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UNIVERSITY OF BIHA

PEDAGOGICAL FACULTY

THE PRESENT PERFECT AND THE PAST SIMPLE:


THE USE & COMPARISON

CONTENTS:
Contents......2
1. Introduction3
2. The Past Simple..3
1.1. Form3
1.2. Use...4
1.3. Spelling of ed...5
3. The Present Perfect ...6
2.1. Form...6
2.2. General use.7
4. Comparison of Past Simple and Present Perfect8
5. Exercises with examples....9
6. Conclusion.9
7. Bibliography..10

INTRODUCTION
The Past Simple is used to express a finished action in the past, an actions which follow each
other in a story, or to express a past state or habit.
The same form (have + past participle) exists in many European languages, but the uses in
English are different. In English, the Present Perfect is essentially a present tense, but it also
expresses the effect of past actions and activities on the present. Present Perfect means
before now, and it does not express when an action happened. If we say the exact time, we
have to use Past Simple.
THE PAST SIMPLE
1

Form:

1. Positive:
Regular verbs:
base form + -(e)d

e.g. They walked towards us.

Irregular words do not have rules by which they are formed. Those words can be found in
what is called second column in the list of irregular verbs.
I
He/ She/ It
We
You
They

finished
left
arrived

2. Negative form: didnt + base form


I
She
didnt
They
(etc.)

yesterday.
at 3 oclock.
three weeks ago.

finish
leave

yesterday.
at 3 oclock.

you
he
they
(etc.)

finish the report?


get married?

3. Question: did + subject + base form?


When

did

Short answer
Did you enjoy the meal?

Yes, we did.
No, we didnt.

Soars, John & Liz, (2000). New Headway Pre-Intermediate Student's Book (pp. 131). Oxford & New York:
Oxford University Press.

It is important to notice that the form of the Past Simple is the same for all persons:
- We met in 2000.
- I went to Manchester last week.
- John left two minutes ago.
- Mary walked into the room and stopped. She listened carefully. She heard a noise
coming from behind the curtain. She threw the curtain open, and then she saw
- What did Peter do when the war broke out? - He went home to his parents. He decided
that it was safer to go home to his parents and postpone the studies.
- I went out with Jack for ten years.
- I didnt see you at the party last night. - No, I stayed at home and watched football.

Use:
The Past Simple is used to refer to completed actions or events which took place at a
particular time or over a period of time in the past.
e.g. We met last summer. Do you remember?
I stayed with my uncle until I found a flat of my own.
The Past Simple can also refer to repeated actions in the past.
e.g. He went for a walk every day before lunch.
/ Note: It is also possible to use used to or would + base form with this meaning.
e.g. He used to go for a walk
He would go for a walk /
When two actions happen quickly one after the other, the Past Simple is used:
When the oil warning light came on, I switched off the engine.
When we report two actions which happened at the same time, and it is the result that is
important, we can also use the Past Simple in each case:
As it grew darker, we found it more difficult to follow the path.
The Past Simple expresses past actions as simple, complete facts:
A: What did you do last night?
B: I stayed at home and watched the football.
As it is already mentioned, the Past Simple is used to express a finished action in the past, an
actions which follow each other in a story, or to express a past state or habit. Study these
examples:
- Columbus discovered America in 1492.
- I heard voices coming from downstairs, so I put on my dressing- gown and
went to investigate.
- When I was a child, we lived in a small house by the sea. Every day I walked
for miles on the beach with my dog.
This use is often expressed with used to, when one says, for instance, We used to live or
We used to walk

There are some time expressions often found with this tense:
- I lived in Chicago for six years.
- I saw Jack two days ago.
- They met during the war.
- She got married while she was at university.
- We played tennis last Sunday.
- I worked in London from 1994 to 1999.
- John left two minutes ago.
The time expressions define just exactly when action happened in the past.

