis-

be

them.
This

look

may
the

of what

nothing remaining
opinions reported by

have

We

presumptuous.

the

Sophists taught, except

garbled. And
Sophists were
powerful;
why? The Sophists were
gate
Interrothe Sophists were
dazzling, rhetorical, but shallow.

others.

These

human

ask

opinions

nature

of

nature

philosophers
"

and

respecting these
Ask
the solitary thinker
Sophists by their contemporaries ?
what
is his opinion of the
showy, powerful, but shallow
The. man
rhetorician,who usurps the attention of the world.
of convictions
has at all times
superb contempt for the man
a
knows
of mere
oratorical,or dialectical display. The Thinker
that
the world
is ruled
expression
by Thought ; yet he sees
knows
He
gaining the world's attention.
perhaps that he has
welfare ; yet he
within
him
with
human
thoughts pregnant
enthusiasm
the
excited
with
the
drunk
sees
giddy multitude
He
daring sophism, clothed in enchanting language.
by some
others
make
sighted.
clearas
through the sophism, but cannot
sees
what

will

all the

above

"

be

to

pronounce
wealthy; the
we

His

the
triumph. Now
with
this
equanimity.
in lamenting the
angry
angry

become

he

ought

we

Thinker

would

does

of

fate

world

to

expect

in his

of this kind

of

the

He

can

so

could

who

his

of the

account

was

that

it.

so

age,

onward

if he bore

human

be

not

bear

not

of one
in his contempt
historian
the critic or

Somewhat

is spumed.

popular Idol is carried

The

He

wisdom

His

is unheeded.

is frustrated.

in

and

entertained

sentiment

the

warning

ambition

His

be

is loud

and

led ; loud
lead it. Should
be

what

exactness

popular idol

relation in which

the

Sophists

and

Philosophers stood to each other.


hated
because
Sophists were
by some
powerful, by
others
because
shallow.
They were
misrepresented by all.
In later times, their, antagonism to Socrates
has
brought them
ill-will ; and
this ill-will is strengthened by the very
prejudice
The

of the

Uar?
the

Could

name.

As

well
of

Sophist

ask, could

odious

be

Devil

other
be

than
other

than

cheat
Evil?

and

In

this
qualitiesare implied : and
Call the Sophists Professors
implicationperverts our judgment.
pf Rhetoric, which is their truest designation, and then examine
their history; it will produce a very different impression.
W.e said it was
that the Sophists really
to maintain
a paradox
And
promulgated the opinions usually attributed to them.
by
nama

Sophist

all

SOPHISTS.

THE

this

we

that not

mean

of what

caricatures

but

only

115

of those

some

are

opinions nothing

really maintained,

but, also, that


in our
interpretation of the others
we
fusion
grossly err, by a conwith Heathen
of Christian
views
Modems
of morality.
cannot
help regarding as fearfullyimmoral, ideas which, by the
Greeks, were
regarded as moral, or, at least, as not disrepuFor instance
table.
Greek
orators
: the
are
always careful to
their
in
that
audience,
impress upon
bringing a charge against
the
actuated
are
they
by
strongest personal motives
any
one,
;
that they have been
injured by the accused; that they have
Can
good honest hatred, as a motive, for accusing him.
thing
anybe

of

being

opposite

more

is

accuser

was

just

anxious

as

influenced

Christian

to

feeling?

extricate

to

himself

from

personal considerations

by

Christian

charge

any
the

as

Greek

of

was

place

his motive

to

the

would

be

received

statement

that

evident.

the' contrary

making

Ethics

Ethics

do

with

vengeance
but
vengeance,

only countenanced
probated informers : consequently,
tion

not

had

do

and,
example
to

This

the
"make

grand
To

the

aim

teach

himself

clear

to

he

so,

from

the
his

the

this

art

accusa-

an

of

being

former,
in-

an

personal
to
judge, without precipitancy,
Sophists, that they could

reader

This

they demanded

This

reason."

enormous

object

; to

sums

the

was

their avowed

was

it

learn

readilygiven, and given by many.


have
understood
Now, understanding this ob^ct as moderns
^,*and thereby forming our notion of the Sophists, let us ask
enormous

Is

were

sums

it credible

that such

being avowed,

an

be

think,
an
immoral, consequences.
all

morality ;

how

Let

it makes

dialectical

subtlety.Then

respecting
blasphemy
honesty and

its

"

Could
ask

the

have

should

art

rewarded, in
instant, of what are

should

for

us

re-

motives.

belter

the
appear
of their endeavours.
worse

Greek

much

very

ignominy

of the

celebraj:ed boast

the

made

whoever

showed

will prepare

to

abstract

countenance

not

seeks

justice; and his


it known
great suspicionwere
is that the
it. The
reason
of

accbunt,

personal feeling prompted

Christian

Christian

the
let

morality, any

such

defiance

integrity
"

us

such

us

state
to

the

its moral,

ask

but

whether,

could

have

with

very

of

allowed

the

Athens
some

its

playthings for
our
opinions

fundamental

demolition

or

Let

rather

utterly it destroys

laws

very

state

and,

avowed,

civilized

reflect how

this ; and
was
any state
reader
to realize for himself
do

been

such

open

principle of

social contract
that

notion

state

of

the

We

Athe-

SOPHISTS.

THB

ii6

citizens^not
merely as statues ; to think of them
as
of
human
human
passions,not simply as architects,
beings, full
this we
ask
philosophers. Having done
sculptors, poets, and

nians

as

him

listened
a

he

whether

"

how

one

of

sum

unjust

an

be

would

have

morality a farce,and
he

money

cause

proclamation
execration, according

such

not

make

to

Athenians

these

all

man

quibble

Would

that

proclaiming
proclaiming that for

to

any

believe

can

answered

appear
with

all law

struct
in-

could

just one

?.

shout

of

in his
to
derision, or of
in the corruptest
have
sincerity? Could
age,
any charlatan,
escaped lapidation for such effrontery? Yet the Sophists were
were
wealthy, by many
greatly admired, and
enormously
delicate
ambassadors
selected
missions.
on
as
They
very
of
connexions.
Around
of splendid talents,
powerful
were
men
rich
flocked
and
noble
of
the
them
city they
youth
every
their
If
intellectual
the
leaders
of
entered.
They were
age.
their adversaries
what
describe
could
them, Greece
they were
Belial
been
where
earthly Pandemonium,
an
was
only have
belief

the

King.
this is

believe

To

frivolous

be

would

centuries.
that

beyond
our
refute, had

to

have

Some

endeavoured

Sophists were

the

from

adduced

are
passages
fact appears

to

of
power
Plato's constant

and

be

to

us

the

in

held

profound

Sophists

the

"

it

very
them

and

proof of this.

of this.

it

paradox

for

by maintaining

contempt,

in

reverse

maintained

been

to escape

Plato

the

Such

power.
it not

The

certain
the

But

great wealth

importance

implied

in

that they were


polemic against
prove
not
Objects of aversion
they might be
objects of contempt.
to one
always are.
Objects of contempt
party ; the successful
sincere
and
But
profound thinkers.
they might be, to some
the question here is not
one
relating to individuals,but to the
State.

It is not

Athens

allowed

whether
him

There

that there

been

knew

what

he

avow

it,is in such

nature

"

tlw

We

as

are

Athenians

at

been

have

has

to

told

by

becanse

shameless

men

and

speculator so daring
grossly immoral, and
so

any
be

contradiction
to

once

Plato

despised Gorgias, but whether


guised
teach the most
to
unblushing and undisThere
have
been
daring speculators in all

immorality.
times.

"

be

Sextus
he

to

our

But

corrupt.
to

as

promulgate

shameless

experience

of

as

to

human

rejected.*
that

Prptagoraswas

condemned

piofessed l^mself nnafileto

say

to

whether

death

by

the Go(U"

SOPHISTS.

THB

Ii;

It is

evident, therefore,that in teaching the art of


making
the
the
better
not
worse
guiltyof
Sophists were
reason,"
appear
serious
thinkers,
anything reprehensible to a Greek ; however
shallow
detest
the
and
such as Socrates
philosophy
Plato, might
from

"

it sprung
of truth, which
which

love

It may

be

; and

the

their

owing

was

their

to

Sophists outraged.

doctrines

could

make
easy
be regarded

will try.

If he

is familiar

not

detestation

the

to

reader

otherwise

as

with

Mr.

than

moral.

Macaulay's

such

how

understand

But

brilliant

we

and

such
how
see
searching article on Machiavelli, he will at once
virtuous
If he
doctrines
held by very
might have been
men.
has not
himself
acquainted with that masterly
already made
will be
acceptable both
performance, the following extracts
in themseflves
and in reference
to our
present subject :
**
the rude nations which
lay beyond the Alps, valour
Among
could
beit, none
was
absolutely indispensable. Without
Cowardice
therefore,
eminent, few could be
secure.
was,
the
the
foulest reproach.
naturally considered
as
Among
polished Italians, enriched
governed by law,
by commerce,
done
and passionately attached
to
literature, everything was
pacific
more
by superiorityof intelligence. Their very wars,
civil than
than
of their neighbours, required rather
the peace
while
the
was
military qualifications. Hence,
point
courage
in other
the
of honour
became
point of
countries, ingenuity
in Italy.
honour
From
these principleswere
deduced,
strictly
by processes
fashionable
of
morality.
Analogous, two
opposite systems
which
the
vices
the
of
peculiarly
Through
Europe,
greater part
which
defence
timid
the
natural
and
are
dispositions,
belong to
reputable.
disof weakness, fraud, and hypocrisy, have
always been most
the
of haughty and
other
On
handj the excesses
with
been
treated
even
daring spiritshave
indulgence, and
with respect.
The
Italians regarded with
corresponding lenity
vation,
those crimes
which
self-command,
address, quick obserrequire
fertile invention, and
of human
profound knowledge
"

"

'

nature.
"

Such

the idol of
and

the

as

North.

desolating ambition

existed, or
the

prince

what

Athenians

nnderstood

by

our

Fifth

follies of

The

of his manhood,

they were, owing


are
supposed to
modems

the

Henry

to

haTe

the

his
the

would

have

been

the

selfish

youth,

roasted

Lollards

of knowledge.
insuflScie'ncy

tolerated

the

Sophists

as

they

Yet
are

n8

SOPHISTS.

THE

the field of battle,


prisoners massacred
on
for another
expiringlease of priestcraftrenewed
century,
dreadful
legacy of a causeless and hopelesswar, bequeathed
wlio
had no
interest in its event, everything is forgotten
people
the
the
but
victory of Agincourt I Francis
Sforza, on

fires,the

slow

at

the
the
to

his
the model
of the Italian hero.
He
made
hand, was
He
first overpowered
employers and his rivals like his tools.
his open
enemies
faithless
the
of
allies
help
by
; he then armed
other

himself

against his allies with the spoilstaken from his enemies.


By his incomparable dexterity,he raised himself from the precarious
and dependent situation of a militaryadventurer
to the
first throne
such
of Italy. To
much
a
man
was
forgiven
Such
hollow
violated
faith.
enmity,
friendship,ungenerous
their morality
the opposite errors
which
commit, when
are
men
"

is not
*

science, but

ciple for accidental


"

from

associations.

illustrated

have

We

history.

will

We

meaning

our

select

by

instance

an

the

his wife ; he gives orders


for the murder
ends
Yet
he
by murdering himself.
; he
affection of a Northern
and
reader
esteem

and

ardent

which

which

shrinks

he

passion

with

interest
of

to

from

which
with

fearlessness

he

listens
the

thought

commits

he

which

his

to

he

of

his

lago, on
loathing. Many
are

the

of

tempest

the

haughty

extraordinary

an

is the

contrary,

inclined

with

agony

crimes^ and
the

loses

never

the

shame,

them, give

avows

his lieutenant

intrepid
fidence
unsuspecting con-

adviser,

his

his character.

universal

The

Othello

of

"

spiritredeeming everything.

taken

fiction.

from

another

murders

with

prin-

eternal

they abandon

; when

taste

object

suspect

to

that

into an
seduced
Shakspeare has been
exaggeration unusual
with him, and
has
has drawn
who
monster
a
archetype in
no
human
nature.
Now, we
suspect that an Italian audience, in
the fifteenth century, would
felt very differently. Othello
have
would

have

inspired nothing

follywith

The

whose

man

which

he

his

he

promotion

trusts

he

the

the spectators.
condemned
that

have

The

had

; but

excited

conduct

they would

of his victim.

contempt.

the

unsupported
unanswerable
proofs, the violence
exculpation till the exculpation can

misery, would

and

friendly professionsof a
obstructed, the credulity with
stances,
trivial circumassertions, and

to

takes

for
silences

which

detestation

but

the

of

abhorrence

lago they would

have

of

he

only aggravate
and
disgust of
assuredly have

condemned

Something

which

with

interest

it

as

and

we

demn
con-

respect

THE

would

have

SOPHISTS.

mingled with

119

disapprobation. The

their

of

his

he

penetrates the dispositionsof others

wit, the

would
"

insured

have
wide

So

clearness

neighbours.
of

the

the

existed

Christ,

before

of their

esteem.

Italians

and
the

between
their

and

their
Greeks
the

masters

resolute, faithful

and

brave

conquerors,

portion

which

his own,

conceals

and

between

difference

century

The

certain

skill with

judgment, the

difference

similar

second

Romans.

him

to

the

was

his

of

readiness

to

their

and

strongly influenced
by religious feelings,
the
at
With
time,
ignorant, arbitrary,and cruel.
same
were,
the vanquished people were
deposited all the art, the science,
In poetry, in philoand the literature of the Western
world.
sophy,
in painting,in architecture, in sculpture, they had
no
engagements,

rivals.

manners

invention

their
But

Their

ready; they were


and sincerity
they

The

of courage
rude warriors

for

their

and

taste

who

intellectual
seemed
The

slaves.

had

tolerant, affable, humane.


almost
utterly destitute.
were

subdued

make

to

long continued
admirable
subject for the

an

themselves

knowledge

that

atheists, cowards, and


to be strongly marked,

men

distinction

furnished

consoled

them

inferiority
by remarking

only

and

polished,their perceptions acute,

were

fierce

of

sarcasms

Juvenal.
**

citizen

The
time

the

joined

of

in

of

Like

commonwealth

the

and

Juvenal

one.

artful and

Italian

an

Greek

former,

the

the

of
he

of

of

timid

was

Greek

Pericles,
and
pliable,

time

But, like the latter,he

unscrupulous.

the

was

had

country.

If his
him.
dear
to
independence and prosperity were
character
crimes, it was, on the
mean
were
degraded by some
other
hand, ennobled
by public spiritand by an honourable
ambition.
A vice sanctioned
by the general opinion is merely
Its

vice.

the

The

in itself.

terminates

evil

The

taint.
too

The

Highland

black
which

mail

remains

gentleman

from

Wild

hundred

the

flingsthe

often

was

his

condemned
the

is

former

When

vice

pernicious effect on
local malady, the latter
a
reputation of the offender

general opinion produces

character.

of his virtue

who,

century

after

ago,

neighbours, committed

accoiflpaniedto Tyburn
But

.thousand

there

the

by

the

be

conduct

of

the

Roman

who

treated

is lost, he

it in
lived

despair^
by taking
crime

same

huzzas
doubt

the

whole

tional
constitu-

can
no
people.
than
deed
Wild.
much
less
The
was
a
depraved man
Mrs. Brownrigg was
hanged sinks into nothing when

iKith the

by

for

of

two

that

he

for which

compared

public

to

i
THE

120

huDdred
such

pair of gladiators.Yet

considered

from

The

error.

of

woman

virtue,than

Classical

probably wrong

In

our

own

country,

cruel

so
a

woman

place in society
by what, in a man, is too commonly
honourable
and, at worst, as a
an
distinction,
as

forfeits her
venial

Brownrigg.

of Mrs.

should

we

was
supposed that his disposition

if we

Roman

that

as

SOPHISTS.

is notorious.
The
consequence
is frequentlymore
impairedby a
of

that

would
antiquity

by twenty

man

furnish

years

principle
singlelapse
moral

of

intrigue;

instances stronger, if
referred.

with

us

possible,than those to which we have


"We
must
before us.
apply this principleto the case
Habits of dissimulation and falsehood,no doubt, mark
a man
of our
and
abandoned
worthless
and
as
utterly
country
;
age
be
but it by no
follows that a similar judgment would
means
On the contrary,
justin the case of an Italian of the middle ages.
faults
which
find
those
accustomed
we
we
are
frequently
to consider as certain indications of a mind altogether
depraved,
with generosity,
in company
with great and good qualities,
with
From
$uch a state of
benevolence, with disinterestedness.
society,Palamedes, in the admirable dialogueof Hume, might
have

drawn

with

which

illustrations of his
liessons which

know, the
to teach, or

readers most
How

useless.
therefore,
where

nea,

as any of those
theory as striking

furnished

Fourli

Hannibal

him.

The
us

no

wiser.

He

the

crossed

inquirymay

well

we

careful

Alps, whether Mary blew up


Twelfth,and ten thousand

the

us, but

amuse

reads

powerfullycircumstances

how

not,

generallymost

are
description,

same

alone

are

are

willingto learn. But they are not,


Philipdisposed his troops at Chsero-

Siguiershot Charles

Darnley, or
other questionsof the

These

historians

in themselves

important.
un-

the decision leaves

historyarightwho, observing
and opinions
feelings

influence the

into virtues,and paradoxes


of men,
how
often vices pass
into axioms, learns to distinguish
tory
what is accidental and transiin luiii an
nature, from what is essential and immutable.''
We

rical

must

refer also to the universal


all inculcated

practiceof ancient

this

rheto*

Even
art.
writers,who
sophistical
who
in
his
loved truth as much
as
Aristotle,
certainly
any man,
^f
after
the
means
Organon,*
examining
truth,
investigating
he teaches the art of
adds what he calls the Topics, in which
discussion without any
reference whatever
to
truth: indeed,
the Sophiststaught; but no
him
he teaches what
one
accuses
'

of

being a Sophist,

SOPHISTS.

THE

t22

what
and

to

and, when

say;

weak

capitally,
you
hold

takes

would
of

gifted

however
trial,

to

if ha

might be,
perish. Can

accuser

your

brought

chose

this be

contemptible
to

wisdom,

the

indict

you
if it

which,

of his
destroys
and
incapable of preserving himself
nature, rendering him
others
from
the
to
greatest dangers, enabling his enemies
tion
plunder him of all his property, and reducing him to the situaof those
of the
been
who,
by a sentence
court, have
deprived of all their rights?
a

man,

excellence

"

If it be

admitted

instruction
in
Serjeant Talfourd's
forensic
would
be
however
not
unusual, we
immoral,
oratory
have only to extend
the sphere to include
politics,to represent
of Athens, where
the democratic
to ourselves
state
demagogues
the
and
shall
be
were
on
alert,
ever
we
fullypersuaded that the
further
considered
immoral
not
art of the Sophists was
; and, as
select
the
in Plato's
proof, we
Republic,' as coming
passage
from
an
unexceptionable source.
that

Socrates,

speaking of
Sophists,says

people call
the things which
this

the

they

"

"

is

It

appetites of

approach It, how

manner

to

cries it

makes, what

teachers
mercenary
These
Sophists teach

themselves

people

call wisdom.

instincts and

the

as

great

profess
a

had

man

them

only

observed

yet
the

powei'ltilbeast, in what

and

appease

the

in assemblies

why it is ferocious

or

tones

if

whom

and

What

or

tones

calm, what
irritate it ;
commenced

having learnt all this,and calling it wisdom,


teaching it without having any knowledge of what is good, just,
instincts and
these
unjust among
shameful, and
appetites;
which
the
and
that
flatters
but calling
that bad
animal,
good
after

which
what

irritates it ; because
is good in itself and
is

There

the

he knows
that which

vein

usual

is

of

not

is

the difference

between

good."
only relatively

caricature

in -this

description

Quarterly Review,' t and there


(which
paraphrased in the
of the
and unexaggerated ^ctrines
given as if the undoubted
Sophists ; but- it very distinctlysets forth the fact that the
Sophists did not preach anything contrary to public morals,
*

the very fact


morality. Indeed
of their popularity would
that they did but respond to a
prove
they
public want ; and because
they responded to this want
received
of money.
Some
large sums
people believe that the
their,demanding
distinguishingpeculiarityof the Sophists was
however

contrary

to

abstract

'

Plato, "Rep.,'

vi. p" 291*

f No.

zlii. p.

289.

THE

SOPHISTS,

for their instructions ; and


he
being mercenaries
; but

money
their

sucli

The

sarcasms.

constantly harps upon


was
wealthy, and could afford
paid their Musicians, Painters,
and
Teachers. in Schools; why
their philosophers?
of
Zeno

Greeks

Plato

Sculptors, Physicians, Poets,


therefore
should
they not pay
Democritus
Elea was
paid ; so was
been

sometimes

in Poets

than

more

for handsome

We

the

considered

with

of

have

these

the

amongst

; and

we

the

knpw

how

to

conclude

this

entitled

ourselves

Sophists taught
disliked

both

latter

stipulated

payment

believe

was

; but

We
Sophists.
see
derogatory in Philosophers accepting money,

included

nothing,whatever
any

Ii3

of

art

immoral

uneasiness

where

the
that

disputation,they taught nothing

by the Greeks.

tampering

that

with

truth

the old

doubt

no

the serious

doubt

No

men

saw

youth exercising a dangerous


and
in all the Sophists'pupils;
foresaw
demagogues
weapon,
but that they did not
regard the Sophists as "corrupters of
from
this striking
of the State, is evident
youth," and enemies
fact, the Sophists not
only escaped persecution, but were
with wealth
rewarded
and
honours
Socrates
was
tried,
; whereas
and
executed
the charge of having corrupted
condemned,
on
the Athenian
youth.
the

Athenian

"

We

cannot

perfectlytrue
shameless
himself

that

the
but

later

his

of

account

Sophists

became

the

makes
with

But

respect.

more

he

frivolous

not

so.

of the

some

is

It

opponents.

were
early masters'
the distinction,and
speaks of

race

teachers

Plato's

accept

and

Plato
elder

always misrepresents

them.
admit

We

and

many

argued

that

when

trivial.

In

the

not

there

were

often
first

Plato

have

ventured

to

in

place do

other
we

be

misrepresent their
This
against him.
is

It

daily see

not

still

were

therefore

may

cases.

misrepresentation of opinions, the

stillalive ?

It

living witnesses

used

there

wrote,

Sophists living.

could

argument

an

gross

he

time

the

at

powerful

doctrines
is

that,

authors

extremely

instances
of

which

of
are

be
misrepresentation a thing which cannot
the effect of party spirit,
guarded against, being sometimes
sometimes
? In the second
that of legitimate dulness
place we
have
no
proof that the disciples of the
Sophists did not
contradict
It is assumed
that they did not, because
Platq.
no

works

have
are

Is

been

not

transmitted

mentioned.

But

to

it

us

might

in
have

which
been

these
done

tions
.contradicvivi^

voce.

SOPHISTS.

THE

124

Plato's
of it

of

account

is
Sophistical doctrines
it is impossible that any

the

caricature,since

seriously entertained

have

Gorgias thought

and

them.

j it

is

It

is the

ad

face

should

man

what

not

reduciio

die

on

Protagoras

ahsurdum

what

of

Plato
seizes hold
mental
of one
of their fundatwo
or
they thought
makes
doctrines, and, interpretingthem in his own
way,
them
lead
to the
most
absurdity and
immorality.
outrageous
if
been
transmitted
had
It is as
us
by
Berkeley's doctrine
it
is
denied
of
Beattie.
well known,
the existence
Berkeley,
the external
of ideas.
world, resolving it into a simple world
him
with
his
Beattie taunted
not
out
having followed
ciples,
prin-

with

and
a

having

not

the

Now,
the

those

of

plan

him

suppose
of Plato

vulgarly
world

is

there

that

in.

believe
ideas.

of

is

There

If I

to

were

world

no

sake

"

over

tain
main; I

which

that

as

effect ;
he
would

Yes

of

of

how

:
"

thus

existence

walk

it is

the

refutation

Somewhat

external

such

no

as

way

of easy

absurdity for the sake


made
Berkeley speak ?

have

exaggeration for

of

of

and

dialogue
making Berkeley
he Beattie
interpreted
a

him

suppose

in such

his argument
expound
it,and with a flavour

understand
mis-

his

from

written

have

to

was

understood
mis-

Beattie

conclusions

drew

and

argument,

This

precipice.

over

misrepresentation; dcaignoratio elenchi:

gross

on

walked

but

matter,

only

should

precipice I

men

ideal

precipice."
only an
it is most
how
This
is Beattie's
true
men
interpretation;
Plato's
it is,however,
know
interpretationof
quite as true as
:
Beattie.
convict
the Sophists.
From
Berkeley's works
we
can
that
convict
from
Plato we
nature
experience of human
can
;
receive

injury :

no

experience tells us that


seriously,publicly, and
heaviest

penalties.

To

of success,

rigid Morality.
it is immoral, was,

To

which

statement

broach

immoral

must

"

In

to

the

shamelessness

be

man

doctrines

ledged
acknow-

incurring the

doctrines
do

so

could

men,

with

in the

the
of

name

that
immorality, and openly to avow
according to Plato, the office of the Sophists;*
carries

absolutely necessary
Sophists should
undergo
data

of

teach

trusted

it its

with

It is

few

set

any

all morality,without

of

faintest prospect

far less

man,

constantly broach

subversive

be

to

no

that
a

own

'Protagoras* ihis passage


of the Sophists ; and

task

attributed

opinions

the

thorough

that the

contradiction.

must

is often
sometimes

revision.
be

referred
of the

There

to
are

the
so

extremely delicate.
(o

as

ill-favoor

proof
with

of

the

which

SOPHISTS.

THE

will make

We

with

Our

tendencies

rather

opinion

Sophist,was
as

knot.*

bom

The

indicates

in

accepted

of

unity

rejected the

Let

doctrine

the

is

story

between

There
not

were

viz. the

accept,

other, in the

each

the idea

for

Democritean
of

perceived by

not

Atoms;

the

reject Reflection.

knowledge
Did

the

not

story lead

He

to

feel authorized

menal.
phenohe

imply

two

is
of

could

sary
neces-

Atoms,

therefore

Sensation,
the

is

and

traditional

with

Democritus,
expressions of Plato,

adopt certain

to

learned

Reflection

could

was

connection

some

suppose

idea
of

and

Atoms,
Thought

that

said,

existence

the

the

the

consequently only individual.


less
than
place of his birth no

one

might

we

that

sense

it is from

the

therefore

Reflection

system.
and

Protagoras rejected

proved.
all

and

Atomic

also

to

have

to

maintained

which
in the system
Reflective, These

theories

two

then

him

he

of the

the

apocryphal, but
the speculations

with

have

to

gave

Protagoras

Democritus,
and

inventing

Democritus

With
this doctrine
Many.
all knowledge
that thought is sensation, and
existence

himself
first noticed

in

suppose

Eleatics

the

avowed

that

was,
The

us

of

itself

concerns

Democritus

existed

have

to

thinkers.

two

this

Philosophy.

connection

have

to

great address

of

consequence

of the

have

showed

it

as

be

may

opinions, will not


information
respecting the

where

Abdera,

at

instructions

him

successors

individual

is said

first who

porter, who

with

than

deficiencyof
Sophists.

of the

Protagoras,the
him

where

the

greatly suflferfrom
exact

line

history,inasmuch

fortunate.

more

in

venture

125

his doctrine
from
Protagoras to have derived
He
Heraclitus.
the
last-named
in the
certainly resembles
his speculations led him.
main
Be
that as
results to which
is
it may,
the
fact
the
unquestionable, that he maintained
doctrine of Thought
this
being Sensation.
Now, what does
?
It
doctrine
implies that every thing is true relatively
imply
consider

and

"

sensation

every

sensation

true

sensation, knowledge
such
melancholy mind

but
In

is

they

It

regarded.

were

is

is

and,

as

there

is

nothing

inevitably fleetingand

to

us

doctrine

only

would

proof

of

imperfect.
deepen sadness,

Plato's

tendency

to

cancature.
*

knot,

What
such
had

still used

the
as

real
is now

conttived

by

of rvKti
signification

used, is the
a

sort

the porters in

is

common

of board

Italy.

such

we

are

unable

to

say.

porter's

goras
interpretation. Perhaps Protawhich
the glaziersuse, ana
as

is

126

THE

tillit

it had
this effect
In
despair. In Heraclitus
in
of greater confidence, such
men
greater elasticity
would
lead
ism.
to an
energeticscepticism or individual-

produced

minds
a

SOPHISTS.

of

"

doctrine

the arrogant
formula
Protagoras it became
of all things."
is the measure
Sextus
Empiricus gives the psychologicaldoctrine
In

explicitly
; and

very

suspicion.

We

his

translate

account

portion of

said

it

of

received

be

may

''

of

Man

goras
Prota-

without

"

is in

Matter,"
a
Protagoras,
perpetual flux ; * whilst
it undergoes
and
also are
augmentations
losses, the senses
modified, according to. the age and disposition of the body*
He
of all phenomena
said, also, that the reason
(appearance^
"

in

resided

matter

v-KOKwtBox

fiei'cov

whatever

it

"

iv

versd,

vice

well
as
ages,
criterion
the

him

exists,

as

of

in

is
to

appear
course

all

which

which

is

itself,
might be
different

have

men

0a4vo"

rcav

in

perceptions
the

changes
a
healthy state perceives
others in a healthy state
: and
to

the

in

with

holds

sleeping and

that

that

But

Travrcui/

in

matter,

times, according
Whoever

similar

that

SO

each.

to

different

things perceived.
things such as they

vXi^);

ry

appeared

at

(yov^ Xoyovs

substrata

as

respect

to

Man

is

waking.

is

exists; all that


perceiyed by no

different
therefore

perceived by

man

does

not

exist."t
tible
thought irresisthe
doctrine
such
to
a
as
above, and then
arguments
how
see
naturally all the scepticism of the Sophists flows from
difference
it
the Sophists and
The
between
the Sceptics was
ledge,
this : they were
both convinced
of the insufficiency
of all knowbut the Sceptics contented
with the conviction,
themselves
while the Sophists gave
their attenturned
tion
up philosophy and
Satisfied with the
elsewhere.
to
vanity of all endeavour
penetrate the mysteries of the universe, they began to consider
their relations
other
themselves
to
to
they devoted
men
:
no
possibilityof Truth
politicsand rhetoric.J If there was
If one
there
the possibilityof
Persuasion..
only remained
that is, if neither
true
true
opinion was
were
as
as
another,
it was
nevertheless
desirable, for the sake of society,that

Now,

conceive

conducted

man

he

by what

"

"

"
Trjv wXijv p"Vffrrjv dvaty ah
from
confirm
Sextus
Plato, would

as

See

the

Hypoty.

expression which,
the

conjecture

if not

above

borrowed

origin of Protagoras' system.

^rrhon,'p.

Plato's

detinition

44.
of

the

by

clitus,
respecting Hera-

art, * Sophista,'p. 146.


sophistical

SOPHISTS.

THE

la;

prevail ; a^d, if Logic was


powerless,
Rhetoric
efficient
Heace
to
Piotagoras is made
was
say, by
He
i" the
physician of the soul.
Plato, that the wise man
since
into
the
indeed
induce
cannot
truer
mind,
thoughts

certain

opinions

shoud

thoughts are equally true"; but he can induce healthier and


heal Society,
more
profitable thoughts. He can in the same
way
introduce
since by the power
of oratpry he can
good useful
sentiments
hurtful.*
and
in the place of those base
*^ This
natural
doctrine
be fake;
but is it not
a
conse*
may
It
of
the
of
the.
immoral;
epoch?
maybe
philosophy
quence
but
and
buted
is it necessarily the
shameless
bdd
immorality attribe
neither
it
?
to
To :us
to the Sophists
more
nor
appears
radical
the
result of a
of
the
of
less than
insufficiency
sense
knowledge.
Protagoras had yspent his youth in the study of
idle ; he had
that
study vain and
philosophy; he ;had found
A
his
attention
had
turned
elsewhere.
utterlyrejected it,and
wanted
of practical tendencies, he
man
a
practical result.
admirable
writer
Failing in this,h" sought another
path. An
in
said a few years ago that although
Blackwood's
Magazine
all

'

'

metaphysics
fatal

to

age

of

the

world

was

if

them

an

they

excellent

study for

had

settled

not

also was
thirty. Here
necessity of having, something

Plato

action.

of

could

more

definite

with

wherewith

called

have

eind in life thsin

nobler

before

doubts

firmly impressed

man

would

Plato

ao

see

their

that

him
of

it

yet

men,

young

to

was

the
the
enter

Sophist.

ing
contemplat-

with
the
Eeiiig than that of familiarisingthe mind
all
Beautiful
of
which
the
and
the
eternal Good,
ness,
goodJust,
such
the
With
beautiful
and
a
justice
thingswere
images.
view of life it was
that he should
natural
despise the scepticism
This
of the Sophists.
scepticism is clearly set forth in the
of
translation
from
the speech of Callicles,
a passage
following
in Plato's
Gorgias :
it is moderately cultivated
Philosophy is a gracdiil thing when
in youth ; but, if any
one
occupies himself with it
it
ruins him;
\
beyond the proper
for,however
great may
age,
if
be his natural
he
he
must
capacity,
philosophizes too long
of necessity be inexperienced in all those
one
things which
the

"

"

'

"

"

who
must

the

would
be

mode

be

great andaeminent-nmst
with

unacquainted
of

influencing
"

"

the

other

la\ys
men

be
of
in

experienced
his country,

the

Xhe^tete"if'p..223.

intercourse

in.

and
of

He
with

life.

isS

of

men

in

such

when

SOPHISTS.

with

privateor public,and

whether

THE

short, with human


called

are

men

to

upon

to

"uripides

with

cope

on

privateor

to

your

argument;
with

And

manners.

ridicule, just as
conversation, and

themselves

himself

occupies

says,

in

you

and

act, whether
to

passions

pleasures and

characters

public occasion, they expose


politiciansdo when
they come
attempt

the

for

every

man,

in

which

he

that

as

finds

he is inferior he avoids, and


superior ; that in which
speaks ill of it,but praises what he excels in, thinking that in
The
best thing in my
doing so he is praisinghimself.
opinion
It is good to partake of philosophy by
is to partake of both.
it is not ungraceful in a young
of education, and
to
man
way
if
he
do
when
he
continues
to
so
philosophize. But,
grows
him
I
older
he becomes
ridiculous, and I feel towards
as
and
towards
who
should
at
lisped
a
played
grown
person
I see
still continuing to
childish
old
an
plays. When
man

himself

think

philosophize, I

deserves

he

be

to

However

flogged.

talents,he is under the necessity of avoiding


the assembly and
public places, where, as the poet says, men
hide
become
to
himself, and to pass his life
eminent, and
great his natural

three
but
whispering to two
or
striplingsin a comer,
speaking out anything great, and bold and lil"e]:al."
The
distinguishingcharacteristics of the Sophists were
of science and their art
protests against the possibility

orators, and

As

expression

truth

to

travellers,because
not

fail

there

that

nature,

but

the

no

were

only by

fundamental

precept

convention.
with

This, therefore, became


It was
but
corollary
a

them.

For
dogma respecting Truth.
there was
"temal
Right because
no

''

That

0vcr4 dXAa

which

prefer

in the
varietyof laws and ordinances
them
with
tion
convicvariety impressed
a
such
things as Eight and Wrong
by

their

alxrxphvov

putation.
of dis-

to

it was
their art ; as
orators, because
cities they could
in their visits to various

This

States.

as

they learned

their

as

remark

to

different

travellers

never

vofi^

appears

law

just and

there

man

Truth
but

was

the

ro

law

honourable

to

was

no

Eternal

StVatov
of
each

of

each

kcX

to

city.

city,is

so

for that dty, as long as the opinion is entertained," says


denial
This
of
(p. 229).
Protagoras in the 'Theaetetes'
abstract Truth, and abstract Justice,is easilypushed to absurd
and
such
.

often

imihoral

consequences;

consequences
judges them

were

by such

but

maintained

have

we

by

consequences;

no

the

evidence

that

Sophists.
independently

but

Plato

jfourtl^ "poc6"
A

NEW

ERA

OPENED

METHOD.

NEW

Whilst

and

money

teaching

the

suddenly
a

had

slighted

his

soul*s

with
He
to

know

his

he

Yet

by

not

mission

of

could

for

do

ideas.

What

light, he
they

refused

did

she

with

them

in

examined

them
;

demanded

every

bribe

no

of

the

his

if

nothing.
enormous

could
his

to

see

if

kind.

His

This

in

he

an

labour

having
they

he

accoucheur

were

false, destroyed.

pecuniary

fellow-

profession,

women

was

be

learn.

mother's

He

to

knew

to

birth, and

their

professed

others.

of

for

ideas.

welcomed

were

he

to

Renown.

They

service
them

thoughts

by. reference

assisted

assistance

steadfastly

the

communion

anything

of

be

her

untiring

demanded

helping

by

pregnant

men

if true,

but

midwife.

He

into

he

examine

explained

viz., that

this

believed

he

that

could

made

and

Money

and

They

with

perfect

that

denied

He

had

poverty.

knew

only

He

labour,

for
in

He

physically.

and

after

Truth

there

Oratory,
antagonist.

her.

toil

her

call

strange

everything,

teaching,
to

was

humorously

for

teach

to

and

patient

to

He

Disputation,

denied

soul

constant

call

morally

slighted

had

and

with

and,

recompense.

taught.

had

everything.

sums

live

they

large, wise

They

in

them

remained

professed

of

them

mistress;

They

men,

to

Philosophy,

they

them

reaping

were

against
they

which

amongst

Truth

her.
had

which

insincerity

contrast

did

energy,

protesting

word-jugglery

perfect

was

Sophists

dangerous

by

appeared

SOCRATES.

OF

but

renown

impassioned

the

LIFE

brilliant

the

'

I.

CHAPTER

THE

OF

INVENTION

THE

BY

recompense

brought
fit

to

And
;

he

THE

The

Sophists

does

he?

The
crowds

For

of

listeners,treated

with

ineffable

Barefoot, he wandered
thought, and sometimes
he

; or

gonist.
anta-

new

Sophroniscus.

What

He

humbly-dad
and
ungainly

and

poor

rude

was

the

resembled

he

tation
in medi-

fixed

disputed with

market-place and

into the

His

Silenus.

in

absorbed

of Athens

streets

standing still for hours,

appearance

by

respectable citizens in his habits.

all

about

strolled

In

one.

the

contempt.

; unlike

their

with

To
?
error.
expose
purpose
their flowing robes, followed

Sophists,in

eager

of

son

131

what

gorgeous

movements

every

puzzled

Socrates, the

Converse.

Socrates
in his

SOCRATES.

somewhat

were

is he ?

Who

OF

LIFE

tened
flat-

upturned nostrils,his projecting


wieldy
eyeballs, his thick and sensual
lips,his squab figure and unridicule might fasten.
which
all points upon
belly, were
Yet when
this Silenus spoke there was
a witchery in his tongue
with

nose,

which
And

fascinated
Alcibiades

flee away,
"grow old in
him

I will

"

statue.

for

the

for

the

might not
listeningto his
he

stop

beside

sit down
talk."

to

Let

ears

and

Alcibiades

hear

us

his

Socrates

"

begin the praise of Socrates by comparing


Perhaps he will think that this statue
of

in two,

gods.

found

I assert
form
you

in

that

and

assure

all other

is introduced

it is necessary

that

flutes

venture

to

things,now

pipes,

or

are

appearance

will not

you

to a certain

which, when
withinside
the images of
to contain
is like the satyr Marsyas ;
Socrates

holding

are

him

is
Socrates
assert, then, that
that sit in the sculptors'shops, and

Silenuses

carved

are

them

appearance
forced
was

he

that

disgusted.

had

his

ridicule ; but
illustration of truth.

that your
that even
to

whom

sake

divided
the

those

that

exactly like those


which

and

declared

and

describe

wide

like

deny
hear.

but

satyrs, I think
how
like you
are

these

; and
Are

not

you

scornful

Are
If you
petulant ?
deny this,I will bring witnesses.
For
he ?
than
wonderful
far more
a piper, and
a one
you not
now
Marsyas, and whoever
pipes the music that he taught, for
which
that music
is of heaven, and
described as being taught
of the mouth
by Marsyas, enchants
men
through the power
;
it
for if any
this music,
musician, be he skilful or not, awakens

and

alone

enables

divinityof

its

him

to

retain

gods and initiation.


circumstance, that you
the

words,

all that

he

can

do

minds

evident

makes

nature

the

You
effect
; for

differ

of

men,

those

who

are

from

in want

the
of

Marsyas in this
instruments, by mere

only

without
when

and

we

from

hear

Pericles,or

any.

accomplished
cares
anything

other
were,
or

even

unskilful

and

If

"

confirm

assure

you

hearts

related

discourse, iid

But

when

One,

one

any

by another, though

hears

you,

so

rude

ever

woman,

it

as

or

man,

by the discourse

were,

mind.
afraid

to

him

by

you

am

oath

an

the

heart
my
the
celebrate

he

drunk, I

too

which

effects

strange

his words,

from

deal

great

and

still \ for

suffer

than
leaps up far more
Corybantic mysteries ;
thing I have seen
happen

the
my

to
talks,a
I have
other
and
beside myself.
heard
Pericles
others
many
have
been
excellent
pleased with their discourses,
orators, and
but
I suffered
soul
was
on
nothing of this kind ; nor
ever
my
and
filled with self-reproach,as
if it
those
occasions
disturbed
But
this Marsyas here
has often
were
slavishlylaid prostrate.
in the way
I describe, until the life which
affected
I lead
me
seemed
not
living. Do
hardly worth
deny it, Socrates; for

tears

poured

speak,

who

those

that

suffered

I have

of

it.

speaker, be
person
and
struck
retained, as it

hear

about

that

not

was

would

when

deliver

child, we are
clinging to our

socRAfEii.

orator,

words

your

oP

life

The

132

are

I well

know

out

as

if

that

resist,but should
friends,he forces me

again

not

want

to

I chose

now

even

to

the

suffer

and

Syrens,

down

him

beside
has

man

imagine

flee away
and

reduced

me

no

one

would

with

remorse

inspiresme

old

grow

myself am
necessities,and

that which

in

from

sit
I may
not
his talk ; for this

listeningto
sentiment

he

shame, which

of

in

was

; for

awe

what

attend

therefore, as

ears,

readily believe
and

still in

possible, that

as

feel the

to

incapacity of refuting

my

fast

as

could

effects, for, my

same

confess, that while

of many
things,I neglect my own
I stop my
those of the Athenians.

the

listen to you,

to

says,

; he

me

alone

in his presence
of refusing to do

feel
or

directs ; but when


I depart from
him, the glory
which
confers "overwhelms
the multitude
I escape,
therefore,
me.
hide
and
him
I see
when
I am
him, and
myself from
he

with

overwhelmed
what
and

have

men.

among

should

and

suffer
I

many
"

And

wonderful

I wished

have

often

what

humiliation, because
him ought
confessed
to

can

that

But

if that

far

greater

do

others
observe

power

were

pain

with

this man,
suffered from
how
he

like he
possesses.

he

have

be

to

were

I well

know

the

to

know

do

to

; and

longer

that where

; so

done

no

happen,

to

neglected

often

be

seen

that
turn,

can

this

I
or

have

this satyr.
I said, and
what

All

not.

pipings of

is

to

what

I know

that there

is not

one

THE

of

who

you

IS

LIFE

the real

of

aware

OF

SOCRATES.

nature

133

of

Socrates

since

; but

You
him
observe
plain to you.
begun, I will make
the
how
affects
passionately Socrates
mtimacy of those who
how
beautiful, and
ignorant he professes himself to be;
are
in themselves
excessively Silenic.
This, my
appearances
with which, like one
form
of the sculpfriends, is the external
tured
himself; for if you open him, you
Sileni,he has clothed
I

have

will

within

find

admirable

wisdom

and

temperance

he

for

thgin any one


can
beauty, but despises more
it be beauty or wealth
imagine all external
possessions, whether
the multitude
felicitates
or
glory, or any other thing for which
the
these
who
He
honour
esteems
things, and
us
possessor.
them, as nothing, and lives among
making all the objects
men,
the
of
his irony. But
of their admiration
I know
playthings
divine
have
the
if any
of you
not
images which
seen
one
ever
is
serious.
when
he
has
been
I have
within,
are
opened and
seen
them, and they are so supremely beautiful,so golden, so
commands
divine, and wonderful, that everything that Socrates
like the voice of a God.
surely ought to be obeyed, even
other
wonderful
and
most
Many
qualitiesmight well be
buted
praised in Socrates, but such as these might singly be attriis
that which
But
to others.
unparalleled in Socrates,
is that he is unlike, and
above
comparison, with all other men,
for

not

cares

mere

"

those

whether

exist

now

others

with

are

with

; for
such

and

conjectured,

with
But

other

probability,be
to

discourses

such
are

so

deserves

singular

no

uncommon,

many

of

persons

into
man

and

comparison

excellent

drawn

wHb

those

or

Brasidas

that

Pericles

and

times,

comparison
this,both
as
one,

should

the present or the past


parallel among
unless
that he regenerations of mankind;
they should
say
him ; for assuredly
I latelycompared
^mbled those with whom
the
his discourses
like nothing but
Silen and
he and
the
are
make
observe
how
first
At
L
like his
forgot to
satyrs.
you
when
if any
those
for
discourses
to
are
they are opened ;
satyrs
will listen to the talk of Socrates, it will appear
him at
to
one
the
first extremely ridiculous
expressions which
phrases and
;
he employs fold around
his exterior
it were,
the skin, as
of a
about
is
rude
and
He
wanton
Satyr.
always talking
great
skinand
and
and
leather-cutters,
market-asses,
brass-founders,
he

seek, would

in ancient

Achilles.

