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# ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

## UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SABAH

SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

MAKMAL KAWALAN
KE30501

LAB 1
Open and Close Loop System

Name

: ________________________
______________

Matrix No.

: ________________________
__________________

Date

: ________________________
____________________

1.1.1 Objectives

## To understand what is the purpose of process control.

To understand the principles of open loop process control.

## 1.1.2 Objective of Process Control

ontrol
The primary objective of process control is to maintain some controlled variable near a desired
specific value. The controlled variable could be any physical parameter that needs to be controlled,
such as temperature, pressure, flow rate, level etc. If the objective is to maintain a certain level of
liquid in a tank, the controlled variable is the level of liquid in the tank. The flow of liquid in and out
of thee tank, the liquid, and the tank itself constitute the process.
The controlled variable must be measured to determine if it is maintained at the desired value
(setpoint). This introduces a new parameter which is referred to as the measured variable. A
distinction
tinction must be made between the controlled variable and the measured variable. For instance,
in the previous example, the controlled variable is the level of water in a tank. To measure this
level, one method consists in measuring the pressure at the bottom
bottom of the tank. So, in this case, the
measured variable is pressure. It is important to note that the device which performs the
measurement is referred to as the measuring element.
To bring the controlled variable equal to the setpoint, a parameter that has a direct influence on
the process must be adjusted. This parameter is the manipulated variable. A device, called control
element, is required to adjust the manipulated variable. Furthermore, another device, referred to
as the controller, is required to direct the control element. The controller examines the measured
variable and then determines the action which the control element must perform to make the
measured variable, and therefore the controlled variable, equal the setpoint.
In this example, the manipulated variable could be the inflow of liquid in the tank, the control
element could be a valve that adjusts the inflow of liquid in that tank, and the controller could be a
human operator or any machine that can properly direct the control element. The controller
examines the measured variable (pressure at the bottom of the tank) and determines if the valve
controlling the inflow of liquid in the tank must be opened or closed in order that the level of liquid
remains equal to the setpoint.
In any process control, the parameters which affect the controlled variable are referred to as loads.
Other parameters which may cause the controlled variable to deviate from the setpoint more or
less randomly are called disturbances. In the level process example,
example, the outflow of liquid from the
tank is a load since it directly affects the level of liquid in the tank. Pulsations of a pump located
before the valve controlling the inflow of liquid in the tank are a disturbance because they affect
the inflow of liquid,, which should only depend on the valve setting.

## Control Lab#1: Open and Closed Loop System 1-1

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## Control Lab#1: Open and Closed Loop System 1-2

Fig. 1.1
1 shows a block diagram of the level process control system discussed so far. The purpose of
block diagrams is to reduce the process control system in many small and simple blocks whose
characteristics are known. The process control system is then analyzed as the interaction of these
blocks. The blocks commonly found in most block diagrams are the controller, the control element,
the process, and the measuring element. All these blocks have been described so far.
However, the block diagram shown in Fig. 1.1 includes a block, called signal conditioner, which has
not been described yet. A signal conditioner converts a control signal into another control signal
having the form and power required to adjust the control element. In the block diagram of Fig. 1.1,
the signal conditioner is an I/P converter which converts a current coming from the controller into a
pressure that adjusts the control element (valve).
Notice that the system shown in Fig. 1.1 forms a loop. Because of this, it is referred to as a closed
loop process control system. Closed loop process control systems will be studied in further details
in the section 1.2 and 1.3.

## Fig. 1.1: Block diagram of a closed-loop

clo
loop process control system

## 1.1.3 Open Loop Process Control

ontrol
A process control system is said to be of the open loop type when the measured variable has no
influence on the action taken on the control element. Fig.
Fig 1.2 shows the block diagram of an open
loop process control system which controls the level of liquid in a tank. Notice that a measuring
element is not usually part of an open loop control system since it is useless. However, it is included
in the block diagram of Fig. 1.2 for comparison with the block diagram of Fig. 1.1.
1

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## Control Lab#1: Open and Closed Loop System 1-3

In the system described by the block diagram of Fig. 1.2,, a valve (control element) is set so that the
inflow of liquid in the tank maintains a certain level of liquid in that tank. However, if the outflow of
liquid from the tank (load) changes from time to
to time in the course of the process, the level of
liquid in the tank also changes since the measured variable (pressure at the bottom of the tank) is
not used to determine how much the valve setting must be modified so that the level of liquid
remains the same. Thus, in open loop control systems, no correction can be made to compensate
for load changes that could disturb the process.