Spelling of verb + -ed 2


1. Most verbs add ed to the base form of the verb (worked, wanted, helped, wished, etc.)
2. When the verb ends in e, add d (liked, used, hated, cared, etc.)
3. If the verb has only one syllable, with one vowel + one consonant, double the consonant
before adding ed (stopped, planned, robbed, etc.). But we write cooked, seated, and moaned
because there are two vowels.
4. The consonant is not doubled if it is y or w (played, showed)
5. In most two- syllable verbs, the end consonant is doubled if the stress is on the second
syllable (preferred, admitted). But we write entered and visited because the stress is on
the first syllable.
6. Verbs that end in a consonant + -y change the y to -ied (carried, hurried, buried). But we
write enjoyed because it ends in a vowel + - y.
There are many common irregular verbs. Some of them are:
BASE FORM
PAST SIMPLE
be
was/ were
become
became
break
broke
can
could
catch
caught
do
did
eat
ate
find
found
forget
forgot
keep
kept
run
ran
say
said

Soars, Liz & John, (2003). New Headway Intermediate Student's Book (pp. 138). Oxford & New York: Oxford
University Press.

PRESENT PERFECT
The same form (have + past participle) exists in many European languages, but the uses in
English are different. In English, the Present Perfect is essentially a present tense, but it also
expresses the effect of past actions and activities on the present. Present Perfect means
before now, and it does not express when an action happened. If we say the exact time, we
have to use Past Simple. Here is one example:
- In my life, I have travelled to all seven continents.
- I travelled around Africa in 1998.
Form:
SIMPLE:
Has / have + past participle

e.g. He has sold his car.

Past participle of regular verbs is formed using ed. There are many irregular verbs which can
be found in what is called third column in the list of irregular verbs.
Negative: has/ have not + past participle
I
We / you / they
He / She / It

ve (have)
havent
s (has)
hasnt

worked in a factory.
worked in a factory.

Question: has/ have + subject + past participle?


Have

I
we/ you/ they
he/ she/ it

Has
Short answer:
Have you been to Egypt?
Has she ever written poetry?

been to the United States?


been to the U.S.?
Yes, I have. / No, I havent.
Yes, she has. / No, she hasnt.

CONTINUOUS:
Has/ have been + present participle

e.g. Ive been playing tennis.

Negative: has/ have been + - ing


Question: has/have + subject + been -ing
One has to pay attention to the fact that certain verbs are not usually used in continuous
tenses, for some verbs change meaning when used in this way. Those verbs are, for instance:
admire, detest, impress, mean, seem, adore, dislike, include, stop, owe, keep, possess,
surprise, realise, etc. 3
3

O'Connell, Sue, (1999). Focus on Advanced English (pp. 153). London: Longman.

General use:
Both the present perfect simple and the present perfect continuous are used to refer to actions
or states which began in the past and have continued up till now. Since is used to express the
starting point, and for is used to express its duration. The following time expressions are often
used: lately, recently, so far, up till now
e.g. I have had a cold for a week.
He hasnt been practising on the piano so much lately.
How long have you lived in this flat now?
I have been going to Scotland every summer since I was a child.
The present perfect simple is used to refer to an action or state which was completed in the
past but where the time is unknown or unimportant. The present result is generally more
important than when or how the action or event occurred. The following expressions are often
used: just, already, before, ever, never, yet, still
e.g. Your father has just come in. (=Hes here.)
Ive seen that film already. (=I dont want to see it again.)
The TV has been repaired.
(= It is now working.)
Have you ever been to Nepal? (=Can you tell me about it?)
The present perfect can be used in time clauses introduced by when, as soon as, after to
describe an action which will be completed before the action in the main clause.
e.g. Well make the announcement once everyone has arrived.
You can buy a car after youve passed the driving test.
There are some differences between the two forms simple and continuous- although, in
some cases those differences are minimal.
The present perfect looks back from the present into the past, and expresses what has
happened before now. The action happened at an indefinite time in the past. The action can
continue to the present and probably into the future.
It also expresses an experience as part of someones life. Ever and never are common with
this use. In some cases, the present perfect expresses an action or a state which began in the
past and continues to the present.
Have you ever been to America?
I have never been to America.
It is correct to use the Present Perfect to express an action that began in the past and still
continues (unfinished past), and although many languages express this idea with present
tense, but in English this is wrong.
Peter has been a teacher for ten years. Correct!
Peter is a teacher for ten years. Incorrect!
It may be used to express the action that happened in the past and finished, but the effects are
still felt; the time of the action is not important:
Have you ever had an operation? (at any time in your life up to now)
How many times has he been married? (in his life)
We often announce news in the Present Perfect because the speaker is emphasizing the event
as a present fact.
Have you heard? The Prime Minister has resigned.
Susans had her baby!
Ive ruined the meal!