Antenor;

may,
other.
his

be

was

times

each

himself

as

lived

have

it may

and

Nestor

various

who

(ll'egsers
; and

find

this is his

perpetual custom,

so

that

any

dull

unobservant

and

if any

But
the

his

of

sense

all that

it

words, he

into

enters

opened,
of

persuasive meaning, and that


they presented* to the mind

and
that

moment,

is

of what

essential

towards

rather

or

the

to

"These

they tended

that

and

excellence,

are

they
towards

profound

divine

most

were

innumerable

all, that

discourse.

utter, had

to

.man

his

at

it were,
and
get within
find that they alone of

as

then

would

mind

the

SOCRATES.

might easilylaugh

person
should
see

one

OF

LIFE

THE

134

images

of

and

every

objects of the highest

he

who

the

seeks

supremely beautiful,and good, need


of his ambition.
accomplishment
the
friend, for which
things, my

sion
posses-

regard

as

praise

Socrates."
Silenus

This
that

the

him

who
in

names

hereafter

the

to

world's

the

human

grand

the

to Truth.
martyrdom
Everything about

death.
been
that

Pantheon

who

"

mind, and
example of

of

one

leave

the

give

pulse
im-

new

to

life crowned

is remarkable

Socrates

reverenced

inheritance

an

as

praise for

most

to

was

heroic

an

antagonist

this is small

; but

become

to

formidable

most

encountered

Sophists had
was

the

become

to

was

kind,
man-

with

personal appearance,
moral
physiognomy, position, object, method, life,and
his tendencies
and
have
Fortunately his character
in
works
of
Plato
the
and
so
clearly pictured
Xenophon,
be
flattered
of its
we
are
sure
although the portrait may
;

resemblance.
He
a

him

the

father's

his

unable

behind

Acropolis,
authentic, it would
were
close

The

creditable

more

the

Laertius,

on

Athenian,

charmed

withdrawn

have

Br.

sneer,

the

names

Wiggers
a

authority
him

from

says,

that

of

the
the

**

Timon

relinquished

Timon,

place

Minerva

imply great

account,
with

of

of

shop, and
the

He

the

the

walls

on

to

in

are

early.
Graces

Phidias.

is that

however,

we

it

that

proficiency in

Demetrius.
manners

in it

progress

he

by

found

the

any

as

to

a stone-scraper.''
sculptor,as Lucian informs

\idot6oQt
for

not,

report, alluded
had executed

Socrates

made

he

probably

say;

was

which

of

Whether

art.

to

There

son

His

midwife.

give

Sophroniscus, a sculptor,*and Phaenarete,


it is said, to
parents, though poor, managed,
Besides
he
which
learnt
ordinary education.

the

was

of the
If

this

the

art.

Diogenes

Crito, a wealthy
Socrates, is said to
have

educated

him

Sillograph caUs Socrates, with a


of
forgets that \iBo^6oQ was
one
of his earlylife"
us in the account

THE

SOCRATES.

OF

LIFE

135

became
{koL TratScvo-at).This Crito afterwards
discipleof the great genius he had discovered.

reverential

which
given to the statements
and
With
Archelaus.
make
Socrates
a discipleof Anaxagoras
with
Dr. Wiggers, that, in
respect to Parmenides, we
agree
phrase in Plato's 'Sophisto' (p. 169^,
spite of the ambiguous
credit

No

is

there

whatever

reason

lectures,though

to

believe

he

must

Oratory;
(iii.c).

that
have

in the

the passage

trust

be

can

Socrates

his works.

read

If

(p. 96), Prodicus

Meno'

his

attended

never

we

to

are

taught him

supported by that in 'iEschines*


But
both
with
what
directly at variance
they are
is made
Convivium
in Xenophon*s
Socrates
to
(i.5.),
say
from
where
he denies having gained any instruction
Protagoras,
Prodicus, or others.*
directed
that they were
Of his early studies we
only know
When
I was
to
young,"
Physics, and left him dissatisfied.
said he, '^I had an astonishing longing for that kind of knowledge
and

the passage

seems

'

"

Physics."
Aristophanes of

accuse

he

represented

is abundant

lead

finding them

on

did

He

not

have

teaching.

One

domestic

the

of

her

it

he

to
as

""

am

forced

to

because

me

and

to draw
"

so

m^r

many

he

to

become

wish

spirited horses
they

can

that

to

in

endure

men,

case

skilled

; after

bridle

with

converse

to

two

is nymous
synoexplanation of his

most

able

and

submitted
name

who

be

him

Her

those

live and

her, I should

disdain

f Xenophop,

the

type.

firmly convinced

being

Gorgias, Prodicus,
I

select

wish

it is my

You

that,

bore

which

playful

gave
"

Xanthippe

with

his

of

Indeed, the violence

with
a

them

filled up
his first

and

She

temper.

become

which

father

ensued.

those, they believe

bridle

this woman,
able to endure

her

He

by remarking

horsemanship,

Now,

has

Shrew.

with

able

which

middle

the

events

leaving his
his marriage

equanimity

the

and

temper,

choice

was

with

bore

of the

records
first

these

proverbial. She

are

in

scepticism.
teaching till about

squabbles

children, and

only relinquished

to

his

of

he

that

prove

but few

period between

the

who

ignorance when, in the


Clouds,'
as
speculating on physical siibjects.
speculationslater in life ; but there

to

commence

We

career.

those

gross

Socrates

evidence

to

answer

'

relinquishedsuch

Socrates

is sufficient

This

called

being

all others.
I married
I should

be

all others.** t

have squandered money


upon Protagoras,
others,in return for their teaching| whereas

yon

philosophyfirom my

Convivium/ ij,

own

brain,"

OF

LIFE

THE

136

Before he gave himself up


and
service in three battles,
the

SOCRATES.

encourage

related of him
of

winter,when

he

went

in

he performed military
teaching,
himself in each.
In
distinguished
awarded

such

Various

honour.

during his campaigns.


the ice and

bare-foot and

him.

to

were

snow

clad.'
lightly

On

In

quished
relin-

He
it

Alcibiades,whom

of

favour

deserve

to

to

the prizeof bravery was


first,

his claim

might

anecdotes

spiteof

are

severity
ground,

the

thick upon the


occasion he stood
one

before the camp


for four-and-twenty
hours
in
meditation.
has
Plato
givenus
wrapped

on

the

same

spot

beautiful

during the campaign,which we


magnificenttranslation by Shelley:
time we were
At one
and had
fellow-soldiers,

description
give in the

of Socrates

"

"

in the camp

Potidaea.

before

Socrates

our

there

mess

gether
to-

overcame

of toils;
only me, but every one besides,in endurance
reduced
in
often
to
a
campaign, we were
when, as
happens,
few provisions,
there were
who could sustain hunger like
none
had
Socrates ; and when
we
plenty,he alone seemed to enjoy
drank
much
fare.
He
our
never
willingly
military
j but when
he was
in that to which he
rompelled he conquered all even
least accustomed, and what is most
was
no
astonishing,
person
not

"

ever

either then

Socrates tirunk

saw

or

at any

other

time.

In

rigid)
(and the winters there are excessively
he sustained calmly incredible hardships
other
; and, amongst
and no
whilst the frost was
went
one
intolerably
severe,
things,
of their tents, or if they went
out
out, wrapt themselves
up
their legs
and put fleeces under their feet,and bound
carefully,
cloak on
with hairyskins,Socrates went
out only with the same
bare-foot upon the ice ; more
that he usuallywore, and walked
had sandalled
themselves
indeed, than those who
so
easily,
delicately
; so that the soldiers thought that he did it to mock
the

depth

their

of winter

of fortitude.

want

It would

all that this brave

commemorate

man

indeed
be worth while to
did and endured
in that
I'

expedition.
earlyin the morning standing
in one
placewrapt in meditation,and, as he seemed not to be
able to unravel the subjectof his thoughts,he stillcontinued to
stand as inquiring
and
discussingwithin himself;and when
the soldiers observed
noon
him, and said to one
came,
since
another :
Socrates has been standingthere thinking,
ever
"

In

instance he

one

was

seen

morning.* At last
havingsupped,as itwas
the

some

lonians

summer,

came

to the

spot, and,

their blankets,
they
bringing

138

LIFE

THE

he

was

question

This

happy

OF

SOCRATES.

is

pertinent; fortunatelyit

can

be answered.
His

bravery
He

senator.

as

soldier

that

had

surpassed by his bravery

was

moral

high

which

courage

as

brave

can

only death, but opinion. He presents an example, almost


who
could defy a tyrant, and
also
unique in history,of a man
defy a tyrannicalmob, an impetuous imperious mob. The Thirty
summoned
occasion
him, together with four
one
Tyrants on
others, to the Tholos, the place in which the prytanes took
not

their

meals.

Salamis

He

commanded

there

was

to

obtained

bring

Leon

of

the

right of Athenian
citizenship,but, fearing the rapacity of the Tyrants, had
Leon
Socrates
retired to
Salamis.
To
steadily
bring back
refused.
He
Government,
although it
says himself, that the
into doing anything
so
was
powerful, did not frighten me
of the Tholos, the four went
oat
came
we
unjust j but, when
to

Athens.

had

Leon

"

Salamis

to

and

should

Government
On

have
had

senate

been

soon

I went

death

suffered

Senator, the

Athenian

not

but

Leon,

occasion

another
then

was

took

on

account

broken

up."

the

braved

he

of

the

And

Five

he

haps
per-

this, if Xhe

of

clamorous

office

only State

consisted

home.

away

mob.

He

held.

ever

Hundred,

The

who

were

tribes.

Every thirty-fifth
or
thirty-sixth
tribe had
the presidency : these were
cdW^d^prytanes.
day, one
the
had
Of
the fiftyprytanes, ten
presidency every
seven
the
ten
of these
enjoyed
highest dignity,
days : each day one
He
laid
of epistates.
the
with
everything before the
name
assembly of the people, put the question to the vote, examined
the whole
business
the votes, and, in short, conducted
of the
He
enjoyed this power, however, only for a single
assembly.
with the keys of the citadel
invested
day ; for that day he was
elected

and

the

from

the

ten

treasury of the republic.

the unjust sentence


epistateson the day when
be
had neglected to bury
who
to
was
passed on the admirals
after the battle of Arginusse.
To
the dead
take care
of the
of
the
burial of the dead
sacred
The
shades
was
a
duty.
believed
unburied
wander
to
were
restlesslyfor a hundred
The
of the Styx.
the banks
Antigone of Sophocles
years on
is founded
the sacredness
of this duty.
After the battle of
on
Socrates

was

'

Arginusse,a violent storm


from
obtaining the bodies
tfaiS|
they left behind them

arose,

of the
some

which
slain.

the

prevented
In

order

inferior officers

to

admirals

remedy

{taxiarchs)to

THE

attend

to

the

office.

impossible.
evidence

behind, so
This
produced

the

enemies

minds

of the

had

admirals
the

dead

(so the

be

head,
people

all

did

in

wrong

and

latter.
would

had

the

But

meanwhile
inflame

to

been

the

appearance
for the

hired

all

with

prytanes,

the

by

Socrates

of

majority

death

to

put

The

bodies

by the

condemn

to

the

up

it

that

mournful

taking

not

But

The

law.

to

the

In

they could

slain, who

the

confiscated.

refused

the

on

people, who

and, if they should be condemned


be
senate
to
ordained), they were

contrary

was

fall

to

their property

the

taxiarchs

the assembly.
on
powerful influence
the general question, whether
given on

done

had

rendered

left the

hands.

lamentations

The
of

had

the

on

of

show

admirals

people.

to

were

the

kinsmen

tragic scene,
votes

to

of the

of the

effect

the

had

tempest

it

produced

an

count

to

They

which, they
ought

rendered

storm

acquittal,if put to the vote.


adjourn the assembly, pretending

given

dark

too

of the

if any,

blame,

managed

the

that

besides

139

tried.

were

its natural

instantlyhave
accusers

the violence

show

of

SOCRATES.

OF

admirals

The

that

the

But

pilotsto
impracticable;

burial

was

LIFE

and
vote

one

at

their

The
vote.
illegal question to
became
that
those
who
furious^and loudly demanded
themselves
be
resisted their pleasure should
brought to trial.
alone
The
Socrates
remained
wavered, yielded.
prytanes
to

put

firm, defying the


administer

the

the

threats

justice.

He

of

mob.

the

would

stood

He

administer

not

there

to

injustice. In

his

refusal,the question could not be put to


The
the vote, and
next
again adjourned.
assembly was
and
and
the
other
chosen,
epistates
day a new
presidents were
of

consequence

the

admirals

condemned.*

were

the
to enter
impossible for the queer-looking Socrates
becoming an object of attention.
market-place without at once
His
Silenu^
figure, his moral
character, and his bewitching
It

was

tongue, excited
"

to

every

demolish
was

The
not

who

citizen.

enjoyed

not

and

the

Who

his

talker

so.

may

they

many,

"

became

He

him

to

had

Who

pretension

must
were

listened

irony ?

sound

Socrates
that

to

curiosity.
not

and

arrogance

prodigious

believed

had

inimitable

last sentence
meant

enchained

of

known

Who

had

not

seen

him

sophist?

some

doubtless,a
disrespectful. It

somewhat
have

He

prodigious bore.

been

wise, because

'Wiggers,' pp. 51-55.

bore

they

to

could

all

was

people

discourse

LIFE

THE

^O

SOCRATES.

OF

He
that he
not
few.
always declared
fluently; and these were
knew
nothing. When
professed knowledge
on
point,
you
any
that
if
crowds
admiring
testimony to
especially
sion,
profesgave
Socrates

was

to

sure

step

to

up

professing

and

you,

with
humble
a
taught. Charmed
so
assented
listener,you began. Interrogated, you unsuspectingly
from
conclusion
evident proposition;
that,
to
some
a
very
that
From
received
almost
assent.
evident, next
as
your

ignorance,

moment

With

lost.

were

you

be

to

entreat

web

formed

was

Your

yourself.

admissions

own

conclusions

monstrous

with

which

from

could

you

extricate

not

proved

were

not

where

see

the

of all

It

thus

was

that

Socrates

mistaken

became

to

you

gist of the sophism


Before
bystanders bespoke your defeat.
you
adversary, imperturbably calm, apparently innocent
but
at
Confused,
making you ridiculous.
attempt
left the
indignant with yourself,
luted, you
spot
adversary.
indignant with the sophistry of your
could

lead

to

repugned, but
lay. The
laughter

conclusions

; these

logic, with
during sophistication,
of

power

sometimes

great ingenious subtlety, and


a

great

for

was

of
not

your
all
con-

but

more

Sophist;

the
Sophists by his constant
distinguished from
of truth, he
the possibility
only
they denied
object. Whilst
in
the
make
truth
ironical,
to
evident,
playful, and
sought
in
which
he
sometimes, quibbling manner
destroyed the
his
in his
Truth
of opponents.
was
object, even
arguments
lightestmoments.
in Athens
This
of disputation daily occurred
to
sort
; and
in
of
The
doubtless
the
which
it we
owe
Clouds,*
comedy
Aristophanes uniformly speaks of Socrates as a Sophist. No one

but

he

was

that

will doubt
the

him

first

to

his adversaries

magnitude."
No

so.

one

was

this

And

he

the

was

meaning

his attack.

safe from

been

have

must

No

had

describes
him

declared

this.

understand

daring
puzzled.

to

not

**

to

to

be

went

to

sensations

himself

words

of
to

of the
of

one

on

wisest

the

Knowing
the

wrong,

his

be

think

wise, thinking that


oracle

bore

our

of

calling

who

sumed
pre-

know

there

Socrates

of
one

anything could escape him.


the
In confirmation, let us
account
quote
in
his procedure, as
of
reported by Plato
to

**

those

be

god

and

to

be

able

to

the

'Apology.*
hearing that Apollo

wise

in

could

be

should
*

say,

not

nothing, yet
false,he was

esteemed

are

could

He

men.

who

here, if anywhere,

gives

Socrates

Here

the

prove

is

be

to

man

tHM

than

Wiser

1/

liPe

but

*I

wiser

him

this

not.

am

this

he

went

away,

neither

for

man;

wiser

than

he,

know.

and

he.*

too, and

said

ceivjng with
service
the

necessary

to

the

and

of

god,

therefore

persons

by going to all who


appeared
O Athenians, tWe impression made
on
of
to
most
me
reputation seemed

deficient
much
**

of all ; other

of much

persons

than

affronted

him

When

I had

which

with

done

appeared

(that I might
what

these

the

truth,

the

the

at

poems
but

know

me

enthusiasm

must

say
have

not

like

that

oracles; for these^ too,


know

one

this

The

nearly the

most

seemed

account

I went
politicians,

time

same

I soon
they.
accomplish not by wisdom,
an

of

anything.

was

smaller

particleof

what

laboured,

most

me

meant

could

who

to

found
but
of

by

was

better
what

that

kind

prophets

of

and

poets,

should

surely
of

those
I

their

asked

them,

from

them)

Athenians, to say
scarcely a person

ashamed,

am

the

to

something

learn

it; there
spoken

than

poems

meaning

the

tragic,dithyrambic, and others, thinking that I


find myself less knowing
than
they. Taking up

present

per; but
to the

enemies

rational.

more

poems

matter

manner^

to

not

still wiser
I

for

oracle

And,

do

small

one

same

seek

to

would

considerations

all other

postpone

so

making

was

it

knowing, fancies

by this
in the

on

that

fear

and

sorrow

went

many

myself,

to

us,

another

and

result;

same

others.

many

it seemed

the

to

came

wise,

and

of

in

be

I seem,
therefore, to
After
this I went
to

himself

him
I

upon
There-

so.

thought

offended

means

When

than

that

not

was

but
knows
he, not
:
anything valuable
seem,
he
does
I
know,
I, as
know;
really do not

think

man

wise, but

be

to

convince

By
the bystanders.

of

14

name
(I need not
of
and
the
politicians),
conversing with
one
seemed
to
others,
opinion that this man
many

tried to

was

this

examining

After

him, but he was


him, it was
my
and
especially to himself,
I

SOCRATMS,

op

concerning

their

do,

they

turn,

and

poets
natural
those

who

fine, things,but
speak many
they speak.

utter

do

not

conscious
that I
Lastly, I resorted to artificers ; for I was
nothing at all,but should find them
myself knew, in a manner,
in this I was
taken
misvaluable
not
things. And
knowing many
so
far,
things which I knew
not, and
were,
; they knew
wiser than I.
But
fall into the same
to
they appeared to me
"

error

as

the

art, insisted

poets
upon

each, because

being

the

wisest

he
man

skilled

was

in

other

in
and

his

own

greatest

things;

this

and
of

possessed

to

consequences

enmities, and
upon

me

mistake

imputations ; but,

false

hand,

one

kind, which

formidable

most

the

on

the

on

the

Athenians,

search, O

been,

have

me

they

what

overshadowed

this

From

of the

many

theirs

of

wisdom.

SOCRATES,

OP

Um

THE

142

many-

brought

have

hand, the

other

general repute of a wise man."


for the country.
care
Socrates, like Dr. Johnson, did not
"
have
when
field,
seen
one
Sir,"said the Doctor,
green
you
Let
all green
fields ; sir,I like to look upon
men.
you have seen
and

name

"

walk

us

Cheapside.*'

down

Socrates

Phsedrus, who

address
even

anxious

very

to

with

the

learn

I can
nothipg.
only
be
found
to
was
always
with

argue

words

In

from

learn

from

where

in

men

demanded

he

city/'

the

from

money

am

learn

can

assembled.

were

men

trees

quainted
unac-

"I

Athens.

and

fields

being

of

of

does

import

same

him

accused

neighbourhood

and

one,
he
:

every
lectures

of the

And

he

Ready

to

*He

none.

he
books
He
wrote
no
only talked.
:
had
He
'cannot
argued.*
properly be said to have
a school,
trine.
since he did not
give a systematic exposition of his doceven
his school, must
called
What
be understood
has been
whose
it was
the
custom
to refer
to
delighted admirers
many
him
hrm
whenever
he appeared, to talk with
to surround
as
often as possible,and
to accept his leading opinions.
on
Although Socrates was a knight-errant of philosophy, ever
truth
from
the dungeons of
the alert to rescue
forlorn
some
not
scrupulous as to who or what
prejudice, and therefore was
the
his adversary
might be, yet his especial enemies
were
Sophists. He never
neglected an opportunity of refutingthem.
no

gave

them

with

knew

all

combated

He

He

ground.

their weakness.

and

their
their

Like

and

own

weapons,
tactics.
He

thenv he had

Truth

to
:

the

world

"

Phantom,
in

defeated

No

For

be

his endeavour

without^ he

Physics

he

turned

substituted

he

because
to

The

to

had

them
But

he

the

had

seen

not,

proclaimed

not

not

penetrate

his attention
Morals.

strength
Physics, in the

studied

could

own

their

knew

speculations of the early thinkers; and like


that these
speculations led to no certainty.
like them, made
scepticism a refuge ; he had

their

on

embrace

her.

mysteries of

the world

certitude

within.
which

he

therefore, disposed to accept as historical,the language Plato


of books.
Books
be
cannot
respecting the inefficiency
teach.
cannot
We
learn
therefore,
answer
iterrogated, cannot
can
only
;
them
from
that which
w%knew
he^ore."PhadruSf
p. 96.
We

are,

into his mouth

guts

SOCRATES.

OP

LIFE

THE

143

respecting the operations of nature, had not


truths
certitude
of the moral
the
his convi";tionof
shaken
his conscience
which
irresistibly
impressed upon his attention*
world'
of sense
The
might be fleeting and deceptive. The
failed

to

voice

of

inwards

gain

conscience
he

could

certain

discovered

his attention

Turning

deceive.

not

admitted

which

truths

question. They were


eternal,immutable, evident.
opposed to the scepticism of the sophists. Moral
was

the

rock

he

could

repose
world, and

the

his relation

Impiety

and

upon

his

In

judges

Immorality.

think

we

no

he

These

certitude

cast.

There

could

survey

to it

was

to

When

in

his life spent.


before
his
appear

Thus

had

shipwrecked soul was


its heights he
safety. From
his

which

upon

of

He

the

to

two-and-seventieth

the accusations

answer

appeared, and

character

of

year

this

he
of

condemned.

was

great

whose

man,

virtues,luminous
of

in the

distance, and

imperishable glory,so impose

on

with

surrounded
our

imaginations

the halo
that

they

of his trial
hear
exalted, we cannot
and condemnation
without
indignant disgust at the Athenians.
decide.
But, for the sake of humanity, let us be cautious
ere
we
The
and
Athenians
cruel : all masses
volatile,credulous
were
it is
But
of men
they, perhaps, were
eminently so.
are
; and
much
have
that
to
too
they, or any people, would
suppose
had
Socrates
he appeared to them
what
he appears
condemned
such
Had
to
deed, the people wOuld
a
a tyrant committed
us.
what he appears
have avenged it. But Socrates
not to them
was
offensive to them, and paid the penalty.
He
to us.
was
A great man
be understood
cannot
by his contemporaries.
He
can
only be understpod by his peers ] and his peers are few.
of
fame
Posterity exalts a great man's
by producing a number
to appreciate him.
great men
is also necessarilya reformer
The
in some
shape
great man
has
other.
combat
with
to
or
Every reformer
existingprejudices
and
deep-rooted passions. To cut his own
path, he must
rubbish
encumbers
which
it.
is therefore
He
displace the
in opposition to his fellow-men, and
their
attacks
interests.
and
Blinded
cannot
by prejudice, by passion*
by interest,men
him
excellence
of
the
and
hence
it
see
is,as
they oppose
;
Heine
that
soul
so
admirably says,
a
everywhere
gives
great
also is Golgotha."
utterance
to its thoughts there
seem

as

evident

as

they

were

"

Reformers

are

mart5rrs

and

therefore,his condemnation

Socrates

was

appears

to

reformer.
us

very

though,
Al-

mijust

tiPE

'^HE

144
and

to
frightful,

very

banishment
Pure

of

offensive.
hatred

incurred

He

fell.

oppose
errors, since

lost

those

no

was

the

what

injusticeand
of exposing them.

critic of his age cannot


censured
freely,openly.
the

But, perhaps, the

undisguised contempt
capacity for government

To

critic's

does

kinds,

How

he
and

sets

penalty.

part of his

his

be

to

them

who

man

; he

interests.

our

follyof all

offensive

most

the

with

the

escape

believe

we

situated

hated

He

Protagoras.

of his intentions

war

no

wage
Athenians

of

thd

than

more

opinions were
party-spirit
by that
; and

of

pardon

can

errors

occasion

an

the hatred

We

us.

differentlywere
offensive.

it

recognise the purity

We

not

Athenians

the

Empedocles, or the condemnation


his intentions,his actions
and

were

as

SOCRATES.

OP

was
never

for
up
Socrates

behaviour

was

uniformly expressed for the


assumed
by all men.
Only the wise,
fit to
he said, were
Government
few.
and
they were
gov^ern,
is a science, and a difficult science.
It is infinitely
cult
diffimore
the helm
of a ship.
to govern
State than
to govern
a
Yet,
the same
in
who
would
themselves
not
trust
a
ship
people
without
themselves
in a
trust
not
an
experienced pilot,
only
with
State
to
an
inexperienced ruler, but also endeavour
become

his condemnation
in

have
"

his

"

instant.

made.'**
he

that

But

in the

he

that
the

opposed

the

could

and

and

ancient

cause

it was

modern,

impiety ; and Xenophon


credited
have
been
for an

much
merited
as
charge was
other
it was
philosophers against whom
interpretationsto the reigning dogmas
that

the

and
interpretations,,

mythological

"

wanted,

was

to

guilty of

charge

new

gave

pretext

sufficient

was

defenders,

not

was

the

of

case

He

His

believe

we

contempt

better

impiety.

declared

wonders

as

; but

he

This

themselves.

rulers

found

which

that

was

impiety.
It has

been

with

remarked

the

The
harmonises

with

all and

Sexlus

Second

of the
riQ

fAi

'

Alcibiades

opposition

to

that

it

expressly says

an

writer,that, in

anonymous

plying
com-

her superrites of his country, Socrates


avoided
stitions.
it
rite of sacrifice,
natural
that
and
so
simple

gods by poets

Adv.

"

and

the

the

of

Math.

the

was

because

that

he

was

he

did

accused

not

of

to

be

heresy, calls it wc
'Dialogues of
69.
evidence
crates*
enough of Soare

Socratic

ii. p.

Plato*s

"

Euthyphro
Mythology of his day.

Uaftaprdi/eii/.
p. 359.
"

religious truth, required

any

speaking

Empiiicus,
iK^avWXtOvaav to Belov.
the

by

In

the

believe

impiety

the

Euthyphro,*

fables

d^d $ri wq

he

recounted

Ioikc,^^oft

THE

I4b

LIFE

also thought it

SOCRATES.

OF

impiety to importune the gods


with our
inquiriesconcerning things of which we may gain the
it being, as
it
knowledge by number, weight, or measure;
himself
seemed
to him, incumbent
to make
on
man
acquainted
He

*'

kind

of

for
gods had
placed within his power
; as
his
such things as were
comprehension, for these he
beyond
ought always to apply to the oracle ; the gods being ever
ready
had
been
those whose
to
to communicate
to
knowledge
care
i.
i.
render
them
chap.
propitious." Memorabilia, book
The
trial of Socrates
belongs rather to the history of Greece
than to the historyof Philosophy. It was
a politicaltrial. His
bearing during the whole period was worthy of him : calm, grave,
and touching ; somewhat
haughty perhaps, but the "haughtiness
with

the

whatever

"

of

fightingfor the truth.


admirers, and exasperated

brave

af his

Plato, then

his adversaries.

present

was.

man,

young

tion
the admira-

It increased

soul

trial,and
Apology.'

the

at

has

The
picture of it in his
preserved an admirable
of death
after sentence
had
by Socrates
closing speech, made
been
pronounced, is justlysupposed to be pretty faithfullygiven
it :
We
extract
by Plato,
O Athenians, that you
It is for the sake of but a short span,
*

"

'^

incurred

have

the

evil of the

city,of

those

are

who
if I

even

; I

years

this

with

that

have

I have

to

upon

if I had

escape

condemned,

been

been

working

success,

in order

means

life,and

to

near

have

not

condemned

the

you

thing

see

my
I address

for

persons,

for

wise,

am

voted

same

(for

man

death.

haps
Per-

"

skill

of

want

the

minds, as I might have


thought it rightto employ all
your

condemnation.

from
and

for

agency;

but
to
those
who
you,
this
I say to the
and
too

of

modes

your

speak

to

wise

will say that


time
short
a

of

all

think

employed

in

wish

who

Socrates,

waited

you

without

far advanced

capital sentence,
in such

those

reproach you

Had

happened

to

you

to

not).

am

not

inclined

am

have

would

imputation, from
having put to death

from

want

Far

from

things to

of

it

say,

I did not
daring and shamelessness
; because
the things which
would
choose
to
have
to say
been
pleayou
for you
to hear, weeping, and
santest
lamenting, and saying and
doing other thingswhich I affirm to be imworthy of me ; as you

but

from

are

accustomed

fit to do

want

made

the

to

see

others

do.

But

neither

anything unworthy of a freeman


myself. I would
having dius defended
and die, than have
defence
made
one

or

repent of

of

say

did
;

I then
nor

do

far rather

the

other

think
I

now

have

and

THE

Neither

live.

it

make

to

death.
life

In

in

his

by throwing

away
in all other

which

but

from

And

now

in

happen,

evident

off with

are

life if he

we

man

imploring

and

arms

that

many
dare

arid

slow

of

foot,

ought

war,

we

escape
his
save

may

may

of his suers
purcontrivances
by

mercy

do

or

Athenians, is not to escape


guilt is swifter than death, and
old

I, being

^^

justice,nor

dangers there

get
person
may
The
O
difficulty,

guilt; for

SOCRATES.

that, whatever

it is often

battle

; and

of

court

object

our

OP

LIFE

have

thing.
every-

say

from

death,

runs

faster.

overtaken

been

of the
but my
who*
are
by Death, the slower
two;
accusers,
brisk and
We
the swifter.
vehement, by wickedness
quit this
place ; I have been sentenced
by you to death, but they having
sentence
them, by Truth, of guilt and injustice. I
passed upon
submit
to my
punishment, and they to theirs.
have
But
condemned
who
I wish, O men
to prophesy
me,
I say, then, that,immediately
is to come.
what
next
to you
far severer
after my
ment
punisha
death, there will come
upon
you
"

that which

than
done

this,thinking by

for your
to

lives.
There

you.

hitherto

have

But

have
inflicted upon
me
; for you
it to escape
from being called to account

you

have

I affirm

will be

many
restrained,and

that
to

the

very

reverse

call

you

to

whom

you

saw

will

will

account
not

happen
whom

and,

being

will

be
more
give you
they
annoyance,
you
to death
provoked ; for,if you think by putting men
from
deter
others
to
reproaching you with living amiss, you
think
ill. That
mode
of protecting yourselves is neither very

younger,
still more

and

noblest
and the easiest
: the
very noble
other people, but so to order yourselves as

possible nor
't^- "iut dff

too
to

is not
attain

the

excellence.
grfeatefet
Thus
I beg of you : Wheft
much
toy sons
grow
up, punish
tormented
them
I
O
them,
Athenians, by tormenting
as
you, if
they shall sttvs^ to study riches,or any other ends, in preference
to virtue.
And, if they are
thought to be something, being
really nothing, reproach them, as I have reproached you, for
not
attendingto what they ought, and fancying themselves
something when
they are
good for nothing. And, if you do
"

this, both
your
"

has

and

my

sons

shall

have

received

what

is just

at

hands.
// is

now

the better

This
of

the

time

thai

we

depart^ I

to

die^you

to live ; but

which

to all except the GodP


destiny is unknown
is very grand and impressive,and
paints the character
animo
et vultu
man.
intravit, says
carcerem
Magna

Seneca.

for their

them
man

complaints

faced

ever

it

vielcomed

as

the

injusticeof

to

higher

No

sentence.

; for no

greater calmness

birth

new

the

at

with

death

SOCRATES.

weeping friends,and gently upbraided

his

consoled

He

OP

LIFE

THE

148

state

of

ever

man

being

with

greater faith.
He

would

that

the

which

have

day

next

thirtydays.
the

in
"

On

the

last

verses.

This

death.

festival lasted

awaiting his end,


with his friends,and
cheerful conversation
"During this time," says Xenophon,

held

he

of

the

Plato's

conversation

and

arguments
it is

; and

own

Cyrus, in Xenophon's

with

his friends

on

the

subject of .Plato's
in that
most
dialogue are
bably
prosupposed that the dying speech of

This

soul.

The

Phsedon.'

opinions of

to

the

day

immortality
'

put

of all his friends in the same


manner
eyes
admired
his past life was
most
on
days ; but now
cheerfulness
and
of mind."
calmness
his present

of

account

in

before

in former

as

be

could

interval

lived

first of the

Socrates, though in chains

composing
he

day, but it happened


festival of Theoria, during

the next

executed
the

was

criminal

no

spent

been

forms

the

Cyropaedia,'is

closer

of

copy

the

Socrates.

Phaedon, describing the impression produced on him by the


this final day, says :
*Cl did not feel the
sight of Socrates
on
of a friend :
natural I should
feel at the death
pity which it was
the contrary, he seemed
to me
on
perfectlyhappy as I gazed on
"

him

listened

and

And

of the

to

him

so

calm

and

dignifiedwas

thought that he only left this world


destined
him
to a more
gods, who

his bearing.
the

under

than

tection
promortal

He
then details the conversation
the
felicityin the next."
on
of
the close
immortality of the soul ; after which, he narrates
that glorious life in language worthy of it.
We
can
only offer
of Taylor ; but, even
the bald version
in that,the beauty of the

narrative
"

that

When

he

he

might

ordered

manifestlyout.

stands

us

to

had

thus

wash

wait

discoursing over,

spoke, he
hunself, and

for him.

and

We

rose,

and

Crito

went

followed

into

room,
he

hi^n : but

waited, therefore,accordingly,

reviewing

among
speaking about

oursel^fes, what

had

his death, how


said; and sometimes
great
be to us ; and
calamity it would
a
sincerelythinking that we,
like those who
are
deprived of their father,should pass the rest
life in the condition
of orphans.
of our
he had
But, when
washed
himself, his sons
were
brought to him (forhe had two
been

littleones,

and

one

considerably advanced

in

age), and

the

'

THE

belonging

women

OF

LIFE

149

family likewise

his

to

SOCRATES.

in

came

him

to

but,

before
Crito, and had left them
spoken to them
such
the boys and
injunctions as he thought proper, he ordered
returned
he himself
And
it was
to depart ; and
to us.
women
had
the setting of the sun
been
for a
absent
near
now
: for he
he came
in from
But, when
long time in the bathing-room.
afterwards
washing, he sat down, and did not speak much
; for,
of the eleven
ing
in,and, standthen, the servant
magistrates came
him, I do not perceive that in you, Socrates
near
(says he),
he

when

had

which

I have

angry

with

and

me,

magistrates,
poison. But,
time

to

ever

came

be

most

into

this

I and

And,

he

away,
"

the

is proper
have
You
it

to

this

the

whom

authors

of

I allude
tell

to

came

vinced
con-

to.

well
you), fare-

necessityas easilyas possible.


turning himself

tears, and

the

it?

but,

as

potion?

the

at

was

to

What
make

I understand

you

grant may

the

the

you

indeed,

trembling

colour

of rt, or
think

we

but

nor

nance,
counte-

or

the

case.

not?

man

We

sufficient

it is

to

cup

(sayshe) respecting

(says he) ;

be

legs,

him, and,

pray to the gods, that my


with prosperous
be attended

to

your

do, beholding

you

as

have

which

in

in his

libation

much

poison,

you

place in

neither

to

proper
thither may

them

as

when

extended

it from

to

say

came,

But, Socrates,

manner

he

worse

accustomed

(says he),Socrates,

purpose.
lawful and

time,

the

but

takes

cheerfulness;
for

the

(sayshe) ; but what


knowing in these affaurs.

is the.

same

time,

some

cup.

him.

near

friend

received

great

alteration

Is it lawful

in

(says he)

this

stood

administer

to

till a heaviness

Socrates

he

staid for

are

do

to

that

boy

was

for you

lie down

with

that

well, my

It's

bull-like aspect

I entreat

properly prepared
"

And,

sufferingany

hence

know

what

person

with

But

Echecrates,

bruise

it

nothing
walkabout,

act.

those

sign to

else

Socrates.

with

me,

know

well

now

am

with

but

You

the

man,

do

to

afterwards

should

with

bear

to

the

brought

beholding

and

angry

you

gave

him

with

who

drunk

same

at the
present
you
best of all men
who

mild, and
and, therefore,I

boy departing,and, haying

the

found

time, bursting into

Crito

bringing
and

( for

that

mean

departed.

Then

And

not

endeavour

the

at

place

condition.

therefore

I have

contrary,

generous,

are

you

present

Now,

the

they are
when, being compelled by the
me,
that
drink
them
the
to
they must

announce
on

in others

of

curse

the

that
your

notice

taken

this

only
for the

certainlyboth

departure
fortune

And,

at

the

from

which
same.

THE

ISO

LIFE

SOCRATES.

OF

ending his discourse, he drank the poison with exceeding


thus far,indeed, the greater part of
facilityand alacrity. And
tolerably well able to refrain from weeping \ but, when
were
us
that he had
drunk
him
could
drinking, and
no
it,we
saw
we
from me,
ing
But
indeed, notwithstandlonger restrain our tears.
I employed
the violence
which
in checking
them, they
flowed
abundantly ; so that,covering myself with my mantle, I
I did not, indeed, weep
for him, but
deplored my misfortune.
be
I should
associate
for my
fortune, considering what an
own
deprived of. But Crito, who was not able to restrain his tears,
And
was
compelled to rise before me.
ApoUodorus, who,
during the whole time prior to this,had not ceased from weeping,
then
aloud, and with great bitterness; so that he
wept
time

infected

all who

present

were

^What
seeing this,exclaimed
:
For, indeed, I principally sent

upon
men?

are

"

should

they

produce

it is proper

heard

quiet, therefore,
when

heard

we

to

and

disturbance

die

attended

with

to

your

found, during his walking,

excellent
lest

women,

For

have

assistance.

But

propitious

restrained

blushed, and

we

the

this kind.

of

Socrates,

doing,

you

away

fortitude

summon

this

But

Socrates.

except

Be

omens.

But

tears.

our

legs felt heavy,


and
had told us so, laid himself
down
in a supine position. For
him to do so.
had ordered
time, he
And, at the same
th^ man
the
considered
him
him
at intervals,
whp. gave
poison, touching
his feet and
had
legs. And, after he
vehemently pressed his
he, when

he

him

foot, he asked

if he

felt it.

And

poison

the

(forhe
we

owe

for me,

his

reached

heart

that

us

he

himself, an^ said

he

should

then

and

cold

was

when

that

leave

But

us.

when, uncovering himself


his last words), Crito,
was
covered) he said (which were
to Esculapius.
Discharge this debt, therefore,
a cock
and don't neglect it. It shall be done
(saysCrito): but

his lower

now

showed

he

also touched

Socrates

did

he

answered

Socrates

again pressed his thighs : and, thus

And, after this, he


ascending with his hand,
not.

stiff.

But

his

that

consider

whether

enquiry

of

have

you

Crito

he

the

man

hifnself,and

almost

belly was

when

made

eyes.

This, Echecrates,

.just.''

me,

no

Crito

Which,
to

any

the

him.

best

the end
of those

besides

closed

of

our

whom

this, the

fixed

his mouth

associate
we

moved

after

Socrates

he

were

most

this

To

commands.