## Fig.1.2: Block diagram of an open-loop

o
loop process control system

## 1.1.4 Process Control Trainer

The Lab-Volt
Volt Process Control Trainer, model 3521, will be used to conduct the practical of control
experiment. Fig.1.33 shows the front panel of the Process Control Trainer, which is divided into
many functional blocks. The number of functional blocks used in each lab experiment depends on
the particular objectives of that experiment.
experiment
In the Process Control Trainer, the physical parameter to be controlled is the temperature of a
radiator. The trainer uses a heater and a fan to warm up and cool the radiator, respectively. A
technique called time proportional power control is used in order to have a linear control of the
power supplied to the HEATER. The TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER allows the temperature of the
radiator to be measured. It uses a type J thermocouple
thermocouple sensor which converts temperature into a
proportional electrical signal.

## Control Lab#1: Open and Closed Loop System 1-3

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## Control Lab#1: Open and Closed Loop System 1-4

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## Control Lab#1: Open and Closed Loop System 1-5

A more in depth discussion about the time proportional power control and the thermocouple
sensor will be introduced in the other experiments. In brief, with time proportional power control
the full power supplied to the HEATER is switched on and off at regular intervals. The higher is the
heating demand, the longer the HEATER remains on. Because this on-off cycle is relatively fast
compared to the process itself, temperature control will be very smooth. The TRIANGLE-WAVE
GENERATOR, the LEVEL COMPARATOR WITH HYSTERESIS, the POWER SOURCE, and the SOLID
STATE RELAY are used to implement time proportional power control. These form a signal
conditioner since they transform a low voltage into an amount of power proportional to the value
of that voltage.
The NOISE GENERATOR, DC SOURCE 1, DC SOURCE 2, the LEVEL COMPARATOR WITH HYSTERESIS,
the SOLID STATE RELAY, the P.I.D. CONTROLLER, and the ALARM blocks allow various process
control loops to be implemented. The DC VOLTMETER is used to measure and adjust voltages in the
process control loop.

## 1.1.5 Procedure Summary

In the first part of the experiment, it is necessary to make the connections to obtain the circuit
shown in Fig.1.4, which is an open loop temperature control system. In this circuit, the voltage
provided by DC SOURCE 1 is used as the temperature setpoint. The DC VOLTMETER allows this
voltage, and therefore the temperature setpoint, to be monitored. The TRIANGLE-WAVE
GENERATOR, the LEVEL COMPARATOR WITH HYSTERESIS, the POWER SOURCE, and the SOLID
STATE RELAY supply electrical power to the HEATER. The amount of power supplied to the HEATER
is proportional to the temperature setpoint. Then, a block diagram of this temperature control
system could be completed.
In the second part of this experiment, the task is to adjust the temperature setpoint by adjusting
the voltage provided by DC SOURCE 1. The HEATER will start to provide heat to the radiator. Select
the low speed of the fan to create a certain heat loss from the radiator (load). Then, measure and
note the temperature of the radiator every minute during 15 minutes or until the temperature
stabilizes.
The next step is to select the high speed of the fan to increase the heat loss from the radiator (load)
and continue to measure and note the temperature of the radiator every minute during 10 minutes
or until the temperature stabilizes. Finally, plot the relationship between the temperature of the

## Control Lab#1: Open and Closed Loop System 1-5

KE30501/kenteo/0910(1)

## 1.1.6 Open-loop Temperature Control

ontrol System
#1

Make sure the POWER switch of the Process Control Trainer is set to the O (OFF) position.
Make the appropriate connections on the Process Control Trainer to obtain the circuit
shown in Fig.1.4.
(Note: Access to the radiator is through a hole located in the top cover of the Process Control
Trainer. The thermocouple probe must be inserted in that hole.)
hole.

#2

## Fig.1.5 is an uncompleted block diagram of the open loop temperature

tempera
control system
shown in Fig.1.4.. Complete this block diagram by filling the blank spaces with terms listed in
Fig.1.5.
(Note: The signal conditioner S implemented using the TRIANGLE-WAVE
TRI
WAVE GENERATOR, the
LEVEL COMPARATOR WTH HISTERESIS,
H STERESIS, the POWER SOURCE and the SOLID STATE RELAY
However, only the SOLID STATE RELAYS indicated in the SIGNAL CONDITIONER block of
Figure 1-5.)