COMPARISON OF
THE PAST SIMPLE AND PAST PERFECT4
As it is already mentioned, the Present Perfect is for unfinished actions, and Past Simple is for
completed past actions. Also, the Present Perfect refers to indefinite time and the Past Simple
refers to definite time by looking at the time expressions used with the different tenses.
PRESENT PERFECT
Ive lived in Texas for six years.
(I still live there.)
Ive written several books.
(I can still write some more.)

PAST SIMPLE
I lived in Texas for six years.
(Now I live somewhere else.)
Shakespeare wrote 30 plays.
(He cant write any more.)

Ive done it for a long time.


Ive done it since July.
Ive done it before.
Ive done it recently.

I did it yesterday.
I did it last week.
I did it two days ago.
I did it at 8 oclock.

I have already done it.


I havent done it yet.
Past Simple :5
1. Refers to an action happened at a definite time in the past.
- Dr Martin Luther King died in 1968.
- She got married when she was only 22.
The action is finished.
- I lived in Paris for a year. (but not now).
Present Perfect :
1. Refers to an action that happened at an indefinite time in the past.
- Virginia Woolf has won awards.
- She has written many books.
The action can continue to the present.
- She has lived there for twenty years. (and she still does).

NARRATIVE TENSES- descriptive; narrative as a noun means a description of events, especially in a story;
Soars, John & Liz, (2000). Headway Pre- Intermediate Student's Book (pp. 136). Oxford & New York: Oxford
University Press.
5

EXERCISES WITH EXAMPLES:6


1. I lived in Rome. (But not any more).
2. Ive lived in Rome, New York and Paris. (I know all these cities now).
3. Ive been living in New York for ten years. (And Im living there now).
4. Susans been married three times. (She is still alive).
5. Susan married three times. (She is dead).
6. Did you see the exhibition in Una gallery? (It is finished now).
7. Have you seen the exhibition in Una gallery? It is still on).
8. Did you see the programme on TV? (Im thinking of the one that was on last night).
9. Did you enjoy the film? (Said as we are leaving the cinema).
10. Have you enjoyed the holiday? (Said near the end of the holiday).
11. Where have I put my glasses? (I want them now).
12. Where did I put my glasses? (I had them a minute ago).
13. It rained yesterday. (Past time).
14. Its been snowing. (Theres snow still on the ground).
15. Shakespeare wrote plays. (Hes dead).
16. Ive written short stories. (Im alive).
17. I hurt my back. (But its better now).
18. Ive hurt my back. (And it hurts now).
19. I saw him last night. (Definite past).
20. Ive seen him before. (Indefinite past).
21. Have you ever taken illegal drugs? (Indefinite time).
INCORRECT
Ive broken my leg last year.
He works as a musician all his life.
When have you been to Greece?
How long do you have that car?
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)

CORRECT
I broke my leg last year.
He has worked as a musician all his life.
When did you go to Greece?
How long have you had that car?

I have read the instructions but I dont understand them.


