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FEBRIAN ROMAN 1406641836

1. Heat (symbol: Q) is energy. It is the total amount of energy (both kinetic and
potential) possessed by the molecules in a piece of matter. Heat is measured in
Temperature (symbol: T) is not energy. It relates to the average (kinetic) energy of microscopic
motions of a single particle in the system per degree of freedom. It is measured in Kelvin (K),
Celsius (C) or Fahrenheit (F).
When you heat a substance, either of two things can happen: the temperature of the substance
can rise or the state of substance can change.
2. Heat is defined as the energy transferred from one system to another by thermal
interaction. It is measured in joules (J). Heat is transferred by conduction,
convection, and/or radiation. Work is the transfer of energy resulting from a force
acting through a distance. Neither heat nor work are thermodynamic properties of a
3. The second law of thermodynamics specifies the characteristic change in
the entropy of a system undergoing a real process. The law accounts for
the irreversibility of natural processes, and the asymmetry between future and past.
For a system without exchange of matter with the surroundings, the change in
system entropy exceeds the heat exchanged with the surroundings, divided by the










a reversible process, the two quantities are equal, and the total entropy of system and
surroundings remains unchanged. When heat exchange with the surroundings is
prevented, the law states that in every real process the sum of the entropies of all
participating bodies is increased.

When a temperature difference exists across a boundary, the Second Law of Thermodynamics
indicates the natural flow of energy is from the hotter body to the colder body. The Second
Law of Thermodynamics denies the possibility of ever completely converting into work all the
heat supplied to a system .
If two blocks of metal at different temperatures are thermally insulated from their surroundings
and are brought into contact with each other the heat will flow from the hotter to the colder.
Eventually the two blocks will reach the same temperature, and heat transfer will cease.
4. Heat can be conducted between two bodies which are in contact with each other; heat "flows"
from one to the other.

Materials which conduct heat well are called conductors of heat. Electrical conductors
(such as metals) are good conductors of heat.

Materials which do not conduct heat well are called insulators. Electrical insulators
(for example, wood or glass) are usually good insulators of heat. Materials with low
density, such as air or foamed plastic, are normally also good insulators unless they
happen to be electrical conductors. To prevent heat from moving from one place to
another, we usually place an insulator between.

This is a different kind of heat transfer than conduction. In conduction, heat itself is moving; in
convection, hot portions of a fluid move through the body of the fluid. The hot
fluid mixes with the cold fluid, and heat is transferred more quickly than by conduction.
Radiation is the simplest means of heat transfer. Heat radiation is carried not by moving
atoms (as in conduction or convection) but by electromagnetic waves. Radiation is the
only way that heat can move through a vacuum, and is the reason that even a closed

thermos bottle (which has a vacuum between the inner and outer parts) will eventually
come to the same temperature as its surroundings.
Heat transfer is most efficient by convection, then by conduction; radiation is the least efficient
and slowest means of heat transfer. Low efficiency of heat transfer means that vacuums make
excellent insulation.

Heat Flux
The rate at which heat is transferred is represented by the symbol Q. Common units for heat Q
transfer rate is Btu/hr. Sometimes it is important to determine the heat transfer rate per unit area,
or heat flux, which has the symbol Q. Units for heat flux are Btu/hr-ft2. The heat flux can be
determined by dividing the heat transfer rate by the area through which the heat is being
Thermal Conductivity
The heat transfer characteristics of a solid material are measured by a property called the thermal
conductivity (k) measured in Btu/hr-ft-oF. It is a measure of a substances ability to transfer heat
through a solid by conduction. The thermal conductivity of most liquids and solids varies with
temperature. For vapors, it depends upon pressure.
Log Mean Temperature Difference
In heat exchanger applications, the inlet and outlet temperatures are commonly specified based
on the fluid in the tubes. The temperature change that takes place across the heat exchanger from
the entrance to the exit is not linear. A precise temperature change between two fluids across the
heat exchanger is best represented by the log mean temperature difference (LMTD or Tlm),
defined in
T 1m = (T2 - T1) / ln(T2 /T1)
T2 = the larger temperature difference between the two fluid streams at either the entrance or
the exit to the heat exchanger

T1 = the smaller temperature difference between the two fluid streams at either the entrance or
the exit to the heat exchanger

Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient

The convective heat transfer coefficient (h), defines, in part, the heat transfer due to convection.
The convective heat transfer coefficient is sometimes referred to as a film coefficient and
represents the thermal resistance of a relatively stagnant layer of fluid between a heat transfer
surface and the fluid medium. Common units used to measure the convective heat transfer
coefficient are Btu/hr - ft2 - oF.

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

In the case of combined heat transfer, it is common practice to relate the total rate of heat transfer
(Q), the overall cross-sectional area for heat transfer (Ao), and the overall temperature difference
(To) using the overall heat transfer coefficient (Uo). The overall heat transfer coefficient
combines the heat transfer coefficient of the two heat exchanger fluids and the thermal
conductivity of the heat exchanger tubes. Uo is specific to the heat exchanger and the fluids that
are used in the heat exchanger.
Q = UoAoT0

Bulk Temperature
In thermofluids dynamics, the bulk temperature, or the average bulk temperature in the thermal
fluid, is a convenient reference point for evaluating properties related to convective heat transfer,
particularly in applications related to flow inpipes and ducts.
The concept of the bulk temperature is that adiabatic mixing of the fluid from a given cross
section of the duct will result in some equilibrium temperature that accurately reflects the
average temperature of the moving fluid, more so than a simple average like the film