And

perceived,

was

time; and;

other

reply ; but shortly

covered

eyes.

it appears
as
with
that
at

cold ;

his
and

man,

acquainted
prudent

and

PHILOSOPHY

OF

and

perished this great

Thus

His

character

good

151

man,

to

fairly,

represent

the

add

sophy.
Philo-

to

martyr

endeavoured

have

we

SOCRATES.

though briefly.
now
summing-up
Xenophon,
us
his
love
and
who
him
loved
expressed
tenderly,
gracefully :
him
of
such
truth
be
As
to
a
to myself^ knowing
a man
as
towards
the
I have described
take
underto
gods, as never
; so pious
without
first
consulting them ; so just towards
anything
the very
to do
slightest,to any
as
an
injury,even
never
men,
Let

of

"

''

whilst

one,

all with
not

as

and

many

he

whom

great

had

whatever

appetite or
and
becoming

any
modest

was

dealings ;

any

benefits
so

he

conferred
and

temperate

inclination

indulge

to

the

were

the

at

prudent

; so

on

chaste
of

expense
as

to

never

of
good and evil, nor wanting the assistance
others to discriminate
rightly concerning them ; so able to dis-*
define with the greatest accuracy,
and
not
only
coiurse
upon,
likewise
which
but
of
have
been
those
we
points
speaking,
into
the minds
it
of men,
cover
disother,
were
and, looking as
every
the very moment
for reprehending vice, or stimulatingto

in

err

the

judging

virtue:

of

love

of

experiencing, as

expellencies in Socrates,
the

is any

there

and

virtuous

most

is

Socrates

compare

determine.*'

the

and
who

one

disposed

of

think

to

any

all

done,

these

considering him
all mankind.

as

But,

otherwise, let him

other, and

afterwards

if

go

let him

chap. vii.

bookiv.

MemarctMHa^

"

happy

most

have

cease

never

can

with

of his virtues and of


the memory
After-ages have cherished
out
his fate ; but, without
by his example, and withprofitingmuch

learning
a

His name
story,
for School-boys and Rhetoricians.

Thesis

Moral

it could

from

tolerance

become

Influence

Moral

his

CHAPTER
PHILOSOPHY

Opinions

Socrates,
scanty,

diffidence.

skill; and
confident.

on

any

attempt

The

historian

such

grounds

Would

that

II.
OF

at

become

SOCRATES.

considerably respecting the


vary so
and
materials
be
whereby they can

that

has

exposition
to rely solely
must

has

he

will

not, if

philosophy
tested

are

be

made

on

his

prudent,

of
so

with
critical

be

very

PHILOSOPHY

152

be

formed

are,

and

is

he

by

called
made
two

which

opinion

an

may

general tradition of Socrates


very
in thought ; in consequence
revolution
of
initiator
of a new
regarded as the
epoch ;

by

all

as

the

some

from

ist, The

having produced
which

SOCRATES.

materials

scattered

the

Amongst

OF

founder

Greek

of

Philosophy, properly

so

Aristotle,that he first
testimony
andly,
express
and
of
These
proceeded by induction.^
use
definitions
each
other.
If
Socrates
positions mutually imply
duced
procould
in
revolution
he
done
have
philosophy,
a
so
only
The

of

That
Method
Method.
by a new
phrase of Aristotle,but it is there

concentrated

first of Induction.

And

exhibited

see

only exhibited

in

the

in his brief

requiresto be elucidated.
In
our
reading for this chapter

and

manner,

we

we

of
want
at the
perpetually amazed
just notions
and
Bacon's
conception of it,
respecting Induction, in general,
histonans
and
in particular, which
critics.
prevails amongst
stumbled
have
the
assertion
that
over
we
Constantly
Socrates,
like Bacon, proceeded inductively. Constantly have
we
seen
ranked
Bacon
with
him
have
to
being
supposed
destroyed
;
the vain hypotheses of the physiologists of his day, as
Bacon
insist on
did those of a latter day.
Now
must
we
a
complete
been

have

revision of such

opinion.

an

withdraw

confessedly to
of the phenomena

was

truth

looking

"

was

nature,

to

be

outwards.
the

was

and

of
interpretation

of Socrates
purpose
from
its contemplations
it

its

on

own

by looking inwards,

sought
and

aim

fix

to

of this ; he

reverse

and

the mind

of

The

aim

The

of

purpose

exhorted

the

to

men

not

Bacon's

phenomena
by

sophy
philotion
observa-

natiure, and

denounced
energetically
the operations of mind.
If Socrates
all attempts to discover
of physics.Bacon
pushed too far
pushed too far this contempt
his contempt
of psychology:
the exaggeration was,
in each
and

by the absurdities

produced

case,

Not

decided

more

of Induction.
''

mere

it

Socrates

simplicem, or

collection

of

contemporaries.

is the contrast

With

per enumerationem

of

between

was
*'

more

no

their
than

conceptions
that Indudio

reasoning by analogy

particular facts

"

process

which

"
"

it

the
was

Socrates
must
things of which
jastlybe regarded as
and
Abstract
author,
Reasoning
Definitions** rohq
Arist.
r* iiraKTiKoiiXdyovQ leai rb 6pi^cffOaixaOoKov.
Met,, xiii. c. 4.
*

"*

There

the

are

two

the

Inductive

"

"

Xenophon
that

lew

has

Socrates

several

indications

of

always

proceeded

from

known, which is a definition

of

the inductive

method

propositionsbest

Inductioq,

he

known

also says
to

tho^e

PHILOSOPHY

154

that which

words, he

other
Tt

and

above

was

OF

had

below

could

sense

explain

to

SOCRATES.

perceived

be

knowledge

our

of

essences

^in

"

to

"OTt.

this be

could

How

of

essence

thing

else, you
from

done

it

the

from

thing
everyit
demarcate

you

thing before

the

present

so

know

To

distinct

as

defineit ; by defining it

must

it is not^ and

what

consider

must

you

by Definitions

but

in

you

its

essence.

It

was

to

from

with
any

He

that

believed

needed

.'X.

to

essence

not

essential

him

thinker

may

By
of

to

from

express

it.

the

This

has

instruments

the

clouded

which

accoucheur.

main

enabled

wished

true

that Reason

an

his

thought,
thought
obtained
by correct

and

seem

it is

combination,
from

was

pregnant

with

An

accoucheur

sible
impos-

he

were

separate

the

myriad

the

enabled

he

he

of

any

tradiction
con-

f^om

cannot

other

point.

Truths, and

Definitions.

thing, because
the

that

be

obtained

been

Definition

into

him

entangled in any
derived
; knowledge

and

true

one

another

point,

one

contradict

with

conviction

fundamental

start

announced

By

Definition

only
self;
him-

he

particularthought he
other
thoughts which
a

to

man

admitted

contemplate

nothing

which

was

definition.

poor
it. For

method

to

the

modem

reader.

Let

the great basis on


centuries
it was
despise
than
have
We
more
once
mented
comspeculation rested.
thinkers
mistake
of
the
the
natural
to
on
early
tendency
have
in things. We
distinctions
in words
for distinctions
now
in
the
of
of
to signalize the appearance
history
speculation
a
force
this.
have
the
formula
of
henceforth,
systematic
Names,
is held to be
of things.*
Definition
A correct
true
a
tion
descripI
of the Thing per se^ and
the
valent
explanation of terms as equiand
the
the
exhibition
to
things,
of the
explanation of
nature
of any thing in a definitionas equivalent to the acfucU
the central
of
the
\ analysis of it in
errors
a
laboratory are
\ Platonic and Aristotelian philosophy. These
continue
errors
of the present day.
in all the metaphysical systems
to flourish
the
When
stated in a naked
absurdity of this method
manner,
is apparent
but it may
be so disguised as to look profoundly
i
scientific.
Hence
the
locutions
that
as
frequent use of such
in the idea
certain properties are
involved
of certain things ;
in the
if being involved
in the idea, "".,being included
as.
not

which

"

"

"

"

See

Plato's

Cratylus '/"w,rw".

PHILOSOPHY

SOCRATES.

OF

155

tence;
definition,necessarilyimplied a correspondent objectiveexisthe faithful copies of
if human
conceptions were
as
external
sequently
widely differ; conthings. The conceptions,of men

conceptions ;

is true

conception

Which

like
certitude
seek

sought.

be

must

To

definition, is to

in

circle.

different

the

answer

argue
That

in these

"

question arises,
this question by anything

true, and

be

all cannot

but

involved

*'

propertiesare

different

principleof

is still to

principle,however,

influence

The

discernible

we

as

Method

the

of

theory of definitions
It is the
proceed.

the

of

has

His

teristic
charac-

it must

In

be

of Science.

with

taunted

almost

been

tinctly
dis-

more

grand

one

originated

Socrates

sought the explanation of his views


He

will be

having promulgated

never

in the

rank

history of philosophy
system
any
has
been
questioned ; and has been
supposed only that of a
of Aristotle has been
moralist.
A passage
quoted as decisive
The
this point :
speculations of Socrates
on
were
only
in
all concerning
Nature
at
not
concerning Ethics, and
it
:
general (1^9 oXi/s^vo-ccos).But this is not cUl the passage
In these speculationshe sought the Abstract
thus :
continues
tions."
thought of giving defini(to Ka^dXov),and was the first who
his

of

own.

"

"

**

the

of

Aristotle's
hint

definitions

abstract

the

but

and

Hot

the

sought
("vXoya)s),

iv.),we
we

an

is

as

of

part

Cold.

But

Essence

of

z.

"

of

part

find this

indication
express
'^
follows :
Socrates
he

him

Before
a

another

to

tained
con-

moralist

mere

and

virtues

is

there

accordingly

find

passage

with

the

turning

these.

of

the

ethical

himself

only concerned

On

The

with

himself

concerned

more

out

believe

we

than

xiii. c.

{Met,
clearly brought

metaphysician.

the

of

of

treatise

more

portion

latter

something
metaphysician.

hint

hint

this

in

Now

first sought
Democritus

Physics

Socrates,

Things,

had

and

the

defined

looking deeper

i.^.

sought

what

exists^
in

Moreover,

another

iii. ch. ii.)he


(lib.

passage

Aristippusfor having rejected science,


solely with
Socrates
he

to

and

to be

not

was

would
Had

have

conceive

Plato

of

his

been
as

is

blamed

also

been

Socrates

aim

This

morals.

himself

concerned

surely negative evidence


for the

opinion

same

that

; otherwise

mentioned.

only
his

and

reproaches

moralist, it would

pupil.

philosophy\

and

Socrates
this

made

has

be

Ethics

given

difficult
the

rise .to

end
the

'

156

PHILOSOPHY

notion

being a
Philosophy

of

SOCRATES.

OF

his

moralist.

mere

is

his

But

in

rank

the

his

conception of
that
it be remembered
of the Sophists
science.
the work
Let
denied
had
been
the
to
destroy all belief in science.
They
validity of human
testimony. They pronounced science to be

history

of

due

to

for

him

impossible. It was imperative therefore on


this scepticism before
he could
proceed.
conception

presenting

attacks

the

of

of science

Sophists.

Instead

which

Socrates

was

remove

it

removed

He

not

occupying

of

to

open
himself

by
the

to

with

science
his attention
to
particular sciences, he directed
in general
is the measure
of all things,"
Man
to Method.
said Protagoras ;
differ,there can be no absolute
and, as men
is the measure
Man
truth."
of all things," replied Socrates
;
will
find
but descend
into
his
and
personality,
deeper
you
that underneath
of steady truth.
all varieties there is a ground
is fleeting
also agree
Men
to what
differ,but men
: they differ as
is the
is eternal.
Difference
what
to
as
agree
; they
;:egion of opinion ; Agreement is the region of Truth : let us
endeavour
to penetrate that region."
of all the pre-Socratic philosophy was
radical error
the
The
aim.
Men
of definite
want
They
speculated at random.
because
sought truth, but they only built Hypotheses,
they
the
limits
had
and
conditions
not
of
previously ascertained
inquiry. They attempted to form sciences before having settled
of Socrates
the
conditions
It was
the peculiar merit
of Science.
to have
ture
proposed as the grand question of philosophy the naany

**

"

'^

"

"

conditions

of

incomplete

; but

and
was

The

reader

in

Definitions
did

Socrates

He

himself

likened

himself

forth

children

bring
He

Socratic

the
not

believed

believed

the

to

no

ideas

to

Method

his

and

systems,

mother,

of

that question

who,
women

the

may
but

importance

understand

only
though
in

why

Method.

unable

their

of

to

labours.

of wisdom.
He
lay
germs
To
be tcmght ; only drawn
out.
to learn; to guide oneself
not
the

man

could

another

solution

appreciate

herself,assisted

science
of

His

influential.

was

invent

that in each

that

borrow

it

begin

now

may

Science.

was

The
blindfness.
Sophists,who
by
was
judgment
pretended to teach everything, could teach nothing ; and their
must
ignorance was manifest in the very pretension. Each man
truth for himself, by rigid struggle with himself.
He,
conquer
assist
in
the
when
to
willing
man
Soctates, was
pains of
any

of another

the

labour

he

could

do

no

more"

PHILOSOPHY

SOCRATES.

OP

tj;

his havifg
wonder
at
cannot
Method, we
attached
himself
to
Ethical, rather than to Physical speculations.
realisation
His
of the inscriptionat
a
philosophy was
the
that
It was
in himself
he found
Know
Delphos
Thysdf.
to protect him
cism.
ground of certitude which was
against sceptiSuch

being

the

"

It

all others.

Indeed

have

we

which

science

moral

therefore

was

great

believe

to

reason

prized

he

above
his

that

of

Physical speculations,as reported


conclusions
natural, though eacaggerated,
of the
hurried
he had
to which
been
by a consideration
manifold
absurdities into which
they drew the mind, and the
There
could
be nothing but
scepticism which
they induced.
uncertaintyon such subjects. Certitude was only to be gained

energetic denouncement
the
hy Xenophon, were

in moral

speculations.
This
is the meaning of
brought Philosophy down
earth,

or,

urbibus

Cicero

as

collocavit

viti et

et

attention

from

morals.

This
of

in

Socrates

that

suppose

whom

the

contradiction

in

Sophists,in
well

as

know

occupy
did so

the

himself

with

speculationsas

to

while

am

Know

be

be

acquainted

type of the
speculations,since we
not

trivial.
say

; and

career

him.

In
I

by Plato ;
not
yet able, according
Myself; and it appears
to

butt

the

Firstly,it

physics. Fourthly,

*^

of

type of

easilyto

Physics, early in his

things,"he is made
reason

scouted

persons

many

of
person
nians,
Socrates, of all Athe-

Secondly,
most

led

whatever

comic

their

for

select

busy with

objections.

several

Aristophanes satirised

when

concerned

available

an

Thirdly, he could
way.
far as related to physical

those

such
such

to

as

is

he

nothing

general

have
'*

and
to
to

ignorant of myself, to inquire into

he

did

probably

after life he
not

garded
re-

leisure

for

I will tell you


scriptio
the Delphic inme

what

very
I

lous,
ridicuam

not

in."*
"

"

de

tion
representa-

glaringhas

so

knew

notorious, and

most

coegit

et

the

to

There

Clouds.'

nothing.

the
turned
quaerere." He
cosmology to speculations on

The

Satirists

it upon
coelo et in

introduxit

etiam

Aristophanes

they know
was

with

in

usual

not

it,

domicile

to

devocavit

"

Socrates

malis

et

Socrates, but only took him


Sophists. To this there are
is

the clouds

from

speculations on
is in flagrant contradiction

physicalspeculations. A
to

saying,that

common

expresses
in domos

bonis

moribusque

the

Phjedrus,'p. 8,
*i:

Philosophy

t58

with

Connected

op

Socratic

the

socratms.

view

of

Science

it

curious

is

to

remark

how

considers
wise

said

man,

man

the

evil,and
is a good

he,

being only a moralist,always


Knowledge.*
Only the
Vice
of
brave, just or temperate.

identical

be

to

of

be

can

with

is

kind

every

If

he,

Virtue

is accused

who

Ignorance; and involuntary,because


ignorant.
is cowardly, it is because
he does
not
rightly appreciate
of
and
death
life
death.
He
thinks
importance
an
flees it. If he were
he
know
death
would
that
wise,

thing,or,

would
he

is unable

and

future

not

the worst,
it. If a man

at

shun

estimate

an

is

relative

the

indifferent

intemperate

value

and

one,

fore
there-

it is because

of

pleasure
present
of
It is the nature
pain. Ignorance misleads him.
seek
to seek
man
evil,
good and shun evil : he would
never
it for good ;
knowing it to be such ; if he seeks it,he mistakes
if he is intemperate, it is because
he is unwise.
It would
be superfluous to refute these positions. We
may
the
remark, however, that they are
assumption
grounded on
that
is solely guided by his intellect
The
man
passions are
completely overlooked
; yet it is their operation in the above
which

cases

We

must,

to

interferes
in

with

conclusion,

the
say

directingpower
word

or

intellect.

of the

two

on

that

vexata

He
of Socrates.
what
he
qucestio,the Daemon
taught, and
all critical occasions, especially
taught he believed, that on
whenever
him or
his friends,he was
warned
foredanger awaited
any
who
by a Daemon
always accompanied him.
ing
Respectthe
critics are, and^ probably will
of this Daemon
nature
Some
with Olympiodorus,
that it only
remain, at issue.
agree
Conscience.
But
meant
although the voice of Conscience
will often
to
seem
tally with the attributes of the Socratic
it will still oftener fail. The
Daemon
not
Daemon,
only warned
his
Socrates
affairs,but also concerning the
concerning
pwn
affairs of his friends ; as we
of Plato.
in the
see
Theages
By
held
-has been
Others the
Daemon
be
to
purely allegorical;
others
the
to be a mystical expression for
by
operations of his
'

'

90ul.
.

:;.

Th^

mdsl;

probable explanation

ra^iijeligiQiis
man,

was

This

communications.
the

and

critics,who

have

insisted

on

tolq
^povri"rtic "eTo tlvai traaaQ
vi. 13.
Plato, in the ' Meno,* makes
cannot

be

taught.

be

to

implicitlybelieved
explanation has been

Science,

take

we

But

one

more

"

this is not

maintain

Socratic.

that

Socrates

in

supernatural
too
simple for

recondite.

hptrcLQ, Aristot.
him

this

Ethic,

Virtue

Yet

the

Nicomajh^y
cannot

be

PHILOSOPHY

above
of

is

perfect accordance
Apuleius tells

in

Daemons.

**

peculiar

OP

with

to

in

Plato

every

uniformly

Plato

declared
is

who

man,

there

says
was

witness

life,who, without

being visible
is always present, and who
is an
arbitrator not only
to any
one,
This Daemon
of his deeds, but also of his thoughts."
presides

guardian

and

the

over

him,

man

all

sees

his conduct

X^f^

what

that

us

allotted

Daemon

SOCRATES,

of

inquisitively,
participatesof all
all things, and
things,understands

profound
The
explicit.

most

"that

mind.*

the

"

he

Daemon,"

believed

who

of

recesses

"

says,
know

Gods

the

that

in

dwells

is

Xenophon
signs
gave

"

all

concerns

the

equally

Socrates,

to

things, both

those

in silence ; *for
spoken and those done, as also those meditated
to men
they are present everywhere, and give signs (o^/uii/ctv)
affairs."
concerning human
Memor,, i. c i.
the
first to teach the doctrine
of
not
was
Although Socrates
the first to give it a philothe immortality of the soul, he was
sophical
basis.
Nor
admiration, the
we
can
read, without
he was
the existence
of a
to prove
wont
by which
arguments
Providence.
Listen to Xenophon
beneficent
:
"

"

"

I will

relate

now

the

in which

manner

heard

once

Socrates

the Little^concerning
discoursing with Aristodemus, surnamed
sacrificed
the
Deity ; for observing that he neither prayed nor
ridiculed
the
and
the gods, but
to
on
laughed at
contrary,

"
"

Tell

me,

Many
his

him

"

of

them,
for

Homer

any

Epic
for

Xeuxis

you.

admire

you

having

pray

his

dithyrambics, Sophocles

statuary, and

whom

man

Aristodemus

merit?

some

Aristodemus,
for

his

of
Name

"

to

Aristodemus, is there

account

on
*

did, he said

who

those

answered

admire, said

Milanippides

poetry,

tragedy, Polycletes

for

for

painting.
demus
which
But
to you
most
seems
worthy of admiration, Aristoof motion
forms images void
the artist who
ligence,
and intelwho
the
hath
skill
animals
that are
to produce
one
or
with
but
?
The
endued
not
activity
only
undeiistanding
be
there
no
doubt, replied Aristodemus,
can
latter,
provided
.

**

"

the

production

contrivance.
we

can

what
*

easily see
they
purpose

the
were

use

there

are

many

of, while

produced,

we

but

which

of

the whole

Long's
"

Apologidi'

'

De

Legibus/

x.

p. 221,

of wisdom

things,some
cannot

say

and

"

of

and
which

of

others

to

these,Aristodemus,

other
together with much
passage,
translatioii
of " Plutarch,' i. p.
truly admirable

See

Plato's

since

But

of chance,

the effect

not

was

matter, in Professor

258.
Tneages,'

Consult

pp.

also

275-8.

the

do

suppose
you
reasonable
most
it is

But

**

made
for him

'

vO

to

smelling
likewise

evidentlyapparent

that

him

with

wherewith

whatever

should

It

whose

the

seem

utility

fitness and

senses

to

was

odours

denied

Or

and

be

in
eye

most

of

eminent
is

man

so

the

distinctions

unless

bitter

of

been

had

palate

arbitrate

to

them

between

that

not

manner

in

visible ; and

was

demus,
Providence, Aristoconspicuous, which, because

Is

delicate

good

were

say, Aristodemus,
of
prepared, if the sense

unsavoury,

diflference ?

the

they

; for

why

given, conveniently placed

beginning

the

at

whatever

heard

be

who

He

because

behold

to

should

of savoury

declare

the

those

purpose
had
been

sweet,

and

it of

; eyes

hear

what

and

wisdom?

of

affirm

to

endued

man,

lars

work

SOCRATES,

evidently apparent.

so

are

fij

OP

ILOSOPHY

i6o

its contexture,

hath

therefore

tend
it,which exclose
needful,
again
these
Are
when
not
eyelids provided, 'as it
sleep approaches ?
with a fence on
the edge of them, to
keep off the wind
were,
is not
itself
the
Even
the
?
without
and
eyebrow
guaril
eye
off the sweat
its office,but, as a penthouse, is prepared to turn
the forehead, might enter
and annoy
that
which, falling from
than
Is
it
tender
of
less
not
to be
astonishing part
us.
no

eyelids like

prepared
of

''

themselves

doors, whereby

to

secure

it is

whenever

and

"

admired

yet

that

animal

ears

much

too

not

are

the

be

should

in sounds

should

take

filled

by them

formed

That

in such

of ev^ry sort, and


the fore teeth of

is

evidently
cutting of its food, as those on the side for
the
this
mouth, through which
grinding it to pieces ? That
be placed so near
the nose
and
is conveyed, should
food
eyes
the

as

for

suited

best

to

the

or

passing,unnoticed

while

nourishment;
distance,

as

nature,

concealed

the

on

from

is unfit

whatever

hath

contrary,

of chance

or

of wisdom

contrivance

and

doubt, replied Aristodemus;


'

it,the more
masterpiece

it appears

evident
of

infinite marks

of

great
love and

some

the

for
at

set

all that might disgust


the senses,
And
thou still doubt, demus,
Aristocanst

them
?
offend
way
whether
dispositionof parts like this should
a

any

and;
to

indeed,

I have
the

that

me,

be
no

more

the work

longer

any
I consider
the

be

must

man

artificer;carrying along with


favour

of

Him

who

hath

it

thus

it.

formed
"And

individual

that

manner

the

prevent
and

what
which

tenderness

thinkest
leads

and

thou, Aristodemus,
to

the

affection

continuance
in the female

of that
of

die

towards

desire

in the

species?
her

Of

young^

inconveniences

SOCRATES.

OF

PHILOSOPHY

163

which

otherwise

would

animals, indeed, they have provided with


from
remove
one
place to another ;
may
form
also given hands, with which
he can
and

use,

to

they

they have

man

things for his


many
of any
himself happier than creatures
other kind.
other
animal ; but what
bestowed
been
on
every

make
hath

tongue

which

feet, by
but

Other

him?

befall

with
of forming words
hath the power
it,
animal, except man,
make
them
intelligible
whereby to explain his thoughts, and
others

to

"

it is not

But

have

shown

themselves

what

surpasses

animal, except

they

man,
have

even

be

to

the

to

Their

man.

him,

into

found

existence

gods

that the

alone

infused

have

is elsewhere
is

body

bountiful

thus

soul

the

to

respect

giftis that

excellent
far

with

most

which

for, by

so

what

covered,
gods dissuch
regular

those

of

still uphold, in
produced and
universe?
of the
order, this beautiful and
stupendous frame
What
other
is to be found
that can
species of creature
serve,
is able, like man,
that can
What
other animal
.adore them ?
to
provide against the assaults of heat and
cold, of thirst and
for the time of sickness,and
lay up remedies
hunger ? that can
has given by a well-proportioned
improve the strength nature
who

exercise
or

that

receive

can

happily keep

so

and

learnt ?

in

it were,
a
doth he surpass,

whatsoever

if the

of

body
unable

human

form

the

the

of

in

whether

all animals

while

what

memory

instruction

or

hath

he

and

seen,

to

have

that

had

ox

been

latter would
execute

endowments

the

the

been

soul

produced

joined
have

of

to

him

stood

well-designed plan

far

body,
; for,

or

therein

the mind

of man,

in small

the

stead,

would

; nor

heard,
is,

These
things being so, who seeth not that man
god in the midst of this visible creation ? so

as

acuteness

information

like him

the
.

remained

have

been

destitute

demus, hath

been

of

of

more

understanding

joined

to

the

to

use

wonderful

brute, so long

But
soul

in
a

thee, Aristo-

body

wonderful

; and

sayest thou, after this,the gods take

for

What

wouldst

me

their

?
care

thou

then

more

to

as

it

no

convince

no

less

thought
thee

of

they should send and inform me, said Aristodemus,


thou
things ought or ought not to do, in like manner
as
do
thee.
demus?
to
^And
what
sayest they frequently
then, Aristothat
when
the gods give out
thou,
some
supposest
it
oracle
all
the
Athenians
for
If by
to
thee?
not
they mean
their prodigies they declare
all
aloud
all
Greece*"
to
to
man"

what

I would

"

PmiOSOPHY

kind

^the

"

thou

beyond

their

care

into the

mind

of

him

or

not

man

whom

person

Believest

not, that

they would

thou

their

persuasion of

as

piety and

devotion

kingdoms

the

for their wisdom

well

renowned

man

only

they dumb
they have

are

hath

himself

is

the

so

well

never

in that part of life when


is supposed
his judgment

reason

in

and

as

been

as

able

being

thee

placed
wrought

have

make

to

commonwealths

observable

most

disposed

to

the

bears

its full

it in like

manner

If thine

most

those

antiquity,are

whose

and
the

serve

that

Deity

greatest sway,

and

strength and

maturity?
in thy
resides

Consider, my Aristodemus, that the soul which


it at pleasure ; why then
not
body can govern
may
the universe, which
pervades and animates
every
govern

to

or

gross
remarkest

even

the

them,

163

or
miserable, if so be they had no such power?
have
man
himself, long ere this,
seen
through
even
is it,Aristodenius, thou rememberest
?
How
delusion

happy

would
the

And

shall befall

things which
art

alone

SOCAATM^.

OP

eye

hath

the

part

the

power
distance

of

soul

to

of

it,

take

from
it,
placed at no small
if the eye of the Ueity can
marvel
at
not
one
glance comprehend
the whole.
perceivest it not beyond thy
And, as thou
of
time, to the concerns
abilityto extend
thy care, at the same
Athens, Egypt, Sicily,why thinkest thou, my Aristodemus, that
itself through the
of God
the Providence
not
easilyextend
may

objects, and

in many

universe

whole
**

As

therefore,among

gratitudeof

and

discover
in like

our

his wisdom
manner

these

men,

we

make

best

trial of the affection

neighbour by showing

by consulting him
behave
towyds the gods

him

in his
;

kindness, and

distress,do

and, if thou

thou

wouldst

their love, render


and what
self
thyexperience what their wisdom
divine
of those
of
some
deserving the communication
and
be penetrated by man,
which
not
are
secrets
imparted
may
who
alone who
those
to
adore,
consult, who
obey the Deity.
there is a Being
shalt thou, my
Then
Aristodemus, understand
is
whose
ear
pierceth throughout all nature, and whose
eye
sound
to all places,extending through
to every
; extended
open
whose
all time ; and
bounty and care can know no other bound
fixed by his own
creation.
than those
and
of the like natuVe, Socrates
others
By this discourse,
not
taught his friends that they were
only to forbear whatever
was
impious, unjust, or unbecoming before man
even,
; but
all
have
their actions,,
when
alone, they ought to
a
regard to
their eyes continually upon
since the gods have
none
us, and
"

PHlLOSOPIty

64

of

designs

our

i.

book

concealed

be

can

socrate:s.

OF

from

them."

Memorabilia^

"

chap. iv.

this passage
attention :
To

equally deserving of

another

add

must

we

"

"

Even

deities who

on
liberallybestow
of them
himself an object of
maketh
us
good things,not one
raised
this whole
our
universe, and still
sight. And He who
upholds the mighty frame, who
perfected every part of it in
beauty and in goodness, sufFering-none of these parts to decay
through age, but renewing them
daily with unfading vigour,
with
able to
whatever
he ordains
execute
whereby they are

readiness

that

all those

among

precisionwhich

and

he, the supreme

even

still holds

himself

are

capable

the

sun

of

which

admiring

hirh.

seemeth,

as

suflfereth

yet

men,

God, who
invisible, and

punishing

those

not

with

so

imagination ;

man's

surpass

performeth

only in his
consider, my

it is
For

wonders,

all these
works

that

Euthydemus,

it were,
forth to the view of
set
be
itself to
too
curiously examined
who

blindness

we

all
\

to
so
rashly venture
do ; and
of the
ministers
those
gods, whom
they employ to
invisible ; for,though the
their bidding, remain
execute
to
us

thunderbolt

is shot

from

on

too

high, and

in

breaketh

seeth it when
in its way, yet no one
it retires ; neither are the winds
when

it findeth
it

strikes,or
our
sight,though

ever
pieces whatit

when
falls,

discoverable

the ravages
plainly behold
they everywhere
what
time
are
make, and with ease
perceive
they
rising.
Euthydemus,
And, if there be anything in man,
partaking
my
of the divine nature, it must
surely be the soul which
governs
considers this as an object of his
and directs him ; yet no
one
sight. Learn, therefore,not to despise those things which you
cannot
see
by the effects
; judge of the greatness of the power
which
the Deity." Memorabiliay
are
produced, and reverence
iv. chap. iii.
book.
And
this,together with the ideal character of his ethics,and
his great titles to
been
the heroic
character
of his life,have

to

we

"

His

fame.

which

Method,

importance,

has

Science

discarded

has

immortalizes
of

to-morrow

standing
Giant

at all.

it.

on

the

long

since

been

his

real

discarded.

philosophical
If, however,

and
it, History gratefully remembers
The
discovery of to-day will be the commonplace
but
it
is
less
not
discovery. A Dwarf
a
;
shoulders

but, if he stood
It behoves

constitutes

him

upon
to

of

his

own

remember

Giant

sees

farther

basis,he would
that the Giant

than

the

scarcely see
is a Giant*

APPENDIX.

Note

TRANSLATION

OF

A.

FIFTH

THE

ARISTOTLE'S

various

(The

disputes

hope

scarcely

relate

of

age

these

lived

them,

and

of
the

that

the

the

Pythagoreans

reader

the

have

may

intellect,

greatest
of

portions

philosophers

those

called

mathematics,

to

that

fancied

they

such

doctrines

but

fifth

of

can

benefit

this

on

chapter

we

the

subject,

Aristotle

as

Pythagoras.)

to

the

""In
before

settled

authority,

here

translate

we

the

respecting

greatest'

the

of

OF

METAPHYSICS.

have

to

CHAPTER

the

they

who

at

and,

improved

mathematics

of

principles

Atomists),

and

Pythagoreans,

science

Eleats

(the

first

and

with

penetrated
the

were

even

selves
them-

applied

it,

of

principles

all

things.
Numbers

Since

"

thought

they

which

is

justice

and

{galpo^)

and

so

of

and

all

therefore,
being

by

neaven

between

of

bodies

nine

We

the

the

whole

in
was

soul

and

opportunity

was

Number.

world

Ten

all

are

visible,

they

have

treated

of

tov

they
oipavdv)

imagined
all

in

these

system,

(troiovtn)
more

that

parts,

ten

in

tenth,
in

detidl

the

analogies
and

with

formed

to

and

number,

perfect

number

whole

endeavoured

they

the

elements
the

great

its

ai^d

them

were

the
that

the

Since,
Numbers

diaKSofifiviv), they

their

declared

things

that

heaven

to

and

and

indicated

(ri)v hXtiv

appeared

numbers,

kqtA

of

harmony.

Numbers;

to

Having

defective

of

things

of

phenomena

was

since

{to. ^tpSfitva

the

was

Numbers

that

than

Numbers

of

concluded

they

elements

the

and

contains

yiyvofiivotof

ca"

combinations

similarly

things,

to

and

anything

Thus,

it.

potendally

**

if

the

formed

are

harmony

and,

rectify

oply

seemed

anterior

phenomena

system,

Numbers

in

saw

Numbers,

of

they
and

rest.

Numbers

in

is

exists

Numbers

of

Numbers

which

combination

combination

other

in

things,
that

ot^ffc

toiq

certain

combination

other

the

things

nature

of

(jjToxiiaj

voKKA

that

certain

they

Moreover,

'*

So

all

to

with

analogies

(ofAoiwfiara
certain

prior

nature,

greater

water.

or

intelligence

the

perceived

produced

fire, earth,

by

are,

moving
;

celestial

but

because

Anticthottf,
elsewhere.

If

we

i66

APPENDIX.
_

again
the

it is for

speak of them,
of

Pnnciples

the

things,

sake

how

and

to be

they held

establishing what

of

those

with

confounded

Principles were

Causes.
'*

maintained

They

things,

of

the

different

and

is

Odd

The

these,
The

finite,and

is both

and

their

The

states.

heavens,

as

there

say

and

All

Even.

ten

finite and

The

odd

The

one

The

right

and

the

The

male

and

the

even.

the

and

female.

quiescent and
The
right line and
Light and darkness.

the

moving.

the

curve.

the

and

square

oblong.

considered

Pythagoreans

the

elements

as
material, for
things, and constitute the world.
the One, they maintained
The
to be not
**....
finite,the infinite,and
but
the
Infinite
such
"c.,
fire,
existences,
as
are
w
ater,
/^r^^ and the
separate
of
all
the
substances
the
the
One
essence"
things
materia
prima
perse are
tlvai rovirov). They
of all things {avrh rb dfretpov,Kal avrb
to
ev, ovoiav
(Qualiiy,vtpi' rov ri). 'Aristotle uses
began by attending only to the Form

All

"

"

evil.

and

The

many.
left.

The

Good

goreans
Pytha-

Other
:-*

infinite.

the

the

and

of

One,

the

from

are

The

both

partakes

is derived

number

Even.

and
of

composed of numbers.
they thus arrange
principia,which

before,

said
are

Unity,

Odd

are

One,

the

modifications

their

of

\oToyila)of Number

infinite.

Even

Beginning (Principle,"ipxj))

the

was

existence, and

material

elements

Odd

we

Number

the

that
of

cause

"

"

"

elements

the

the

in all

are

"

for

ri) tL

iorri,or
this

roSt

suited

number

the

in the

two

(We
**

them

the

even

are

of

parts, and
Causes,
as

its

**

But

raise

to

such

This

also

one

be

the

ri

rh

the

(causa

essence

maintain

because

that

double

the

double

is first found

ec^ual(in essence),or,

not

are

which

consequence

the

heaven,

if

their

revolutions

follows

if so,

their

from

(the

and

Causes
to

conception

the
cat

much

that
thus
the

which

conception
Irrl rd
better

of

Elements

do

However,

not

take

all

their

are

which

should

what

call heaven.

we

sufficient

pronounce

Intelligible things

5vrwv),
aviitrspia r"v
than
with
that of

criticism of Aristotle's

strangely

more

they

is that

alaOfiT"v),

contains

Principles
we

*jth Chapter,)

physical. They explain the


takes
place in its various
their
Principles and
they employ
is, is
Physiologists, that whatever

systems

with

is that

i^

ovk

and

which

of

cause

observe

they agreed

up

Principia and

; the

all their

and

the

passage from

things (avr"Q

physical

(ivavaPiivai

sense

many,

(aio6riT6v)iand
them

with

synonymous

to

should

thing,

double
a

Physiologists

production

material

add

sensible

frqm

researches

if

as

same

Pythagoreans employ

The

as

doctrine."

Pythagorean)

than

be

the

and

would

one

the

are

two

declared

they

defined

thing

But

two.

the

very
definition

were

formalism

causa

lUog and fxop^rf),and began to define it,but on


and
that
imperfect. They define
superficially,

even

their

of the

materialts)

then

ri, or

subject they

which

and

suhstantialiSy

forma

rh

and

"

of

would

(Uavag)

things
accord

above

with

physicalthings.''

is

perfectrefutation

cf those who

see

in

APPENDIX.

the

Pythagoras
rational

more

very remark

of

traces

the

that it was

proves

doctrine.

symbolical
have

would

doctrine

not

bf en

the

Note

being

in

verses

text

our

*Qc

yap

vooQ

Kal

vaffiv,

to

Brandis,

the

shall

**

then

sal

Bitter

B.
critical reader,

translates

is the

"

want

"

The

fulness

of all

being is thought.'*

"

**

to

have

to

us

necessary

limbs, erg-o,

introducing
preceding :

therefore,
the

rb

vXkov

uses

the

ordinary meaning
the
If

highest degree
explanation is

This

thought.

Iwi

of
consequence
sensations.
many
The

sensations.
of

puKoXtxaQ

rag

Parmenides,

vSrjfia,

fulness.*'

speak with submission, but it appears


the full
or
meaning
respecting rb vXiov
** the
The
is
more
ordinary meaning
certainly
used
occasionallyto signifyperfection,as in

as

lori

"

thought

For

trXkov

rb yap

travri'

We

seems

of
give the original

we

'* the
of rb
most," and
to that of
vXsov,
HegePs version
is
the
the
But
Ritter
full."
meaning
mightier,'*
we
says
is
of
the
?
He
fall." "Wliat
it
elsewhere
an
interpretation
the phrase thus :
"

When

symbolical|but hjs

**

slightlyalters

Kal

much

"

"

Objecting

it been

had

how

sees

KicaffrogIxet Kp"^iv fifksiovfroXvca/iirrciiv,


Ti yap
airb
avOpwiroiffi irapsorijKEV.

Twg

last sentence

The

for the

intended

Aristotle

so.

Note
This

167

the

passage

is

in

itoXv
he
of
in

had

to

that

us

the

**

"

Theocritus

"

rb

Kafinroi.
more

limbs

speaks
has
he

with

what

with

the

hence

20.

vofijia^he
of

vXkov

rb

many-jointed

would

organization gives the

conformity
conformity

i.

wXiovitrri

; he
Man

in view

and

"

fidKraQ. Idy.

phrase

assertion

is unwarrantable.

the most,"

"

or

ikco

Ritter*s
"

fulness

have

more

highest degree

Aristotle
line

says

on

immediately

"

ionv

'Swip ^povittfitXiatv^votg AvOpiawoiffi


;

explanation of the scholiast Asclepias, rb wkov


wpoffyiyvtraiIk rrje vXkovoe aioOriffitaeKai aKptpktrrfpag; and,
in
Parmenides
to
finally,is
conformity with the opinion attributed
by
choses
lui paraissaient
sentir
et
ne
Plutarch, that
distinctes, ni
penser
elles ni de Torganisation."*
entre
this
It is on
account
reject the reading of voXvnXdyKrtav, '^ farwe
of
in
place
voXvKdfifrrtov,"many-jointed," suggested by
wandering,"
The
is arbitrary,and
for
Karsten.
the
change
TroXvnXdyKnav
worse,
whereas
reference
the simile in Parmenides
is
having
only to the feet,
is in conformity

with

the

iixrl voiifia,

"

apply to the whole man.


is
is,therefore, that the intelligence of man
meaning of the verses
according to his many-jointed frame, i,e.,dependent on his zation.
organi-

to

meant

The
formed

'

Ch.

Qpin,

des

RenouvieTj

'

Manuel

PhiloSf,*iv, 5,

de

la

Philos*

A?"cienne,'i. p. X5a| whp

cit9" 1'Plutvdiy

APPENDIX.

i68

Note
The

this

of

original

disputed

C.
is

passage

Pierron
is rendered
by MM.
tCetait
d'Empedocle,
pas
M6taphysique d* Aristotle, i.

which

and

Z^vott

arrivi

This

with

agrees

text

our

prevent

closer.
**

MM.

les mots

Mais

and

faitt

Anaxagoras

in

this

dans

une

the

in

that

chez

revera,

of

chapter

Thus

Sophocles

"

"

Inferior
for

"

meaning

This

the

by

the

on

here

alleged
renaark

passage,

et, chez

understood

has

une

nous,

en

If

us.

only

can

Aristotle, and,
translation, which

their

of Anaxagoras

ry
in

look

must

we

ordinairement

ont

Latins,

contradict

fir-t

antithesis

not

was

so

plausible

of ^^rtpog, which
meaning
certainly
the
In
posterior in point of time.
fifth book, he treats
of all the
significations
of
these
significations is superiority and
the

is often

superiority^ertpog

used

by

the

poets.

i^aphv ffiog, ftal yvvauchg (;"rrcpoy.


O

shameful

is the
inferior

**

that
the

"

*0

none

of

sense

of

mean

One

liortpog.
the

In

inferiority.

"*

on

to

Aristotle's

of

and

irporf poc

lez

Cousin

M.

Z^vort

be

eleventh

"

the

of

sense

and

be
laid
weight must
exclusively taken

More
cannot

on

opposition,

point of fact, the system


Empedocles.

of

force

their note

that, in

says

Clazom6ne,
plausible y

de

aussi

strike
not
objection does
reality, posterior to Empedocles, we

in

fact,

Pierron

MM.

moreover,

in

re,
force

The

was

understand

as

comme

reality**

en

the

preserves

Z"vort,

Ipyoi^
ipytfit

significationvague,

systhme

the reasons
ipyoig ^"mpog. But
in
his interpretation,and

concurrence

Pierron

Anaxagore

*'

un

confess, however,

We

better

"

^1

p. 233.

version.

our

version
glance M. Cousin's
li\v r/XiKl^frp^rcpoc
roif

'AyaCayopflc

"

roig S*ipyoic ^ffvtpoc-^

tovtov,

Tain^
La

this:

VLXaXofJiiviOQ rii fikv tiXiKi^ vft6TipoQ iSv

of

below

character,

primitive meaning
to

woman

"

thus, also, we

"*

say,

second

to

none."