## Control Lab#1: Open and Closed Loop System 1-6

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## Control Lab#1: Open and Closed Loop System 1-7

HEAT EXCHANGER
MEASURING ELEMENT
MANIPULATED VARIABLE
PROCESS
HEATER

TEMPERATURE
CONTROL ELEMENT
CONTROLLED VARIABLE
ELECTRICAL POWER
OPEN LOOP
TEMPERATURE SETPOINT

## Fig.1.5: Block diagram of the open-loop

open loop temperature control system

#3

## Make the following settings on the Process Control Trainer.

Trainer
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

DC SOURCE-1 LEVEL
LEVEL COMPARATOR HYSTERESIS
DC VOLTMETER INPUT SELECTOR
HEATER POWER
FAN SPEED

= MIN
=A
= HIGH
= LOW

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## Control Lab#1: Open and Closed Loop System 1-8

#4

Set the POWER switch of the Process Control Trainer to the I (ON) position.
posi
Record the initial temperature of the radiator (indicated by the TEMPERATURE
TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER
display) in the first row of Table 1.1.
Read through steps 5 and 6 before continuing the manipulations. These two steps describe a
sequence of manipulations which must be carried out following predetermined time
intervals.

Table 1.1:
.1: Temperature of the Radiator versus Time

#5

## Set the DC SOURCE-1

1 LEVEL control so that the DC VOLTMETER indicates + 2.5 V dc.
This sets the temperature setpoint. Record the temperature of the radiator in Table 1.1
every minute during 15 minutes or until the temperature stabilizes.
(Note: The SOLID STATE RELAY LED indicator should light up during approximately 5
seconds every 10 seconds. This indicates that the SOLID STATE RELAYS on approximately 50%
of time. Therefore, electrical power is supplied to the HEATER approximately 50% of time.)
time.

#6

After 15 minutes or when the temperature has stabilized, set the FAN SPEED switch
to the HIGH position to increase the heat loss from the radiator then continue to
record the temperature of the radiator every minute during 10 minutes or until the
temperature stabilizes.

## Control Lab#1: Open and Closed Loop System 1-8

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#7

## Turn the DC SOURCE-1

1 LEVEL control fully counterclockwise (MIN.). The SOLID STATE RELAY
LED indicator should remain off, thus indicating that power is no longer supplied to the
HEATER.
From the results in Table 1.1, plot in Fig.1.6 the relationship between the temperature of
Indicate the time at which the fan speed passed from low to high in Fig.1.6.
Fig.1.6

## Fig.1.6: Relationship between the temperature

temperature of the radiator and time

## Control Lab#1: Open and Closed Loop System 1-9

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## Control Lab#1: Open and Closed Loop System 1-10

#8

Describe how the temperature of the radiator varies before the fan speed passes from low
to high.
Describe what happens to the temperature of the radiator after the fan speed has passed
from low to high. Briefly explain.
What change could be done in this open-loop temperature control system to improve
temperature stability?

#9

Set the POWER switch of the Process Control Trainer to the 0 (OFF) position then remove all

## Control Lab#1: Open and Closed Loop System 1-10

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## Control Lab#1: Open and Closed Loop System 1-11

1.1.7 CONCLUSION
In this experiment, the primary objective of process control to maintain some controlled variable
near a desired specific value (setpoint) has been introduced. Many key terms related to process
control, such as controller, manipulated variable, control element, load, measured variable, etc
have been studied. It can be seen that the process control systems can be of the closed loop type or
open loop type. The block diagrams can be used to represent process control loops and that these
diagrams facilitate system analysis. Basic principles and operating procedures of the Process
Control Trainer have been carried out. An open loop temperature control system has been used to
observe the temperature fluctuates depending on the heat loss (load).

REVIEW QUESTIONS
1.

2.

## Describe what is the control element in a process control loop.

3.

Which distinction is made between the controlled variable and the measured variable?

4.

5.

## Control Lab#1: Open and Closed Loop System 1-11

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1.2.1 Objectives

## To understand what are positive feedback and negative feedback.

To understand closed-loop
loop process control.