Have you had breakfast? No, I havent had it yet.
Have you seen my brother? Yes, I have.
I have worked in the local mustard factory.
Has the postman come this morning?
This is the first time I have seen a mounted band?
CONCLUSION

Both the present perfect simple and the present perfect continuous are used to refer to actions
or states which began in the past and have continued up till now. Since is used to express the
starting point, and for is used to express its duration. There are some differences between the
two forms simple and continuous- although, in some cases those differences are minimal.
The present perfect looks back from the present into the past, and expresses what has
happened before now. The action happened at an indefinite time in the past.
6

Soars, Liz & John, (2003). New Headway English Course Upper- Immediate Student's Book (pp. 148). Oxford
& New York: Oxford University Press.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:
- OConnell, Sue, (1999). Focus on Advanced English. London: Longman.
- Soars, Liz & John, (2000). New Headway Pre-Intermediate Student's Book. Oxford & New
York: Oxford University Press.
- Soars, Liz & John, (2003) New Headway Intermediate Student's Book. Oxford & New
York: Oxford University Press.
- Soars, Liz & John, (2003). New Headway English Course Upper- Immediate Student's
Book. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press.
- Thompson, A.J., & Martinet, A.V., (1986). A Practical English Grammar Fourth Edition.
Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press.

10

SADRAJ:
Sadraj.........................................................................................................................12
Uvod............................................................................................................................13
Past Simple..................................................................................................................13
1.1. Tvorba...............................................................................................................13
1.2. Upotreba...........................................................................................................14
1.3. Pisanje glagol + ed...........................................................................................15
Present Perfect ............................................................................................................16
2.1. Tvorba..............................................................................................................16
2.2. Opta upotreba.................................................................................................17
Poreenje Past Simple i Present Perfect......................................................................18
Vjebe sa primjerima...................................................................................................19
Zakljuak......................................................................................................................19

11

UVOD
Past Simple se koristi da izrazi zavrenu prolu radnju, radnje koje slijede jedna iza druge u
prii, ili da izrazi prolo stanje ili naviku. Isti oblik (have + past participle) postoji u mnogim
evropskim jezicima, ali upotrebe u engleskom su drugaije. U engleskom jeziku, Prezent
Perfekt je prvenstveno sadanje vrijeme, ali ono takoer izraava efekt prolih radnji i
aktivnosti na sadanjost. Prezent Perfekt znai prije sada, i ne izraava vrijeme kad se
radnja desila. Ako kaemo tano vrijeme, moramo koristiti Past Simple.
PAST SIMPLE
Tvorba:7
1. Potvrdni oblik:
Pravilni glagoli:
osnova + -(e)d

Primjer: They walked towards us.

Nepravilni glagoli nemaju pravila po kojim se tvore. Mogu se pronai u onom to nazivamo
druga kolona liste nepravilnih glagola.
I
He/ She/ It
We
You
They

finished
left
arrived

2. Odrini oblik: didnt + osnova


I
She
didnt
They
(etc.)

yesterday.
at 3 oclock.
three weeks ago.

finish
leave

yesterday.
at 3 oclock.

you
he
they
(etc.)

finish the report?


get married?

3. Upitni oblik: did + subjekat + osnova?


When

did

Kratak odgovor:
Did you enjoy the meal?

Yes, we did.
No, we didnt.

Vano je napomenuti da je oblik Past Simple isti za sva lica:


7

Soars, John & Liz, (2000). New Headway Pre-Intermediate Student's Book (pp. 131). Oxford & New York:
Oxford University Press.

12

We met in 2000.
I went to Manchester last week.
John left two minutes ago.
Mary walked into the room and stopped. She listened carefully. She heard a noise
coming from behind the curtain. She threw the curtain open, and then she saw
What did Peter do when the war broke out? - He went home to his parents. He decided
that it was safer to go home to his parents and postpone the studies.
I went out with Jack for ten years.
I didnt see you at the party last night. - No, I stayed at home and watched football.