^artpog, namelv,

commentators

on

the

of

is the one
inferiority,
in question ;

always

stood
under-

of

none

passage

them

indicates
chronological ptosteriority. vp6rtgoQ
prioiity in
Thus
point of time ; ^vri^cg inferiority in point of merit.
Fhilopon :
secundum
opinionem,"
priorquidem tempore, sed posterior et manens
understood

*"

fol.

2a

oXX'

^iTTtpog

XPovtfi,
time, but second
Tip

scholiast

tlie anonjonous

and

of

iWiitruv

Kal

the

Vatican

Kara

MS.

Ttjy So^av

:
:

irporcpo;

first indeed

"

yovv
in

and
inferiorin point of doctrme."
remains
answered
in order
to be
now
only question which
to estab*
lish
the
of
the
proof
foregoing interpretation of ^vrtpog, is this : Did
Aristotle
of
regard the system
pedocles
as
Anaxagoras
inferior to that of EmThe

?
This
will

question

remember
for

Kai

his

can

(see
causes

page

of

9'

more

B^irc^oicX^ciTrtvXiov

iKuvdg.^M^,

i, 4t

distinctlyin

answer

citation

employing

never

emergencies

employs

we

our

the

passage

the

in which

affirmative.
Aristotle

The

blames

reader
goras
Anaxa-

his
First
Cause
(Intelligence) except upon
continues
thus :
). Aristotle
Empedocles
indeed
abundantly, though not
sufficiently."
"

^y

jovTif

XP^Tai roig alrio^g,

oi

^j} o$rc

THE

170

exhibited

He

SCHOOL

and

this Method

Method;

him

Around

applied.

MEGARJC

were

of

men

his bearers

various

severally

various

ages,

peraments,
tem-

various

discoursed
with
each
opinions. He
his own
subject. With
Xenophon
Politics; with
on
upon
science; with Antisthenes on morals;
on
Theages or Theaetetus
and

with

Ion

poetry ; and

on

; others
Of
is great.

those

Socratic

more

But

opinions
These

are

Euclid

of

formed

two

the

so-

stubborn
the

Amongst

others.

on

latter

was

Megara.
who

Euclid,
a

great

be

not

must

born

was

of

love

; date

Megara

at

with

confounded

the

He

unknown.

philosophy, and

matician,
great Mathehad

early

diligentlystudied

had

and
the
Eleatics.
other
From
writings of Parmenides
in dialectics ; and this continued
he acquired great facility

the
Zeno
to

some

imperfect Socratists.

the

by

the

only refuted, became


were
naturally only
willing to adopt his

were

that is, were


convinced;
some
subjects, but remained

on

between

were

less

or

imbibed

who
; those
of the former

convinced

were

convinced

were

Schools

enemies.

his

who

Some

difference

merely refuted. The

him

called

forth.

so

his

be

chief

excellence,

reproved him

Socrates, who

for it

delight in listeningto

His

his

after

even

acquaintance

with

sophistical.

as

Socrates

was

so

that

great

he

A decree
was
frequently exposed his life to do so.
passed, in
of
the
Athens
and
enmity existing between
consequence
in Athens
of Megara found
should
Megara, that any inhabitant
the
braved
He
forfeit his life; Euclid, however,
penalty.
Athens
at
to
night, disguised as a female.
frequently came
At the end
of his journey he
distance
The
was
twenty miles.
of Socrates ;
recompensed
by the fascinating conversation
was
he

and

returned

Brucker's
them

to

meditate

supposition

that

rupture

of their arguments.
caused
between
was

of Socrates

in consequence

tendency,
contradicted
by the
Socrates, Plato

the results

on

putatious
having reproved Euclid's disis wholly without
foundation, and seems

the

and

fact

notorious

majority

that,

of

the

the

on

death

disciples retired

of
to

of the Athenians,
popular outbreak
of
in a
state
who
against all the philosopher's
were
rage
received
Euclid
them
ties
well.
Bound
friends.
by the same
the illustrious martyr, and sharing some
of friendshiptowards

Megara, in

of

his

fear

of

some

opinions, the

Differences, however,
of the kind.

Socratists

made

arose

they will amongst

; as

Plato, and

some

some

stay

others returned

in

Megara.

all
to

nities
commu-

Athens

EUCLID.

as

soon

with

safety. The

"The

rest

defective

fix it in the

brieflygiven
conviction

of

so

it is sible
posbe
information, may

our

far

so

as

laws

the

Socratic

the

enlarged by

obligation^and

moral

the

view

Eleatic

the

as

of

state

doing

Euclid.

with

Megaric doctrine,

of the

character

to

remained

their

admitted

public mind

state of the

the

as

171

of scientific

thought:"^
confess

We

have

of

hint

no

"

of the

unaware

Ritter

Euclid

that Euclid

means

adopted

in

Ethical
is

correct

mean

understand

agreed with

Euclid
but

was

does

he

what

are

by

the

latter he
Induction

of

if he
are

ing
mean-

does

at

not

loss to

mean.

Eleatics

the

in

maintaining

Being, which

unalterable

One

we

we

Socratic

and

"

"

Euclid

If, by the former,

Definitions,he is hopelesslyrwrong
; and,
laws of scientific thought
that by
we

and

In

Socrates

; if
Method

Socratic

the

this.

thought."

an

gave

doctrine, he

Eleatic

the

of scientific

laws

that

means

to

inabilityto comprehend
"moral
obligation";

our

be

can

that there

known

by

not
simply The One;
Being was
The
This
Good,
it simply Intelligence;it was
neither
was
various
One
names
according to its various
Being received
sometimes
Wisdom
it was
times
{"f"p6vq"ris)
; someaspects : thus
Reason
God
(vovs); and so forth. This
(dios)
; at others
Good
One
{tv to dyaObv) is the only Being that really exists/

This

only.

Reason

everything opposed

one

it has

to

nothing but

phenomenal,

sitory
tran-

existence.

Laertius.
the

God

as

denial

it the

In

both

Eleatic

of

that
God

declares

of such

as

are

will

Socratic

and

existence

of any

Socrates

reader

dya^oK" the

TO

explanation
only

outline of his doctrine,as

is the

Such

the
and
purely Socratic:
is an
things opposed to the Good
in
Plato's
'Republic,' where

Good
to

passage
not

presented by Diogenes
in detecting
have no
difficulty
The
elements.
conception of

to

is

"

be

the

an

virtue

was

not

constitutes

the

indeed

the

with
*

of

Wisdom
*

any

of

all

things,but

good.t

Megaric doctrine is therefore


from
Ethical
tendency borrowed

The

author

Eleatic

doctrine, with
Socrates, who
taught that
partialcultivation of the hurusn mind, but

true

and

entire

essence

universe.

whole

The

the

of the

rational

identification

man,

of

Virtue

is also Socratic.

Bitter.'

t f*4 vdvTuv

aiTtov

Tov

9(ov, dXX")

rwv

dyaBwv.

"

and

^Lib. ii. p. lOO.

THE

17*

With

MEGARIC

Euclid's

to

respect

SCHOOL

EUCLID.

dialectics

is

there

point,

one

often
,

alluded

to,

sition
he

variously interpreted,

did

attack

not

the

certainly the

reverse

managed

draw

who,

to

we

originally
be

in

Euclid

that

in

dialectics, therefore,

Eleatic

tendency,

Zeno.

It

was

Socratic

The

out

the

doctrine

was

the

out

speculations
his

that

of

immediate

undertook

further

was

the

order.

Alexinus,

and

element

that
there

into

which

following

forward

his

of

Diodorus

Eubulides,

followers,
carry

portion

pared
com-

unlike,

of

to

strikes

highest

Euclid

see

we

the

not

carrying

and

this

of

things

are

precept

induction

of

reasoning

analogical

of

This

pletely,
com-

mode

attention

the

things compared

method

Socrates*

of

he,

confine

and

known

more

the

is

*always

generally

analogical

the

If, said

conclusion.

the

the

distinction

rejected

to

the
; if

question

error

weakness

In

from
this

mark

to

alike, it is better

are

species

if

As

This

premisses,

old

from

proceeded

says,

adversaries

Socrates, who

of

manner

(8ta 7ra/oa)8oXi}sXoyov).

reasoning

must

the

oppo-

conclusion.*

the

conclusions

new

told

are

but

direct

his

refuting

In

premisses,

known.

less

Socrates.

of

Xenophon

as

the

to

of

Method

the

to

is in

which

and

to

developed

by

Stilpo.
"

majority

The

doctrines,
;

or

for

the

which

on

that

than

to

were

with

Laert.,'

Ltradictory

consists

in

of Phil,
adopted by the
Hist,

ii.

of

\,y p.
best

199.

is
**

"

conclusions

The

system

translation

that

judged
lirom
in

did

they

not

but

delusion,

it is

events

forms

of
the
tain
cer-

of

thought,
particular rules

or

method.*'

of

into
lowing
the folby Enfield
legitimate argumenta-

text

is the

lacies
fal-

Eristici

called

acknowledged
the

certain

of

exemplifying

the

paraphrased

He

opposite

all

At

discovery

scientific

fair

writers.

the

to

This

107.

statement

deducing

and

with

occupied

view

of

purposes

opinion.

mainly

school,"

of

that

presumed

thinkers,

common

Megaric

refutation

occasionally

were

the

hasty

of

foundation

the

Diog.
c

tion

they

perhaps,

more

may

the

application

and

be

for

and

of
the

for

they
it

fallacies

superficial vanity

members

either

account

rash

instructing

later

invention

Still

these

employ*

the

famous

Dialectici.

and

of

are

"

Ritter,

says

premisses."

right

one,

"

and

Tas

SCHOOL

CYRENAIC

CHAPTER
THE

Among

ijj

II.

SCHOOL

ARISTIPPUS.

rank Aristippus,
must
we
imperfect Socratists
the Cyrenaic School, which borrowed
its name
from
the birtli-place
of its founder
Africa.
: Cyrene iQ
descended
from
Aristippuswas
wealthy and distinguished
the

the

CVRENAIC

ARISTIPPUS.

founder

"

"

of

parents, and

consequently thrown

was

debauchery

Minyae.

He

which

came

Socrates

well with

agree

offensive

was

an

is

assertion.

He

Aristippusamong

with

remained

simply
between
that

was

the

Athens

he

by

have

to

his political
of
exaggerated extension

an

his views to

Island

the

be

But

absurd.

have

must

as

It

this is
existed

merely shows

of Rhodes.

On

strangers,and

to
He

was
'Aristippus

will

On

to
see

to

the

he

Asia

he

he discovered

sea-coast
"

Take

arrivingat

himself

for

procure
used

you

whom

exclaimed

and

with Lai's,
met
accompanied to
was
shipwrecked

he

^gioa, where

from

footsteps of men."

managed
reception.

and

courage,

the

friends

"Send
two
say:
the advantage of the

a
see

principaltown
a
hospitable
men

amongst

philosopher."

of those

one

"Cbildrenofthe
to

to

courtezan,
Corinth

his way

On

he

but

side

an

of

execution

they disagreed. The


discussion reported

as

opinion, such

went

geometricaldiagram,
here

the

either

on

soon

s^uch

authorityfor

no

of his followers.
many
for himself.

and

his

Aristippus expresses

to prove

Socrates

is

bond

no

Socrates

world-renowned

Corinth.
on

wherein

of

of

the

originatedin the

have

difference

diat

Aristippusthought

From

the

to

accept money;

the number

Socrates, until

preventedtheir separation as
impression seems
by Xenophon,*
indifference,and
logic endeavours

Socrates,

pupil did not


that his fondness
for pleasure

asserted

; and
There

Socrates.

there

did not

great Talker

commonly

latter; and

the

The

his master
to

of

tlie wisdom

of

Olympic

He
sharing his enchanting discourse.
offer of a large sum
of money
; which, as

admitted
willingly

disciples. It

much

so

of

colony

the

attend

to

of luxurious

the

on

declined.

usiial,was
but he

heard

into the vortex

characterized

Greece

to

over

he
There
games.
that he determined

made

then

strong sensual
"

Son

whose

passions he

blood

united

ii. c
'Kemorabilia,'

t.

fiie ; "
a

calm

regulative

CYRENAid

tHE

I^4

SCHOOL

luxury, he avoided
excess.
Easy and
in ordinary affairs,he had
his
careless
over
great dominion
his
desires.
in
life
Pleasure
but
he
knew
was
grand object
;
In dispositionhe
how
to temper
enjoyment with moderation.
fellow
of infinite mirth
was
yielding; a
sopher
easy and
; a philosicklied o'er with the pale cast
whose
brow
never
was
had
is but too
He
often
of thought."
dignity ; which
no
a
virtue.
stiff-necked
had
He
sternness.
no
Gay, brilliant,
intellect.

Prone

to

'*

*'

"

enjoying,he

careless, and

Court
of Dionysius
splendid genius of Plato
The
deportment
grave
the

had

Diogenes

that

"

and

very

test.

On

already illustrious by the


of Diogenes.

and

Plato

to

put

the

presented to him for


Ithree, observing that
\ choice.
who

On

Tyrant than
elegant. His

were

make

to

it had

occasion

one

fatal

been

occasion,
a
violent, he said

to

"

were

them

took

Paris

dispute

was

hetaira

he

even

ready wit

three

choice

in

another

becoming

was

him

of
virtue
savage
the easy gaiety of

the

IAristippus,
often

delightof

rigidabstinence

for the
vices

and

ornament

Court
the

of

less charm

whose

the

became

to

all

make

iEschines,
give over
: we
senior, have a right

Let

us

quarrelled,it is true; but I, as your


claim \ht precedency in the reconciliation J^*

have
to

In

his old

there

opened

he

age

returned

have

to

appears

his school.

philosophy, as Hegel remarks, takes its


personality. So individual is it,that we should
it

entirely,had

over

Its relation

been

not

to

his

from

have

passed it

Epicureanism.

of

precursor

colour

is also

important.
Aristotle f
In
the
believe, in which
only passage,
we
he
of
him
a
Sophist. What
as
speaks
Aristippus,
Was
of the professed Sophists?
No.
this mean
?
he one
Socrates

tions
men-

does
It

"

"

Several

of them

immense

"

of his

Scinus,
wealth, once
in

spat

Aristippus,

"*

One

ncy."

dec

repartees
the

expatiating on

the
his

by Laertius.
of
Dionysius, a man
his house.
Aristippus over
of

showed

splendour
face.

there

in

every

Scinus
other

no

was

day,

of

We

recorded

are

treasurer

was

part,

place

to

even

furious'.
where

*^

low

While

could
for

the

he

best
but
was

floors,the philosopher
me," exclaimed

the

Pardon

interceding with the Tyrant


Being reproached for such

add

character

have
a

spat

with

friend, he threw

of dignity, he
want
One
Dionysius has his ears in his feet ?
day
him
that a philohe asked
own
sopher
Dionysius made
money.
need
lad
of money.
"Give,
give," replied Aristippus, "and
no
^*
will settle the question at once."
said the
Now^*
Dionysius gayCr
we
philosopher,*"I have no need of money.''

himself

"

his

on

answered

knees.

fault
Is it my
the Tyrant for some
;

Met.'

Cyrene, and

to

His

with

"

iii. c. ii.

if

'*

AlilSTlPPuS.

means,

believe,that he shared

we

reasons

such

as

different

on

these

objects

In

he

far he

so

He

sought

of

far

so

main

the

on

his

he

direction

turned

him

shunned.

researches

was

the

upon

His

Socratist.

not

th^

express

constitution

moral

not

was

his

abstract

speculations.

views

Pleasure.

Ethical

system,
the

"

inflict it ;

He
one,

tendency
Socrates

he

the

it

to

averse

; and
of

and

the
The

resolved
Socrates'

desire

erred

only

men

was

kernel
aim

the

was

suited

master,
was

directlytowards
preaching about

and

pith

He

of all

because

of

constituted

the
Happiness. Thus
injuiywas better than
immoderate
of
gratification

endure

that to
knew

alone

was

have

tion,
Logical deduc-

that

an

by misery, did not constitute Happiness,


the contrary.
Aristippus thought this too vague.
this general idea
to
more
a
specific
only reduced

senses,
but
not

to
was

of what

knew

was

specifywhat

of all action

notions
alone

man

would

his

of

process

His

Happiness

that

motor

erroneous

the

It

individuality
quickly
master

disposition.

while

his

his

his

Aristippuswished

Good,

wise

nor

Hence,

it into

men

took

own

scientific intellect.

rigorous

the

neither

concrete.

which

by-paths

was

But, although he

Socrates, yet his

from
into

which

its

do

sions
impres-

impose on'

we

man.

In

to

his

none

there.

and^ concentrated

this

details

judges accordingly
judge correctly.
the discipleof Socrates,
a Sophist ; but, as
criterium
of truth must
be
sought within.
He
dismissed
with
all physical
contempt
human
subjects beyond
comprehension,

no

speculations,as

Sophists
share

of truth ; each

criterium

was

that

learned

sensations,but

our

who

which

names

the
did

different

make

objects
The

senses.

impressions;

his

external

express

is

things; there
to

that

he

That

Empiricus,*

Sextus

from

of

opinion

the

Science.

respectingthe uncertaintyof
opinion is evident

1,^5

followed

being

viz. Pleasure;

in

only criterium

Of

that

which

we

only

know

endeavoured

he

the

is without

to

sensation
us

we

of
c^n

show

how

truth

had

pleasure or of pain.
know
nothing truly;^
'

us

with

through our
respect to objects.

us

with

respect

things truly;

but

to

true

that

respecting external
sensations.

We'

sensations.

our

it is

and
our
senses,
But
our
senses

we

objects; we
sensations
those
Amongst
cannot

Adv.

Math.'

vii. p.

doubt
we

173.

do

not

We

deceive

perceive

not

may

perceive.

deceive

senses

may

doubt

respecting our
naturally seek the

\
\

j
\

"T^

SCHOOL

CYRENAlC

THE

176

repetition of
painful.

such

as

Pleasure, then,

form

was
as

the

of

those

that

ard

only positive good, and as the only


the end of
be
to
good, he declared
for constant
pleasure the soul must
this
desires,
over
pleasure was
only

its dominion

preserve
another

shun

the

as

but, inasmuch

life ;

pleasurable,and

are

what

of

positivetest

ARISTJPPUS.

Socratic

It is

temperance.

Socratic

distinguished

Pleasure, however, in being


conception
In the
positive,and not merely the gratificationof a want.
Phaedo,' Socrates, on
being released from his chains, reflects
connexion
the intimate
of pleasure and
pain ; and calls
upon
the
of pain, pleasure. Aristippus, on
the absence
contrary
of pain : they are
removal
taught that pleasure is not the mere
and
both
not
non-pain are
positive emotions; non-pleasure
soul.*
the
but
it
of
the
emotions,
as
were
sleep
the
In
to
ethics, Aristippus
application of this doctrine
With
the
betrays both his Sophistic and Socratic education.
Sophists he regarded pleasure and pain as the proper criteria
action being in itself either good or bad, but
of actions ; no
With
Socrates, however,
only such according to convention.
the
he regarded
advantages acquired by injusticeto be trifling;
the

from

of

evils

the

whereas

; and

we

of the

the

was

welfare

fail to

be

Socrates, although his method


Ethical

tendency
idea

abstract

grounded
Cyrenaic
Pleasure
morals

the

on

the

still further

The

only

was

of

The

reduced

of

Aristippus

influence
We

see

One.
to

In

of
the
the
was

the

the concrete,

only ground of certitude, and


In the Cynic school
we'Shall
see
a
in this direction,

development

perity
pros-

the

the

science.

In

conception

conception

this became

followed.

not

siderable
con-

State.

it was,
manifest

as

are

individual

Megaric School
(to ayaOov) of Socrates,

Good

Eleatic

of

whole

the

was

predominating.

abstract

; and

the

of

of the

with

struck

punishment

ol

result, not

philosophy, such

the

reviewing

cannot

apprehensions

pleasure

but

alone,
In

and

Diog. Laert.,*ii. 89.

ANTISTHENBS

17"

Virtue;

worshipped

He

DIOGENES

AND

it

but

and

Virtue, ferocious

was

unbending.
ordinary

to

"

^J
'

his

in

appear

in

pride

his

displayed

he

differing from
cloak, with an

threadbare

other

different

How

himself

inured

to

was

Socrates

heat

to

and

to

wallet

His

gestures.
in

expressed

your

too, had
that

he

virtue
he

of

could
no

wore

his beard
to grow,a
coarse
; allowed
and
renounced
all diet but
the
a
staff; and

simplest. His manners


reproachful,and bitter
in his

see

cloak

except

carried

in

cold, in order

of fortune
he
made
might bear the chances
no
; but
Antisthenes
being ragged, hungry and cold.
thought
his
virtue
He
only preserve
by becoming a savage.

garment

**

He,

!
"

poverty,

men.

ostentatious

saw

this from

of

contempt

through it all,and exclaimed


vanity, Antisthenes, peering through the holes
Socrates

poverty.
your
cloak."

Socrates

and

usages

used

He

with

whilst

Even

his

corresponded
in

his

his appearance.

to

language; careless
of

contempt

all

saying,

"I

would

Socrates

he

formed

and

sensual

Stera^
indecent

enjo3axientwas

rather

be

mad

thaa

sensual."*
of

death

the

On

school, and chose for


called
the
Cynosarges
a

his

place of meeting a public place


it is said the sect
of
Dog), from which
(Temple of the White
derive
it from
the
its name
Cynics derives
snarling
; others
who
of
The
called
the
founder^
was
frequently
propensities
As he grew
moroseness
old, his gloomy temper became
Dog."
:
he
became
so
insupportable that all his scholars left him,
him
with
his death.
at
was
Diogenes of Sinope, who
except
asked
his
whether
last agony
In
he
him,
needed
Diogenes
"

"Will

friend.

replied.

Diogenes

wish

"I

be

to

friend

release

him
gave
freed from

this

from

me

pain?"

he

will."
dagger, saying, "This
from
the'
life," was
pain, not
a

"reply.
The

in two

read

of his

advantage
"

to

It enables

that he

uniformly expressed for mankind


sayings. Being asked, what was

he

contempt

be

derived

from

philosophy,
with
myself."

me
keep company
Have
: :
greatly praised by many
then, that I am
praised? he asked.f

to

"

answered

Being told,
done
anything

was

he

be
may
the peculiar

"

wrongs
"

It is thus

we

ijffBilriv,Ritter

pleasure," which
t

Dr.

would

interpret Diog. Laert.,* vi.


*

gives this version


is

an

Enfield, who

outrageous

:":"

I hadrather

3
go

fiayiirjvfiaXKov ij

mad

than experience

sentiment.

generally manages

to

introduce

some

blunder

into

THE

Sinope is generally remembered


Cynicism ; probably, because
more

of
his life have

which

179

of

Diogenes

Sinope,

CYNICS.

descended

who

to

convicted

was

He

us.

the

was

the

as

of

banker

at

of

son

debasing the coin


supposed to have been
of

sentative
repre-

anecdotes
a

affair in

an

implicated.
the heights of splendour and
From
Diogenes fled to Athens.
himself
reduced
he
found
to
squalid poverty.
extravagance
of
which
Antisthenes
The
proclaimed,*"
magnificence
poverty,
embrace
the
attracted
him.
to
Poor, he was
philosophy
ready
he
isolate
himself
of poverty : an
to
fron"
ready
was
outcast,
with
self
disgrace, he was
society ; branded
ready to shelter himbranded
all society.
under
a
philosophy which
Having
wealth
and
in his own
little
how
experienced
luxury
person
of
he
for
the
the
do
inclined
to
more
happiness
was
can
man,
wealth
to
having experienced how
prompts
try the converse;
vice, and how desires generate desires, he was
willing to try
the efficacyof poverty
and
virtue.
He
went
to
Antisthenes;
continued
He
himself
the
refused.
oflfer
to
to
was
C)aiic as a
his knotty staff,and
threatened
scholar ; the Cynic raised
to
strike him
if he did not
Strike ! replied Diogenes ;
depart.
"
will not
find a stick hard
enough to conquer
you
my
verance."
persehim
Antisthenes, overcome,
as
a
accepted
pupil.
the

son

also

was

"

"

live

To

virtue

life of virtue

Cynicism.

was

of all luxury

carried

war

was

with

the

Ascetics
be

thought
one
approached
to

of virtue.

by

on

of

later

to

such

the

of

desires.

sensual

of

the
a

he

nearer

It

Body.

was

nearer

to

A^

life

pure

; the

Body

That

tion
renuncia-

complete

basis

the

day,

sole aim.

against

suicide,the

all

Mind

the

annihilation

the

in the

subjugation of

the

"

consisted

It

his

henceforward

was

wa?

any*

the ideal

vile,filthy,degraded
degrading j
the
free
the
was
curse
man
clog upon
ment
developit
of Mind
This
was
with,
hated, despised.
;
beautiful Body, so richly endowed
for enjoyment, was
regarded
sink
of
all
the
iniquity."
as
limited
his desires
to
Accordingly, Diogenes
necessities.
it

Body

The

the

and

was

; it was
wrestled

of

"

He

little ; and

ate

t6 live upon
raw
dress
consisted
has
every
page,
of a bad
man.
iroXXot
"

See

"

what

he

solely of

cloak

of

the

when

he

the language

of

'

Diogenes

it

He

tried

failed.

His

coarsest.

vegetables;

spoiled this repartee, by giving


Yet

liravoviTifvi. 8.
of Xenophon,
the
Banquet
*

was

unboiled

and

meat

ate

but

asked
as

Laerlius

Antisthenes

reply
is very

to

the

praise

explicit;

"

ANTISTHENES

80

for

shirt he

and

wallet

told

was

fold his cloak

to

stick

huge

DIOGENES

AND

in

his

completed

did

; he

two

so.

Seeing

accoutrements.

his

threw
out
drinking water
scooped hand,
his cup, declaring it superfluous.
He
the
slept under
away
marble
Tub,
porticoes of the buildings, or in his celebrated
residence.
which
his
his
in
He
meals
of
took
was
place
public.
actions
In public he
all
those
which
the
connate
performed
has condemned
of every
to privacy. Decency
decency of man
kind he studiouslyoutraged. It was
to do so.
a part of his system
Everything, not in itself improper, ought, he said, to be performed
publicly ^a sophism which could not have deluded
any
a

little boy

of

he

"

Besides

one.

he

gestures ; had

he

wont

was

to

people with

annoy

philosophicalreason

for that

indecent

also ?

expressed respecting his Tub, which it \%


residence, and used by him *as
thought was
only an occasional
for luxury.
We
incline,however, to
expressiveof his contempt
have

Doubts

the

tradition.

and

is in

It

confirmed

seems

with

keeping

by a passage
imagine the

all

know

we

the

of

man

Aristophanes.*

in

by the Cynics
in the gay luxurious
the climate, no
less
There
cityof Athens.
incited
than
the prevailing manners,
to
enjoyment.
everyone
of
the
that
The
told
enjoyment
was
unworthy
Cynics
them,
It is not

been

difficult

; that

men

To

the

there

to

higher and

were

things for

purer

Athenian

of

polished elegance

eflfect created

to

man

the

manners,

seek.

Cynics

brutal
To
assume.
coarseness
they could
opposed the most
the bitterest
the friendly flatteries of conversation, they opposed
frankness*
pungencies of malevolent
They despised ali

told

; and

men

them

although

Now,

morals, and

prepared

admit

to

upholders.

These

power.

"

as

feeble

regard Cynicism
solution

very amiable
that it required
a

required a great

It

of mind
a

not

but

cannot

we

doctrine

preposterous
of

so.

power

over

qualities

feebleness

rude

not

are

very

problem
quite
are

qualitiesin
fanatical

; a

energy

self,diseased

we

"

great

some

as

of the great

it may

be, but

its

cality
logistill

qualities; and

common

from
the
they command
Any deviation
respect.
beaten
tent
path implies a certain resolution ; a steady and consisall men
deviation
is what
force
Now
implies force.
of subjugating ordinary desires
The
to
one
respect.
power
with a sense
but calculated
end, always impresses men
I emote

therefore

forced

Knights/
to

791.

The-

live in wine-casks

soldiers
and

are

cellars

there

Huring

spoken
the

war.

of

as

having beea

CYNICS.

THE

of

Few

unusual

power.
difficult than

more

knows

that

aware

are

regulate desires

to

subjugate them
^requiresgreater
Yet
will;
greater constancy.
every
greater

mind:

of

I8i

to

"

is easier

that abstinence

principle,it

is easier

be

to

than

temperance

Cynic

than

wise

power
one

the

on

is

same

virtuous

and

Epicurean.
which

That
which

ancients

the

portions

prevents

of

the

feel, is the

decency
the

All

was

anecdotes

wealth

and

against
into

the

doctrine

and

that

otherwise

would
for

uncalled

which

outrages

down

come

to

us

us

to

common

to

reveal

spirit,
worshipping Virtue
vices

of

and

vices

on

seem

contemporaries
those
simplicityonly because
be well to raise an
luxury. It may
the

to

induce

Diogenes, especially,
perpetrated.

have

malevolent

opposed

pover^

in

Cynical

humanity

and

snarlingand
it

to

seem

studious

feeling the respect for the Cynics


have
felt,and which, indeed, some

our

of one's

age

discredit

only because
taking a pride
around
sought

earnest

protest

it is not
well to bring virtue
; but
the
Doubtless
of the protest.

by the manner
Athenians
needed
reproof and reformation, and some
tion
exaggerahave
side
been
allowed
the rethe
to
opposite
on
might
formers.
in
feeble
brutal
in
But
doctrine,
Diogenes was
so
so
that we
should
prefer the debauchery of the first promanner,
fligate
with in that profligate
met
we
city,to the debauchery of
character
of the
pride which disgraced the Cynic. The whole
Plato
in one
had given a splendid
is exhibited
anecdote.
man
friends.
entertainment
to ^some
Diogenes entered, unbidden,
I trample on
and
stamping on the rich carpets, said, Thus
Plato
the pride of Plato;" whereupon
admirably replied, With
greater pride, O Diogenes."
He
made
Diogenes, doubtless, practised great abstinence.
virtue of his necessity ; and, being poor, resolved
tatiously
to be ostena
mistaken
The
ostentation, being novel, was
poor.
it was
for something greater than
to
; being in contradiction
the universal
supposed
tendency of his contemporaries, it was
"

"

to

spring

mask

from

by
poverty meekly
envy,
men

worn

certain
whose

motives.

higher
a

mountebank.

; there

are

that wealth

souls

To

are

so

it

us

There
who

men

does

fixed

not
on

content

tp

act

wealth

upon

bear

without

give happiness ; there are


higher things as utterly to

of the world
and shows
disregard the pomps
it
of
despise wealth, they disregard
; none

feelings,
tbey are

who

men

are

look

miserable

seems

upon

; but

none

these

them,

The

of these

display their
virtue that

182

IS

looks
$elf-affirmative,

loud, noisy, ostentatious,and


obtrusive

an

Pretending

And

egotism.

pretending

this

to

the

of

like

very

Cynics.

nity;
began by blaspheming humaeffeminacies

the

correct

the virtue

was

it

mankind,

to reform

DIOGENES:

AND

ANTISTHENES

studiously outraged all the decencies


difficultyof the problem, it pretended

of

life.

of
to

the

Eluding
it

solve

it
age,
the reaH

by unabashed

insolence.
his

In

carried

being

old

him
asked

Diogenes

age

to

captive by pirates,who

taken

was

exposed him for sale, as a


Govern
he could do, he replied :

Crete, and

slave.

On

"

what

men

sell

who
master."
wants
a
Xeniades, a
therefore, to one
wealthy Corinthian, struck with this reply, purchased him, and,
on
returning to Corintli,gave him his libertyand consigned his
children
The
children
his education.
to
taught to be
were
It was
their own
satisfaction.
to
Cynics, much
during 'this
with Alexander
interview
took
period that his world-renowned
place. The
prince, surprised at not seeing Diogenes joining
found
the crowd
of his flatterers,
He
him.
the
went
to see
I am
Alexander
Cynic sittingin his tub, basking in the sun.
the
I am
the Great," said he.
Diogenes the Cynic," was
asked
then
him, if there was
reply. Alexander
anything he
me,

"

"

could

for him.

do

the

sun."

an

indifference

could

"

Yes

Surprised

hitherto

at

aside
from
; stand
indifference
such
to

strikinglycontrasted

so

witnessed

have

"

he

between

and

me

princely favour
with
everything he
"

exclaimed:

**Were

not

"

One
day, being brought
Diogenes !
he
whom
before
the
king, and
being asked
Diogenes
was,
A
cupidity ;
language, the boldness
replied :
your
spy on
have
of which
must
gained him universal admiration, as implying

Alexander,

I would

be

"

"

well
singularity
as
Singularityand ^Insolence

great

as

force

of character.

regarded as" his grand


characteristics.
of these
Both
are
exemplified in the anepdote
in the daytime, and
of his lighting a lamp
peering about the
what
he
istreets as if earnestly seeking something : being asked
The
A Man."
point of this story is lost
sought, he replied :
makes
him
seek
honest
in the usual version, which
man.'*
an
in Laertius
The
words
are
simply : otv^ponrov ^yjfrSi I seek a
man."
seek
to find a
Diogenes did not
honesty ; he wanted
in whom
be
with
included
other
honesty would
man,
many
reproach to his contemporaries,
qualities. It was his constant
He
manhood.
that they had
said,he had never
no
seen
men;
may

be

"

"

"

"

at

Sparta, he

had

"^en

children;

^t

Atheps,

women.

One

CYNICS.

THE

day, he called
he
for

men

Thus

back

quartets, of
him.
to
see

club, sa3ring:

proached,
apI called

caressing manners),
as
cur
a
growls over

yet
his

snarling and snapping without


sion.
occaattention; and, from
object of universal
many
One
day his friends went
unfeigned admiration.

bone
An

some
"

brutal, ostentatious
year, bitter,
title of The
Dog (fora dog has

disgracingthe
affection, gratitude, sympathy, and
virtue
his unenvied
growling over
meatless

When

excrements."

are

abstemious

and

! **

men

his

with

lived tillhis ninetieth

he

all

Approach,

them

beat

; ye

**

out

183

for

ever

the

arriving at

On

-which

under

still lying on

him

found

Portico

he

was

ground wrapped
seemed
He
in his cloak.
to
sleep. They pushed aside the
It was
dead.
folds of his cloak : he was
thought that he had
suicide by holding his breath,
committed
z. physicalimpossibility.
wont

sleep, they

to

the

"

versions

Other
in

antiquity;

it makes

of them

one

him

of

the

of his

cause

consistent

seems

in consequence

die

of

death

current

were

his character

with

devouring

neat's

foot

raw.

Doctrine

of

be
Cynics may
brieflydispatched.
the discipleof Gorgias, .was
embued
with the
as
Anti^thenes,
his
sophisticalprinciplesrespecting Science, principles which
did not
alter.
He
maintained, that
acquaintance with Socrates
The

Science

impossible.

was

As

to

utterlyrejected it.

he

but

nothing

the

of

series

which
; for

the

He

Socratic

said,

that

notion

of

tions,
Defini-

Definition

was

course")
(XoyoK /lOKpSvy "a long discalls him an ignoramus (airaScvros

words

Aristotle

Socratic

notion

Definition, as
of a
thing, he opposed the Sophistic
including the essence
notion
tion.
of a Definition, as
expressing a purely subjective relaYou
qualities,not
essences
can
can
only express
; you
it
consists.
Your
call a thing silver,but
cannot
say in what
the
is only verbal : hence
first step in education
definition
words.*
should
be the study of
Met,

"

viii.

What

was

c.

someone

respecting the
walked.
but

the

of

of this scepticism?
The
consequence
that
the Cynics answered
by
arguments

the

was,

When

iii.).To

facts.

arguing in support of Zeno of EIea*s notion


was
and
impossibilityof movement,
Diogenes rose

Definitions

definitions

quence
conse-

were

that
there
might prove
could
only verbal, and

was

be

motion;
answered
by
no

facts.
*

Ardan,

Piss.
*Epictet.,'

i. 17,

quoted

in 'Ritter

and

Preller,*p. 174.

This

had

the

enabled
certain

some

speculating

endeavoured

to

dispositions
that

of

gave

Aristippus

the

they

the

had

it

into

daily

done

for

the

Cyrenaic.

to

Their

their

;
of

virtuous.

be

clouds

practice.

colouring

peculiar

Instead
to

the

from

facts

by

precepts.

endeavoured

which

morals

arguments
of

place

philosophy

bring

of

o(

assaults

the

doctrine

answered

they

take

brought

shape

As

virtue,

against

sense

to

basis.

about
had

Socrates

common

Cynics

actions

made

they

in

found

refuge

logic,

so

CYNICS,

THE

184

the

Cynics
personal

doctrinei

as

LIFE

i86

OF

PLATO.

the ne plus ultra


of logical
having any romantic
tinge,were
and
above
severity : hard, uncompromising
humanity. In a
the
in Plato
almost
absorbed
man
word, Platp
was
completely
learned
human
the Dialectician
to look
passion
upon
; he had
and
human
the
disease,
as
a
pleasure as a frivolity
:
only thing
Dialectics
for
the
noblest
worth
truth.
exercise
living
was
was
of humanity.
the notions
Even
It is
respecting his style are erroneous.
*"
It
the
not
poetical" metaphorical style usually asserted.
has unmistakeable
other writing we
beauties, but resembles
no
Its immense
is dramatic
are
acquainted with.
power
power.
The
of
best dialogues are inimitable
scenes
Character,
comedy.
and
animation
but
banter, irony,
are
there;
scarcely any
beautiful.*
His
seldom
that
and
to refute,
imagery,
object was
from

"

convince

to

or

familiar.

illustrations

; his

fit occasion

When

be eloquent
arrive, he can
myths in language of splendid

poetical. He clothes the


the
descriptions of
beauty; and
'Phaedrus'
are
perfectlyravishing.
in the arid

In

truth,

somewhat

matter,

being

seldom

so

read

; for

such

But

this

in

the

are

as

passages

be

mentioned

far

as

is the

not

must

we

is often

He

loveliness

difficult,and,

very

repulsive writer

editions.

many

is

scenic

of dialectics.

desert

Plato

and

does

and

oases

homely

therefore

are

regards

as

his

of

reason

deceived

by the
often quoted, at

and

is

Scholars
and
critics
rarely read.
of curiosity. Their
dialogue out
curiosity
usually attack one
further
The
seldom
to
inspiritsthem
difficultyof
progress.
their
and
when
unsatisfactory nature
mastering the ideas,
barriers
with
Plato.
to any
general acquaintance
mastered, are

second

But

those

has

been

who

believe themselves

persevere

but
difficult,
performed

it

We

courage

"

to

of Plato

those
and

was

that

have

"

repaid ; the journey


worth
performing.
journey, and
can
honestly cry

lag behind.
his writings may
be

Perhaps

who

brief

our

inducement

some

count
ac-

and

preparation.

some
"

**

Even
the

upon

sweetness,
EniUldf ii. p.

Whenever
never

middle
than

you

read

meet

Plato.

species of
imageiy.

subjects,whether

abstract

language

and
-^Dr,

it

he

; but

hand

of Plato
vies with

is clear

as

the humble

the

matical,
moral, metaphysical, or matheplicity
running stream, and, in sim-

violet which

perfumes

the

vale."

221.

with

such

Aristotle

diction

trash

as

this

be

certain

capitally describes
and
between
verse
prose."

that

Plato's
It has

the writer

style
rhythm

as

of
"a

rather

OF

LIFE

PLATO.

187

Plato
Aristocles, surnamed
(the broad-browed),* the son
of Ariston
born
and Perictione, was
at Athens
or
^gina, Olym.
middle
the
of May).
the 7th Thargelion (about
87. 3, on
His youth consequently falls about
the time
of the Peloponbrilliant period of Grecian
nesian
active
and
the
most
war,
illustrious:
His
and
action.
the
thought
lineage was
on
side

maternal
So

great

nucleus

name

of

Solon.

Plato's

as

could

and

fables;

many

historians

with

connected

mother

him.

He

delayed his marriage because


told him that she
a dream, and
We

have

given

leave

games.

Greek,

true

contend

to

gymnastics, as doing
Greek,
; and, like a true
rhetoric

and

nected
con-

Apollo, his
Perictione,
in

him

to

forth
hence-

may

did
and

gymnastics

Pythian

attention

did

these

for the

corporeal
music,

poetry,

assiduously cultivated,

were

was

importance

dialects
suffer

not

he

Isthmian

and

extreme

what

body
he

time

all his

absorb

to

in

attached

he

mind

exercises

fables, and

the

at

for the

to

of

child.

excellent; and

was

sufficientlyskilled
Like

the

of

later

in peace.

them

education

Plato's

child

the

with

was

specimen

one

be

to

the

the

events

to
though betrothed
Apollo had appeared

Ariston,

virgin.

miraculous

of

sorts

said

was

becoming

escape

find, acconiingly,

we

gravely repeating all

with

not

and

with

some

besides
some
epic poem,
tragedies,
The
epic he is said to
dithyrambics, lyrics, and
epigrams.burned
in a fit of despair, on
have
comparing it with Homer.
The
burned
tragedies he
becoming
acquainted with
on
Socrates.
The
partiallypreserved. One
epigrams have been
He

success.

of them

wrote

is very

an

beautiful

"

inrrtip ifi6Q*
dvripaQ tiffaBptic,
Sft/iaaiviiQ
oipavbUi iitQvoWoXq
Thou

""

Yob

gazest

Some

of

article

the
*

the

to

be

in
**

with

this

the

from

thousand

his
*

! ah

eyes,

opinion

broad-shouldered

idle, as
of

the

to

of
the

Athenians

endowed
name

of

breadth

I*lato

explanations
among

others

Life

stars, my

incline

writers

broad-browed

the

the

on

starry skies, with

gladly would

that
;

of

was

of Plato

name

time."
Plato

relation, he miist

have

above

translation is

by

Mr.

on

the

is absurd.