## 1.2.2 Positive Feedback versus Negative

N
Feedback
As seen in the previous experiment
periment,, the primary objective of any process control system is to
maintain the controlled variable near the setpoint. However, because the controlled variable is
likely to vary, the control element must be readjusted constantly so that the controlled variable
remains near the setpoint. To do so, the information on the controlled
controlled variable (measured variable)
must be fed back to the controller.
ler. This is referred to as feedback. The controller then examines the
measured variable and determines what action should be taken. This action is finally performed by
the control element. By adding feedback to the system, closed-loop
closed loop control of a process is achieved.
There are two types of feedback possible in closed-loop
closed loop process control: positive feedback and
negative feedback. Positive feedback increases the effect of disturbances and leads to instability.
This type of feedback is never used in closed-loop
closed loop control. Conversely, negative feedback decreases
the effect of disturbances and acts in a way to restore the equilibrium between the setpoint and
the measured variable. For instance, if the level becomes higher than the setpoint in a level control
loop,
p, negative feedback decreases the inflow of liquid, thus helping to restore stability. However,
with positive feedback, the inflow of liquid would be increased, thus making the situation worst.
The main disadvantage of using feedback in process control systems
systems is that a change in the
controlled variable must occur before any corrective action can be taken. This means that an error
between the measured variable and the setpoint exists in the system before it returns to stability.
stability
However, process control systems
ystems using feedback have the advantage of being simple.
The first known automatic control not involving a human is the flyball governor developed by James
Watt in 1788. This mechanical device was designed to regulate the speed of a steam engine. It uses
the kinetic energy of two balls rotating around a governor shaft at a speed proportional to that of
the engine shaft. Fig.1.7 illustrates this control system. As the speed of the engine shaft increases,
the balls rotate faster and movee outward. This movement lifts the coupling to the steam valve,
closing the valve and slowing the steam engine. A decrease in speed has the opposite effect. This
system demonstrates negative feedback control.

## Control Lab#1: Open and Closed Loop System 1-12

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## 1.2.3 Operation of a Temperature

emperature Control System using Negative Feedback
Fig.1.8 shows the block diagram of one of the two temperature control systems using feedback
which will be used in this
his exercise. The controller in this diagram is shown in detail. This allows the
type of feedback (positive or negative) and the type of control action used in this system to be
determined.
The signs at the summing point in the controller indicate that the feedback voltage (proportional to
the measured temperature) is subtracted from the setpoint voltage (proportional to the
temperature setpoint). If the setpoint voltage is raised and becomes higher than the feedback
voltage, a positive error voltage is produced. This voltage represents the difference between the
temperature setpoint and the measured temperature. The error voltage, after amplification, causes
the signal conditioner to increase the amount of electrical power supplied to the heater. This
increases
creases the heat provided to the radiator and the temperature slowly raises. This brings the
feedback voltage back to the setpoint voltage and restores equilibrium. This action is typical of
negative feedback control.
In the controller of Fig.1.8,, a proportional
proportional amplifier amplifies the error voltage. This makes the
control action of the controller proportional to the error voltage and minimizes the error voltage in
the control loop. Controllers using proportional control action are dealt with in another exercise
ex
of
this manual.

## temperature control system using feedback

Fig.1.8: Block diagram of a temperature

## Control Lab#1: Open and Closed Loop System 1-13

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## 1.2.4 Procedure Summary

In the first part of this experiment, make the connections necessary to obtain the circuit shown in
Fig.1.9, which is a closed loop temperature control system. In this circuit, the voltage provided by
DC SOURCE 1 is used as the temperature setpoint. The DC VOLTMETER allows this voltage, and
therefore the temperature setpoint, to be monitored. A proportional action controller is built with
the ERROR DETECTOR, the PROPORTIONAL AMPLIFIER, and the LIMITER. The TRIANGLE-WAVE
GENERATOR, the LEVEL COMPARATOR WITH HYSTERESIS, the POWER SOURCE, and the SOLID
STATE RELAY supply electrical power to the HEATER. The amount of power supplied to the HEATER
is proportional to the output voltage of the controller.
(Note: The LIMITER adapts the output voltage range of the PROPORTIONAL AMPLIFIER to the input
voltage range of the LEVEL COMPARATOR WITH HYSTERESIS.)
Then, adjust the setpoint voltage and measure the feedback voltage, the error voltage, and the
amplified error voltage. Let the system operate until a certain temperature is reached and then
measure the feedback voltage, the error voltage, and the amplified error voltage once again.
Observe how these parameters vary with time and determine the type of feedback used in this
system.
In the second part of this experiment, replace the ERROR DETECTOR with the SUMMING
AMPLIFIER. Then carry out manipulations which are similar to those performed in the first part of
the experiment.

## Control Lab#1: Open and Closed Loop System 1-14

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## 1.2.5 Closed Loop Temperature Control

C
System #1
#1

Make sure the POWER switch of the Process Control Trainer is set to the O (OFF) position.
Make the appropriate connections on the Process Control Trainer to obtain the circuit
shown in Fig.1.9.

