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THE PAST PERFECT

SIMPLE

1. Affirmative
2. Negative
3. Interrogative

1. Affirmative

Sb

had

Past
participle
REGULAR VERBS

What is past participle?

walk
love
rob
explain

walked
loved
robbed
explained

IRREGULAR VERBS
be
have
do
sing
cut

been
had
done
sung
cut

Lets remember
past participle rules for regular verbs
Verb ending in...
[anything else]

-e
Consonant + y

How to make the simple


Examples
past
Add -ed
boil - boiled
fill - filled
hand - handed
Add -d
live - lived
date - dated
Change y to i, then add - try - tried
ed
cry - cried

One vowel + one


Double the consonant,
consonant (but NOT w then add -ed
or y)

tap - tapped
commit committed

Why do some words have double consonants while others have only one?
One-syllable words: If the word ends in a CVC pattern, it gets double consonant
+ ed
Examples:
RUB > rubbed, STOP > stopped

note: Words ending in w,x,y,z do not follow this rule, simply add ED, or ING
Examples: snow > snowed, box > boxing, play > playing
Two-syllable words:
1. If the stress is on the first syllable, the word only gets one consonant + ed
Examples: visit > visited, open > opened
2. If the stress is on the second syllable, the word gets
a double consonant + ed
Examples: refer > referred, admit > admitted

Give the vb+ed form to the following verbs:

1. to
2. to
3. to
4. to
5. to
6. to
7. to
8. to
9. to
10. to
11. to
12. to
13. to
14. to

stop
ask
type
try
fill
like
play
study
live
regret
lie
tap
admit
permit

1. to
2. to
3. to
4. to
5. to
6. to
7. to
8. to
9. to
10. to
11. to
12. to
13. to
14. to

walk
occur
agree
step
nod
wash
cancel
drop
free
cry
dye
reply
wave
die

1. to listen
2. to refer
3. to hand
4. to add
5. to argue
6. to enter
7. to obey
8. to travel
9. to talk
10. to wait
11. to control
12. to worship
13. to judge
14. to flip

Write the verbs in Past Perfect Simple.

1.The pupils talked about the film they (watch) .


2.I was late for work because I (miss) the bus.
3.We lived in the house that my father (build) .
4.We admired the picture that Lucy (paint) .
5.They watered the trees that they (plant) .
6.The teacher corrected the tests that the pupils (write) .
7. I received a good mark in my test because I (practice) online.
8. The mail order house did not send me the shirt that I (order) .
9. I had to clean the floor because my cats (knock) over the
flower pots.
10. My friend was in hospital because she (slip) on a banana
skin.

2. Negative

Sb

hadnt

Past
participle

I hadnt loved before that.


I hadnt had a cat before the dog.

Write the verbs in Past Perfect Simple. Use the negative form.
1.In the shopping center, I met a friend who I (see / not) for ages.
2.The thief could walk right into the house because you (lock / not) the
door.
3.We lost the match because we (practice / not) the days before.
4.At school, Jim quickly copied the homework that he (do / not) .
5.We ate at a restaurant last night because I (buy / not) anything for
dinner.
6.When we came back, it was cold in the house because Alice (close /
not) the windows.
7.All day long, Phil was angry with me just because I (greet / not) him
first.
8.When I met Jane at eleven oclock, she (have / not) breakfast yet.
9.I couldnt go to the cinema with my friends last night because I (finish /
not) my homework yet.
10.Fred answered my question although I .(ask / not) him.

3. Interrogative

Had

Sb

Past
participle

Had I loved before that?


Had I had a cat before the dog?

Complete the questions in Past Perfect Simple.


1.(what / Bob / do) that he was kept in after school?
2.(you / eat) anything before you went to the theatre?
3.(he / live) in London before he moved to Glasgow?
4.(she / find) a new job by that time?
5.(they / book) a room before they went to Dublin?
6.(how often / you / ring) the bell before he answered the
door?
7.(why / they / have) dinner before they came to the party?
8.(Carly / wash) the dishes when her mum came home?
9.(you / read) the contract before you signed it?
10.(who / live) in the house before we moved in?

Put the verbs into the correct form (past perfect simple).

1.The storm destroyed the sandcastle that we (build) .


2.He (not / be) to Cape Town before 1997.
3.When she went out to play, she (do / already) her homework.
4.My brother ate all of the cake that our mum (make) .
5.The doctor took off the plaster that he (put on) six weeks
before.
6.The waiter brought a drink that I (not / order) .
7.I could not remember the poem we (learn) the week before.
8.The children collected the chestnuts that (fall) from the tree.
9.(he / phone) Angie before he went to see her in London?
10.She (not / ride) a horse before that day.

A moment in the past

Past

Present

Future

We use the Past Perfect to express a completed action before a


moment in the past.

We sometimes use expressions, or words, such as:


before

previously

and so on

I had finished cooking by 2 oclock yesterday.

I had never seen such a beautiful beach before


our trip to Kauai.