The

pronounces

all

was

of

common

But

surely

without

derived

cause

it from

causes.

t The

gaze
*

Plato

Swynfen Jervis,

"

I be

others, again, that

style. This last


Cyclopaedia

that

surname

at

that I might

Penny
the

ytvoifiriv
pXsjrw.

itOe

thee

epithet
it

was

of

pressive
ex-

author

the

of

above

occurrence

Aristocles

was

he

Unless
one

!"" f

of

the

not

derived

abovo

OF

LIFE

i88

studies

His

he

which

he

that

Early

when

had

he

of poetry were
mingled with those of philosophy,
know
have cultivated
that he was
early,for we

must

only twenty

had

found

that, without
remained

He
from

them

escape

him

seized

in

nature

of

Plato,

on

This

all the rest.

on

imperious craving for belief


scepticism,both found
breathing

Socrates

impugning
by seeking Truth

the

with

as

that

the

doctrines

room

question

to

sombre

with

scepticism, together
which
struggled with

could

Socrates.

philosophy of Heraclitus
melancholy youth. Scepticism, which was

his

in

him

spiritled

The

the fever of that age,

the

know

that disturbed

presence
elevated

meditative

well with

suited

also

felt

haunts.

secret

to

him
with the joy
sublime
thoughts ; a sense
Of something far more
deeply interfused.
Whose
is
the
lightof settingsuns.
dwelling
and
the livingair.
And
the roimd
ocean,
mind
and
-of man
in
the
blue
the
And
sky,
;
A
motion
and a spiritthat impels
All thinking things, all objects of all thought,
rolls through all things/' *
And

deep and

her

first went

Socrates, and we
taught by Cratylus before he knew

have

must

Of

he

been

'"

PLATO.

Socrates

only by death.

and

young

scholar

justice of lus doubts, he


elsewhere.

'

; and

ten

He

the

years
attended

was

separated

beloved

his

master

his

to
cause
plead
during the trial ; undertook
; indeed, began
the
would
the
of
which
violence
allow
not
judges
a
speech
to
him
of
to continue
sum
pressed his master
a
accept
; and
sufficient to purchase his life.
money
of Socrates, he went
the death
to Megara
On
to visit Euclid,
From
before.
thence he proceeded to Cyrene,
mentioned
we
as
in mathematics
instructed
where
he was
by Theodoras, whom
in Athens, if we
credit the
he had
known
Theaetetus,"
may
is represented
with
where
Theodorus
Socrates.
discoursing
it is said, with
From
to
Cyrene he went
Egypt, in company,
Euripides. There is very little authorityfor this visit,and that
'

littlequestionable. Certain

greatly exaggerated.

he

There

is

his

stay there

trace

no

in

his

has

works

been
of

indicates
at
Egypt
a very
scanty acquaintance with the subject, and, although
of their
praises the industry of the Priests, his estimate

Egyptian
most

it is that

"All

research.

is far from

scientific attainments
"

Wordsworth,

he

Tintem

tells

us

of

'*t

favourable.

Abbey.'

"

Ritter,'ii. 147,

Life

In these

travels,the

enlarged the Socratic

nistic^

elements.

Method.

meditative

broad-browed

he

But

crowding

were

\v^

strictly preserved

studious

youth,"
from

Athens

to

Maximus,

in

quarter

every

antagoSocratic

the

Valerius

says

of

search

wandering along
plains of a barbarous

that philosopher
for their master,
winding banks of the Nile or the vast

Plato
the

greatly

man

doctrine, and, indeed, introduced

"Whilst

"

Plato.

of

was

of Egypt."
himself, a disciple to the old men
him.
He
returned
around
flocked
scholars
at last; and
eager
With
tation,
media mind
richlystored in foreign travel and constant
he began to emulate
his beloved
devoted
and
master,
himself to teaching. Like Socrates, he taught gratuitously. In

country

the

world-renowned
This

Academy.

with

adorned

and

temples

statues;

founded

the

loftyplane trees, and


rolled
gentle stream

planted with

was

grove

he

Hecademus

of

grove

through it^with
*'

sound

Which

was

delicious

longing thoughts

quiet tune."

contemplation framed.**

"for

retreat,

posterityhave often
it the centre
of myriad associations.
Philosophers have sighed for it.

made

it.

of

there

See

"

Plato's

the

such

**

would

one

coupling this

Of

bees'

studious

with

"

the

notes

long.'^

sommer

industrious

none

the

oft invites

murmur

musing,"
but

the

Graces

poeticalbeauties

of

could
Plato's

enter;
'

have

Nothing
hard

exercises

power
adorned

but

can

be

farther

of

the

of continued
Plato's

dialectical

from

the

The

thinking faculty,and

abstraction.

Whatever

compositions, his

exercises.

truth.

Over

the

door

lectdres

demanded
graces

lectures

were

of

his

and,

Dialogues,'

supposed that the lessons in the Academy


of eloquence and
magnificent outbursts
imagery upon
subjects.

people

of

sung

the sound

To

imagine

have

the Attic"bird

where

thick-warbled

spot, where

"

Poets

The

it,and

round

hovered

of Academd,"

olive grove

retirement,

Trills her

In

of

June,
all night
sleeping woods

the

to

t"rook

hidden

leafy month

Singeth
It

of

as

the

In

were

sophical
philowere

great

might have
not
literary,
Academy

he

OP

LIFE

190

wrote

"

IM

Geometricians

but

none

PLATO.

enter

here^^

z.

"

of his

of the

sufficiently

lectures.

nature
explanatory programme
His school
He
thinks
Ritter
less a
differently.
was
says :
for
all
of
deeds
than
fSr
of hardy
the
school
polished culture
had
other
than
who
enhance
the
to
object
no
higher classes,
their
and
wealth."
This
of
is
privileges
enjoyment
passage
of
its
author.
of the loose
It
is
characteristic
writing
composed
"

of three

school*of

teach

Dialectics

? if so,

it is

truism

with

Plato's

this

deeds,''does

hardy

stoicism

absurd.

all three

statements,

"

school

that

mean

\ if not
deeds

"

less

was

Plato

did

falsism since

not

what

"

?
We
then
formed
inhardy
are
it
the
school
of
culture
that
for
polished
was
a
higher
absurd
and
A
The
classes."
an
assertion,
mere
higher
one.
the
Sophists ; besides, Plato's
classes," principally frequented
and
free citizen might attend
lectures
were
gratuitous,
every

has

to

do

"

"

them

exclusives

told

are

their

There

in Athens.

that

their

object

at

aristocratical

no

polished circles,"with
citizens.
Thirdly, we
enhance
the
enjoyment of
do
this by
to
they were
and
archetypal Ideas, we

no

"

to

was

How
essences

loss to conceive
views

Plato's

were
*'

of the

wealth."

privilegesand

listening to speculationson
are

There
were

that

differingfrom

culture

conditions.

certain

on

; the more
of justice and
honour

other

so

as

Ritter

himself

tells

us

were"

wholly impracticable
all
constitution; and
corrupt state
is indispensable to a politician,
as
empirical knowledge, such
in his view contemptible."*
was
Plato
made
his first visit to Sicily. It
In his fortieth
year
he became
then
acquainted with Dionysius I.,the tyrant of
was
Dionysius II. With
Syracuse, Dion, his brother-in-law, and
to a rupture,
came
Dionysius I. he soon
owing to his political
the
Tyrant, that his life was
opinions, and he so offended
threatened.
for him ; and the Tyrant
Dion, however, interceded
sador,
spared his life,but commissioned
Pollis, the Spartan Ambasin whose
slave.
to return, to sell him
ship Plato was
as
a
He
Anniceris
sold accordingly.
of Cyrene
was
bought him,
in

of

,the

Some

Lectures

countenance

by
this

confess

the

statement

given

seems

tradition

that

is to

the

us

even

Athenian

to
some

the
women

ordinary no'tion
attended

suspicious,especiallyas

of

Plato's

them.

it is also

said

We
that

clothes
disguised herself in man's
sary
neces; disguise, then, was
if
The
would
?
fact, however,
only show the high cultivation
correct,
of the hetaircs
have
think
must
(for such the women
we
been) ; and, when
for supposing they could
of such
as
no
reason
see
Aspasia, we
not
women
one

woman

follow

the abstrusest

lectures.

IIFB

OF

PLATO.

immediately set him free.


hoping that he
Dionysius wrote
Plato
contemptuously replied that

his

On

and

of

19

would

return

Athens,

to

him.

ill of

speak

not

he

had

leisure to think

"

not

DioBjrsius."
visit to

after the
of
death
Syracuse was
with the hope of obtaining from
Dionysius
Dionysius I., and
of a colony according to the laws
framed
II. the establishment
The
promised; but never
granted.
by himself.
colony was
been
of
Plato
the
incurred
having
cerned
conTyrant's suspicions
second

Plato's

Dion's

in

conspiracy ;

he

but

allowed

was

return

to

in peace.
He
to
paid a third visit ; and this time solely to endeavour
reconcile
Dionysius with his uncle Dion.
Finding his efforts
home

and perhaps dangerous,


fruitless,
retirement

calm

the

In

of

his

age

of

remainder

of

he

returned.

Academy

the

Plato

the

passed

his chief
Lecturing and writing were
occupations. The composition of those dialogues which have
of posterity,was
of
the admiration
the chewing
been
solace
his life,especially of his declining years.
died
the
He
at
advanced
Plato
which

him

his surname,

shoulders

brawny
thinkers

lips\ he

smile

phrase with the comic


scarcely any friends.
the

Plato

thinker

his

constant

that his
insincere

really loved

fixed itself upon


it had
scarcely any

poetry

them

resemblance

some

poetry

and
Plato

versified
the

became

admii:ers

many

the

over

"

That

man.

the

absorbing
left

sympathy

too

to

well
was

to

to

condemn

deep and

contempt
the

for the

preference
ever
praises is the

people
Many
Republic
was

Poets.

banishing the poets from his


extension
of his logicalprinciples,and

unallied

truth

had

of

played

ever

Plato

as

feeling not
to

He

reprobation of

opposition to poets

Plato's

sad

those

matters.

Hence

he

As

Those

only

as

that

utmost

brow

sombre.

and

so

questions of philosophy that

suppose
but an

"

predominated

great expansive intellect had


for other

the

was

broad

great

thought,

dramatists.

In

with

laughed.

never

That

wrinkled

was

bent

were

bent.

are

his

over

83.
intensely melancholy.

was

gave

days.

for

it,
"

arts

moral

of

he

philosophy. His soul panted for Truth.


unconscious
besty were
only inspiredmadmen,

in

saw

indifference

expression.

poetry, which

had

He

because

Sophists, viz., an

that

mistake.

constant.

them,

'

The

is in

only
truth

Poets,
of what

at

fell

PLATO'S

I9i

their

from

WRITINGS.

reader

lips. Let the


by Shelley); he

the

open

'

Ion

'

(it has

b6en

perceive the real cause


of
from
He
the
had a repugPoets
Republic*
being banished
nance
it was
the dangerous rival of
for poetry, partly because
had
he
for pleasure.*
a
philosophy, partly because
contempt
It is true that he
the
and, towards
frequently quotes Homer,
close of the
'Republic,' some
misgivings of having harshly,
him ; but
treated the favourite of his youth, escape
he quickly
alone
should
withdraws
that Truth
be man*s
them, and owns
object.
There
is something unpleasant in Plato's
character, whicli
translated

will then
*

its echo

finds

in his works.

man

; his works

His

ethics

suited

only

to

shock

doubtless

romantic,

is

The

is the

writers

was

from
in
of

the

are

not

of the

one

deepest melancholy

writers

constant

and
men.

melancholy,

character,

their

so

on

whose

the
The

humour

most

neous,
sponta-

often

rebound.

springs
Besides^

undercurrent

IL

CHAPTER
writings

not

dialogues.

always some
comedy
bitterness ; it is Irony, rather than Joyousness.

Plato's

men.

; it is the only
transmit.
Let no

Moliere,
apparently
Comedy

if in the

; as

if

drawn,

in his

is almost

there

Plato's

shall

we

usually drawn

men.

of

austerest

character

have

displayed

the gayest

genial, overflowing,

most

amiable

an

tiltagainst eminent

we

that

of his

object to our assertion


talent
ground of the comic
one

comic

Plato's

the ancient

what

not

humanity.

of
of

Plato

figure than

with

consonant

one

this view

it.

truer

great, but

prejudices, and

many

help

cannot

of

impossible state

an

bringing forward

In

We

ethics

the

was

lamentably deficient in humanity.


of a man;
logician, not
they are.

great, but

are

are

He

object,

and

authenticity.

Before
be

useful
of

attempting an exposition of Plato's doctrines, it may


and authenticity
to say something respecting the character
his

nothing, has

not

Dialogues.*
left them
*

Comp.

Modern

untouched.
'Philebus/

criticism, which

Dialogues,
p. 131.

spares
the authen*

PLATO'S

194

WRITINGS.

fallacious assumptions the authenticity


reject on the most
of works
quoted by Aristotle as the works of his master,
that Aristotle could be mistaken
Now
Plato.
reallyto suppose
of the conjectural privilege;
such a matter is a great extension
on
better
this supposition on
no
ground than that
but, to make
from
of execution, or
ot internal
inferiority
evidence, derived
in opinion in the
variation
works
themselves, seems
truly:

macher,

preposterous.
ancients

The
'

admitted

themselves
'

Eryxias,' the

Axiochus

'

the

and

the
'

Epinomis,'

Alcibiades

Second

the
'

to

also now
The
Epistles' are
spurious.
pretty generally,
With
these
exceptions,we really see na
regarded as forgeries.
the
of
for
and
Theages
reason
dialogues. The
rejectingany
in Plato's
the 'Hippias Major' are
certainlyas much
manner
in
is
Measure'
'Measure
for
Shakspeare's ; inde"?d, thei^
as
to
us
Hippias
seems
a
remarkably happy specimen of hi%
*

bje

'

'

dramatic
But

talent

whether

not, they equally

or

denies

pne

them

question,and
the

Do

dialogues were

all the

the

serve

be

to

purpose
We

platonic.

proceed

productions

of this
may

of

Plato,

history, since

therefore

leave

no

this

others.

to

Dialogues'

the

contain

the

real

opinions

of

Plato?"

himself
motives,
Plato
question has three
ist.
never
in
Athenian
the
indeed
in
unless
the
speaks
proprid persondf
Laws
be accepted as
representing Plato; a supposition in

ih\%

which

we

are

inclined

to

2ndly. From

concur.

certain

passages

that
Epistles,'it would
appear
had
for written
Plato
a
opinions as inefficient for
contempt
instruction.
the testimony of a phrase in Aristotle
3dly. On
that
it is supposed
exoteric and
Plato, like Pythagoras, had

of the

*Phaedrus'

and

esoteric
his

'

We

opinions,the
Dialogues.'
will endeavour

the

former

to

answer

being

of

these

those

course

doubts.

The

set

forth in

first is of

little importance ; the second


of greater ; the last of very
That
Plato
great importance.
adopts the dramatic
form, and
rery

it,is true ; but this form, which quite baffles us with


It is easy to divine
else.
Shakspeare, baffles us with no one
the opinions of Aristophanes, Molibre, or
Schiller.
It is still
the opinions of Plato, because, unlike
to divine
the
more
easy
preserves

works
have

have
been

fluctuated

examined,

complicated."

"

the

Ritter,

so

that
more

we

has

might

safelysay,

the

the decision of their

more

his

writing^

become
authenticity
"

PLATO'S

that

with

Socrates.

Dialogues,'but

'

find

be

may

in
Method
points, we find but one
conception of science, in a word,

one

unmistakeable

an

tlie variations

whatever

And,

subordinate

to

respect

all the
we

of

of

his

selects

Socrates

manner

195

dialogue solely with a view to the


his opinions. Besides, it is reasonable
to suppose
Plato's
opinions seen
through the
represents

dramatists, he
illustration

WRITINGS.

tendency

which

be

to

pronounce

we

J'latonic.
his

Respecting

instruction,.we

convey

subject in the
"

Writing

latter art

is

the

insufficiencyof
what

first quote

he

books

says

to

the

on

:'
"

painting :

like

something
like

the

on

may

Phaedrus

look very

question,they
do

opinion

the

living beings; but,


silence.

solemn

preserve
would
you

of

creatures

if you
Written

ask

the.

them

a,

discourses

fancy, by what
they say, that, they
had some
wish
in them
thereto learn, and
sense
; but, if you
Ifore interrogatethem, they have
to return
only their first answer
And
the discourse is once
to all questions.
when
written,
same

it passes
who
can

firom

hand

to

of persons,
those
It is not
able

all sorts
among
those
who
cannot.

hand,

it,and
it is suitable;and, when
to tell its story to those
only to whom
it is unjustly criticised,
it always needs
its author
to assist it,
understand

for it cannot

defend

which

which

That

the
do

one

that

valued,
the

who

person

you

this.

than

potent

more

and

fit.

You

the

mean

understands

wished

not

would

to

the

art

think

that

but, when
of

of

subject; of which discourse the


picture? Precisely. Now, think

produce
begun, scatter

rather

amusement;

employ

is it ?

livingdiscourse

real and

it in the

might

gardens

his

indeed

purpose

was

agriculture,and, sowing

which

he

after
seriously,

harvest, would

he

seed

take

pleasure of seeingit spring up and look green


you

What

the

be called the
may
sensible
husbandman

had

summer

and

of discourse,,

sort

This
written in the learner's mind.
scientifically
it can
of defending itself,
be
and
or
speak itself,

capable
silent,as it sees

written

and

is another

There

is

is

the

itself.

is far better

Adonis, for

of

in

week

Or,

this for sport


serious, would

do

the

seed
in the

at

the

eighth
gather in his harvest
think
?
that he
The
And
do you
last,undoubtedly.
who
is just,and
the knowledge pf what
noble, and
possesses
good, will deal less prudently with his seeds than the husband;
about
with his ?
will not, then, set
He
man
Certainlynot.
sowing them with a pen and a black liquid; or, (to drop the metaproper
month

time, be

content

to

PLATO'S

iq6

truths

phor,) scatteringthese

by

discourses

of

means

whkh

against attack, and which are incapable


No
he
of adequately expounding the truth.
doubt,
will,for
of
in this
the
seeds
sake of sporty occasionallyscatter
some

the

themselves

defend

cannot

who

others

sees

this

remarkable

Now,
be

growing

is

rigorouslyapplied

too

age,

he

will be

and

for all

pleased

green/*
clearly biographical. It is

up

passage

; and

old

philosophicalcareer.
Socrate^'

of
justification

not

track

same

in

of
forgetfulness

the

the

the blade

he

when

in

follow

for himself

up memoranda

treasure

fall into

should

he

case

will thus

and

manner,

the

WRITINGS.

Plato, whose

to

it must

But

voluminous

must
writings contradict it ; nor
we, in consequence,
suppose
for
that those
writings were
designed only
or
amusement,
as
main
idea of this passage
for his pupils. The
memoranda
is
feel disposed to question. We
that few persons would
one
are

all

they

books

that

aware

replace

cannot

of

labour
oral

author's

an

deficiencies ;.
very serious
llie frequent misapprehensions

under

instruction,

meaning

would

in

great

be

measure

And
by oiir side to interrogatehim.
has the further advantage of not allowing the
oral instruction
reader's mind
to be so passive "s it is with a book
; the teacher
by his Questions excites the activityof the pupil. All this may
Plato's
all
opinion without
at
as
reasonably be conceded
of his writings. Plato
affectingthe seriousness
thought that
if

obviated

conversation

was

much

obviate

as

written

discourse

illustrations

of

fatigued by them

as

he

all

threw

the

his

in them

works

into

and
repetitions,

endless

positions almost
;

reading ;

but

he

knew

self-evident.

but, like Addison's

the

to

of

form

of

divisions,and
The

is

reader

tediousness, they have

design is,by imitatingconversation,


to leave no
rogated,
be intercannot
positionunexplained. As a book
Plato makes
the book
anticipateinterrogations. The
of his
pains he takes to be tedious, the very minuteness
very
his works
from
the imputation of
details,is sufficient to rescue
divertissements.
He
too
was
being mere
great an artist to have
sacrificed his art to anything but his convictions.
That
he did
**

design

"

than

he therefore
instructive,and
wrote
inconveniences
possible the necessary

was

Hence

dialogue.

instructive

more

reading

also that

him

had

we

sacrifice the

that

general effect

to

his

scrupulous dialectics

no

one

believe
that
he did
for the
sake
we
of
so
doubt, and
the rekl force of his
deeply impressmg^ on the reader's mind
can

method

'PLATO'S

critics

Had

Plato's

seen

of their censure^

much

WRITINGS.

and

division of

third

with

Connected

upon.

Plato

supposed
do

words

indicate

to

Aristotle
and

same.*

space and
From
such

conclude

to

us

that

ioyfiara probably

above

works

passage
had an
his

meant

"

which

If Aristotle's

opinion consistent
the ** dialogues

"

examine

in Aristotle

opinions

doctrine.

and
*'

as

"

it.

'

place {rbv rivov

Plato

can

Timasus,' maintained
space
called
but
the
are
that, in what
) he
Acyo/Lickoisdypa0ois ^oyfivur

same,

part, we

own

unwritten

is the

Plato, in the

opinions (cv rots

unwritten

the

esoteric

an

Let

says that
the
to be

matter

considered

or

that meanmg,
then
regards the exoteric

divertissements.

mere

*'

bear

valid which

our

works, there is the passage

referring to the ayftojpa


^/jLora
is

spared

pronouncing against

For

with

have

explanation ;
vexatiz
questionesdisappear*
be entered
investigationmay now
our
Plato's
expressions respecting the

written

of

imperfection

before

dialogues.

only reconcile the style of


that once
adopted, all the
The

drift,they would

real

hesitated

the genuineness of certain

197

it is

kox

x^O

niv

surely somewhat

esoteric

doctrine

lectuires,or

^^^

gratuitous
3.ypaffM

The

Ritter

as

^^

suggests,

taken

notes

is

there

ground

no

opinions ;

the

for

more

We

opinions
We

individual
in

Method,
better

to

opinions

as

Plato

ventured
it is pretty
of so
much

because
not

were

tendencies

be

real
them.

express

generally known

importance

as

'

'

it is that

Certain

tendencies.

Method

the

only rightlybe appreciated after a survey


Dialogues.' The ancients,we are told by Sextus
can

Phys.,' hr. c. 2, p. 53. Ritter, who


that, in
gives us to understand
passage,
was
explained difierently,
or, at least,more
no

to

the

Socratic

and

and

"

esoterical

contain

Method

rate

any

philosophy. It would
perhaps be
'say,therefore,that the
Dialogues exhibit Plato's
the

real

all the

far

this reservation

make

that

as

At

been

have

to

published works.
the
'Dialogues'

that

of Plato, in

them

scholars.

illustrious pupil,
Aristotle,his most
distinct doctrine, but draws
his statements

from

convinced

are

as

his

by

supposing

such

views

of Plato's

lectures

so

speaks of any

never

of

the

from

But

no

conclusion

such

can

be

refers
these

'

'

does

be
from
'

that

passage

may
written

the

allowed
the

Timaeus

in

Aristotle.

from

If

not

'

cite,the

opinions, **

than
definitively
drawn

greater difference alluded to in the above


found
between
one
dialogue and another.

opinions differ,
surely those unwritten
may
If the
written ?
differs
the
Republic
** unwritten
opinion " may differ from the

to, but

unwritten

also

to

the

much
*

logues.'
Dia-

There

(published)
differ from

Timseus,* surely
'

is

frequently

the

WRITINGS.

PLATO'S

198

Empiricus,*
Plato

was

scepticor

for,

divided

were

as

and

dogmatical,

of

others

method-^^-mere
one

would

think

which

he

of those

nature

admirer, says:

arguments,

leaves

it undetermined."

scepticor
had

is

settled
definitively
'

these

Dialogues*

dogmatist, according

read.

Thus

is true

This

dialectical

the

of

Cicero,

affirms

and

many

are

class of

one

tional
dispute irraexpository and

nothing; but,
examining a question

Plato

*'

only

the

'

exercises

nothing

whether

to

as

was

Dialogues

in which

either

Nor

mere

are

contests

Plato

'

the

having studied

"^any

the

dogmatist.

some

themselves

amongst

of

'Theaetetus,' or the ^Hippias Major;'


of the
Phaedo,' *Timaeus,' Leges/ "c

ardent

an

producing
side,
every

after
on

dialogues as

such
but

to

extremely

the

untrue

'

This

leads

to

us

consideration

of

That

dialogues.
adopted is admitted

classifyingthe

various

the

sort

some

at

attempts

classification

of

should

be

to

agree

can

be

precise arrangement.
Any attempt
Certain
must
fail.
inevitably
dialogues
arrangement
shown
have
been
written
to
satisfactorily
subsequently

to

ingenuity.
latest.
the
But
is
to

We

earliest

the

be
of

one

be
may
because

Laws,*

the

when

sure

the

pretty

that

sure

earliest, and

that

the
is

latter
*

on

subject which

opinions
ideas

difference
*

'

the

of

Laws

But

of

the

politics.
conjecture. It

written, baflies

The

was
'

Laws

view

our
'

earlier than

was

maturer

'

the

Republic'

beyond

Phaedrus

'

'

is

that

demur

we

style and

to

of ideas

rable
Republic and the Laws
imply considedistance
the periods of composition. Besides,
between
not
writing for his bread does not so soon
resume
a
in

observable

man

accounts.

is

the

the

several

seem

persons

regular succession

any

was
Republic
Timseus
with
the
and
usually placed
say with the last products of its author.

this

but
may

or

We

two

no

nological
at chro-

others;

some

by

; but

the

to

as

all

in

were

the

already exhausted.

has

he

'Republic'
developed before
the

write; for,
dogmatical : they

both

observe

'

express

He

must

he

could

these
Plato's

Plato
have
be

dialogues
opinions

had

uttered

waited

till

new

again

tempted
are

his

expository

they

are

not

to

and

merely

dialectical exercises.
It strikes

applied
exhibit

to

us

the

variations

also

that

testing of
of

"

there
such

opinion, we
"

is but

points.
should

Pyrrho. Hypot.,*

safe

one

principleto

Whenever

examine

i. p. 44.

two

the

be

woiks

nature

of

PLATO'S

the variations

WRITINGS,

ask, which

and

of the

199

opinions is the

two

later in

which

development"
Let

take

us

to

attempts
comic

prove

cannot

Amatores,*

mentioned

289,

p.

the

are

which

same

and

own

opinion

of

it

that

that

Agathon,
Now,

the

it is

not

in

the

only
Plato's
he

passage,

tragic

comic

and

difficult to
*

the

decide
'

Republic

the

is

No

will

one

imply

to

deny that

like

and

for the

nature

former

the

tragedy

between

distinct

looks

and

uncommon,

distinction

seems

'

tion
retracta-

opinion

comedy

is

cultivation

Shakspeare, Racine, Cervantes, Calderon, and


this notion
by their works.
others, confute

But

each.

very

for, in alcelebrated

same

In

success.

idea, though
however,

same

the

corrected

side.

superficial.The

such

reverse

not

was

Plato's

on

is

the

'Symposium,'

opinion :
of his premisses ;

opinion

Socrates

former

with

he

123,

; that

but that in the


sium
Sympoby experience; for,in the poets
and
both
day he found
comedy
tragedy united j
that the
to convince
being made
Agathon proves

is the

his

iii.p.
arts

there

that

logical consequence
of

the

In

two

tragic,that

comedy

the

person.

earlier

is the

has

convince

Socrates

poet

he

in

the

as

same

tragedy and

Republic/

excel

can

one

the

briefly.*
directlythe

opinion is
makes

in

act

no

be

cannot

poet

actor

that

earlier ?

the

the

In

example.

an

been

have

must

many

Perhaps,

conclusive

still more

example

is that

"

of the

tion
crea-

*'

Ideas

of

eternityand

"

the

uncreated

Timaeus.*

radical

So

philosophy

which

the

dialogues

added

the difference
the

and

Timgeus.'

Timseus
Ritter

'

and

has

well

at

once

According

when

than
a

the

the

has

latter

**

the excellence

another,
Yet, on tiiis principlethe
as

the doctrine

the latter.

the

principle,this
been

developed
subsequent in

Phsedo

of reminiscence

is

the

be

Republic'
has

rare

with

acuteness

would

of the

imitative

the
prove
with

maintains, and

He

is

much
The

have
that

observed

'Amatores.'

subjectwhich

in

the

vigour of the early dialogues.


scarcely a trace of art.

Laws

to Hitter's

this may

to

between

former, although expository,

dialogues,as pieces
in the dialogue,and
exhibited
*

And

composed.

were

of art, is twofold

later

"

difference

would

dramatic

the

Republic,' and the


as
expressly stated in
in the most
important
the
epochs at
separate

in artistic treatment
The

vivacity and

of the
*

the

of Ideas

nature

position of his
two

in

expressly stated

so

'

in

one

dialogue

which

Platonic
powers

piloso-

Republic

'

to

be

that,
plausibility,
is

brieflyassumed

vol. ii. p. 183.


Phaedrus,' inasmuch

composition.See
"

is earlier tnan

developed

in the

the

"

fonner

and

aUaded

to in

PLA^rO^S

zoo

No
will deny that
one
dialecticallytreated.
sequently
two
connexion, and conqualitieshave only an outward
With
the
that they cannot
advance
equally.
sopher
philowhereas
the
the latter is manifestly the more
important,
is of secondary importance.
The
degree of perfection

phical matters
these

former

are

in any

therefore

dialogue,as such,

greatest weight ought

proportion

proportion as

Plato

of poetry
his first work

love

So

; but
was

; his

exposition.

clear

this he
^

the

Phsedrus,'

last

the

'

the

least

In

In

lor.

he became
life with

began
for

philosophy.
in poetical

luxuriant

most

Timseus

He

abandoned

soon

the
were
images
exclusivelydogmatical, and

most

skilL"

cared

less

the

it is natural

mature,
was

tain
uncer-

very

whereas

settled in his convictions

became

solely for their

anxious

imitation

dialectical

the

on

most

date;

skill became

the dramatic

that

suppose

at

its

of

laid

be

to

dialectical

the

as

affords

determination

the

for

means

to

WRITINGS,

and

the

'

Laws,' the

ornate.

Until
idle ; but it is not
inquiry may seem
so.
of his works can
be made,
something like a positivearrangement
there
will be no end
to the misconceptions of his opinions ; for
The

whole

it is preposterous
to cite passages
the date
of
having ascertained

in support of a doctrine before


the work
whence
the passages
critics and
historians draw
drawn.
Yet this is the way
up
outline
of
Plato's
and
imaginary
philosophy,
squabble

are
an

each

amongst
Plato

held

such

understood
a

with

so

be

idea

Socratic

this idea
in the

Virtue

of

he

"

Laws,' book

it is said

When

distinctly

be
it ;

held

that

because, in

changes of opinion, it is
our
own
can
scarcely
part we
Even
the
throughout his works.

being

learned

he

career

many

identical

being Ignorance

Vice
even

of his

precise. For
opinion held by him

an

right.

opinion, it should

an

period
and

career,
to

necessary
name

such

is

who

to

as

or

what

at

long

so

other

and

in his

old

with

sequently,
knowledge, contherefore
involuntary",
to repudiate,as
we
age

385, where he calls incontinence^


less than
3i' oiiaBiav ^ hi oKparBiay),
the
no
ignorance (^ yap
of vice.
ix. p. 138, after,
In
the
book
causes
same
sense,
of error, he says :
and pleasure as
causes
speaking of anger
There
is a third cause
of our
faults,and that is ignorance
5ee

v.

p.

"

'*

rSn^
(rpirovfjirp^ ayvoiav
places ignorance only

destroys

the

of Virtue

and

The

Meno

whole

cdridv). So

afJMprrffJMTiav
as

Socratic

third

cause;

argument

and

that

here

by

doing
identity

so

respecting the

he

knowledge.*
'

is

farther

confirmation.

In it virtue

is shown

to

be

un*

WRITINGS.

PLATO'S

aoj

True

III., those

first are

those

second

those

it relates to

wherein

practical. Of the

the

Of the
Love, Beauty, and the Soul.
concerning Dialectics,Ideas, Method, in which

concerning

attainingit are sought. Of the third,


those concerning justice,
and politics. These
Le, morals
three
classes represent
the three phases of the philosophicalmind
:
the desire for Truth, the appreciationof Truth, and the realization
of it,in an
life.
applicationto human
is one
There
viz.,the
great objection to this classification,
the
impossibilityof properly arranging the Dialogues under
Truth

the

and

of

means

'

separate

heads.

devoted

to

dialogue

under

the

he

became
It may

acquainted with

the

be

may

it

he

Heusde

been

up in
is also

only

imbued

became

in his

was

mixes

Plato

having

Plato's

maturer

with

age

that

Pythagorean philosophy.
suggest

temptation. If
reasonably be divided

Empiricus:

Van

the

Sextus

by

to

presumptuous
resist

rest

Megara, where

to

that

"Dialogues*
named

went

of

doctrines, and

cannot

we

conviction

erroneous

Eleatic

of the

So

opposite subjects.

very

Socratist,tillhe
the

and

to Dialectics.

shown, devoted
one

believes
Van
Heusde
Phaedrus,* which
has
Beauty, is clearly,as Schleiermacher
*

The

Love

to

seems

Dogmatic

"

but
classification,

new

into

the

and

that

us

the

classes

two

Agonistic,

or

advantage of this division is


its clearness
will always be someand
thing
practicability.There
to
classify the dialogues
arbitrary in the endeavour
all
they are almost
according to their subject-matter,because
than
one
subject. Thus, the Republic,'
Occupied with more
of Ethics ; yet it
the head
under
would
certainlybe classed
the nature
of human
contains
on
very important discussions
knowledge and on the theory of Ideas ; and these discussions
of Metaphysics.
under
the head
ought properly to be classed

Expository

and

Polemical.

The

Again,

the

Phaedrus

about

'

is

more

but

Love;

Dialectics.
In the

the

occupied

than

half

real

subject of

the

with
work

courses
disis

""

division

we

propose,

such

inconveniences

are

avoided.

dialogues are polemical, and which are


'Hippias Major' and the ^Timseus'
expository. The
may
of
In
the
each
class.
stand
no
former,
representatives
as
Socrates
to settle the question raised.
contents
attempt is made
himself
with refutingevery
position of his antagonist. In the
It is easy

"Timaeus'

see

which

there

is

to

expository.

no

polemic

of

any

sort:

all

is

calmly

METHOD,

PLATO'S

further sub-division

into

such

times

other

to

opens
We

all

through

varieties
which

of form

will

opinion ;

of

or

rightlybe called

may

Socratic

doctrines
and

epoch

is

Plato

of

purpose

their

be

may

III.

Plato's

some,

distinct

fruitful purpose,
of Plato, and which

philosophy

the

Theaetetus.*

great and

one

CHAPTER

By

is the

as

exhibit.

to

attempt

now

of this kind

firmly persuaded that one


the
'Dialogues/ whatever

however,

are,

runs

we

vista of the truth

such

by means
Plato
Sometimes
only destroys \ at
of the ground which
is a clearance

destruction

the

us

purely polemical, and

ideas.

enforce

polemics

of

logues,
agonisticdia-

of the

also be made

might

are

as

403

method.

of the
regarded as a mere
literaryexponent
the
of a new
real
founder
; by others, as

philosophy.

new

Both

of

views

these

appear

the

subject of Plato errors


are
;
said so
had
almost
and
inevitable,that no
so
we
numerous,
who
one
rightlyappreciates the difficultyof ascertainingthe
truth, will be disposed to dogmatise. Although we claim the
with no
^a rightpurchased
right of enforcing our opinions
temptible
conto

but, really on

erroneous

us

"

of

amount

in the

labour

inquiry
"

would

we

be

tinctly
dis-

in their
place no
great confidence
very
validity. After this preface, we
speak openly,
trust, we
may
We
without
not
incurring the charge of dogmatism.
are
truths : we
enunciating ascertained
are
simply recording the
results of study.*
neither
Plato
be
hold
to
the
a
we
simple Socratist, nor
understood

of

creator

has

It

been

quoted

endless.
iis

to

state

with
two

of the

The

He

philosophy.

new

references
have

to

principle with
; and

shall

we

chapter

and

absence

of

verse

such

througliout to

us

follow
for

every

that, previous to writing


Plato, by carefullyreading
ones.

This

it in

references
this

minor

section

inheritor

the

was

aU

this

from
of

result

of that

the

cessary
unne-

To
been

needful

more

renewed
with

all
PJato.
have

would

it the

section, we
his works^

is the

abstain
account

statement

renders

of all the

our

for

tance
acquain-

exception
study.

of

METHOD.

PLATO'S

204

fully seized the importance "tf the


Socratic- Method
: he
adopted it,enlarged it. But he also saw
which
his predecessors had
ideas
the importance of those
sa
laboriouslyexcogitated ; he adopted and enlarged the leading
features
of the Pythagoreans, and
Eleatics,of Anaxagoras, andWith
Heraclitus.
vast
puissant method, he
a
learning and
his
But
created
influence which
is not
an
yet totallyextinct.
liorated,
critical,not
dogmatical. He enlarged, amephilosophy was
wisdom

his age.

of

the

into

views

He

of

others

philosophy of
philosophy.

the

of Greek

his age.
He
In his works

preceding

of

tendencies

introduced

; but

the

was

no

culminating point
various

all the

and

were

the

Method

flicting
con-

under

collected

eras

element

new

one

Method.
Method

That

doubtless

was

of

Socrates, with

modifications, or rather with some


enlargement. Schleierof
luminous
the 'Worth
on
macher, in a profound and
essay
Socrates
to
the service rendered
as
a Philosopher,'* looks
upon

some

Philosophy by
in

at, than

Socrates

in

mode

the

consistingless

as

which

in the

truth

the

truths

should

arrived

sought.

be

This appears
to us
view, John Mill has said :
Plato.
to be, with
to
modifications, applicable likewise
some
No doubt
the disciplepushed his mere
inquiriesand speculations
much
extended
to
a
over
more
surface, and
a
greater depth

Alluding

below

to

the

this

"

is any

there

surface, than

the

believe

to

reason

original
But, though he continually starts most
valuable
and
that these, when
ideas, it is seldom
they relate to
air of conviction, as if
stated
with an
the results of inquiry are
the topic under
But
when
fixed opinions.
to
they amounted

master

did.

consideration
moral

is the proper
spiritin which truth

and methods
processes
the subject-matter is

knowledge in the
and ignorance, and
the

and

same,

belief.

matured

when

put

are

the

should

"

be
it is

by which

sought,
to

be

or

attained

not

between
are

definite
with

forth

Even

knowledge

in

opinions advanced

and

the

real

other

the

the

; or, when

principle,but
knowledge

opinion
of

then

"

always the

consistent,are

appearance

treatingof
have

and

either

intellectual

the

scientific
any particular
between
abstract, the differences

inculcated

views

philosophising

of

mode

and

earnest

subjects,and

least semblance

of

even

being

seriouslyentertained, the discourse itself has generally a


strong tendency to illustrate the conception which does seem
*

Translated

reprinted in

by Bishop Thirlwall,in the PhilologicalMuseum


Englishversion of Dr. Wiggcr^s Life of Socrates.'
'

the

very
to
'

and

PLATO'S

METHOD.

205

of some
of the nature
reallyentertained
part or other of the
inference
would
is
draw
of philosophising. The
we
process
of the Investigationof Science, the theory
that on
the science
of the pursuit of truth,Plato had not
only satisfied himself that
be

his

in error,

and

how^ but

had

also

adopted
all or most
other subjects,he
definite views of his own
; while, on
of others,pointhimself with confutingthe absurdities
contented
ing
predecessors

were

spiritin which it
be conducted, and
should
throwing out a varietyof ideas of his
of which
he was
of the value
not
quite certain, and which
own,
he left to the appreciation of any subsequent inquirer competent
the

put

proper

sit in

to

judgment

here

have

We

for

course

the

them.**

upon

examine

to

inquiry,and

what

Method

that

whith

was

Plato

Socrates, as we have shown, relied upon


constantly pursued.
tions,
Definithe Inductive, or, rather. Analogical Reasoning, and on
the

as

of

these

himself

Plato

principlesof investigation. The incompleteness


have
principles we
already pointed out; and

two

Definitions

it necessary
the base of

found
form

enlarge them.

to

all science.

it is not

To

know

thing

ascertaining the real


his
accoucheur's
art
employed
(rcxny
Definition, Socrates
and
proceeded inductively. Plato also used these
fjLaievTtKrj)
you

must

arts

; but

also

know

he

added

what

them

to

of
Analysis
processes
classification.*

Analysis, which
;

Synthesis,

of

generalization and

by Plato

on

efficient

as

scientific

its separate
the idea
those parts attentively,
Platonic
ascertained.
To
guage,
lanuse

decomposition
whereby after examining
whole

scientific and

more

first insisted

was

is the

process,

parts

and

the

In

is

of

the

whole

into

correctly
if the
Thus
Analysis is seeing the One in the Many.
Virtue must
decomfirst be posed
subject be Virtue, the general term
from
into all its parts, t\e,,into all the Virtues ; and
a

of

the

thorough examination

of the Virtues

clear idea

of Virtue

may

attained.!

be

Definitions

were

to

Plato

what

general

or

abstract

ideas

were

be
held
to
metaphysicians. The individual thing was
eternal.
transitory and phenomenal, the abstract idea was
Only
crates,
Soitself. But
concerning the latter could philosophy occupy
Definitions,had no
conalthough insistingon proper

later

to

"

Consult

the

good

passage

Van

Heasde,

example
translated

of his

from

Init
mode
the

Platon.*

ii.

pars; ii. p. 97, 98.

conducting an inquiry may


'Grorgias.'"See 'Appendix A.*
of

be

seen

in

PLATO*S

ao6

METHOD.

Definitions

classification of those

ception of

the

constitute

science.

this process,
shifted
I that of Dialectics.

What

was

the

from

philosophy

of

ground

Dialectics?

must

introduction

the

Plato, therefore, by

which

It

Ethics
the

was

of
to

of

art

the
uses
discoursing^i.e.,the art of thinking, i.e,,logic. Plato
with
course
word
him
silent disa
Thinking was
Dialectics,because
differed from
of the soul, and
speech only in being
silent.
In

this

of

conception

Philosophy

the conversational
direction

science

to

speculations

to

method

Dialectics,

as

of Socrates,
instead

accordingly,
Ethics, he allowed
;

them

but

of

Plato
a

gave

sorbed
abnew

confining

to

his
all

embrace

nature.

How
merit

that

erroneous

notion

is which

exclusivelyliterary,
may

was

brief outline

of his method.