#2

## Make the following settings on the Process Control Trainer.

Trainer
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.

DC SOURCE-1 LEVEL
LEVEL COMPARATOR HYSTERESIS
TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER ZERO
TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER SPAN
DC VOLTMETER INPUT SELECTOR
LEVEL COMPARATOR HYSTERESIS
HEATER POWER
FAN SPEED
PROPORTIONAL AMPLIFIER GAIN
LIMITER LEVEL

## = MIN (fully counterclockwise)

= MIN
= MID (mid position)
= MIN
=A
= MIN
= HIGH
= HIGH
= of MAX (25% of maximum)
= MAX

## Control Lab#1: Open and Closed Loop System 1-15

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## Control Lab#1: Open and Closed Loop System 1-16

#3

Set the POWER switch of the Process Control Trainer to the I (ON) position.
Set the DC SOURCE-1 LEVEL control so that the DC VOLTMETER indicates + 3.5 V dc. This sets
the setpoint voltage (VSP).
Set the DC VOLTMETER INPUT SELECTOR to the B position.
Measure the voltages at the outputs of the TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER (feedback voltage
VT), ERROR DETECTOR (error voltage VE), and LIMITER (amplified error voltage V0) using the
B INPUT of the DC VOLTMETER. Record these voltages in the following blank spaces.
a.
b.
c.
d.

#4

VSP
VT
VE
VO

= + 3.5 V dc
= ____ V dc
= ____ V dc
= ____ V dc

Connect the 5-V B INPUT of the DC VOLTMETER to the OUTPUT of the ERROR DETECTOR in
order to monitor the error voltage (VE).
Let the system operate until the temperature indicated by the TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER
display is approximately 35 C (95 F). Observe the error voltage (VE) during this time
interval.
Measure the voltages at the outputs of the TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER (feedback voltage
VT), ERROR DETECTOR (error voltage VE), and LIMITER (amplified error voltage V0) using the
B INPUT of the DC VOLTMETER. Record these voltages in the following blank spaces.
a.
b.
c.
d.

#5

VSP
VT
VE
VO

= + 3.5 V dc
= ____ V dc
= ____ V dc
= ____ V dc

## Compare the voltages obtained in steps 3 and 4.

What happened to the feedback voltage (VT)?
Did the error voltage (VE) increase or decrease?
Is positive feedback or negative feedback used in this temperature control system? Briefly
explain.

## Control Lab#1: Open and Closed Loop System 1-16

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#6

## Set the DC SOURCE-1

1 LEVEL control so that the DC VOLTMETER indicates + 2.5 V dc.
This sets the temperature setpoint. Record the temperature of the radiator in Table 1.2
every minute during 15 minutes or until the temperature stabilizes.
Record the initial temperature of the radiator (indicated by the TEMPERATURE
TEMPERA
TRANSMITTER
display) in the first row of Table 1.2. Read through steps 7 and 8 before continuing the
manipulations.
*It will be useful for discussion if the error voltage (VE) to be recorded every minutes
whenever the temperature values are taken.

Table 1.2:
.2: Temperature of the Radiator versus Time

#7

After 15 minutes or when the temperature has stabilized, set the FAN SPEED switch
to the HIGH position to increase the heat loss from the radiator then continue to
record the temperature of the radiator every minute during 10 minutes or until the
temperature stabilizes.

#8

## Turn the DC SOURCE-1

1 LEVEL control fully counterclockwise (MIN.). The SOLID STATE RELAY
LED indicator should remain off, thus indicating that power is no longer supplied to the
HEATER.
From the results in Table 1.2, plot in Fig.1.10 the relationship between the temperature of
Indicate the time at which the fan speed passed from low to high in Fig.1.10.
Fig.1.10

## Control Lab#1: Open and Closed Loop System 1-17

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## Fig.1.10: Relationship between the temperature

temperature of the radiator and time

#9

Describe how the temperature of the radiator varies before the fan speed passes from low
to high.
Describe what happens to the temperature of the radiator after the fan speed has passed
from low to high. Briefly explain.

#10

## Turn the DC SOURCE-1

1 LEVEL control fully counterclockwise (MIN.). This sets the setpoint
voltage (VSP) to 0 V dc.
Let the system operate and wait until the temperature indicated by the TEMPERATURE
TRANSMITTER display is approximately equal to the room temperature.