A past action

Past

Present

Future

We use the Past Perfect to express a completed action before another


past action.

We sometimes use expressions, or words, such as:


before

until

and so on

The film had already started by the time I go there.

I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet.

A past action

Past

Present

Future

We use the Past Perfect to express an action completed immediately before


another past action.

We sometimes use expressions, or words, such as:


No sooner than

and so on

I had just entered the classroom, when the bell rang.

The train had just left when I arrived at the station..

A past action

Past

Present

Future

We use the Past Perfect to express a completed action before another


past action.

We sometimes use expressions, or words, such as:


before

previously

and so on

When I got to the classroom, my students had already been


there for 15 minutes.

By the time Alex finished his studies,


he had been in London for over eight years.

THE PAST PERFECT


CONTINUOUS

1. Affirmative
2. Negative
3. Interrogative

1. Affirmative
Sb

had

They had been walking for hours


yesterday afternoon, before deciding
to turn back.

been

vb+ing

Lets remember the spelling rules for the ing form


consonant - e
live living
come coming
smoke - smoking

One-syllable words:

CVC

If the word ends in a CVC pattern, it gets


double consonant + ing
Examples:

ROB > robbing, STOP > stopping

Two-syllable words:
1. If the stress is on the second syllable, the word
gets a double consonant + ing
Examples: refer > referring, admit > admitting
2. If the stress is on the first syllable, the word only
gets one consonant + ing
Examples: visit > visiting, open > opening

2. Negative
Sb

hadnt

been

He hadnt been doing anything


yesterday, before we came.

vb + ing

3. Interrogative
Had

Sb

been

vb + ing

Had I been snoring that night, before she woke me up?

Put the verbs into the correct form (past perfect continuous).

1.We (sleep) for 12 hours when he woke us up.


2.They (wait) for ages when the he finally arrived.
3.We (look for) her ring for two hours and then we found it in
the bathroom.
4.I (not / walk) for a long time, when it suddenly began to rain.
5.How long (learn / she) English before she went to London?
6.Frank caught the flu because he (walk) in the rain too long.
7.He (drive) for an hour when he ran out of petrol.
8.They were very tired in the evening because they (help) on
the farm all day.
9.I (not / work) all day; so I wasn't tired and went to the disco at
night.
10.They (cycle) all day so their legs were sore in the evening.

A past moment

Past

Present

Future

We use the Past Perfect Continuous to express an action that started


before a past moment, continuing up to it. The emphasis is on duration.
We sometimes use expressions, or words, such as:
before

previously

and so on

They had been playing football all morning, even before the
rain began. They were still playing football at noon.

A past action

Past

Present

Future

We use the Past Perfect Continuous to express an action that started


before another past action, continuing up to it. The emphasis is on duration.
We sometimes use expressions, or words, such as:
before

previously

and so on

We had been waiting for our


colleague for almost an hour when
he finally showed up.

A past action

Past

Present

Future

We use the Past Perfect to express an action completed immediately before


another past action, and sometimes being the cause of it.

We sometimes use expressions, or words, such as:


because

and so on

He was carrying a hammer and some nails because


he had been mending the fence.

A past action

Past

Present

Future

We use the Past Perfect to express a frequently repeated action during a past
period, previous to another past moment or past action.

We sometimes use expressions, or words, such as:


previously

and so on

They had been writing to one another for two years before
deciding to meet again.

Past Perfect / Past Perfect Continuous

I'm sorry I left without you last night, but I told you to meet me early
because the show started at 8:00. I (try) ... to get tickets for that play for
months, and I didn't want to miss it. By the time I finally left the coffee
shop where we were supposed to meet, I (have) ... five cups of coffee
and I (wait) ... over an hour. I had to leave because I (arrange) ... to
meet Kathy in front of the theater.
When I arrived at the theater, Kathy (pick, already) up the tickets
and she was waiting for us near the entrance. She was really angry
because she (wait) for more than half an hour. She said she (give,
almost) up and (go) into the theater without us.

Kathy told me you (be) late several times in the past and that she
would not make plans with you again in the future. She mentioned that
she (miss) several movies because of your late arrivals. I think you
owe her an apology. And in the future, I suggest you be on time!

Past Perfect Continuous or Past Simple


1) I (wait) for hours so I was really glad when the bus finally (arrive).
2) Why (be) the baby's face so dirty? He (eat) chocolate..
3) I (see) John yesterday, but he (run) so he was too tired to chat.
4) It (rain) and the pavement (be) covered with puddles.
5) When I (arrive) it was clear she (work). There were papers all over
the floor and books everywhere.
6) They (study) all day so when we (meet) they were exhausted.
7) The boss (talk) to clients on Skype for hours so she (want) a break.
8) I (drink) coffee all morning. By lunchtime, I feel) really strange!.
9) Lucy (hope) for a new car, so she was really pleased when she
(get) one.
10) I (dream) about a holiday in Greece. I couldn't believe it when my
husband (book) one as a surprise!