Dialecticians

He

This

record.

that Plato's
supposes
gathered from the above

be
was

one

of the

most

severe

is his

leading peculiarity;but
his Method
he has clothed
in such
fascinatinglanguage, that
mistaken
have
been
for
the means
His great printhe end.
ciple,
of
must
the
we
tiring
constantly repeat, was
necessity an uninto
schoolmen
the
investigation
general terms
(or,as
did
life or on
He
abstract
look
the world
not
ideas).
on
say,
with
the temporary
interest of
of the
a
passing inhabitant
soul longing to
world.
He
with an immortal
looked
them
on
released

on

its

earthly sojourn, and striving to catch by


faint glimpses of that region of eternal
Truth
anticipation some
The
it would
where
of
fleetingphenomena
some
day rest.
world
he
knew
But
he
this
wise
too
nothing more.
were
was
them.
and
to overlook
imperfect as they were, they
Fleeting
be

were

the

footmarks

Long

from

indications
on

before

the
him

of that eternal

perilousjourney, and
had

wise

and

for which

Truth

guides

meditative

men

he

longed

the

goal.
perceived that
of phenomena;
perpetual flux
a
unto

only be knowledge
sense-knowledge would
that everything men
but a
call existence
was
that
the reports
something which, always hecoming never
w(is;
which
made
of these things partook of the same
our
senses
and
uncertain
character.
could not, therefore,put
He
fleeting
his trust in them
could
not
was
anything
; he
say that Time
the
than
of
wavering image
more
Eternity.
he
But
These
not
Sceptic.
transitoryphenomena
was
a
"

were

not

true

existences

; but

Interrogatethem;

they

were

classifythem;

images
discover

of

true

what

tences.
exis-

quali-

PLATO'S

ties

in

they have
in

One

common

amidst

necessary,

The

METHOD.

is

and

Many

discover

all that

207

which

that

is

invariable,

variable,contingent ; discover

penetrated

have

you

the

The
of

secret

Existence.*
modem
in reducing this Platonic
to
language
Now,
a
The
thought is simply this:
formula, what is the thought?
Things exist as classes as well as individuals; these classes
viduals
indiagain a^e but species of higher,classes ; j?^., men
are
is a species of the class
Man
of. the class Man, and
Animal.
is Deductive, has nothing to
But science, which
do
with individuals
General
solely with classes.
; it is occupied
the
Abstract
materials
with
ideas, are, therefore,
Terms, or
which

science

These

works.

General

how

with

mistake

we

curious

utterance,
the

to

We

would

But

the

far

as

in

be

to

as

pression
ex-

perfect
cautious

be

must

we

only real

dences
expression for coinciinarticulate
an
philosophy was

Plato's
to

And,

seem

coincidences

these

_for the

science.

thinkers.

modern

doctrine.

of

he

concerned,

accordance

said, stood

only objects of

existences, the
is

Plato

Terms,

of

historian,but valueless

as

solution

problem.
here

are

Realism

led to the

originof

Nominalism.

dispute of

world-famOus

the

This

summed
dispute maybe
up
in a
Realists
General
The
sentence.
maintain, that every
Term
(or abstract idea),such as Man, Virtue, "c., has a real
and
independent existence, quite irrespectiveof any concrete
individual
Smith, Benevolence, "c,
determination, such
as
The
Nominalists, on the contrary, maintain, that all General

Terms

and

but

are

distinct

no

caused

Plato
the

the

It is

small

of

used

merely
very

degree

first Realist

pretty
of

M.

ingenuity,designating

human
as

marks

quarrel

bickering
Pierre

as

and

Leroux

of
it

aggregate

stands," and

heart-burning.
believe,
is,we

last. t
In

Realism

Socrates.

"

no

was

creations

entities,but

conceptions.
has

the

To

On

refer

the

Plato
this

separated

point

reader

to

we

have

himself
the

from

his

master

indubitable, but hitherto


wherein

passages
particular

this- doctrine

is

.through all his works,


and
is the
found
doctrine
to be
there.
Perhaps the easiest
'
is
it
where
read
be
Philebus,'
passage
may
pp. 233-6.
"De
rHumanit".f
Without
t In his work
avowing Realism^'
explicitly
bis conception Qf Hmnanity, 9^ distinct from
human
individuals, implies it,.
expressed,

implied,
only constant
or

wou]a

be

endless

it

runs

testimony

little noticed,

Method

Socratic

the

Socrates

and

General

to

This

existence."*

distinct

Aristotle,who, aftei: speaking

of

Induction

of

neither

gave

THEORY.

WEAL

PLATO'S

2o8

is

Terms

General
gave to these
Ideas'*
called them
Thus

are

Terms

introduced

we

*'

Those

who

But
a

con-

succeeded

existence, and

famous

Plato's

to

Aristotle,in

separate

of

Definitions

to

nor

plain enough.

jtinuation,obviously speaks of Plato


him

Definition, says

Ideal

theory;

and

contradictory enough in detail,


with all his specialopinions, is clear enough as a
is the case
as
have
a chapter to itself.
general tendency. It must
confused

although

which,

IV.

CHAPTER
Plato's

in

word

any

undergone more
philosophy ; and nothing

the modem

to

has

Idea

word

The

theory.

ideal

of the word

sense

than

changes
well

can

than

the

be

almost

opposed

more

affixed

sense

it by

to

Plato.
If

were

we

stantial

say, ihat the Ideas


the schoolmen,

to

Forms

endeavouring

enlighten

to

If

to

were
we
great
the
same
Universalsy

that

to
we

say,
should

was

an

would

every
Idealist:" with

be

afterwards.

Mk

distinct existence

Met.,' xiii. iv. dXX*


The
ro^c 6piff^o^c*"

given

universals
to

to

Definitions

difficultyvanishes,
nniversals

this

were

the

and

asserted, that

"

supposed
be

Nominalist

better, however,
Plato, according

Realist; and
*

were

into

obscurity
If

belief

exception, the

to
were

we

Abstract

or

the

as

tantamount

raised.

Terms

of

risk

Ideas^

that

Plato

illustration

last

pertinent.

be

It will

General

the

an

were

be

the Sub-

to

run

with

Ideas

the

objection might

Ideas

mislead

'^

Terms

the

should

we

obscurity

an

that

say,

tantamount

were

of

if

first and

describe

to

Aristotle, gave

to

called
there

r^

filv SwKpariic

iht

was

He

became
Mtm

Abstract

KaQiikoVy

define

General

to

Ideas.

them

to

no

xwpiffrd iwoUi^

oh

of this may
Many have
straoge.
appear
could
existence
exist separately,bat how
a
separate

wording

may
we

puzsle
remember

the

stoutest
that

the

We

Realist.

telieye

DefinidonK

Platonic

the
and

same

things; though

Aristotle's

phrase

is

ambiguous.

WEAL

PLATO'S

310

whetheci/^

individual

the

mean

the

means

universal^
^is

"

Plato

usually designates an

be

doubt

no

; there

THEORY.

only thus
Idea, a

be

can

General

that

also

of

which

is

'

all

Men
where

must

by Ideas
To

formed.

were

There

thing,

from

Table

in

as

tion
contradic-

no

is

for
for Tables
as
as
general form
necessary
this Idea, therefore, equally partakes of generalityeven
exemplified by particularthings.

We

Tables

other

can

sometimes

he

of some
designates an Idea the essence
the
Republic/ where he speaks of the Idea

That

there

Term,

individual

in this.

also

not

reconciled.

be

to

doubt

no

it does

whether

or

endeavour

now

in the

Platonic
Plato

Socrates

indicate

to

position occupied

the

cosmology.
indebted

was

for

his

Method

; yet

not

conception trans*
wholly indebted, seeing that he enlarged
he
indebted
for his fheory
mitted
him.
To
to
was
Pythagoras
it
of Ideas ; yet not wholly indebted, seeing that he modified
the

and

it

rendered

have

seen

let

us

now

how

see

did

he

What

plausible.

more

transformed

he

Method

for

the

we

Pythagorean

doctrine.

Aristotle, in

memorable

''Plato
says:
passage,
definitions,but accustomed
as

respecting
inquiries into universals
Socrates

that

supposed

(8ta to

definitions

noumena),
impossible to give
rather

l^iffTrj(rai
wcpi
be

should

he

to

was

he
KofioKovjy

twk

of

intdligibles{i.e.
phenomena)
{i.e.
; for it is

of sensibles

than

those

followed

general definition to sensible objects,which


he
called
Those
IntelligibleEssences
are
always changing.
from
different
Ideas:
adding that sensible objects were
Ideas,
and

received

oi ihevc
the

Things
potion.^
Aristotle

are

the

He

due

And

the

names

same

name

participation. The

submission

in the

last sentence.

conception
on

the
He

conception

ventured

Ideas

of

on

of
an

the

say

the

'

says,

question

Plato

alone

Pythagoreans

He
that

partici*

to

venture

we

Ideas.

the

as

Plato

copies of Numbers.'

only changes the name."

great advance
not
stop here.
and

word

the

The

name.

receive

genus

introduced

With

; for it is in consequence
in Ideas, that all objects of
fii6"$Lv)

their

them

from

participation {Kara

same

did

the

more

as

assertion

than

change

genericaltypes

Numbers.

But

explanation

of

of

Plato
the

is

"Met,,*i.c6.

did

nature

degree of that participationof sensible objects in Ideas.


Aristotle himself^ in another
place, points out a funda*
"

"

PLATO'S

distinction.

mental

their

than

Plato

{uelIdeas), and

JNumbers

Surely, this is something

gives a

It

clear, and

more

; but

Things

the

to

the

Things

the

causes

are

Sensible

theory

less

no

Intelligible

are

Numbers

invention

the

than

more

character

new

211

thought that sensible

Numbers

were

causes

THEORY.

IDEAL

of

; it renders

s'

"

name

it at

once

applicable.

more

difficultyfelt in the Ideal theory is that of


,^JIaWy and in how far, does this participation
participation.
take
place ? A question which Plato did not, and could not,
All
solve.
that he could
that human
knowledge
answer
was,
The

is

greatest

necessarilyimperfect,that
and

eye,

only when

the

soul

sensation

troubles

the

intellectual

from*the hindrances

is free

of

the

be able to discern
body shall we
things in all the ineffable
But, although our knowledge is imperfect,
splendour of truth.
it is not

false.

Reason

enables

catch

to

us

glimpses

some

of

the

is
Whatever
endeavour
to gain more.
truth,and we must
the object of the soul's thought^ purely as' such, was
real and
The
to separate these glimpses of the truth
true.
problem was
from

the

of mere
prejudicesand errors
opinion.
In this doctrine, opinion is concerned
only with Appearances
Our
sensation, judg(phenomena) ; science with Existence.
ments,

to
opinions, have
our
only reference
ra
yiyvofieva;
scientific conceptions have
The
reference
whole
to rh 3i^a.
is comprised in Plato's answer
matter
to Diogenes, who
thought
he
demolished
the theory of Ideas
by exclaiming: "I see

indeed
"

table ; but I
with
you see

Because

Hence,
that

the

at

those

themselves
The
world

close

only
the

to

are

see

Idea

no

of

and
your eyes,
of
of the 5th Book
to

be

called

contemplation

with

not

his

'

of the

ro

ov,

in the

Forms

of

nature

which

of

Ideas.

In

other

your

replied:
reason."

Republic,' he

Philosophers

which
what
constitute
phenomena
we
the
but
of sense) are
(/". the world

matter

Plato

table."

who

says
devote

i.e. existence.

perceive of the
participationsof

words

Ideas

are

the

material

of
Things are copies ; the noumena^
whidi
all that we
perceive are the Appearances (phenomena).
these copies to be exact
But we
must
not
:
they do not
suppose
of their models
do
not
at all participatein the
nature
; they
in a superficial
than
even
manner.
represent them, otherwise

Or, perhaps, it would


resemble

Things

'Met.,' i. 7*

; as

"iXXd

be
the

more
man

correct

does

to
not

r"dc V^v voriro^s a(rcovc"

say

that

resemble

ro^rovc

Ideas
his

do

not

portrait,

dh alaOtiTo-vs,

PSYCHOLOGY.

PLATO'S

2i"

although the portraitmay


a

be

tolerable

resemblaQce

of his aspect, not of his nature.


resemblance
they exist realized
If, then, the Ideas
as

accurately resemble
not
are
phenomena
attain

the Ideas

they exist,per

as

copies

exact

the

of

noumena

PLATO*S

is

refreshment

some

explain the

to

real

the

exhibit

show
it,he can
demonstration, he can

paints as

follows

we

?
his

of

are

psychology,

conceptionof

the

preceding chapters,it

two

to

this

open

chapter

fascinating of

most

all

with

Plato's

his inability
very justlydeclares
the soul.
But, though he cannot

of

nature

the

able

Phaedrus,' Socrates

the

of

be

that, perhaps,

myth, and
myths.
In

to

how

not

if the

Le.

PSYCHOLOOT.

dreary dialectics

the

"

do

V.

CHAPTER

After

se
"

of Truth

knowledge of Ideas and


into the midst
This question plunges us
which
first explain before the whole
must
we
consistent.
Ideal theory can
be made
to

ever

Nature

in

him

of

it resembles.

what

paint

Unable

picture ; and

that

to

give

picture be

"

chariot, with a pair of winged


In the souls of the gods, the horses
and
horses
and
a driver.
in
other souls, only partisdlyso,
the drivers are
entirelygood ;
The
of the horses
excellent, the other vicious.
one
business,
therefore, of the driver is extremely difficult and troublesome.
''

We

''

to

Let

be

are

us

attempt

now

spoken of

employed

and

travel

when

the

helps

to

loses

its

it to

compare

may

in

about
soul

is

as

to

mortal, and

taking
the

care

whole

administer

wings, drops

the

down

others

of the

has

entire

livingbeings

some
as

immortal.

things which

heaven

of

perfect,and

how

show

in various

wings, it is

the

hold

souls

inanimate

forms.

carried

universe; but

until it catches

are

All

came

Now,
aloft,and

soul

which

of

something
having a dwelling

solid,in which it takes up its residence ; and


of clay, which
be self-moving on
of the soul
to
account
seems
is in it,the two
which
Mortal.
together are called an animal, and
animal'
arises
The
from
not
phrase 'immortal
any

PLATO'S

PSYCHOLOGY.

understanding, but from


ti6r beitirg
able
to
comprehend,
imniortal being, having a body
cOnect

together for all eternity.


God

let

; but

having

never

well

as

be

soul

cause

it

as

an

united

soul,

as

things then,
what

seen

conceived

deity, men

from

state

next

us

fiction ;

these

Let

213

pleases

becomes

unfledged.
'*

habitation

the
the

divine

The

nourished

travel

the

in

the

will,and

their
vault

lift up

by the

contraries

certain

into

gods, divided

other

these, they

of

their

things,each

who

the

increased

and

about

all

take

that

that nature.

and

destroyed.
''
Jupiter

all

are

of

includes

everything of

to

the

of

bodyi wings

heavy bodies towards


of all things which
belong to
which
most
partakes of the divine.
beautiful, the wise, the
good, and
By these the wings of the soul are

wings to
gods ; and

It is the nature

winged chariots,ordering
according to his appointed

who

can,

follow

When

them.

are

bands,

attending

and

function

they

; and
go

to

of
the summit
repasts, they journey up hell, towards
of heaven.
The
cluuiots of the gods, being in exact

equilibrium,and therefore easily guided, perform this journey


of the two
horses,
easily,but all others with difii9ulty
; for one
he
has
been
not
exceedingly
being of inferior nature, when
pels
imwell trained
the
vehicle, and
by the driver, weighs down
it towards
^

The

they reach
convex

the

the

outside

poet

has

are

ever

the

through, and

go

heaven,

see

the gods), when


(viz.^

called immortal

summit,
of

revolution,and
No

earth.

which

souls

are

carried

things which

celebrated

standing

round
lie

and

beyond

upon
round

the

the

by its

heavens.

supercelestialthings,nor

these

This
region is the
they deserve.
of Existence
seat
itself;Real Existence, colourless, figureless,
the
is visible only to Mind,
and
intangible Existence, which
which
of the soul, and
charioteer
forms
the subject of Real
The
fed by pure
minds
of the gods, which
are
Knowledge.
minds, contemplate
knowledge, and all other thoroughly well ordered
ever

will

celebrate

them

as

Being perse^ and are


delighted and nourished
by the contemplation, until the revolu"
tion of the heavens
back
the same
to
point. In
bring them
this circumvolution* they contemplate Justice itself,
Temperance
and
itself,
Knowledge, not that knowledge, which has a
exists in a subject
generation or a beginning, not that which
which
is any
of what
term
beings, but that Knowledge
we
for

time

this

universe

of

'

'

PLATO'S

214

PSYCHOLOGY.

exists in

Being in general ; in that which


really Is.
thus contemplating all real existences,and
being nourished
sink
interior
these
into
souls
the
of
the
again
thereby,

which
After

heavens, and

repose.
is the life of the

''Such
best
in

follow

the

liftingthe

gods, and

head

Of

gods.

resemble

most

the charioteer

of

souls, those which


them, barely succeed

other

into the

the

parts beyond

being carried round


by the circumvolution, are
enabled
with
of selfto
contemplate this universe
difficulty
Existences.
times
Others, being encumbered
by their horses, someto
risingand sometimes
see
some
sinking,are enabled
heavens,

and

Existences

remainder
The
only.
only struggle to elevate
of their drivers,coming
themselves, and
by the unskilfulness
continuallyinto collision,are lamed, or break their wings, and
after much
labour, go away without accomplishing their purpose,
and

return
'*

feed

to

motive

The

plain of

this

of

is that

truth

opinion.
great anxiety to
mere

upon

the

proper

food

view

the

of the

supercelestial

soul

is derived

the wings, by which


the soul is
thence, and in particular,
it.
made
Now
it
light and ouried
aloft,are nourished
upon
is an inviolable
law that
any soul which, placing itself in the
train of the gods, and
journeying along with them, obtains a
sight of any of these self-existent Redities, remains
exempt
if
it can
all harm
from
until the next
circumvolution, and
trive
consafe and
to effect this every
time, it is for ever
uninjured.
But
if,being unable
to elevate itself to the necessary
height, it
being weighed
altogether fails of seeing these realities,and
its
loses
vice
and
falls to the
and
down
oblivion,
wings
by
It never
enters
some
Body.
earth, it enters into and animates
animal
into
of
the
the
first
brute
at
a
body
generation,
; but
that which
has seen
who
most
enters, into the body of a person
from

will

become

that of
man

to

to

monarch

of

of

lover

addicted

person

talents

wisdom,

music,

who

or

to

or

lover

of

love ; the next

reigns according

to

law, or

beauty,
in
a

rank

or

into

warrior, or

third,into a person qualified


; the
his
the state, and
or
family affairs,
manage
into
the
fond
fourth,
a
occupation ;
person

for command

administer

a gainful
carry on
of hard labour and

bodily exercises,or skilled in the prevention


and
curing of bodily diseases ; the fifth,into a prdphidt,or a
teacher
of religiousceremonies; the sixth, into a poet, or a
other of the imitative arti^ ; the seventh,
to any
person addicted
into

husbandman

or

an

artificer ; the

eighth,into

sophist.

PLATO'S

or

courtier

And

usurper.

in all these

returns

the

time

next

themselves
its

to

215

ninth, into a despot and


different fortunes, they who
conduct

people

conduct

who

never

the

justly will obtain

themselves

they

of

PSYCHOLOGY.

unjustly,

pristine

in

state

eligiblelot

more

worse.

than

less

The

thousand

ten

in a shorter time, except


grow
years, for its wings do not
the soul of one
who
philosophises with sincerity,or who
with

philosophy.

Such

souls, after

if

thousand

in

thrice

choose

periods

three

soul

succession

only
loves

of

one

this

kind

they
years,
their wings in the
three thousandth
life,recover
year, and
of their first life,
other souls, at the termination
depart. The
their sentence,
either sent
are
are
judged, and having received
the earth, or
under
for punishment into the places of execution
elevated
to a
are
they are rewarded
place in heaven, in which
In either case
according to the life which they led while here.
draw
or
they are called back on the thousandth
year, to choose
of

lots for

new

life.

Then

human

often

soul

that of a
beast, if it has
body of a beast, and
human, passes again into the body of a man
; for
has

seen

never

form, it being

the

Truth

at

all

that

necessary

things according

cannot

kinds^ which
perceptions combined
by reason

many

many
mode

of

kinds

to

apprehending

is neither

able

be

are

into

more

the

human

apprehend
of
composed

to

this

Now,

one.

less

nor

which

soul

the
been

ever

into

enter

should

man

into

passes

than

the

lecting
recol-

the soul formerly saw


it
when
^things which
journeyed along with the gods, and, disregarding what we now
of Real
call beings,applied itself to the apprehension
Being.
It is for this reason
of
is
that the soul
the philosopher
refledged
in a shorter period than
it
for
others
constantly, to the best
;
of iU power,
occupies itself in tr3nng to recollect those things
which
the gods contemplated, and
by the contemplation of
which
being lifted out of, and
they are gods ; by which means
and
above, human
sidered
interests,he is,by the vulgar, concares
is
in
he
while
inspired."
as
reality
mad,
it is
This
is unquestionably the poetry of philosophy, and
from
that the popular opinion respecting Plato
such
passages
has been
formed; but they represent only a small portion of the
of

real

thinker.

Towards

been

the

doctrine

famous
be

those

close

the

of reminiscence

fully developed

seen
a

fundamental

one.

will

reader

in

the
The

is

have

remarked

implied.
*

Phajdo

This
'

difficulties

it
of

that the

doctrine

may

to

have

seems

conceiving

the

2i6

PLATO'S

PSYCHOLOGY.

knowledge other than the sense-knowledge,


which
the Sophists had
successfullyproved to lead to scepticism,
Plato's
mind.
If we
know
must
troubled
early have
then
teach
is all knowledge
our
nothing but what
senses
us,
of
possibility

any

trivial.

Those

fall back

upon

is

is

subject

not

whjch

the

world

of

imperfection of
question. How

the

Reason, beg the

Reason

that

admit

who

to

can

be

we

inevitable

such

some

Senses

How

correct

the

and

senses

do

assured

know

we

Reason

that

imperfection as

that

to

subject.
the
of
Here
human
ever-recurring problem
knowledge
the
that beyond
was
taught by Socrates
presents itself. Plato
there

sense,

respecting universals
from

which

was

Agreeing

with

we

his

who

have

was

inquiry

that

master

be

things did

there

satisfied.

be

to

certain

were

wished

dispute,he

no

of Truth

this,though

But
not

was

principles
know

to

examined

the

of

nature

knowledge, are
impressions received
our

partly made
up of direct
by the senses, and partly of ideas which never
were,
their ideM
It is this
state, perceived by the senses.
which
has agitated the schools.
the
On
one
side,
declared
it to be wholly independent of the senses
action

may

be

of

the
the

called

doctrine

simplest form,

its

In

soul.

of Innate

latter

part
have

men

be

to

this
the

On

Ideas.

least in

at

"

pure

how

principles.

it is

that

aware

men

differ

not

fund

common

; that

truth

their share.

Plato's

there could

by those

All

there

souls drew

vague.

which

came

; that

all human

dogmatic,
about

of eternal

world

the

was

greatly respecting individual

differed

who

are

doctrine

other

side,

ideas
vigorously argued that, although our
in
direct
from
derived
the senses
a
not
absolutely
manner,
derived
indirect
in
also
manner
:
an
thus, we
they were
have

men

never

mind

mermaid

seen

and

woman,

were

as

combine

to

This

do.

can

; but

philosophy, which

we

these

doctrine

says

have

is

yet
have

fish and

is all that

the

impressions
that of the eighteenth-century

two

c'est sentir

fenser^

both

seen

the

thought is

formed
trans-

sensation.

Plato, in adopting the


than
to

say

any
:

saying we

of his
We
are

But
whence
pure

bom

are

came

bom
to

with
with

into

ideas

petUio prindpii.

such

certain

be driven

those

is it

; for

successors

What

to

it

view, rendered

former

and

somewhat

not

ideas ?

such

faculties

cogent

more

gratuitous
It is not

that would

be

like
ligible.
intel-

being asked
They are innate, is a
answer,
that they are
proof have
you
a

corner,

and

on

JiS

PSYCHOLOGY.

PLATO'S

innate ideas, he
Senses

did

We

the

not

in

now

are

consistently said

furnish
a

was

condition

last

chapter was
if
Truth,
phenomena

everything,which

that

reminiscence
to

dosed,

of the world

answer

How

"

of Ideas.

question with

the
are

which

ascertain

to

we

the

the

?
copies of noumena
sensation
The
awakens
recollection,and the recollection is of
with
the Many
of
Truth; the soul is confronted
by means
of Reason
it detects the One
in the Many,
Sense, and by means

particularthings perceived by

the

ue.

Universals

of

Absolute
some

share
that

; and

divine

is

The

resembling
into

parts

two

it

already

by

No

imperfect.
is without

man

alone

have

large

any

method.

proper
distinct

two

of Parmenides.

celestial

less

or

What

seen.

has

Plato

those
the

alone.

increase

of

philosophy

the recollection

awaken

more

Philosophers

spark.
have

we

Gods

the

they might

Method

is always

of Truth

is for

Truth

of the

Sense

Ideas.

or

this recollection

But

exact

not

are

of Ideas, and

what
some-

is divided

universe

The

region

branches,
the

mundane

These
region of material phenomena.
answer
very well to the
modern
and
Earth.
the phenomena
As
conception of Heaven
their
of matter
but
are
copies of Ideas (not as some
suppose
ideas
do
bodily realization)^there arises a question : How
become
In other words
How
do things participate
matter?"
:
in Ideas?
former
the question in the
We
have
mooted

chapter, where

said

we

it ; and
we
times
different
does

explanations

two

curious

Republic,' he says, that


individual
things created
this type
made

God

penter
as

way

the

artist may

an

created, but
as

here
'"

may

not

; nor

the

class

create

an

illustration

we

proceed according

of

thing.

are

Thus,

this type, any


he likes,in the
to

anything

Plato's

each

made.

beds
as
many
imitate in his paintingsthe

himself

the

perpetually creating

(Idea) for

according

as

In

same

types already
The

new.

Method,

car*

be

may

ment,
argu-

given

"

Shall

Method

as

you

know

is the

to

our

embracing

of things which
multiplicity
You
same
comprehend
name.
"Perfectly.

the

of

distinct type

bed

fashion

now

may

of

instead

things of

all other
Idea

overlooked.

be

to

God,

From

solution

no

surprised to find Plato giving at


different
two
explanations. These

very
too

are

of

be

not

must

it admitted

that

exists
?

usual
under

Method
one

That

general Idea

separately,but

have

the.

PLATOS

''Let

take

us

like.
you
tables ?

and

il9

instance, there

For

anything

multiplicityof beds

is

Certainly.

"

these

"But
a

PSYCHOLOGY.

bed

the

and

"Without

comprised

are

under

other

Idea

the

of

under

one

of

Idea

the

table ?

doubt.

"And

we

For

he

carpenter who

or

the

table

does

not

make

bed

the

of each.

the

that

say

articles,makes
has

kinds

two

makes

according

he

Idea

itself.

Idea

the

the

to

these

of

one

is

That

impossible?
Truly, that is impossible.
what
shall
name
"Well, now,

"

whom

"

What

"

Him

"

You

"

has

now

going

workman

am

who

Patience

of

everything
**

You

"

You

He

makes

of

seem

workman

could

do

"

In

"

It is not

Take

what

will have

But, tell

certain

way

do

that

Gods

one

think

you

in

one

could

there

sense

any

Could

you

the

sun

all

in

short

time.

instant

an

earth, yourself,the

stars^ the

and

in

and

all sides

you

mals,
ani-

mentioned.

we

well j you
comprehend my
of this class, is he not?

"Very

me

done

Yes, the images, the appearances,

workman

in

Sophist^ truly !
?

plants, works, and

and
"

or

Earth,

the

also

way

made

workman

Hell.

think
you
in another
no

the

Heaven,

difficult j it is often
mirror, and turn it round on

This

still more.

or, do

in

yourselfsucceed

not

the

me

this,but

all

him

Earth,

rately.
sepa-

man

wonderful

doubt

to

make

making all the works of art, but


plants, animals, everything else;

in Heaven,

speak

such

of

nature

himself.*

no

powerful

workmen

other

all the

will admire

; you

works

word,

one

only the talent

not

all the

is

of

the workman

on

name

what

makes

speak

to

bestow

we

but

not

the

opinion.

The

things.
painter is a

real

"Certainly.
"

makes
*

will tell

You
a

r^

re

corrupt,
least

not

bed
aXKa

the

in

me

that

he

certain

We

countenanced
no

comment

are

of God

by

any

scholiast makes

nothing real,although

he

way.

kavrhv.

Kai

self-creation

makes

on

inclined

to

being certainly
other

it.

passage

in

regard
no

any

this pa^^age

Platonic

other

notion
work.

at

; at

The

PLATO'S

ft20

did

carpenter,
but

only

certain

said

**I

you

only

appearance,
that the bed

an

not

allow

we

call the

which

Idea

the

not

it is

but

"Yes:

PSYCHOLOOY.

bed

image.

an

which

of the

essence

he

the

And
made

was

the real

bed,

bedy

so, indeed.

the Idea of the bed, he makes


make
If,then, he does not
that which
nothing real, but only something which
represents
maintain
tiiat the carpenter's
really exists.
And, if any one
"

has

work
In

the

existence

real

Timaeus,' perhaps

his works,

and

view

made

to

types

from

all

the

create

in the

of

of

nature

(Ideas); but these types having


in fashioning Chaos
fashioned

existed

different
of

Ideas, but

the

there

only a
adopted, and

rather

or

is

participation

no

of

of

did

Plato
and

Heaven

conception

two

souls

one

form.
much

not

Earth

the

after

\X

of

the

as

two

double

Rational

and

sensitive.

other

The^
Ideas

soul

world.

participationin theit

he

the

of the

this view

In

hypothesis
either,this conception
regions is completed by

for

nature

one

is not

Whichever
care

purely expository of all


takes a
of the latest,Plato
God

Ideas,

these

most

creation

of the

eternity,God

model

the

unquestionably

totally different

in error."

will be

he

two

ahd

souls

are

closely connected,

Phenomena

the

two

of

Neither

connected.

are

as

regions
them

of

are

superfluous ; neither of them, in a human


sense, sufficient ; they
cences
sensitive soul awakens
the reminisThe
complete each other.
of the
the

One

in

Rational

soul

the

Many,
inevitably resulting from

; and

Man

preserves
mere

Rational

the

soul, by detecting

from

the

scepticism

sense-knowledge.

in himself

cies
conflictingtendenof his age ; thus did
he accept each portion of the truth
supposed to be discovered
by his predecessors,and reconcile
these
In that vast
portions in one
general doctrine.
system
all scepticism and
all faith found
the
scepticism
acceptance ;
solid
the
faith
was
corrected,
was
propped up by more
ments.
arguof
all
He
admits
with
tiie
the
sceptics
imperfection
Thus

did

Plato

resume

all the

imperfect, it is not worthless ; it


is no
like the truth than
like Ideas ; but,
more
phenomena
are
in some
modelled
afler Ideas, and do,
sort
as
phenomena
are
dim
therefore, in some
Ideas, so does senserepresent
way,
lead
the
to
something like the
knowledge
patient thinker
sense-knowledge

but, though

"

'Repub.,'

X.

pp.

467-8.

SUMMARY

it awakens

Truth;
Ritter

PLATO'S

OF

him

in

DIALECTICS.

reminiscence

221

the

of

Truth.

A"

shows, in detail,that in the world of sense


there
is no
at one
perfect likeness, but that an
object which
time
like, is at another
thought to be unlike, and is,
appears
therefore,defective in completeness of resemblance, and has at
is the case
but a tendency thereto.
The
with
the
most
same
Beautiful, the Good, the Just, the Holy, and with all that really
there is nothing exactly resembling
is; m the sensible world
them, neither similar nor dissimilar ; all,however, that possesses
degree of correspondence with these true species of being
any
is perceived by us through the
and
thereby reminds
us
senses,
this it is clear, that he had previously
of what
From
truly is.
it somewhere, or
conscious
this could
been
of it,and" as
seen
"

in the present, it must


in
have been
existence.
In this respect there is a close

have

not

He

says,

been

of

state

this doctrine

between

them

represents

as

and

view

the

of

sensible

earlier

some

connection

objects,which

of the
copies or resemblances
in perception, a feeling*
arises

mere

truth; for, even


the mind, that all we
see

is very

hear

sensible
superupon

far from

reaching to a
likeness to that which
is the true
being and the absolutely like ;
but that, strivingto attain,it falls short of perfect resemblance,
and consequently the impressions of the sense
tokens
are
mere
ideas whose
of the eternal
of which
similitude they bear and

they

or

copies.**

are

CHAPTER

exhibited

of

and

the

Soul,

of them

review

It is often

doctrine

that

"

Dialectics
other
of

to

said

it will
exhibit
that
truth

DIALECTICS.

conceptions

Plato*s

be

now

their

Plato
were

remarks, labours

being unintelligible.We

of

Method,

convenient

was

the

believed

synonymous.
under
the very

well

remember

no

brief

of

the

other

Platonic

Science;

This, like
the

many

disadvantage

great

thought
galimatias ; and, indeed, if you
ordinary critics and historians,it will be strange
it pure

Ideas,

general doctrine.

base

in

of

take

to

position in the

Dialectics

Philosophy

and

current

in

PLATO'S

OF

SUMMARY

Having

VI.

time
look
if

when

into

we

the

they manage

SUMMARY

ztt

to

render
in

to
phrase intelligible

the

condition

abused

Dialectics

theory of Ideas

the

be

to

reading the preceding

synonymous

Dialectics

necessary.

was

ever,
not, how-

are

patience.

your

(or Logic)

If you

you.

it after

to understand

have

chapters, we
For

DIALECTICS.

PLATO'S

OF

with

Science,

is the

science

general propositions,of general terms, of universals.


it must
the science
become
necessarilybe occupied with
at once
were
so
important things. Ideas, were
; for Ideas

To

of

only real Existences


General

about

that

than

science

opinions can
determine

his

real
*

the

to

; and

deeper

Plato, whose

penetrate.

is yet both explicitand


the Science.
of Dialectics
Tp
as
relied

be

of

nature

Existence

about

the

discoursed

Whoso

Terms.

hope

conception

the

dialogue

could

scarcely ever

in

constant

discoursed

Terms

no

General

and

more

on,

Science

devotes

remarkable

That

Thesetetus.*

he

entire

an

is

work

purely

adversaries,in such a way as


stitute
opinion. All attempts to conscience either upon
or
perception (aur^iTo-is)
opinion
upon
Perception can
(8o^a) he crushes in an irresistible manner.
which
have no
have
real
no
stability,
only be of objects which
is
unable
to constitute
existence. Opinion though it be correct
science : for tiiere are two sorts of opinion false and true, and
from
the false would
require a science
to distinguishthe true
critical ; it refutes the opinions of
to Plato's own
as
to leave no doubt

"

which

knew

that

Ideas

must

be

which
known

seeking

the

the

are

order

^ necessary
consequence
immutable
elements
of science

It follows

the Truth.

real

in

themselves,

of

development

as

science

that

and

of these

in

consists

Ideas, that is

to

say,

in Dialectics.

Owing

to

Science, that

is,the Science

his Dialectics
While

he
of

did

not

genera

In

Logic

the

the

"

it to

confine

that

Dialectics
science

and

was

be

to

the

between

is very marked.
of methodical
classification

successors

art

speaking

of

only

the

reflex of

ideas

therefore

of immutable

knowledge

as

distinction

general notions-^he
upon
jective
subjectivetruth ; for he believed this sub-

art

abstract

the two-fold

of his

necessarilythe

was

The

Being.

of

spoke of Dialectics

truth

believed

theory Dialectics

Ideal

the

not

were

objective reality;he

images

only the

'^

art

of

of

real

existences.

but
thinking,"

being.

aspect of Creation

there

this division

was

Perception.

Matter, phenomena,

the

rot

yiyvo/i"vas=

Sensation

"

Opinion.

of

PLATO'S

THEOLOGY

AND

COSMOLOGY

a"3

Dialectics.

Existence^ Ideas,
In

of

ideas=Science.

ovTa=Abstract

tA

the

everchanging flux of Becoming, which


of the immutable
traces
Perception, there were
the

was

object

Plato's

of science.

manifold

own

This

works.

distinction
We

object

Being, which

may

be

applied

of

them

that

say

may

the

was

the

opinions on psychology, physics, ethics,and politics are


But
amidst
changing, uncertain, and of no value.
these various
Method.
opinions there reigns one constant
never

wavers

therefore

as

The

Dialectics.

fully understand

; and

his

to

we

also
with

Dialectics.

Platonic

doctine

therefore

consists

of

may

of the

the

importance
clearly see what

Philosophy

basis

subject-matter of Dialectics
consists of

is the Science.

That

Analysis^
Definitions^

theology

bestowed
is

Idec^;

by

He

fying
identi-

is Dialectics
and

all

may
Dialectics

on

meant

stantly
con-

the

the Method

Induction,

CHAPTER
Plato's

We

to

VII.

cosmology.

and

occupied solely with the general


have
to particulars.
to descend
Doctrine ; we
now
have
scarcely
But, as so often remarked, particulardoctrines
is
advanced
in
Platonic
what
writings;
to-day
stability the
any
historians
critics
and
have
is refuted
to-morrow
; accordingly,
squabbled about these wavering opinions, as if agreement were
possible. One declares Plato held one opinion ; and cites his
Hitherto

we

have

been

thinks
his predecessor a
Another
in proof.
passages
and cites other passages
wholly destructive of the
maintained.
third comes,
A
and
Plato is said to have
passages

from

one

dialogue

to

passages

from

head,
block-

opinion
ing
string-

another,

in his

own
interprets the whole
way.
will not
therefore
be
consistent
Theological doctrine
Any
of the tonic
Plaonly reproduce some
expected from us : we can
influenced
later
have
notions, those
especially which

thinkers.
In

the

same

way

as

Plato

sought

to

tletect

the

One

amidst

THEOLOGY

834

PLATO'S

the

Multiplicityof
it to

it,declared
seek

detect

to

God

God

it to be

What

God.

Ide^: the last result


One
Being comprising

Ideas

the

xal

tv

iroXXa, the

Cause

Whatever

view

were

tion.
generaliza-

of

wilhin
of

himself

all

things,

terrestrial.

is the

Platonic

Multiplicity of Ideas, and,

the

to

was

thus

was

celestial and
God

essence

amidst

Beings, the

other

all

real

One

and, having detected


of matter, so ^so did he

phenomena,

it,declared

Phenomena,

to

the

the

detected

having

material

be

COSMOLOGY.

AND

Idea.

supreme

cosmology

whether

"

God

take

we

Ideas,

created

of

the

whether

or

of Ideas
unformed
after the model
matter
only fashioned
represented the
equally led to the conviction, that God
are

he

"

we

of

of all Existence

Idea

supreme

source
great Intelligence,

Sun

Intelligences: the

other

all

the

light illumined

whose

creation.

perfect,ever the
good ; for, although a

God
but

is

without

same,

envy,
knowledge of

clear

wishing nothing
is imposGod
sible

that
is
to
approximation
knowledge
know
he is, we
what
what
possible; we cannot
can
only know
he is like.
be good, because
He
the
must
self-sufficing
; and
it. Why
is good, because
world
he made
did he make
it ?

mortals,

to

God

made

the

wished

that

an

because

world

he

free

was

from

and

envy,

him
resemble
much
things should
as
as
sible.
postherefore
He
stable,
persuaded Necessity to become
harmonious, and fashioned
Yes, per*
according to Beauty.
all

is Plato's

suaded

word

eternal

two

were

mixture

the

from

Principles,
of

these

the

made

was

for there

Necessity and

Intelligenceand
world

Intelligencepersuaded

but

according to Beauty.*
into Beauty.
arranged chaos

Necessity

be

to

fashioned
He

beautiful
without

Soul, he

made

and

Intelligence,and

but

the

placed

World

the

proof

of

specimen

of his

analogical or

also

in

the

world

composed

of various

fUfUffUvri

9V9Taciiai

ydp

rd
yiyyofiivuty

oi^v 17 rouSi

vXiiffra

human

called

tov

being

being

elements, and

lyy kwijOri, vov

of

animal, is
reasoning

an

Inductive

human

is therefore

and

being

in the

; the

elements,

world

is warmth

There

Intelligence
the World,

no

body

nothing

animal.

an

Plato's

over.

into the

is

there

as

is

there

as

Soul

But,

Kovfiov

to

; there

curious
be

passed

is warmth

is

composed
^i various
is also
a
body ; the world
is therefore
a
body; and,
ytviffii i^

dk avdyKtic

iiri rb

too

dpxdvroc
^iKrittTov dytiv,
"

ti^

avaymiQ
irtiOtiv

Ttmaus,

p.

re

Kal

avrijv

56.

vov

rwy

PLATO'S

226

something of the divine


participationin it ; but more
is

there
some

therefore, who

Those,

in

inherent
express

of

and

image of the Idea,


the primeval chaos.

expressing

Evil

"

thought that

Plato

whole

the

on

an

that

say

though

matter,"

themselves

COSMOLOGY.

AND

THEOLOGY

themselves

correctly.

was

loosely,

Matter

the

was

Being Necessity
Intelligence fashioned.
for
it
Evil,
was
Intelligence alone can be
unintelligent

great Necessity which


and

good.*
Now,

dwells,

must

we

how

the

gods

consists

on

as

From

quantity of Evil
that

we

for

man

fdrced

the

contradiction

no

Evil

where

this

to

life of

the

gods

Dialectics

encounter

of Evil, it will be

nature

in Plato's

life exceeded

it.

from

escape

leading

that

proportion that phenomena

saying,that
of

the

the
; it

Good

exceed

noumena,

ideas.

exceeds

matter

side,are

in

it in the

exceeds

to

By

No.

explanation of

is

there

that

seen

every

above

the

region

endeavours

utmost

By suicide?

sole salvation

the

is the

phenomena

Platonist
that the life of the
knows
every
eternal contemplation of truth, of Ideas.

; and

in the

Thus,

of
our

use

escape?

And

as

this world

as

although Evil be a necessary


part of the world, it is in
is this but the struggle of
What
constant
struggle with Good.
gence:
Intelliwith Free Will and
is endowed
Man
And
Becoming^
Evil: t^s
between
Good
and
he may,
therefore,choose
Se
doirJKe
rais
rivos
iroiov
^ovXi;(r"(rcv Ixcurrcov "^fiSiV
yercicrca)? ro
And
according to his choice will
aiWas.
Z^es, x. p. 217.
ras
his future
life be regulated.
Metempsychosis
was
a doctrine
from
Plato
readily borrowed
Pythagoras ; and in that doctrine
But

"

could

he

virtuous

details
that

to

seldom
*

nothing

of

existence

many

from

said

God

but

we

the

In
the

'Laws/

tf/vxi)in

have

x.

pp.

this

principle; but, iuasmnch


good {Tbiv Tt "yaO"v
to

He
soul
and

have

therefore
fwhether
avola

some

makes
the

as

vovg

(ignorance
"

often

had
201-2,

so

he
The

chapter

Plato
to

proves

pass

without

over

ing
allud-

times, and
is
God
upholder,

an

"

t"v

should

to

bad

xaK"v),
determine

which
principle

well

as

it

was

its

to

as

sary
neces-

direction.

determines

of man,
it is the same] to
or
it to evil.
of nous) which
determines
world

and

modern

moved

^l^vx^v i^o^

(mtelligence),the
^want

sage

curiously distinguished the vovg


if/vx*}(^^^1)^ ^^^ self-moving

principlewhich

of the

epoch.

forced

in

ancient

it is sometimes

tlvai

been

used

of

whereby

this

close

manner.

alriav

other

soul

so

have

we

cannot

to

that

at

of the arguments

; for

argument

suspected

afforded

other

no

enforcement

the

for

arguments

life,which

have

We

the

find

the

good

PLATO'S

proved
which

OP

VmjV

exist

to

Such

by
reader

those

as

Plato,

againstsupposing

They

from

taken

are

considerable
works

there

viz. that

of

sport
9"ov

Tt

man's

but

have

to

written

been

wide

at

GOOD.