Upotreba:
Past Simple se koristi za izraavanje zavrenih radnji ili dogaaja, koji su se desili u odreeno
vrijeme ili period vremena u prolosti.
Primjer: We met last summer. Do you remember?
I stayed with my uncle until I found a flat of my own.
Past Simple se takoer koristi za prole radnje koje su se ponavljale.
Primjer: He went for a walk every day before lunch.
/ Za ovo znaenje je takoer mogue koristiti used to ili would + osnova.
e.g. He used to go for a walk
He would go for a walk /
Kada se dvije radnje dese brzo jedna za drugom, koristi se Past Simple.
When the oil warning light came on, I switched off the engine.
Kada govorimo o dvjema radnjama koje su se desile istovremeno, a vaan je rezultat, takoer
moemo koristiti Past Simple u svakom sluaju:
As it grew darker, we found it more difficult to follow the path.
Past Simple izraava prole radnje kao jednostavne, zavrene injenice.
A: What did you do last night?
B: I stayed at home and watched the football.
Kao to je ve spomenuto, Past Simple se koristi da izrazi zavrenu prolu radnju, radnje koje
slijede jedna iza druge u prii, ili da izrazi prolo stanje ili naviku. Uoimo slijedee primjere:
- Columbus discovered America in 1492.
- I heard voices coming from downstairs, so I put on my dressing- gown and
went to investigate.
- When I was a child, we lived in a small house by the sea. Every day I walked
for miles on the beach with my dog.
Ova upotreba je esto izraena sa used to, kad neko kae, naprimjer: We used to live ili
We used to walk

Postoje neki vremenski izrazi, koji se esto mogu pronai sa ovim glagolskim vremenom:

13

- I lived in Chicago for six years.


- I saw Jack two days ago.
- They met during the war.
- She got married while she was at university.
- We played tennis last Sunday.
- I worked in London from 1994 to 1999.
- John left two minutes ago.
Vremenski izrazi definiraju kad se tano radnja desila u prolosti.
Pisanje glagol + -ed 8
1. Kod veine glagola dodaje se ed na glagolsku osnovu (worked, wanted, helped, wished)
2. Kad glagol zavrava na e, dodaje se samo d (liked, used, hated, cared, etc.)
3. Ako se glagol sastoji samo os jednog sloga, sa jednim samoglasnikom + jednim
suglasnikom, prije dodavanja nastavka ed suglasnik se uduplava (stopped, planned, robbed).
Ali piemo cooked, seated, i moaned jer sadre dva samoglasnika.
4.Suglasnik se ne uduplava ako imamo y ili w (played, showed)
5.U veini dvoslonih glagola, krajnji suglasnik se dupla ako je naglasak na drugom slogu
(preferred, admitted). Ali piemo entered i visited jer je naglasak na prvom slogu.
6. Kod glagola koji zavravaju na suglasnik + -y mijenja y u -ied (carried, hurried, buried).
Ali piemo enjoyed jer zavrava na samoglasnik + - y.
Postoji mnogo nepravilnih glagola koji se esto koriste. Neki od njih su:
OSNOVA
OBLIK ZA PAST SIMPLE
be
was/ were
become
became
break
broke
can
could
catch
caught
do
did
eat
ate
find
found
forget
forgot
keep
kept
run
ran
say
said

PRESENT PERFECT
8

Soars, Liz & John, (2003). New Headway Intermediate Student's Book (pp. 138). Oxford & New York: Oxford
University Press.

14

Isti oblik (have + past participle) postoji u mnogim evropskim jezicima, ali upotrebe u
engleskom su drugaije. U engleskom jeziku, Prezent Perfekt je prvenstveno sadanje
vrijeme, ali ono takoer izraava efekt prolih radnji i aktivnosti na sadanjost. Prezent
Perfekt znai prije sada, i ne izraava vrijeme kad se radnja desila. Ako kaemo tano
vrijeme, moramo koristiti Past Simple. Evo jednog takvog primjera:
- In my life, I have travelled to all seven continents.
- I travelled around Africa in 1998.
Tvorba:
SIMPLE:
Has / have + past participle

Primjer: He has sold his car.

Past participle pravilnih glagola se tvori dodavanjem nastavka ed. Postoji mnogo nepravilnih
glagola koji se mogu pronai u treoj koloni liste nepravilnih glagola.
Odrini oblik: has/ have not + past participle
I
We / you / they
He / She / It

ve (have)
havent
s (has)
hasnt

worked in a factory.
worked in a factory.

Upitni oblik: has/ have + subjekat + past participle?


Have

I
we/ you/ they
he/ she/ it

Has
Kratak odgovor:
Have you been to Egypt?
Has she ever written poetry?