## Control Lab#1: Open and Closed Loop System 1-18

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## 1.2.6 Closed Loop Temperature Control System #2

#11

Modify the connections on the Process Control Trainer to obtain the circuit shown in
Fig.1.11. In this circuit, the ERROR DETECTOR is replaced with the SUMMING AMPLIFIER.

## Fig.1.11: Closed-loop temperature control system

#12

Measure the voltages at the outputs of the TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER (feedback voltage
VT), SUMMING AMPLIFIER (error voltage VE), and LIMITER (amplified error voltage V0) using
the B INPUT of the DC VOLTMETER. Record these voltages in the following blank spaces.
a.
b.
c.
d.

VSP
VT
VE
VO

= 0.0 V dc
= ____ V dc
= ____ V dc
= ____ V dc

## Control Lab#1: Open and Closed Loop System 1-19

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#13

## Connect the 5-V B INPUT of the DC VOLTMETER to the OUTPUT of the

SUMMING AMPLIFIER in order to monitor the error voltage (VE).
Let the system operate during a few minutes while observing the error voltage.
(Note: The HEATER OVERHEAT LED indicator may light up, thereby indicating that the
HEATER overheats. In this case, an internal protection circuit forces the SOLID STATE RELAY to
the off state until the HEATER temperature decreases to a safe level.)
Did the error voltage (VE) increase or decrease?
Is positive feedback or negative feedback used in this temperature control system? Briefly
explain.

#14

Remove the lead connected to the CONTROL INPUT of the SOLID STATE RELAY. Let the
Process Control Trainer operates during a few minutes so that the temperature of the
Set the POWER switch of the Process Control Trainer to the 0 (OFF) position then remove all

## Control Lab#1: Open and Closed Loop System 1-20

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## Control Lab#1: Open and Closed Loop System 1-21

1.2.7 Conclusion
In this exercise, a process control system has been studied where feedback consists in feeding the
information on the controlled variable (measured variable) back to the controller in order to
compensate fluctuations of the controlled variable. It has been noticed that the negative feedback
effectively decreases the effect of disturbances and acts in a way to restore the equilibrium
between the setpoint and the measured variable, whereas positive feedback increases the effect of
disturbances and leads to instability. It can be concluded that a minimum error exists in a control
system using negative feedback.

REVIEW QUESTIONS
1.

2.

## Briefly describe what is feedback.

3.

Briefly describe how positive feedback and negative feedback act on the effect of
disturbances in a process control system.

4.

Describe what should happen in a temperature control system using negative feedback
when the temperature setpoint is decreased.

5.

## Control Lab#1: Open and Closed Loop System 1-21

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## 1.3 Laboratory Report

The laboratory report should be prepared in Microsoft Words that contains the following items:
1.

Introduction
Explain the control theory in a temperature process control system
Explain the control theory applied in the process control trainer

2.

Objectives
State the aim of the experiment open loop process control
State the aim of the experiment closed loop process control

3.

Methodologies
Explain the concept of open loop system
Explain the concept of closed loop system

4.

Results
Record the experiment data required in the lab sheets
Plot the results in other format such as graphs, etc

5.

Discussions
Manipulate the obtained results and findings
Discuss the questions asked in the lab sheets

6.

Conclusion
Summarized the discussions
Concluded the open loop and closed loop process control

7.

References
List out the references used to prepare this report
List out the section from the text book related to this experiment

## Procedure of the experiment is not necessary to be placed in the report.

Plagiarizing is strictly prohibited.

## Control Lab#1: Open and Closed Loop System 1-22

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## Group Members: 1.______________________________

1.______________

2. _____________________________
______________

3.______________
.______________________________

4.. _____________________________
______________

5.______________
.______________________________

6.. _____________________________
______________

## 1.1.6 Open-loop Temperature Control

ontrol System
#4

Table 1.1:
.1: Temperature of the Radiator versus Time
1.2.5 Closed Loop Temperature Control
C
System #1
#3
a. VSP = + 3.5 V dc; b. VT = ____ V dc; c. VE = ____ V dc;

d. VO = ____ V dc

#4

d. VO = ____ V dc

## a. VSP = + 3.5 V dc;

b. VT = ____ V dc;

c. VE = ____ V dc;

#6

Table 1.2:
.2: Temperature of the Radiator versus Time
1.2.6 Closed Loop Temperature Control
C
System #2
#12 a. VSP = + 3.5 V dc; b. VT = ____ V dc; c. VE = ____ V dc;

d. VO = ____ V dc

## Control Lab#1: Open and Closed Loop System 1-23

KE30501/kenteo/0910(1)