227

his nature

pressed
certainlyexthe
again warn

were
we

his constant

views.

intervals,and

of

in

and

ing
bear-

is but

the

opinion;
very
oif
glimpses
an
appalling doctrine, a
plaything of God, who
alternately \

forsakes

the

world.

occasional

man

from

down

set

times

them

works

difference

are

and

governs

above

different

at

AND

feeling of affinityto

very
souls.

our

opinions

BBAUTIPVL

the

by

stirs within

THE

ilvai

iraiyviov

first notion

The

Heraclitus, who
said, that
Plato's
words
Demiourgos.
The

these

are

this

and

the

was

avOpmirov Be

is said

notion

second

rived
de-

seems

worlds

making

fi"firf)(avTjfi"vov :

excellence.*

those

be

to

is

formally
he
Politicus,'pp. 273-80.
expressed in the
"God,"
says,
and
forsakes
the world; when
he governs
alternatelygoverns
he forsakes
it,things go on well : it is the age of gold ; when
in a contrary
round
orbit
it, the world
suddenly turns
a
greatest

"

"

fearful

crisis takes

place, all things are disordered, mundane


time do
totally disarranged,and only after some
of order, though of a very
to a sort
things settle down
fect
imperexistence

is

kind."

CHAPTER
Plato's

of

view

KoXov

TO

the

and

beautiful

the

THE

VIII.

oyaOov,

TO

KOI

good:

So
TO

has

much

KoXbvt

persons
devote
who

"

few

consult

read

never

our

pages,

times

of

the

conceived

by Plato, and this by


of his works, that we
must

line

it ; certain

to

sentences

in modern

talked

and

Beautiful," as

the

who
a

written

been

two-thirds

as

we

would

are,

that of
the

deem

those

omission

unpardonable.
The
And

bond
what

which

is Love

unites
The

inextinguishable desire
divinity within
Beauty.

us

the

longing
which

feels for

"

*De

human
of

like
the

Legibus,*

to

the

the Soul
feels

for

divine

Beauty
like, which

divinityrevealed
vii. p. 32.

is Love.

for

to

the
the

us

in

is the

This

Platonic

celebrated

-meant
originally

communion

rigidlydialectical sense,
of hypocritical sentiment
sympathy
"gentleman for a
meant

But
It

does

colours

It is the

world
*

"

come

them

to

into
call

seen

have

the

Real

humaii

region

which

we

what
for

marry.

description of

it in

the

human
already said, every
not
Existences, or it would
it is

shape. But
they then
short

young

flatteryof the senses.


and
outlines
resplendent
of it.
Beauty is Truth.
most
splendid in the
was

Plato's

to

as

mind

to

that

saw

that

not

love

mere

indications

the

Listen

For,

or

sentimental

will

harmonious

image of

actually

have

which

"

has

but

are

Ideas.
'

Phsedrus

soul

these

in

having

that

Platonic

sexes.

of

love

the

Not

from

in a
souls,
degraded to the expression
the

cannot

Beauty

radiant

of

he

consist

not

been

"

and

two

between
the

which

Love,
of

has

means

woman

is

what

it

OP

VIEW

PLATO'S

38

not

easy

for all of

those, especially,
only, and those which,
saw

time

unfortunate
to be turned
having fallen to the earth, were
so
as
oblivion of the sacred thingswhich'
and consequent
to injustice,
in their prior state.
were
seen
Few, therefore,remain
by them
who
of those
are
adequate to the recollection
things. These
of the
here
few, when
image or resemblance
they see
any

things which
are

of

in

are

there, receive
taken

manner

comprehension, they

them.

out

know

shock

like

of themselves
not

which

what

exist

thunderbolt, and

but, from

it is which

so

affects

Justice and
Temperance, and the other things which the soul honours, do
not
splendour ; and a few persons
only, with great
any
possess
material
aid
of dull, blunt,
difficulty,
by the
perceive
organs,
likenesses
terrestial
the
of those qualities,
and
recognise them.
when
it was
But
not
splendid
Beauty was
only most
seen
by
of
the heavenly possession or
forming part
us
choir, but here
also the likeness of it comes
to us
and
acute
through the most
clear of our
and
that
of
with
which
sight,
a
splendour
senses,
other
of
of
the
terrestrial
no
images
super-celestialexistences
They, then, who are not fresh from
heaven, or who
possess.
have
been
not
corrupted, are
vehemently impelled towards
that Beauty which
is aloft when
earth which
they see that upon
is called by its name
and
not, therefore, venerate
; they do
to physical pleasure after
worship it,but give themselves
up
But
of a
the
fresh from
quadruped.
are
manner
they who
divine objects of contemplation, and who
have /ormerly
those
much, when
they see a Godlike
counten*
contemplated them
Now,

the

likenesses

there

deficiency

of

THE

BEAUTIFUL

form, in which
imitated, are first struck
ance

not

erect

AND

THE

GOOD.

229

celestial

beauty is imaged and well


with a holy awe, and
then, approaching,
if
beautiful
this
venerate
they were
object as a god, and,
the
afraid of
reputation of too raving a madness, wquld
altars,and perform sacrifices to it.
or

**And

the

which
atmosphere
through the eyes,
which

and

warmth

beauty
softens

and

coats

inveterate

liquefiesthe

and
up
from

parts in the

the

them
wings, and
prevents
the wings begin to germinate
growing of the teeth, produces

from

the

itself,entering

around

generates

covers

derived

influence

genial

tion,
indura-

vicinityof

the

this

being melted,
and
increase, and this,like the
an
itching and irritation which
disturbs the whole
frame
of the soul.
When, therefore,by the
the
of
beautiful
is softened,
object, the induration
contemplation
is
relieved
and
the
soul
from
the wings begin to shoot,
is
that object
Its
pain and
rejoices; but when
absent, the
hardens
liquefied substance
again, and closes up the young
shoots of the wings, which
consequently boil up and throb, and
the

throw
neither

it to

allow

beautiful

the

see

into

soul

sleep

and

parents,

brothers, and

despises

and

will

and

rage,

again
rest, until it can
relieved.
For
this reason
it

be

at

object ;
friends,and

established

all

and

but

for

sake

deserts

neglects its patrimony,


it valued

which

on

usages

its

itself

this aff^ection is Love.

And

before.

that

turbulence

remain

nor

object, and

willinglyleaves

never

of

state

growing

by this time familiar enough with the


will see
Platonic
He
philosophy to appreciate this passage.
will comHe
the dialectical
prehend,
meaning of this poetical myth.
is naturally more
Love
also, that the Platonic
priate
approThe

is doubtless

reader

between
two

sexes

two

men

because

"

and

master

pupil

than

"

it is purer,

and

vivid

of Truth

less

the

between

disturbed

by

other

feelings.
Beauty

is the

most

image

what
But
is the
perceptibleform.
The
Good, to dya^ov, is God, but God
Truth, Beauty, Justice,are all aspects of
most

is his nature.
it

;
manner

The

as

only

can

the

Good

sun

be

is the

is therefore
in

known
cause

of

it is

divinityin

its

Good?
in his abstract

state.

the

Deity ; Goodness
incapable of being perceived

reflection.

sight,and

also

In

the

the
cause

same

of

objects of sight growing and being produced, so also the


of science, and the cause
is the cause
of being to whatever
Good
is the objectof science : and, as the sun
itself is not sight.
the

PLATO'S

J30

ETHICS.

both ; so also the


object of sight,but presides oyer
is not
Good
science, nor the object of science,but is superior
the Good, but goodly,
not
to both, for they are
the

nor

CHAPTER

IX.

Plato's
Plato

was

Socratist.

following his
did
his

have

we

him

seen

speculationson
things
God, "c., were
The

Metempsychosis,
Socrates, although

from

learn

not

Hitherto, however,

only in his Method.

master

Ideas, Reminiscence,
he

ethics.

Socratic

the

Method

that
have
before seen
We
powerful instrument.
Socrates
occupied himself almost exclusivelywith Ethics ; and
it is in Ethics, therefore, that we
shall expect to find Plato

was

most

him.

resembling

rapidly over
otherwise
justify.

the

more

pass
would

in them

even

they

logical rather

are

deductions

human

contradiction
In

it will
the

of

it

mostly Socratic,

are

that

to

us

importance

Dialectician

ethical

enable

dominant

was

is to

logicalpremisses, not

they

say,

are

tions
investiga-

from

There

considerable
is, moreover,
works
on
this,as on other points.
he
advocates
Free
'),
Will; in another

nature.

in his various

place ('Timaeus

one

opinions

the

than

certain

from

into

how

see

we

fact ; and
subject than

ethical

Plato's

But, although
yet

is the

Such

(*Hippias Minor'),

Fatalism.

Sometimes

Sometimes

vice

is

involuntary,

^indeed,generally vice
nothing
ignorance ; elsewhere, as we have shown, vice
is said to be partly ignorance and partly incontinence.
Virtue
is said to be Science ; yet Knowledge
alone does not constitute
Happiness, nor can Virtue be taught.
Although, therefore,many
splendid passages may be quoted,
which
in
morals
but regard
are
worthily spoken of, we cannot
at other

times

is

as

chimerical

such,
Dialectics.
found

for
As

his ethics

duty, but
In

any
that

All

system.

of

voluntary.

"

"

but

Plato's

on

attempt

to

deduce

from

them

an

ethical

cies:
safely be relied on, is general tendenof Ethics
to
instance, as his subordination
can

M.

de

Gerando

well

principle of obligation, on
the tendency to perfection."
on

Ethics,the passions are

"

observes,

he

the

set
entirely

did

not

definition

aside \ they

PLATO'S

regarded

are

purely a

ETHICS.

disturbances

as

moral

Intelligence. And

of

matter

in the

231

economy.
the Intellect

Virtue
has

is

fore
there-

direction
of
regulativeoffice,but the supreme
sopher
all action.*
Now, as Chamfort
admirably said, the Philowho
Chemist
would
set aside the passions,resembles
a
all aware
who
would
that it is
are
extinguish his fire." We
the right,and
to know
pursue";
yet the wrong
very common
that the
of
passions not
only disturb the regulative action
it ; and
that morals
Reason, but positivelytriumph over
are

only

not

"

"

"

our

Ethics

The
world

quite useless

are

same

much

too

inhabitants

inhabitants

the

the

But

errors.

had

beliefs.

our

suit the

to

his Ethics

are

Republic,' has
ITie

than

might

Plato

of

Politics
the

under
*

they

His

habitSyrather

our

mores^

another

of this.

applied to
lus Utopian

State

celebrity for

to

is

of

; and

labour

Government,

us

the

neglect it.

of the

interesting
most
Republic'
unquestionably one
of his works, and
slow
the progress
of social
has been
so
with
other
of the
science, compared
science, that many
every
still
ideas Plato
has
there
entertained
by very
put forth,are
*

serious

thinkers

morals, would

or

The

he

As

barely find
of

weakness

society

should
him

be

image

physics,metaphysics,

on

defender.

himself,

to

an

ideas

is the

Man

suffice

cannot

his

; whereas

of

that

cause

he

States

live in

must

himself.

The

are

formed.

Society.
faculties

This
which

activityin Society ;
and this vast union
but one
intelligence.
virtues are, I. ^powyo-is, wisdom;
Thus
man's
II. avSpeCa,
lY. Sucaio"rvyrj,
fortitude;III. auMppotrvvrit temperance;
justice.
its
The
the
have
State, therefore, must
Rulers,
philosophers,
will represent
who
its
will
who
soldiers,
wisdom;
represent
fortitude ; its craftsmen
will
and
who
perance.
temburghers,
represent
is
which
be
shared
must
Justice
a
quality
by all
classes,as lying at the root of all virtuous action.
wisdom
In
the
have
and
of
alpha and omega
justice we
belong

to

doctrine

Plato's
the

Rulers

We

to

is therefore

interrupt our

But

prove

ordain

to

cannot

misery

See*

justice is wisdom

injusticein the

nnmerous.

the

field of
proper
form
of intellects should
a

all

prevent
*

must

find

of the

that he

Note

B,'

we

have

added

unjust man,
who

does

in

such

The

act

laws

as

will

office

of

effectually

State.

exjpositionwith any examples ; they are too


'
in the
a
Appendix
respecting
passage
from
the
Gorgias.' In it Plato endeavours
'

'

injurysuffers

more

than

he

who

endures

itt-*^

PLATCyS

232

Their

hrst

All those

respecting the deity.


deity the passions and
imperfections

the

banished

hence

has

much
This

Law,

fanaticism.

Socrates

But

there

the vices

other

were

Musicians

music

could

other

of

respectingReligion,

Strange that

pupil of

which

of

for the banishment

desires

men

of the

Poets

can

admitted;

limits of that

the

balance

soul.

the

those

Only
the

the
They enervate
imitations
of
they give

they overstep

banished

partly

is

and

impetuous

one,

Even

least

at

Dorian

the

who

the
were

Phrygian
warlike, the

the

and

denounced.

Thus

As

the State

must

be

begotten.

avaricious

for their

Women

But

; the

are

The

chosen.

mild

to

To

Thus

her^
ideal
it was

also

be

of

chosen

wives,

assorted

to

of

interdicts

and

be

violent

as

mares

to the

But

men.

tage.
paren-

brood

assorted

good

mild

the chil*

therefore,to be consigned
to the State
Nurses, who will superintend their early education.
children
different capacities,
manifest
As
and, as Plato thought
with St. Simon, each citizen should
be ranked
according to his
dren

belong

capacity,the
the

young

man

to

the State.

to

Husbands

marriage

for

women

them.

disturbances

for

these

prevent

violent
be

with

interfered

ambitious

community
to

which

music.

and

children

ordains

Plato

Plato, and

conjugal
subsist without
not
children, children
foolishlyfond ; they are
parents are

could

foolishlyfond.

also

anything

poetry

love.

in

that germ
equabilityof mind was the

measured

happiness, and

of human

order,

Stoicism

of

germ

its fruit.

bears

men

be

calm.

There

are

must

men,

respecting the gods.

harmonious.
be

to

law, the operation

causes

alone

were

plaintiveand

State.

immoderate

which

moderation

of

follies of

and

the

condemnation

by picturesof

soul

believed

advocated

their fictions

besides

attribute

rigorous conclusions,is the Law

the Rulers

have

his master's

caused

its

to

Religion

should

who

of

said.

pushed

the

citizens,

of the

of the poets, of which

banishment

the famous

been

Whatever

be

to

was

are

instil into the minds

to

notions

just

so

will be

care

ETHICS.

State

would

should

But, if domestic

They

are,

undertake

to

decide

to

which

class

belong.

life is thus

blow

sacrificed

the

public
not
women
imagine
occupations.
good,
with
toils
and
the
of
share
No
must
war
women
men
ture.
agricul:
well
the
The
male
female dog guards sheep as
as
; why
shoulcl pot tJie ^omea
guar^ th? State ? And, a" spmq fw
do

that

at

will lose

their

to

^cbtnt]^
PHILOSOPHY

AGAIN

THE

OF

"poci^.

REDUCED

SOCRATIC

TO

LIFE

Plato

which

have

we

ARISTOTLE.

more,

restless

of

thirst

city

that
its

so

had

thinkers

99

and

crowded

the

(b.c. 384).

His

hereditary.

in

died,

During
idle.

there
studied

all

no

the

intelligence

his

in

made
round

halo

tidings
him,

three

to

of

the

though

of

desire

which

be

to

those
in

of

his

the
own

of

worthy

costly
those

early

age,

and

structed
in-

Proxenus
Athens.
not

was

His

wealth

Books
in

them

zeal

^for
"

he

"

thinkers,
bear

signed
con-

him

seeing

luxuries,

called

was

had

pupil.

days

writings

he

Aristotle

absence
a

natural
be

may

time.

the

cian,
physi-

and

Who

Proxenus,

Plato's

Olympiad

eminent

an

early

an

his

Literature

Thrace,

subjects

of

of

purchase

speculations

at

fulfilled

years

on

knowledge

himself

cheap

in

medicine

such

of

certain

then

prepared

was

ledge,
know-

who

lured

was

works

parents

physical

the

him

enabled

of

care

the

He

sheds

had

colony

love

his

Aristotle

and

several

Losing
the

to

and

land;

schools

in

insatiable

still

or

active,

an

men

of

years

then

money

and

Nicomachus

father

Aristotle^s

that

so

city,

native

Sicily^

three

wondrous

fame
his

in

Stagira,

at

written

had
;

the

of

whose

reached

bom

history

Tidings

him

in

both

truth-loving,

him

was

who

active

that

into

journey

Athens.

to

young,

Aristotle

the

occupied

rich

illustrious, and

ruins,

great

seventeen

philosophy.

for

in

impetuous,

eager,

for

which

appeared

youth

ARISTOTLE.

Athens
and

spoken,

Aristotle

CLOSE

I.

OF

leaving

was

SYSTEM:

MOVEMENT.

CHAPTER

When

with

ample

and

evidence.

LIFE

There

also

were

some

Plater still at Athens


conversation

who

the

from

and

of his future

lessons

of his

the crowd
the

master

of

the

to

and

entrancing

himself

prepared

receive

to

the

school

whom

the

Aristotle

pupil.

curb

but

Plato

saw

there

was

restless
very need.
in an
epithet: "Aristotle

that

joined

penetrating glance

His

Plato

by

die

immortal

the

youth needed
in

and

opened,

was

activity
is the

school."

of my

continued

is,till the death

of

Platonic

the

Socrates

man

detected

soon

greatness

Aristotle

to

listened

disciples,
amongst

characterized

Mind

had

of

teacher.

impetuous

the

promise
was

who

them

His

returned.

Plato

that

followers

"old

the

of

questioned,

of

and

still recould
eloquent," who
member
with a smile his keen
and
playful irony ; and others
of the deep thoughts brooding
acquainted with some
of
soul
Plato.
These
Aristotle
melancholy
eagerly

were

in

"35

friends
men

ARISTOTLE.

OF

listen

to

the latter.

philosophy ;

Plato

to

But

he

did

nor

has
disagreement

for twenty years ; that


did not confine
himself

he

entirelyagree

with

it.

vulgar notion of a
Master
and
personal disagreement between
Pupil : a notion^
to be sure, propped
up with pretended anecdotes, and knocked
Much
has
with others
been
down
written
equally authentic.
call
Aristotle's ingratitude.
what
this quarrel, and
on
on
people
said of Plato
We
thing was
place no reliance on it ; the same
this

from

And

with

treating that
with

opinion

It

slavish
was

pupil

Stagyrite

undertakings:
which

were

materials
After
a

school

who

Philip

Aristotle.

as

by the
philosophy; and,

him

tude,
ingrati-

have

not

received

Both

selected
*

from

munificent

captured

four

years
master

Alexander

when
of

Philip

from

son
was

in
parted
de-

Aristotle's,one
and

from

assistance

ander,
Alex-

in all his

curiosities,

of natural

provinces,

form

to

the

History of Animals.*

long interval Aristotle returned


in the

For

give his

to

illustrious

scholar

especiallyin the collection

of the
a

that be

manifested

instructed

him.

Callisthenes, attended
the

have

expedition,a

Indian

his

on

pupils

preceptor

rhetoric, and

poetry,

If

doubtless

mentions

always

tenderness.

thought of Macedonian

wise

illustrious

the

he

but

Plato;

for

reasons

followers.

such

Alexander

all

as

excellent

his writings Aristotle

with

respect, sometimes
it is such

been

of

the

have

we

In

calumny.

as

the

combats

Socrates, and

to

respect

arisen

Lyceum

school

which

to

Athens

and

eclipsedall

opened

the others

METHOD.

ARISTOTLE'S

"3*
in numbers

both

and

his restless vivacious

curiouslyillustrative of

importance.

It is

temperament

that he

could

still

stand

not

opinions whilst walking up and


the
down
shady paths of the Lyceum, attended
by his eager
his discipleswere
PhiloHence
called the Walking
followers.
sophers : Peripatetics.
His
kinds : scientific and
of
lectures
two
were
popular

and

acroamatic

his

delivered

lecture, but

acroaticy and

or

and

treated
Much

the

endeavour

who

determine

to

that

conclude

exoteric

was

distinction

in

these

distinction

of

to

precise

the

cannot
; but we
distinction
the

above
as
was,
Poetics
and
are

Dialectics

lectures

the
of

capable

were

delivered

afternoon

were

of instruction

kinds

who

for

were

the

ing.
morn-

larger class,
and
of popular subjects : rhetoric,politics,
tics.
sophisin
learning and ingenuity has been thrown
away

latter

The

former

those

students, and
pursuing scientific subjects ; he
advanced

more

The

exoteric.

much

to

stop

it^

the

esoteric

to

seem

these

notice

between

doctrine

of

nature

in

us

two

Those

error

and
; the

stated, purely that of subject-matter.


addressed

not

laborious

the

to

life in

hearers.

same

the

ledge,
pursuit of knowincredible
of works, about
number
fourth
and wrote
an
a
it is calculated
of which
extant
are
; the division,arrangement,
and
authenticity of which has long been a pet subject of contention
has yet been
scholars ; but, as no
agreement
amongst
effected,we may leave the question as it stands.

He

spent

long

and

CHAPTER

II.

Aristotle's

Aristotle may

and

Plato

philosophy

to

teach.

the

between

Plato

now

the

Aristotle

was

the

learning did

It is not

not

of

same

most

enervate

contain

to

two

plan

our

great

advanced

to

the

speculative

knows
draw

all

these

endeavoured

science

of

that

comparisons

otherwise

men,

have

We

all the

them

knows

happy subject.

way
to do

have

said

whoso

greatness

furnish
in what

out

Greece

had

Greece

would

of

be

mei'hod.

to

his age.

two

point
We

by Anstotle.
learned

the

man

of

antiquity,but

vigour of his mind.

He

this

studio

ARISTOTLE'^

Ously sought, both


wherewith
views

own

in books
build

to

minuteness

tedious

brought

in

out

Hence
Method

of any

definition

expect

find

stands

Plato,

Aristotle

Induction

Syllogism

was

modifications, all

of

precision,he

it

gave

them

these

Classification

which

took

it up

had

but

tion
Investiganition
Defi; the

vague

precise.

and

thinkers

two

reduced

he

the

it precision.

gave

and, by still further


aim, i.^., greater

;
one

soliditywhich

Van

as

The

powerful

between

with,

Socrates

of

one

was

scientific form, and

more

Plato,

so.

his
may

his master,

of

powerful but

were

rendered

We

Demonstration.

of

one

it.

point between

of Socrates

left it Aristotle

Plato

is

middle

of Socrates

to

that

It

the gap
of Analysis and

Method

Where

we

of

nature

detect

must

we

fills up

by the addition
Socratic

when

at

the

mentions

own.

as

Aristotle

of

it were,

as

wondered

resembling

Method

The

of

and

historical

the

evidence, and the absence


his Method
in his writings.

his

of

remarks,

; that

be

to

be

to

and

one,
it somewhat

Aristotle.

and

affirmed.

Method

never

has

he

modifications

Heusde

dogmatically

but
to

some

of

Plato, Aristotle

method;

not

rather

seem

of historical

abundance

express

Unlike

his

misconception,

; a
the

consider

declared

have

some

opinions often
than

rials
mate-

his
laying down
predecessors with

his

of

own

criticisms

his

nature, for

Before

views

his

^^i

external

doctrine.
the

; and

in

and

examines

he

Method,

it to

endure

for

fundamentally differ ?
universal
explanation of

this

enabled

centuries.
Wherein
Until

did

diflference

This

of

the

the

Hegel
this

brieflyto

was

Materialist

one

time

the

Aristotle

and

Plato

one

eflfect

is

Plato

totle
Idealist,Aris-

an

Rationalist, the other

Empiric

an

trustingsolely to Reason, the other solely to Experience.


explanation Hegel crushed
by showing, that although
.

Aristotle
he

also

Let
And

laid

to

do

Platonic

the

answer

became

science.

master,

there

if here

he

it all other

be

first ask, What

must

we

so,

readily

In

upon

did

than

experience

Plato, yet

science.
alone could form
expressly taught that Reason
the real diflference.
can
penetrate
us, then, try if we

positionot
can

stress

more

can

doctrine

the

found

no

to

fundamental

question

That

Aristotle be

fundamental

differ,we

found

to

readers

our

theory of Ideas, whereby

If here
be

the

was

Dialectics

agree

diflference between
shall

be

able

to

his

with

deduce

them

from

diflferences.

truth, Aristotle

radicallyopposed

the

Ideal

theory j and

METHOD.

ARISTOTLE'S

238

criticisms of that
Plato are
the greater part of his criticisms on
theory. He does not deny to Ideas a subjectiveexistence : on
he

the contrary,

them

makes

materials

the

science

of

; but

he

their

calls
objectiveexistence, and
the
and
He
them
poetical metaphors.
empty
says, that on
and Models, there would
supposition of Ideas being Existences

is

be

completely opposed

Models

several

may

classed

the

under

classed

be

for

; since

Thing

same

several

heads.

the

thing

same

Socrates

Thus,

be

may

Socrates, of Man, of Animal, and of


''stout
The
Biped; or Philosopher, General, and Statesman.
of the Ideal
Stagyrite" not only perceived the logical error
how
the error
originated. He profoundly
theory, but also saw
remarked, that Ideas are nothing but productions of the Reason,
separating,by a logicalabstraction, the particularobjects from
*under

relations

those

those

are

objects

which

objective
understanding perceived

the

the

evidence

theory

of Ideas

for

the
having to enumerate
by increasing the number,

exact
as

saw

for

an

of

number
way

separate

Aristotle

of

likens

things,
simplifying
of

calculation.
In

this caustic

What, indeed,

qualitiesnew

the

expressions of
driven

read

black

before
or

his whole

multiplicationof the
imagined that things

brown.

and

criticism.

colour,

Plato
and

separat"d
made

these

existences.

the

to

if

notion
Terms

words, of General

existed.

had

greatness, weight,

Having disproved
other

may

theory, but

Men
and

heavy,

of
qualities

we

Ideal

the

was

great, and

were

illustration

of Existences

number

was

Aristotle

alL

subjective distinction

relation

them

to

common

who,

commence

the

of

partisansof the

The

existence.

the

which

mistaken
; had
between
two

one

to

Ideas

mistaken

had

that Plato

the

to

Relations

maintain

that

of Ideas

being Existences, ^in


than
the
being anything more
of individual
things, ^Aristotle
Individual
the
Things alone
"

"

individuals

exist, only by sensation


only
can
be
them
if
know
is
how
they
known;
and,
we
by sensation,
the Universal, to
known
how
do we
kq^oXov, ever
get abstract
This
ideas ?
the more
Science
question was
pertinent because
could
of the Universal, or
the
only be a Science
(to use
of general truths.
language of Positive
Science) a science
Aristotle
admitted, with Plato, that there could be no " science
science which
of sensation," no
founded
ideas ; and
not
was
on
it was
needful, therefore for him to show how such ideas could
But,

"

be

obtained.

ARISTOTLE'S

Plato's solution of

the

doctrine

METHOD.

problem

This

solution, of

existence

^'

did

course,

in

the

world

particular things; by
particular. Sensation
Memory.
sensations, and

by

wherein

things

Memory

then

formed

this art

distinction

becomes

have

say,

'T-the

art

and

which

art

is

The

into

Memory

former,

the

that

Experience;

no

our

discern

to

this art.

has

is, that

Men

converts

Man

we

this
they dififer;and
general conception is

alone

have

Memory,

of Induction.

Aristotle

That

Brutes

have

the

not

whereby
Man

enabled

are

we

the

have

we

remember

things, we

wherein

is Induction.

between

although they

art

perceive

we

sensation;

of

of

state

the

that

and
an

sensation

By

many
remembrance

resemble

which

general in
perceive
basis of all knowledge : but

is the

that

anterior

an

we

faculty besides
perceived
Havmg

was

former

Ideas

of

traces

of

not

Ideas.

induction

another

have

of

He, too,
satisfyAristode.
cence
indispensable; but reminis-

not

was

of

reminiscence
the

; it

exhibited

before

by

previous experience,

of

"

the

reminiscence

that

aware

was

of

we

soul's

ingenious
apprehension of truths awakened
discovered
sensation
in Things.
the

439

is to

Experience

reasoning animal.

Induction

of which

tlie art

by

he

speaks
be
luminous
proved by one
by experience, may
of the Metaphysics.
Art
commences
when, from
a
passage
of Experiences, one
general conception is formed
great number
which
will embrace
all similar cases." *
And, lest there should
his
trate
be any misunderstanding of
definition,he proceeds to illusit
that a certain remedy has cured
know
Thus
: if you
meant

furnished

as

"

"

Callias

of
the

efifect on

same

that

is

cure

all persons

Experience

is the
is that

Art

of Universals
That

passage.
little more
than

"iia

yivcrai

yevtyrai

certain

disease

that

individual

the

tAv

other

several

on

that

remedy

same

is Art

has

duced
pro-

persons,
will

remedy
:

for

ence
Experi-

things (rcov KatfcKoora);

(twv icatfdXov)."
was

of

Positive

nature

and

Science

"

\k iroXXwtrrqc

awakening
science,lies

the
of

processes

Socratic

! f"

mood

higher

of Induction

conception
Analogical Reasoning ; but

In

Ik rlxv?! ^fav
rcpi

with
of

and

know

to

of
the

that the

Socrates

strain I heard

commencement

that

but

attacked

appreciationof

an

knowledge

*'

The

disease,and

certain

we

in

saw

in this Aristotelian

KaB6\ov
Iftittiplae
ivvoti/iarutv

6|tol"y dir6Xqi^"". ^'Met.,'i.


"

to

I.

iiBTHOt),

ARISTOTL^^!^

34^

conception
2ation

from

Nor

rite's: it was

him

observation

phenomena,

if

for,

ohservaiion
furnish

Thus

other

of

which

illustrate that

and
demonstration."

is

oii

celestial

easily

could

y\i^

admits

that

all

the

regulate them.
nothing that

omit

Jf we
respectingphenomena

Stagy-

respecting

the

which

the laws

ai

grounded

observe

to

old

furnishes

is

Astronomy

sciences.

demonstration

the

guess
his premisses

f roper ly

demonstrate

afford us

can

claims

the

Experience

*'

genefali-

the

Science
of

from

again
were

we

might

we

applies to

same

science.

every

Positive

random

deduction
logical

Hear

principlesof

Tlie

this

was

the

knowledge.

which

Instances

those

its Method.

of Instances, and

the Collection

see

we

monstrate
being desusceptible of
of

not

"

in his investigation
abandoned
And, in another place, when
assertion.
We
hazard
he will not
must
an
by phenomena,
since
for further phenomena,
are
phenomena
wait," he says,
"

"

be

to

more

than

trusted

conclusion

the

of reason."

always steadily held before his eyes this conception


the Empiric which
Germans
of Science, had he always been
so
would
have
call him, he
anticipatedBacon
contemptuously
he

Had

"

he

would
it

But

that

been

have

could

not

generalizations
his

out

carry

certainly

sufficient
with

him

only

upon
at the

on

"

could

conception
application of

short

of

way,

Method

such

speculations

was

always

not

are

laid

insufficiencyof facts, he

not

was

generalize

to

himself

he

the

Method

there

which

from

and

in

effectually

not

because

which

Method

and, indeed,

Experience

to

that

Aristotle's

the

not

he

accumulated

then

Hence

effect

the

; but

one

led

Science.

His

scheme.

Experience

any

carried

Experience,

own

did

he
himself

confine

"

of

just

have

could

father

the

precisely because

was

age

of Positive

down.

jumps to a
Impatient
the
solve
problems which
Eager, as all men
present
are, to
h
He
his
priori.
applied
themselves, he solved them
Syllogism
his
of
before he had ascertained
exactitude
the
premisses. But
the

radical

can

penetrate
to

in his

defect
the

create

sufficient

disproof

is

Experimentalist,an

mere

The

distinction

of

between

"

'

of the

notion
This

existence.

and

metaphysical system;

system

is the

Philosophy

mystery

conclusion.

vulgar

that science

made
this

notion

him

deavour
en-

metaphysical
of his

being

Empiric.
Aristotle

Analy. Prior./

and

i.

c.

30*

Plato

is, that while

you
but

have

which

object, it

an

something

affirm

may

; but, when
affirm
you

when
that

sensation* of

you

is true

to

LOGIC*

AklSTOTLE^S

J4i

true

sensation;

thing,you

another

of

something

Every single thought


thoughts together, that is

two

connect

you

be

must

false of it.

affirm

may

is false.

Everything therefore that you think


a
Proposition; in fact,your thoughts
To

understand

understand

the

the

Art

whole

whole
of

about
a

are

of

nature

Thinking

series

tions.
Proposi-

of

Propositions
the province

to

"

is

"

reduced

be

may

of

Logic.
of the
By a very natural confusion, Aristotle,thus convinced
hood
that truth or falseled to maintain
importance of language, was
rather
did not depend upon
things but upon words, or
upon
therefore
combinations
to
of words
Propositions. Logic
upon
the
real
him, as to Plato, though in a different way, became
tion
the distincBut, as John Mill remarks,
Organon of Science.
definitions
nominal
real and
between
definitions,between
called
definitions
of words
and what
of things,though con*
are
"

"

formable

it appears
is ever

thing.

to

is

It

Aristotelian

ihost

maintained.

be

us,

of

intended

writers

those

ideas

the

to

We

explain

to

unfold

of

thought

have

who

apprehend

and

confirmation

some

logicians,cannot,

there

were

no

of

that

the

of

none

definitions

of

criterion

in

succeeded

as

tion
defini-

nature

opinion

our

that

the

that

discovering any
by
be
from
a
thing can
distinguished
any
that thing. The
definition
other proposition relating to
they
of the
but
the
definition
nature
unfolds
thing
:
no
can
say

things

which

have

the

ever

definition

unfold

its whole

quality

whatever

of

nature

The

All definitions

are

true

of

of

and

names

the

of

state

proposition in
thing unfolds

every

predicated

is

of its nature.

and

the

case

of

we

take

which

any

part

some

be

to

this

only ; but, in soine


nothing is intended except

names

it is clearlyapparent that
definitions,

explain the meaning of the word ; while, in others, besides


explaining the meaning of the word, it is intended to be implied
that there exists a thing corresponding to the word.
Whether
this be or be not implied in any given case, cannot
be collected
to

from
with

the

mere

the upper

form

parts

of

expression.
a

man

and

the

rectilineal

centaur

lower

is

animal

an

parts of

horse

'

figure with three sides


are, in
the
in
form, expressions preciselysimilar; although,
former, it
is not implied that any /A;"r^
conformable
to the term
reallyexists,
and

'

triangle is

of

while in the latter it is ;

as

may

'

be

seen

in
by substituting,

both

AkISTOTLE*S

the
definitions,
centaur

word

means

unchanged
would

deduce

of

expressive only
particularsign.
are,

definitions

which

call

to

the

it would

the

"c., the meaning

from

geometry
in which

manner

in

intend

we

meaning

themselves

of

from

the

other

definition

the

remain

would

sense

obviously impossible

be

of

truths

expression of this

an

"c.,

first expression,'a

the

trianglemeans/

*.a

include

of the

Its difference

In

443

therefore, expressions commonly

"There

explanation

second

the

of

any

for is*

animal/
since

altered

be

means

an

in the

LOGIC.

passing

peculiarkind

sort,

kind

consists

in

employ

the

it is not

But

term.

proposition
to

than

more

to

for

mere

correct

of definition.

this,that it is

not

tion
definiThe
something more.
of a triangle,
given above
obviously comprises not one,
but
two
is,
one
propositions,perfectly distinguishable. The
exist a figure bounded
There
by three straightlines :
may
this figure may
the
be termed
a
other, and
triangle/ The
former
of these propositionsis not a definition at^^all
: the latter
a

definition,but

and

'

is

definition

nominal

mere

application of
and

reasoning,

The

term.

or

first

explanation of the
is susceptible of truth

therefore
be made
the foundation
of
may
llie latter can
false
neither
be true nor

a
:

use

and

or

hood,
false-

train of
the

only

conformity or discon*
of language.
formity to the
"
definitions
is a real distinction,then, between
of
There
and what
are
erroneously called diefinitions of things ;
names
the meaning of a name,
but it is that [the latter,along with
assertion is not a
of fact. This covert
covertly asserts a matter
is a mere
identical
definition
definition,but a postulate. The
of
the use
only about
proposition, which
gives information
of
respecting matters
language, and from which no conclusions
The
fact can
possiblybe drawn.
accompanying postulate on
the other hand, affirms a fact which
lead to consequences
may
of every
degree of importance. It affirms the real existence of

character

it is

susceptibleof
ordinary usage

things,possessing the
a

whole

combination

this, if true,

definition; and
build

is that

of attributes
be

may

luminous
profound and
Aristotle,and his whole system

oversight.
of

set

foundation

/
;

forth in the
sufficient

to

fabric of scientific truth."*

This

the

of

He

was

vitiated

thought that Logic

Thought, but,
"

distinction"

as

System

such,

the

of Logic/

was

not

seen

by

in consequence
of
the
ment
Instrunot
only

Instrument

vol. i. pp.

was

of

195-7.

investigating

ARISTOTLE

244

LOGIC.
.

his

In

Causes.

Logic

the first

Categories, They

place

ten

are

in number,

and

follows

as

Substance.

ovata

brated
cele-

occupied by tb^

was

:"

'

......

irofjov

Quantity.
Quality.

leoiov

Relation.

irpoc

Action.

voiiiv
......

Passion.

vaax^tv
fcov

the

Where.

itoTt

the

When.

KilaQai

Position

kxitv

Possession.

These

Categories, or,

intended

were

under

as

Latin

the

enumeration

an

of which

some

as

thing

every
universal
most

writers
of

those

was

to

in space*

Predicaments

say,

classes,
be

or

getiera^

reduced.

They
various

expressions for the


relations of things ; they cannot
further be analysed, and remain
definitions
fundamental
the
of things. It is,however, as has
been
remarked, a mere
rudqly
catalogue of the distinctions
marked
with
little or
out
no
by the language of familiar life,
to penetrate
by philosophic analysis,to the rationale
attempt
were

held

even

of those

to

the

be

distinctions.

common

superficially
conducted,
be

both

others
a

redundant

and

repeated several

dvision

of

animals

would

into

Some

under

an

however
analysis,

the

shown

have

defective.
times

Such

enumeration

objects are

different

heads.

omitted

It is like

quadrupeds, horses, asses,

men,

to

and

and

ponies.*
at classification may
be, it
imperfect this attempt
held
centuries ; nor
to be
was
satisfactoryattempt for many
a
another
until Kant
bold
on
was
one
enough to venture
any
What
have
much
to criticise it,as
to do is not
to exhibit
we
so
its historical
position. As such it is important. The idea of
examining \h.Q farms of thought could scarcely have originated
earlier.
with
Previous
occupied themselves
speculators had
inquiriesinto the originaiid nature of knowledge ; Aristotle saw
that it was
time to inquire into the necesssary
of thought.
forms
To
do this,to analyse the various
of the mind, and
processes
the
in all its details is the object
to exhibit
art of thinking
of his Logic.
Some
h%d declared
sense^knowledge to be all deceitful;
ful,
declared
others had
that sense-knowledge
was
perfectlyfaithit went, but that it was
incapable of penetrating
as far as

However

'*

"

"

Mill's

System

of

Logic,' vol.

i. p. 60.

ARISTOTLE'S

LOGIC.

245

beneath

phenomena*
Scepticism was
assuming
attitude.
Aristotle,in his way, endeavoured
to meet
it thus

met

always

That

far

as

sensation

wrong.

you

make

may

according
to

appears

about

to

you

sensation
If

is true

an

; but

that

affirm

lies not

Error

But

the

in

either

be
also

are

affirmation
true

in

you

have

if,on

the

false,

or

the
is

water

accurate

of

strength

is

broken, your
false sensation, but
oar

not

to

are

any

dipped

oar

sensation.

that

senses

be

may

is

senses

right; both

broken, the sensation

be

enough ; you have


that sensation, you
is false.

that

affirmation.

the

to

sensation

our

our

parties are

Both

as

from

that

also

true

they go.

as

derived

knowledge

is true;

correct,

trusted,

the

menacing
it,and he

tion
affirma-

in

false

affirmation.

tidns

; it

truth

seek

must

we

necessityof Logic, which is the science of Affirmais in the Enunciate


Proposition,"iro^aKrtKos Xoyos, that
the

Hepce

falsehood.

or

into Affirmative

This

^^.,

It

is

impossible

for

divided
is sub-

Negative Propositions,which

and

mutually opposed, and give rise


they are asserted in the same
sense
"

Proposition

the

to

Contradiction,
of

and

one

thing

same

the

to

be

so
same

and

are

soon

as

thing
not

to

be.''
omit

to mention

Predicables, which have


also played a considerable
part in the History of Philosophy.
of general Names,
Predicables
The
not
a five-fold division
aie
difference
that
in
their meaning,
is,
a
grounded, as us^ual,
upon
in
attribute
which
difference
in the
a
they cannoX/^^ but upon
the kind of class which
We
they denott.
predicate of a
may
We

must

not

thing five different varieties


yivoQ
el^oc

the five

of class-name

'
.

"

.*.....

dta"popd

"

Genus,

Species.

Differetice.

Property.

^
'

idiov

vtfiifitfiriKQQ

an

Accident.

thes^ distinctions,"says the author


what
the predicate is in
not
quoting, that they express
are
we
its own
meaning, but what relation it bears to the subject of
it happens
be predicated.
which
the particular occasion
to
on
which
and
There
not
names
exclusively genera,
some
are
are
which
others
exclusively species or differentiae;but the
are
is referred to one
another
Predicable, according
or
same,
name
"

It is to be

remarked

of

"

to

the

subject

of which

it is

predicated

on

the

particularocca-

LOGIC.