CONTINUOUS:
Has/ have been + present participle

been to the United States?


been to the U.S.?
Yes, I have. / No, I havent.
Yes, she has. / No, she hasnt.

Primjer: Ive been playing tennis.

Odrini oblik: has/ have been + - ing


Upitni oblik: has/have + subjekat + been -ing
Mora se obratiti panja na injenicu da se pojedini glagoli ne koriste u continuous glagolskim
vremenima, jer mijenjaju znaenje kad de koriste na ovaj nain. Ti glagoli su naprimjer:
admire, detest, impress, mean, seem, adore, dislike, include, stop, owe, keep, possess,
surprise, realise, itd.9
OPTA UPOTREBA:
9

O'Connell, Sue, (1999). Focus on Advanced English (pp. 153). London: Longman.

15

I Present Perfect Simple i Present Perfect Continuous se odnose na radnje ili stanja koja su
zapoela u prolosti I nastavila do sad. Since se koristi da se izrazi poetna taka, a for se
koristi da izrazi trajanje radnje. Slijedei vremenski izrazi se esto koriste:
lately, recently, so far, up till now
Primjer: I have had a cold for a week.
He hasnt been practising on the piano so much lately.
How long have you lived in this flat now?
I have been going to Scotland every summer since I was a child.
Present perfekt Simple se koristi za radnju ili stanje kojeje zavreno u prolosti ali gdje je
vrijeme nepoznato ili nevano. Sadanji rezultat je vaniji nego kad ili kako se radnja ili
dogaaj desio. Slijedei izrazi se esto koriste: just, already, before, ever, never, yet, still
Primjer: Your father has just come in. (=On je ovdje.)
Ive seen that film already. (=Ne elim ga ponovno vidjeti.)
The TV has been repaired.
(=Sada radi.)
Have you ever been to Nepal? (=Moe li mi priati o tome?)
Present Perfect se moe koristiti u vremenskim reenicama koje su uvedene sa when, as soon
as, after da opie radnju koja e biti zavrena prije radnje u glavnoj reenici.
Primjer: Well make the announcement once everyone has arrived.
You can buy a car after youve passed the driving test.
Postoje neke razlike izmeu dva oblika simple i continuous iako su u nekim sluajevima
te razlike minimalne. Present Perfekt gleda nazad iz sadanjosti u prolost i izraava to se
desilo prije trenutka govora. Radnja se desila u neodreeno vrijeme u prolosti. Radnja se
moe nastaviti u sadanjost i vjerovatno u budunost. Takoer izraava iskustvo kao dio
neijeg ivota. Ever i never su esti u susretu sa ovom upotrebom. U nekim sluajevima,
Present Perfekt izraava radnju ili stanje koje je poelo u prolosti i nastavlja se u sadanjost.
Have you ever been to America?
I have never been to America.
Ispravno je koristiti Present Perfekt da se izrazi radnja koja je poela u prolosti i jo uvijek
traje (nesvrena prolost) i iako mnogi jezici izraavaju ovu ideju sadanjim vremenom, u
engleskom je to pogreno.
Peter has been a teacher for ten years. tono!
Peter is a teacher for ten years. netono!
Moe se koristiti da izrazi radnju koja se desila u prolosti i zavrila, ali ije se posljedice i
dalje osjeaju; vrijeme radnje nije bitno.
Have you ever had an operation? (bilo kad u svom ivotu dosad)
How many times has he been married? (u svom ivotu)
esto saoptavamo vijest u Prezent Perfektu jer govornik naglaava dogaaj kao sadanju
injenicu.
Have you heard? The Prime Minister has resigned.
Susans had her baby!
Ive ruined the meal!