ARISTOTLE'S

246

John

specieswith

; a

applied

names

between
not

to

what

upom
it

are

with

genu^

words

they

the

upon

in

occupies relativelyto

class

that

or

are

relation
the
express
relation
a
grounded,

^ifnotes, and

classification

The

terms;

predicates r^^notes, but


the
place which
upon

the

Man

to

Being.

or

predicates,to
given subject :

some

respect

relative

therefore

certain

and

them

to substance

respect

species, "c.,

genus,

which

instance, is

for

Animal^

sion.

class

given

some

the

particular

subject."*
investigationsinto

various

The

Aristotle prosecuted

which

were

theory of reasoning, f "^.

his

Syllogism to

be

the

an

being
a necessaiy
without
and
the Propositions
in the

Propositions.

Thus

All

which

the basis

form

to

Syllogism.
in

Propositions

of

nature

necessaiy

enunciation

laid down,

the

defined

He

of
the

certain

Propositions
distinct from

conclusion

is

drawn,

employing

any

idea

contained

not

"

bad

men

miserable

are

Every tyrant

is

bad

man

;
:

ergo,
All

His

examination

needlessly weary
as

dialectical

not

detain

but

which

tyrants

of the

sixteen

exercise,was

here.

Syllogism would
great ingenuity,and,

of the

forms

It exhibits

readers.

our

miserable.

are

doubtless

MilFs

sufficient \ but it must


of Logic will be found
'

System
the deepest exposition of the whole
the clearest and
Syllogistic
is that portion of it
Art ; and
especiallyworthy of attention
to an
devoted
appreciationof the value of the Syllogism, a form
have
eminent
often declared
to be idle,
of reasoning which
men
ns

In

is there

ascertaining the

shown

real

to

be

meaning

of

highly effective
the premisses we

art

of

employ

in

as

an

reasoning.

any

theory of the Syllogism is succeeded

The

theory of Demonstration.
owes

anterior
The

its existence
?

knowledge

conclusion

It

is but

particular. Thus, if
know

it because

the middle

is to

be

term
aware

tells

us

the

of
*

know

that

by the

all rational

ledge
know-

is this
What
knowledge.
is the major proposition of a Syllogism.
the
application of the general to the
know
that Tyrants are miserable, we
to

anterior

that All

know

we

we

We

in Aristotle

that
cause

System

of

bad

men

are

miserable

Tyrants are bad men.


\ to demonstrate, is
Logic,*vol.

i.

p. 162,

To
to

; and

know

give the

METAPHYSICS.

ARISTOTLE'S

247
"

which

Syllogism
therefore

expresses
that every

necessary

principlesthat

upon

according

as

affirmation
themselves

without
The

or

principlesare

subjects

the two

is

orders

of the

which

be
so

predicated
thing
; another

of demonstrations
from

cause

those

them

what

row

universal

they

thing

one

it is

why
"

consideration

6toTt, the demonstration

the

know

the

are

It is

to

thing defined

existence.

make

of them.

the

ort,

so

are,

to

know

hence

tion
demonstra-

effect ; " and


effect from the presence

of the

"

Tov

of the

demonstration

of

particularthings

may

thing

repose
in selves
them-

conclusion.

the

to

an

proper

of

evident

anterior

explanation of the essence


affirmingany thing respectingits

which

that

Syllogism should

is

It

Axioms, Hypotheses, "c.,


self-evident,or they presuppose
some
they are
Definitions
when
negation ; they are
they limit

to

attributes
and

scientific

have.

we

true, primitive,more

are

undemonstrable

These

knowledge

conclusion, and

the

than

the

of the

the
of

cause."

We

his

with

Logic

his work

exposition of

this

close

"

have

in this attempt to
have
labours
done
not

inferior to

too

formed

had

construct

of

science

as

the works

on

sciences

other

successive

of

of

Aristotle's

he

concludes

predecessors
of Reasoning

If,therefore, the work

the assistance

with

works

no

it all.

points

leadmg

jtouchingwords,

somewhat

own

We

the

to

assist

to

appears

you
been

have
in the

labourers

indulgence for
some
department, you will show
of our
gratitude for the
some
work, and

own

; our

which

the

us

same

tions
imperfec-

discoveries

it

contains,"

CHAPTER

IV.

Aristotle's
In

spiteof

of his

his

Logic.

Method,

Aristotle

We

rapidly set

his system.
The
problem
solve

was

there

were

taken

The

metaphysics.

that
Four

must

which
of the

the

Causes,

down

Metaphysician because
the leading points of

eariy thinkers

First Cause.

into consideration.

Material

was

not

one,

The

Cause, the

had

set

Aristotle
and

four

each

Causes

Essence^

to

to

maintained, that
of these

were
n

themselves

as

be

must

follows

"

^v clrat^ the Inva-

METAPHYSICS.

ARISTOTLE'S

248

Existgice, which

riable
"

Essence

**

philosophers

is the best

so

translation

the
Cause, viroKti^Ltvov^
Efficient
III.
The
Cause,

Substantial

^^

haps
variously sought. Perof the phraseII. The

Substance**

of the

men.
School-

hpxfi t^s ^injo-cwc,

**

the

IV". The
Final
Cause, to ov htKa koX
Principle of Motion."
Causes
and
These
End."
"the
all
were
Purpose
Tctyafloi/,
had
recognised separately by the early speculators,but no one
as
connected, and as all necessary.
recognised them
his predecesAristotle is right in his criticism on
doubt
No
sors.
all
his own
But
theory is extremely vicious ; it makes
the
to
logical distinctions; it makes
speculation subordinate
it creates
of investigation
Categories the great instrument
; and
that
the
was
spiritof useless and quibbling distinctions which
almost
all fervent
characteristic
vice of the schoolmen, who
were
Aristotle
In
Aristotelians,
word, the nearer
one
approached
from
sound
to
systematic precision, the wider he wandered
this because
of his fundamental
principlesof inquiry. And
of supposing, that Logic was
error
an
Organon, /.^., that subaccord
In
with, objectivedistinctions.
j'ectvedistinctions must
consequence

of

interrogatedhis
This

may

seem

which,

instead

we

before

interrogating Nature,

he

mind.

own

at

variance

s"i sense-experience, and


AS

of

observed, the

at

with

his notion

variance

with

of

his

rigorous application

the
Method

necessity
;

but,

of his Method

excellent
as
barely possible ; and, however
a
precept, it
be
almost
to
inevitably vitiated in practice.
was
as
so
vague
this.
of vitiation was
The
Experience was
process
necessary,
for
ReasoH
materials
with.
the
to work
as
affording
Any reasoning
of
founded
not
be
must
on
a
knowledge
phenomena
it by no
all
false ; but
that
founded
means
follows,
reasoning
will
be
Here
Aristotle's
of phenomena
true.
a knowledge
was
on
He
mistake.
But,
thought that Experience could not deceive.
make
his
laid
down
he
should
have
the
Method
to
perfect,
for "interrogating**
rules for testing that Experience
Nature
of what was
^for the discrimination
the
pertinent to
question
in
hand
for establishinga proper
experimentum cruets**
Thus
in
facts," as they are called, are notoriously valuable
which
proportion only to the value of the theory upon
they
"
collected.
talk
if
have
been
of
facts
facts
as
were
People
convictions.
irresistible
The
truth
to produce
is,they are susceptible
in
the
of almost
explanation ; and,
history of
any
the theories,
find ^tfacts^ but
do not
changing;
science,we
was

"

"

^^

"

"

"

METAPHYSICS^

ARISTOTL"?S

JSO

development ; we have exhibited his method*


It only remains
works
to add, that his ethical and
political
are
distinguishedby such sober sagacity,the very genius of good
in the present day they are
studied
with profit.
that even
sense,
which
those Logical and Metaphysical doctrines
And
regard
we
completely beside the truth were, as is well known, the great
as
centuries.
influence
The
of speculation during many
source
they exercised is beyond all appreciation; and, although much
of that influence
evil,as leading to frivolous subtleties, as
was

historyof

human

misdirectingthe
the

hand,

in

much

Aristotle,as the
wide

acuteness, the

and

number
a

formidable

passing
those

respect.

range

of his

excellence

the works

of

form

^miliar.

been

tone.

Science,

always
learning,his singular

vast

and
investigations,

must

ing
the astonishhim

works, will alwa)rs make

Plato,''it has

'^

been

all with

first of

the

well

feelingwith
beings with whom

livinghuman

student

said,

''

to

entire absence

that dramatic

and

The

distinguished the
activityof speculation,

fascinatingmaster.

Aristotle,is struck

of

His

his

of

more

of that dramatic
has

and

rival to his

from

the

give it a proper
second
pillarof Greek

attention

command

wondrous

which

to

respects

some

to

keep alive

to

the other

; yet, on
experience, and the

systematic reasoning

and

Stagyrite,did
and

mind

the human

appeal

constant

acuteness

of

energy

which

he

he

has

passed away.
Protagoras, and Prodicus, and
in the midst
Hippias are no longer lounging upon their couches
of groups
have
of admiring pupils : we
walks along the walls
no
of the city; no
readings beside the Ilissus ; no livelysymposia,
Critias reabout
love ; no
to high discourses
giving occasion
calling
in the days of his youth, before
the stories he had heard
he became
and gloriousrepublics; above
a tyrant of ancient
all,
conversed

have

no

Socrates

he

stands

showing

forming
out

clear

that the

most

thoroughly humorous

centre

and

to

distinct
of

subtle
and

these

humane

in

various
his

groups,
individual

dialecticians
of

men.

may

Some

be

while

yet

character,
the most

little sorrow

beautiful

pictures will perhaps


be felt by everyone
; but by far the greater portion of readers
will believe, that they have
an
ample compensation,,in the
ness
precisionand philosophicaldignity of the treatise,for the richand variety of the dialogue. To hear solemn
disquisitions
for the

loss of

those

clear

and

without
opinions calmly discussed
of personalities; above
the interruptions
all,to have a profound

solemnly treated
and

considerate

\ to

hear

judge, able

and

not

unwilliugto

pronounce

SUMMARY

OF

positivedecision
think

THE

upon

great advantage,

wrongly,

not

expect,

SOCRATIC

MOVEMENT,

the

evidence

before

and

this

far

and

find in Aristotle."

to

CHAPTER
OF

SUMMARY

the

of

sake

historical

than

more

words

period firom
humanity.

call the

may

MOVEMEKT,

clearness

history of
What

Socrates

himself

appeared

during the

tentatives

of

the

scepticism,which

out

carry
manner,

of

had

He

the

from

men

had

led

bade

them

in

all ended

pernicious use
Scepticism by the

this

already

Scepticism.

utter

place a few
(as we

Aristotle)in

to

have

we

made

was

of doubt.

science.

moral

reign

Nature, which

about

confusion

effected

withdrew

He

Method.

Sophists down

early thinkers

banished

Socrates

the

they

tliis they

here
we
may
Socratic
of
the
Movement
respectingthe position

For

this

him;

V.
SOCRATIC

THE

251

of

He

seen.

The

the

various

desolatlDg
by the Sophists.
one

invention

of

new

metaphysical speculations
into the

them

inward*

look

inextricable
He

created

Cyrenaics and the Stoics attempted to


this tendency ; but
as
they did so in a one-sided
their endeavour
successful.
was
only partially
The

remarkable
of the disciplesof
Plato, the youngest and most
Socrates, accepted the Method, but applied it more
universally.
the most
Nevertheless, Ethics formed
important of his speculations.
illustrative of
and
Physics were
only subordinate

Ethics.

The

Truth

"

existence

God-like

the

"

which

he

for

to
besought men
contemplate, that they might share it,
for his own
had always an Ethical object : it was
sought by man
to live in a manner
perfection. How
resembling the gods was
ever

the fundamental
But

there

and

this germ

The

was

he
had
to solve.
set himself
problem which
of physical speculation in his philosophy,
a
germ
developed by his pupil,Aristotle.
was

difference

between

Plato, however, fills up

the

Socrates

and

abysm.

In

Aristotle
Plato

we

and
development, both in Method
Metaphysical speculations are intimatelyconnected

point

"

of

Ency. Metrop,,' ^Art. Moral


"

and

Met,

is immense
see

the

sition
tran-

in Doctrine.

Phtlos,

with

those

Ethics.

of

SOCRATIC

Ethics

Aristotle

In

MOVEMENT,

form

only

Physics

ancj

Metaphysics

THE

OF

SUMMARY

252

branch

one

the

usurp

larger

of

share

sophy
philohis

of

attention.
then

What

which

from

to

Aristotle's

of

result

Philosophy

brought

he

this:

the

was

again

round

wrested

had

Socrates

labours

it

he

Precisely

that

to

opened

the

condition
world

again

man.

Was

cratic

Epoch

having

first

In

above

sufficed

the

epoch

to

Aristotle's

all,

region
of

that

for

in
of

light

to

Scepticism,

paved

No,

on

importance
a

several
of

the

early

way

The

So-

humanity
Ethical

of

sophy,
Philo-

incomparably

speculators.

That

centuries.
Socratic

Method,

Metaphysics

and
the

of
and

new

the

Physics
he

benefit

by
for

atization

bringing

Inquiry,

the

pursued

humanity

system
his

double

substituted

having

of

nullified

Socrates
the

brought

Method

Method

of

conferred

and
better

advent

the

then

for

and,
into

again
new

epoch

the
"

("9otl)*

^W'b
CRISIS

SECOND

OF

SCEPTICS,
NEW

GREEK

PHILOSOPHY:

EPICUREANS,

Amongst

curious

the

into

of Alexander

with

reflect

the

on

of

; he

expedition

serious, reflective

one

man,

had

faith in doctrines
race

of wise

of belief.

nature

been

led

to

to doubt

learned

and

their

acting upon

Democritus,

of

was

the

founder

their devout

spectacle
strange creed, and

to

accompanied

purely philosophical interest; that


of the Sceptical philosophy. Conversing
have
the Gymnosophists
been
of India, he must

this

and

SCEPTICS.

there

with

Pjrrrho,the
widi

struck

I.

train which

India,

him

followed
was

THE

ACADEMY.

THE

man

AND

STOICS,

CHAPTER

who

THE

He

so

unusual

studious

have

question

the

led him

tlie

originof

this doubt

now

him

believing

men

belief,must
had
already, in

; and

to

sophy
philoledge
know-

became

irresistible.
On

his

return

philosophy
profound

to

which

The
all

on

the

himself

by

became

remarked

inculcated, and

absolute

doctrines
him

it made

resigned and
hirtiself

he

and

speculative

Socrates

"lis he

had

the*

insist

wholly

contrary

general precepts
was

uneasy,

of

which

effect upon

same

as

on

he
him

morality.
it,and

he found

common

the

practical

simplicityof his life.

scepticismwith

tranquil,accepting life

the'

the

for

sense.

regarded
as

upon

He

was

guiding
Socrates

restless, perpetually questioning

others, despising metaphysical speculations but


Pyrrho, utterlydissatisfied with all the attempts
eager for truth.
of his predecessors to solve the great problems they had set to
and

SCEPTtCS.

^^^

4J4
m

themselves, declared

the

dissatisfied:

declared

problems insoluble.
that

he

Socrates

also

was

nothing; but his


doubt
an
active, eager, questioning doubt, used
as
was
a
result of all investigastimulus
not
to investigation,
as
tion.
a final
The
doubt
of Pynho
a
reprobation of all philosophy;
was
"he doubt
of Socrates
the opening by which
a
new
sophy
philowas
he

doctrines.

established.

be

to

was

too

Their

knew

lives

Pyrrho, the grand Priest

with

accorded

Elis,lived

of

their

died

and

in

lived in
universal
esteem.*
and
Socrates
happiness, peace,
ridiculed as
perpetual warfare, was
always misunderstood, was
a sophist, and
perished as a blasphemer.
The
precise.doctrinesof Pyrrho it is now
hopeless to attempt
mixed
in antiquitythey were
Even
to detail.
so
up with those
found
of his followers
that it was
impossible to separate them.
We
are
forced, therefore,to speak of the sceptical doctrines as
and
and
able
admircollected
they are
systematized by that acute
writer,Sextus Empiricus.
The
strong-hold of Scepticism is impregnable. It is this :
There
of Truth.
Plato
is no
Criterium
magnificently developed
Aristotle
his Ideal Theory,- which
crushed
by proving it to be
purely subjective. But then the theory of Demonstration, which
Aristotle
that
1
not
^Q^2i}\ysubjective
placed in its stead, was
this boasted
What
was
Logic but the systematic arrangement
ledge
Aristotle's knowof Ideas obtained
through Sense ?
originally
could
only be a knowledge of phenomena, although he
wished

make

to

out

Phenomena

are

exists the

Criterium

to

ascertain

we

are

We

full

know

times

different

exactitude

the

Things of
that Things

well
;

different

diflferentlyto
If
true ?
Appearances

Apple
*

All

reflect

reveals
is

to

us

where

How

of

these

accordance

which

animals.

so, which

in

of

absturdity.

real

those

life

who

this

on.
a

presented

the stories about

scepticism
invention

the

But

are

Are

? and

do

these

of

any

how

at

know

you

are

Moreover
which

things.
these Appearances

of

mena?
Pheno-

are

they are Appearances


differentlyto us
appear
different
individuals
differently to

appear

appear

which

of

what

of

Appearances
truth

of the

the

with

Appearances

the

And

of Causes.

science

different
to

us

him
are

we

which
too

We

have

five

qualityin
see

the

it,smell

pretend

to

object. Thus
it,feel it,taste

illttstrate the

trivial for refatation,being

thought Pyrrho ought

each

senses,

to have

been

effects of

of
an

it,
his

obviously the
consequent in
^

"

'

!ha"

hear

bitten,and

it

different

five

perceive

"

would

have

Appearances
If

five different

"

had

we

sound,

in which

Aspects

Senses

three

qualitiesmore

three

sight,smell, feeh'ng,
taste, and

the

Thing.

the

SCsPflCS.

it would

three

present

we

Thing

the

more,

are

more

have
thing
but two
qualities. Now, are these qualitieswholly and entirely
Senses, or do they really appertain to the
dependent upon our
?
of them
Thing ? And do they all appertain to it,or only some
The
different people, would
differences of impressions made
on
show
that
the
to
seem
qualitiesof things were
dependent on
the Senses.
that
These
show
differences
rate
at any
things do

Appearances

not

present
All

and

such

cannot

the

with

say

three

Apple

have

we

Sensations
is

have

we

Senses

is,that Things

truth

our

would

less,the

true, if we

to

keener

Amidst

Sensations

images of
brilliant,
round, odorous
are

true

that it appears

mean

such

pretend

is the Criterium

Reason

and

Aristotle

Very
But

given up
it is

herein

are

proof
You

have

must

relyupon
?

correct

ever

return

reason

the

to

Criterium

the

Things^

and

sweet,

our

senses

be

Sense

assert

that

is your
Criterium.
itself distinguishes

that

; and
errs, what

is wanted

they

distinguishes.Plato

Reason

Reason
never

we

taste, it may

false \

Reason

that this Criterium

not

that your

you

you

agreed.
Sceptics,

must

; you

from

true

; but

impressions, Philosophers

sensuous

of Truth

well, reply the

what

truly?
have

to

of

distinguish the

to

in such

us

is true

duller

this confusion

to

appear

vision,scent, tact, and


or
dull, rugged, offensive,and insipid.
but,

has

been

ask you

we

proof
for

have

already
proof

what

you that
Criterium
;

your
hold to be

infinitum. This argument we


wholly
irreversible,as far as regards Metaphysical knowledge; and

and

so

lest

we

on

ad

should

be

mistaken

Sceptics, ourselves, we will


side of the Sceptical
the weak

for

brieflyto point out


philosophy.
The
Sceptics maintain, and justly,that, as
endeavour

"

our

knowledge

is

and not at all of Noumena


knowledge of Phenomena,
Things as they appear to us, and not as
^as we
only know
all
tence
they reallyare
attempt to penetrate the mysteries of Exismust
be vain; for the attempt
can
only be made
on
absolute
is
attainable
truth
not
although
But,
by
appearances.
science
of
be
there
be
there
cannot
although
can
a
Being,
man,
of Appearances.
The
"ey admit, are
a science
Phenomena,

only

the

"

series of Appearances.

That

that

be very

may

had

manner.

say

That

we

uniform

one

can

we

if

SCEPTICS.

THE

ifo

true

Phenomena.

as

and

observe

of

What

have

we

classifyPhenomena
coexistence

parlance, to trace
having done this,we
adequate to all
mon

and

to

man's

or,.

of

the

we

as

Science

td

blances
resem-

in

say

and

cause

founded

have

shall

in them

trace

succession;

therefoire

is

do

to

connexions

the

com"

effect,and,
of

ances
Appear-

wants.

not
Sceptics lived was
ripe for such
of a
a conception : accordingly, having proved the impossibility
of Being, they supposed
the
science
that they had established
had
impossibilityof Science, and
destroyed all grounds of

the

But

age

in which

the

certitude.
added
that
modem
worthy of remark
Sceptics have
nothing which is not implied in the principlesof the Pynhonists.
Hume
The
thought he destroyed all the
by which
arguments
grounds of certitude are differentlystated from those of Pyrrho,
is

It

but

founded
differently

not

same

they

j and

may

in the

answered

be

way.
The

Sceptics had

negative doctrine; consequently,


the tendency of the
only a negative influence.
They corrected
mind
towards
accepting its conclusions
as
adequate expressions
the
moderate
to
of the facts ; they served
impetuosity of the
of
that the pretended Science
speculative spirit
; they showed
the day was
not
so
firmly fixed as its professors supposed. It
is curious, indeed, to have
the gigantic efforts of a
witnessed
Socrates,

Plato

only

and

Philosophy, which

Aristotle

an

towards

the

reconstruction

a
Sophists had
brought to ruins
then
and
to witness
Reconstruction, too, on different ground
of the iconoclast
that image, to witness
the hand
smiting down
the
logic of the Sceptic undermining that laboriously
pitiless
constructed
edifice,leaving nothing in its place but another
built ; for,
edifice was
the
heap of ruins, like that from which
not
only did the Sceptics refute the notion that a knowledge of
of Existence, not
Appearances could ever become
a knowledge
of sensation, and
only did they exhibit the fallacious nature
of certitude
the want
in the affirmations
of Reason, they also
attacked
and
destroyed the main
positions of that Method
which
to
was
supply the ground of certitude; they attacked

of

the

"

"

Induction
Of
writes

and

Definitions.

Induction,
thus

"

"

Sextus,

Induction

(to koBoKw)) from


in
only be correct

far

as

brief, pregnant

one

is the

individual
as

in

conclusion

things.
all the

But

individual

of
this

the

chapter,
Universal

Induction

things agree

can

with

EPICUREANS.

THE

258

tion between a thing seemingand a thinghdng ridiculed with a


*
trulycomic gusto, he should turn to Molifere's Mariage Forc^,'
Such folliesform no portionof our subject,
and
Act. i. sc. 8.
with

them

leave

we

worthy efifortsof

more

pleasureto

some

human

noticed

IL

in their

condemned

meaning

the

how

renders

attached

now

bias

inadvertently
gives a

to

EPICUREANS.

THE

Epicureansare

attention

our

ingenmty.

CHAPTER

The

direct

to

our

We

names.

to the name

before

of

Sophist,
of
the
Sophist
judgment

extremely difficult

it

to
conceive
the
of that school otherwise than as shameless
rogues.
Equally difficult is it to shake ofi the influence of association

school, and
members

with respect to the Epicureans; although historians are


pretty well agreed in believingEpicurus to have been
of

and

pure

virtuous

life,and

one

doctrines

whose

now
a

man
were

abstemiousness.
and reallyinculcating

moderate

bom
Epicurus was
Olymp. 109, at Samos, according to
in the vicinityof Athens, according to
some
; at Gargettus,
others.

His

began ;

so

grammar.
career

parents

At

his father

were

poor;
very early age, he

his thirteenth

earlyas

tells us, his


year.

teacher

of

philosophical
But

we

must

He
this statement.
dates his career
from
which
those first questionings
and perplex all young
occupy
those of any superior
less
minds, especially
capacity. He doubt-

misunderstand

not

period when, boy-like,he puzzled his


questionbeyond that teacher's power.
Hearing
said
all
the verse
Hesiod
wherein
arise
of
from
to
thingsare
And whence
Chaos ?
Chaos, Epicurusasked :
came
Chaos ?
Whence
is not this the sort of questionto
came

refers to
teacher with a

that

"

**

"

*'

occupy
that

we

the active mind


are

all led

into

of

boy

Is it not

philosophy?

And

questions

by

such

to

philosophyhe

referred for an explanation The writingsof Democritus


fellin his way, and were
of others
avidlystudied ; the writings
followed ; and, his vocation being fixed^he sought instruction
was

from

"

many

masters.

EPICUREANS.

THE

all these

from

But

he

masters

259

gain

could

tions;
convic-

solid

n^

giv^e him Truth ;


they gave him hints ; they could not
the materials
they furnished, he produced a
and, working upon
he justifiedhis claim
by which we presume
S)rstem of his own,
to being self-taught.
visited
He
His
were
agitated and unsettled.
early years
remained
He
there
Athens
at eighteen,but
only one
year.
He
then
Lampsacus.
passed to Colophon, Mitylene, and
returned

opened
Olymp.

school,

his

in

Athens

to

six-and-thirtieth

which

over

he

till

presided

there

his

death,

127.

place he chosQ for his school was


spot pleasantly typical of his doctrine.
The

their

and

year,

Academic

Grove

the

the

Platonists

The

Aristotelians

Garden,

famous

walked

had

along

the

Cynosarges : the Stoics


occupied the Porch ; and the Epicureans had their Garden.
Here, in the tranquilGarden, in the society of his friends,
The
he passed a peaceful life of speculation and
enjoyment.
In
is well known.
them
a
friendship which existed amongst
time of general scarcity and
to
each^
famine, they contributed
of comother's support, showing that the Pythagorean notion
munity
of goods
could
friends, who
was
unnecessary
among
the
of the
other.
At
Garden
confide in each
entrance
they
^
The
hospitable keeper of this
placed this inscription:
will find pleasure the highest good, will
mansion, where
you
and
fresh from
water
present you liberallywith barley cakes
the spring. The
gardens will not provoke your
appetite by
artificial dainties, but
satisfy it with natural
supplies. Will
Lyceum

you

not

be

the

well entertained

Garden

The

Cynics occupied

has

often

the

?"

been

called

sty ; and

the

of

name

designation of a sensualist.
But,
of Epicurus
in spite of his numerous
assailants,the character
from
rescued
both
been
and
has
by
by ancient
contempt
critics.
of the
modem
Diogenes Laertius, who
gives some
in detail,easily refutes them
accusations
by an appeal to facts ;
writers
have
of
and the modem
easily penetrated the motive
which
ancient
the
from
the
calumnies,
mostly proceeded
like
A
of
all
Stoics.
doctrine
that
Epicurus wOuld, at
times,
in
itself to gross
lend
misrepresentation ; but,
an
epoch like

Epicurean

that

has

in which

it

appeared,

furiouslyopposed
if the

the

become

bitterness

to

of

it

as

and

contrasted

that of the

opposition

with

Stoics, we

translated

doctrine

cannot

itself into

so

wonder
bitter

EPICUREANS,

THE

26o

calumny.

It is

differences

to

of

one

make

which

consequences
indubitably the

he
consequences
conducive
sound
to

opinions are

and, being

believe

to

deduce

you

that

contrary

so

from

for himself.

morality ;

convinced, it is

of

tkat

Your
are

you

for

natural

to

you

immoral.

be

must

speculative

opponent's opinions
them, as if they were

your

deduces

opinions

of

results

commonest

attribute

you

the

convinced

the

Your

immoral

opinions; and
you
imn oralityas
proclaim
an
unquestionable fact. In this,
is a
viz., that your
slight forgetfulness
however, there
;
occupies exactly similar ground, and what yotf think
opponent
holds

opponent

contrary,

ergo^

his

of him

thinks

he

Stoics

The

of you.
ineffable
had an

effeminacy of

contempt

exaggeration
other

follows

have

met

of
of

with

Stoics, from

the

in their actions

course
more
more

and

Epicurus is said
Greek

the

weakness

Epicureans

had

and
an

effable
in-

unnatural

rigidity and

they mutually libelled each


the libels against the
Epicureans
; but
than
credit
those
against the
general
of the latter,both
imposing character

Stoics.

the

for

contempt

Epicureans. The
for the
spasmodic

the

That

doctrines.
to

have

Philosophers, except

been

the

voluminous

most

Chrysippus

of

all

and, although none


are
extant, yet so many
fragments are preserved
here
and there, and
such
ample testimony as to his opinions,
that there are
few writers of whose
doctrine
can
we
speak with
it does
in itself present
not
as
so
greater certainty,the more
difficulties of comprehension.
any
be
unlike
Aristotle
Plato
and
than
more
Nothing
can
be
characterized
the
at
Epicurus ; and this difference
may
in the
difference
outset
by their fundamental
conception of
of Life, and
Philosophy, which Epicurus regarded as the Art
the Art of Truth.
that power
not
Philosophy, he said, was
Reason
conducted
(ci/cpycta)
to happiness.*
by which
man
The
not
investigationsof science he despised, because
only
were
they uncertain, but contributed
ness
happinothing towards
of science, found
Logic, the instrument
; and, of course.
his
favour in
no
sight. His philosophy was, therefore, only

of these

another

form
at

Scepticism,consequent
previous inquiries. Socrates
of

rbv
\6yoiQ nai diaXoyKrfiOtg
Emp, Adv, Math.

ilvai

Sdxtus*

works

on

had

mental

taught

tifdaifiovapiov

faction
dissatismen

wpiiroiomav*

to

"

THB

regard their

nature

own

this lesson

and

But

curiosity,or
order

not

erudition:

simple
improve
may

he

object of investigation,

great

interrogate his

for

that

the

as

96t

Epicurus willinglygave

does

man

MPlCUkEANS.

it

own

he

he

ear

to.

nature

out

studies

learns

his

the

of

simple

nature

of

extent

in
his

The
capacities in order that he may
properly direct them.
be Happiness.
aim, therefore,of all such inquiriesmust
But
what
constitutes
happiness ? Upon this point systems
differ: all profess to teach
all
the road
to
Happiness, and
be no
There
point out divergent roads.
dispute as to
can
what
of
Happiness is, but infinite disputes as to the way
this
we
saw
securing it. In the Cyrenaic and Cynic schools
battk
the
question leading to very different results ; and
we
are

to

now

renewed

see

]l6picureans
and

the

on

very

similar

ground,

between

the

Stoics.

constituted
Epicurus, like Aristippus,declared that Pleasure
tively
Happiness; all animals
it,and as instincinstinctively
pursue
do
avoid
Man
Pain.
should
deliberately that which
animals
do
is in itself good ;
instinctively.Every Pleasure
The
evil.
become
but, in comparison with another, it may
an
in this.That
while
Philosopher differs from the common
man
knows
how
to
they both seek Pleasure, the former
forego certain
will
and
vexation
hereafter
pain
cause
enjoyments which
;
whereas
the
seeks
The
common
only to
man
enjoy.
foresee
will
him
be
the
enables
what
to
Philosopher's art
result of his acts
he
will not
only avoid
; and, so foreseeing,
those
endure

enjoyments
those

which

pains from

occasion

grief, but

know

how

to

surpassing pleasure will result.


of the
but
the enjoyment
moment,

which

Happiness, then, is not


seek
the enjoyment of the whole
sify,
intenlife. We
must
not
to
but
to
morrow,
equalize : not
debauchery to-day and
satietytobut equable enjoyment
all the year round.
life ; and the pleasures /
be pleasant but a virtuous
No
life can
be
of the body, although not to
/
despised,are insignificantwhen
of
The
former
soul.
but
with
the
those
are
compared
'

the

momentary,

latter

embrace

both

the past and

the

future.

He
not
only insisted
golden rule of Temperance.
the
for continued
on
necessity of moderation
enjoyment, he
also slighted,and somewhat
scorned, all exquisite indulgences.
fed moderately and
He
plainly. Without
interdictingluxuries,
he saw
that Pleasure
and
enduring if luxuries
was
more
purer
which
This is the ground
dispensed with.
were
Cynics
upon

Hence

his

26r

EPICUREANS.

THE

and

Stoics built

saw

that

their

their

simplicitywas

notion

preferable

^.

too

exaggerated systems.

own

to

luxury; but
with

Contentedness

consisted

regarded as a great good :


wants.
great possessions, but in having small
limit man
to the fewest
possible enjoyments :
wished

he
him

him
able

be

to

in all ways
to live upon

ill fortune, and


who

man

able

to

lives

fear
plainly has no
enjoy exquisitepleasures.

Virtue

rests

upon
since, without

without

and

enhancement

an

as

Free

Will

Free

Will

Reason

depends

man's

on

consists
the Will

how

virtues

or

furnished

would

scientific

poverty,

Mind

The

is better

and

which

be

passive,
thing,
Every-

blind.

be

is virtuous

to

able
insepar-

are

would

willing.

the

wished

enjoyments.

would

arguinents both

vicious

or

cation
Philosophical edujudge accurately,

own

many

The

doctrine

may

be
and

assailants

to

seen

to

the vagueness
and
elasticity
minds
to
adapt it to their

notice

enable

their

to

of

of his Ethical

also

may

rare

which

contrary,
he

manfully.

to their vices.

exhortation

Let

choose

We

it,which

of

accustoming

slightoutline

readilyit

defenders.

to

this

From

Will

not

preventive against

Reason

our

and

as

on

of

Reason,

actions

knowing

in

and

Free

our

therefore,in human

and

both
little,

the

in

not

did

He

; but

multiply them

to

they pushed
Epicurus

little

said wealth

he

and

also

They

luxurious

would

vices ; the temperate

in it only

see

would

see

in

an

it

expositionof temperance.

devote

few

words

his theories

other

subjects.
to
correct
a
appreciation of
Epicureanism, in leading man
the moral
end of his existence, in showing him how
to be truly
hide from
with many
obstructions
which
happy, has to combat
his illusions,
obstructions
him the real road of life. These
are
his prejudices, his errors, his ignorance. This ignorance is of
two
kinds, as Victor Cousin
points out ; ignorance of the laws
of the external
absurd
superstitionsand
world, which creates
Hence
troubles the soul with false fears and false hopes.
the
kind
of
necessity of some
knowledge of Physics. The second
the necessity
of man.
Hence
ignorance is that of the nature
of the

us

Epicurean Logic

to

called

rules

respecting human
reason
The
Epicurean pyschology
which
the
Democritean, upon
The

atoms

throwing

of

off

which
some

the

of

Canonic^ which
and

and
we

universe

their

on

is

collection

of

its

application.
derived
from
physics were
have
already expatiated.
is formed

parts, hvoppoai;

are

and

constantly
these^ in

EPICUREANS.

THE

with

contact

Epicurus
the atoms

did

tibe senses,
maintain
not
believed

; he

their atoms,
but was
far this resemblance

it

neither

can

sensations

of

those

them

certain

point

to

be

proved

nor

the

insane

and

is

have

to

resemblance
in

where, and

out

to

how

exists.
must

true

waking

in what

as

their

between

difference

sensations
himself

confessed

yet he

such,

as

The
; it is aXoyos,
also true ; and,
are

dreaming

the

men,

the

sensation; and,

contradicted

difference

and

sane

determine

to

man

of

that

be

although there

But
sensation, aurdi/0-19.
these
were
images of
airoppoai

produce

unable

sensation

Every

'

263

and
unable

consists.

constitute
alone
Sensations, however, do not
knowledge;
has also the facultyof conception, TrpAq^tg, which
arises

repeated iteration of sensation : it is the recollection


Aristode
of the various
the
would
sensations; or, as
say,
It is from
general idea gathered from particularsensations.
these
conceptions that the general ideas, Sd^at, are
formed,
from

the

it is in these

and

sensation

object

general ideas
may

in relation

or

that

be

considered

to

him

resides.

error

in

either

relation

experiences it ;

who

its

to

in the

latter

it is

agreeable or disagreeable,and renders the sentiments,


the basis of all morality.
iradTjy
Ta
With
such
of
a
basis,we may
readily anticipate the nature
If agreeable and
the superstructure.
disagreeable sensations
case

the

are

moral

all moral

originof
rule than

to

and

seek

phenomena,

there

the

agreeable and
is pleasant becomes

whatever

can

be

avoid

to

other

no

the

the great

agreeable
dis-

object

of existence.

Physics of Epicurus

The

Democritus

that

need

we

do

no

distinctlythe

so

are

allude

than

more

Physics

of

them.

to

of Epicurus, we
doctrine
find in it
reviewing the whole
of the
the scepticism which
the imperfect science
day necessarily
in many
different shapes ;
minds
brought with it to many
of that scepticism a refuge in Morals,
and, as a consequence

On

and

an

attempt

to

attempt
failed

as

we

the

because

the attempt
itself is
whole
Socratic movement
was,

have

attempted

basis

endeavoured

bring Philosophy

on

was

view
down

to

broad

prove,

an

morals.

from

the

itself

Socrates

clouds

at

attempt

; he

; but
of the

Method

Socratic

the

The

enough

characteristic

reconstruction

that
to

scientific basis.

not

worthy of notice, as
; for, although

science, yet
with

Ethics

construct

was

structing
recon-

only

was

the

first to

was

the

first to

THE

2^4
Science

make

all his

other

STOICS.

itself the basis


and

followers

Morality^ and

of

in

shape

one

that issued

all the schools

from

or

them

kept this view present to their minds.


who
The
Epicureans are, therefore,to be regarded as men
solution of the great problem, and failed because
ventured
a
on
their rivals,
The
Stoics were
truth.
a part of the
they only saw
and
of them
to speak.
now
are
we

CHAPTER

III.

THE

The

Stoics

chronicle
and

these

the

ourselves

He

birth

Citium,

at

His

brought

until

engaged,
with

after

of the Socratic

works

some

studied

his father

and

eagerness

Some
forced

are

to

select is Zeno.

we

island

by Greeks.
a
merchant,

was

and

Greek

we

city in the

small

father

one

to

Brutus

to

many

; but

the

inhabited

origin,but

home

needed

be

mountebanks.

solemn

type, and

one

is uncertain.

himself

were

to

born

was

of Phoenician

have

many

founder, down

embraces

sect

few

so

would

willinglyintroduce

would

we

the

Zeno,

Antoninus,
worthies, and not

confine

work

separate

From

all.

Marcus

Roman

he

that

them

of its members

large sect, and

celebrated

been

of

were

STOICS.

of

The

date

in which

philosophers

of his
trade

Athens

to

voyage

rapture, and

Cyprus,

determined

these
his

vocation.

and

pleasure,

philosophy.
his valuable

poverty,
whose
minds.

Athens, the

to

Shipwrecked

willingly
display

ostentatious

noticed

before

We

is

an

'

Rittersays, "'

Socrates

wrote

purple

of his

in

bookseller's

the works

nothing.

of poverty
similar
a

of

of

having

and,

doctrines

the

in his choice

anecdote

Commentaries
*

embraced

determining Diogenes
There

on

both
of interest
voyage
for trade
both
and
great mart
the
lost the whole
of
coast, he

of Phoenician

cargo

he

undertook

thirty,he

about

When

had

thus

reduced

to

Cynics,
captivated many
of

influence

the

as

probably

philosophy.

day read Xenophon*s


he
shop, and so delighted was
one

Socrates," but

this

is

clearlyan

oversight.

STOICS.

THE

266

majesty^ and

fabric

the

sees

doctrines

new

which

tottering,beneath

either

crowded

in sullen

the

sincerity: when

want

despair

in

or

his

onlooker

fellow-men

are

blaspheming levity,and,

seeing this, he feels that there is safety still possible,if men


but

bold.

be

exhortation

doctrine

behold

salvation

and

resolve.

have

heed

to

; and

the

their
He

unused

been

by

warning,

of

them

they may

unused

voice

bids

he

their

behold

raises

He

to

voice

of

peril and tremble,


preaches to them a
hear, or, hearing it,

of his

force

mere

and

will

intense

own

viction
con-

believers who
saved.
If
gathers round him some
are
the
social anarchy
be not
his
too
widely spread, he saves
channel
try's
country by directingits energies in a new
; if the counis sealed, he makes
doom
gallant effort,though a vain
a
leaves
and
to after-times."
a spotless name
one,
Such
Zeno.
fallen ; but hope still
Greece
a
man
was
was
remained.
fast
A
the
wide-spread disease
was
eating out
vigour of its life : Scepticism, Indifference,Sensuality,Epicurean
softness were
the reigning doctrines, only counteracted
by the
of Plato, or the vast
but abstruse
magnificent but vague works
All
civilization was
fast fallingto
Greek
system of Aristotle.
decay. A little time and Rome, the she-wolfs nursling,would
the place which
had once
the
Greece
so
proudly held
usurp
place of vanguard of European civilization.
Rome, the mighty,
he

'^

"

would

take

no

longer worthy

in

Zeno's

which
for

was

with

of

There

was

the

manly

the

world

him

In
to

conquer

worth,

moral

intoxicated

hold.

to

breast.

hands

feeble

the

from

which

success,

was

she

Greece, the

sought

she

pressentiment of

the

trust

energy

and

; in him

the

glory
to

of

deep

Rome

Rome
plicity
simence
rever-

before,

literaryand

the

ape

stern

was

the Stoic had a Roman


Zeno
philosophicalglory of old Hellas.
noble
Romans
spirit; and this is the reason
why so many
his disciples; he had
became
of their
deciphered the wants
nature.
spiritual
Alarmed
seemed
at the scepticismwhich
inevitably following
speculations of a metaphysical kind, Zeno, like Epicurus, fixed
his thoughts principallyupon
His philosophy boasted
Morals.
with
of
the daily
being eminently practical and connected
the philosopher
practices of life.
But, for this purpose,
must

not

does

not

in
And

regard Pleasure
consist

life of
what

in

activity;

are

life of

so

much

Virtue

contemplation
is Virtue

for what

the attributes

as

of

man

"

Are

and

this

and

Virtue

speculation, but

Virtue

they

is manhood.
not

obviously

STOICS.

THE

the attributes of

467

speculativebeing? and
which
excludes
that be Virtue
can
or
neglects man's activity?
only to speculate :
Man, O Plato, and O Aristotle,was not made
wisdom
O
is not
his only pursuit. Man,
not
Epicurus, was
made
also to do somewhat, and to
made
only to enjoy : he was
be somewhat.
all
Science?
It is a great thing, but it is not
it greater, could
It is a slight thing,and, were
Pleasuire ?
not
acHve

an

well

as

of

as

"

"

embrace

man's

entire

activity.

is neither to be wise nor


existence
aim, then, of man's
his manhood.
be Virtuous
To
to
to
to realize
enjoy, but
this aim, Science
is a means,
be also one
and
Pleasure
may
;
but they are both
subordinate.
But before we
be taught to lead a Virtuous
life,we must
can
be taught what<