UPOREDBA

16

PAST SIMPLE I PAST PERFEKT10


Kao to je ve spomenuto, Present Perfekt je za nezavrene radnje, a Past Simple je za
zavrene prole radnje. Takoer, Present Perfekt se odnosi na neodreeno a Past Simple na
neodreeno vrijeme u prolosti ako gledamo na vtemenske izraze koji se koriste za razliita
glagolska vremena.
PRESENT PERFEKT
PAST SIMPLE
Ive lived in Texas for six years.
I lived in Texas for six years.
(Jo uvijek ivim tu.)
(Sada ivim negdje drugo.)
Ive written several books.
Shakespeare wrote 30 plays.
(Mogu jo uvijek napisati jo.)
(On ne moe pisati vie.)
Ive done it for a long time.
Ive done it since July.
Ive done it before.
Ive done it recently.

I did it yesterday.
I did it last week.
I did it two days ago.
I did it at 8 oclock.

I have already done it.


I havent done it yet.
Past Simple :11
1. Odnosi se na radnje koje su se desile u odreeno vrijeme u prolosti.
- Dr Martin Luther King died in 1968.
- She got married when she was only 22.
Radnja je zavrena.
- I lived in Paris for a year. (but not now).
Present Perfekt :
1. Odnosi se na radnju koja se desila u neodreeno vrijeme u prolosti.
- Virginia Woolf has won awards.
- She has written many books.
Radnja se moe nastaviti do sadanjosti.
- She has lived there for twenty years. (I jo uvijek ivi).

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NARRATIVNA VREMENA- opisna; narrative kao imenica znai opis dogaaja, posebno u prii;
Soars, John & Liz, (2000). Headway Pre- Intermediate Student's Book (pp. 136). Oxford & New York: Oxford
University Press.
11

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VJEBE SA PRIMJERIMA:12
I
1. I lived in Rome. (ali ne vie).
2. Ive lived in Rome, New York and Paris. (sada poznajem sve te gradove).
3. Ive been living in New York for ten years. (I sad tu ivim).
4. Susans been married three times. (jo uvijek je iva).
5. Susan married three times. (mrtva je).
6. Did you see the exhibition in Una gallery? (zavrena je).
7. Have you seen the exhibition in Una gallery? (jo uvijek traje).
8. Did you see the programme on TV? (mislim na onaj koji se prokazivao sino).
9. Did you enjoy the film? (izreeno prilikom naputanja kina).
10. Have you enjoyed the holiday? (izreeno pred kraj praznika).
11. Where have I put my glasses? (elim ih sada).
12. Where did I put my glasses? (imala sam ih prije minut).
13. It rained yesterday. (prolo vrijeme).
14. Its been snowing. (jo uvijek ima snijega na zemlji).
15. Shakespeare wrote plays. (mrtav je).
16. Ive written short stories. (ja sam iva).
17. I hurt my back. (sad mi je bolje).
18. Ive hurt my back. (sad me boli).
19. I saw him last night. (odreena prolost).
20. Ive seen him before. (neodreena prolost).
21. Have you ever taken illegal drugs? (neodreeno vrijeme).
II
NEISPRAVNO
ISPRAVNO
Ive broken my leg last year.
I broke my leg last year.
He works as a musician all his life.
He has worked as a musician all his life.
When have you been to Greece?
When did you go to Greece?
How long do you have that car?
How long have you had that car?
III
a) I have read the instructions but I dont understand them.
b) Have you had breakfast? No, I havent had it yet.
c) Have you seen my brother? Yes, I have.
d) I have worked in the local mustard factory.
e) Has the postman come this morning?
f) This is the first time I have seen a mounted band?
ZAKLJUAK
I Present Perfect Simple i Present Perfect Continuous se odnose na radnje ili stanja koja su
zapoela u prolosti I nastavila do sad. Since se koristi da se izrazi poetna taka, a for se
koristi da izrazi trajanje radnje. Postoje neke razlike izmeu dva oblika simple i
continuous iako su u nekim sluajevima te razlike minimalne. Present Perfekt gleda
nazad iz sadanjosti u prolost i izraava to se desilo prije trenutka govora. Radnja se
desila u neodreeno vrijeme u prolosti.

12

Soars, Liz & John, (2003). New Headway English Course Upper- Immediate Student's Book (pp.148). Oxford
& New York: Oxford University Press.

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