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1 causes of earthquake prone areas in india

2 building configuration for the protection of
3 mitigation measures & recovery measures
4 awareness programmes
5 conclusion

I sincerely acknowledge with a deep heart full gratitude
to project Incharge.. for her valuable
and faithful guidance, encouragement & suggestions
throughout the completion of this work. She generously
shared her immense knowledge with me. Her personal
attention brought the project to be completed
Last but not the least gratitude to all those,
who extended their co-operation directly or indirectly in
completion of this project work.


Causes of Earthquakes prone areas in india

Most earthquakes are causally related to compressional or tensional stresses built up at the
margins of the huge moving lithospheric platesthat make up the earth's surface
. The immediate cause of most shallow earthquakes is the sudden release of stress alonga f
, or fracture in the earth's crust, resulting in movement of the opposing blocks of rock past on
e another. These movements causevibrations to pass through and around the earth in wave
form, just as ripples are generated when a pebble is dropped into water. Volcaniceruptions, r
ockfalls, landslides, and explosions can also cause a quake, but most of these are of only lo
cal extent. Shock waves from apowerful earthquake can trigger smaller earthquakes in a dist
ant location hundreds of miles away if the geologic conditions are favorable.
Seismic Waves
There are several types of earthquake waves including P, or primary, waves, which are comp
ressional and travel fastest; and S, orsecondary, waves, which are transverse, i.e., they caus
e the earth to vibrate perpendicularly to the direction of their motion. Surface wavesconsist of
several major types and are called L, or long, waves. Since the velocities of the P and S wav
es are affected by changes in thedensity and rigidity of the material through which they pass,
the boundaries between the regions of the earth known as the crust, mantle, andcore have b
een discerned by seismologists, scientists who deal with the analysis and interpretation of ea
rthquake waves .Seismographs are used to record P, S, and L waves. The disappearance of
S waves below depths of 1,800 mi (2,900 km)indicates that at least the outer part of the eart
h's core is liquid.

Building configuration for the

protection of building
Architectural Features
A desire to create an aesthetic and functionally efficient structure drives architects to
conceive wonderful and imaginative structures. Sometimes the shape of the building catches
the eye of the visitor, sometimes the structural system appeals, and in

other occasions both shape and structural system work together to make the structure a
marvel. However, each of these choices of shapes and structure has significant bearing on
the performance of the building during strong earthquakes. The wide range of structural
damages observed during past earthquakes across the world is very educative in identifying
structural configurations that are desirable versus those which must be avoided.
In tall buildings with large height-to-base size ratio , the horizontal movement of the floors
during ground shaking is large. In short but very long buildings , the damaging effects during
earthquake shaking are many. And, in buildings with large plan area like warehouses , the
horizontal seismic forces can be excessive to be carried by columns and walls.

Horizontal Layout of Buildings

In general, buildings with simple geometry in plan have performed well during strong
earthquakes. Buildings with re-entrant corners, like those U, V, Hand + shaped in plan , have
sustained significant damage. Many times, the bad effects of these interior corners in the
plan of buildings are avoided by making the buildings in two parts. For example, an Lshaped plan can be broken up into two rectangular plan shapes using a separation joint at
the junction . Often, the plan is simple, but the columns/walls are not equally distributed in
plan. Buildings with such features tend to twist during earthquake shaking.

The earthquake forces developed at different floor levels in a building need to be brought
down along the height to the ground by the shortest path; any deviation or discontinuity in
this load transfer path results in poor performance of the building. Buildings with vertical
setbacks (like the hotel buildings with a few storeys wider than the rest) cause a sudden
jump in earthquake forces at the level of discontinuity . Buildings that have fewer columns or
walls in a particular storey or with unusually tall storey , tend to damage or collapse which is
initiated in that storey. Many buildings with an open ground storey intended for parking
collapsed or were severely damaged in Gujarat during the 2001 Bhuj earthquake.
Buildings on a sloping ground have unequal height columns along the slope, which causes ill
effects like twisting and damage in shorter columns . Buildings with columns that hang or
float on beams at an intermediate storey and do not go all the way to the foundation, have
discontinuities in the load transfer path . Some buildings have reinforced concrete walls to
carry the earthquake loads to the foundation. Buildings, in which these walls do not go all the
way to the ground but stop at an upper level ,are liable to get severely damaged during

When two buildings are too close to each other, they may pound on each other during strong
shaking. With

increase in building height, this collision can be a greater problem. When building heights do
not match , the roof of the shorter building may pound at the mid-height of the column of the
taller one; this can be very dangerous.

Building Design and Codes

Looking ahead, of course, one will continue to make buildings interesting rather than
monotonous. However, this need not be done at the cost of poor behaviour and earthquake
safety of buildings. Architectural features that are detrimental to earthquake response of
buildings should be avoided. If not, they must be minimised. When irregular features are
included in buildings, a considerably higher level of engineering effort is required in the
structural design and yet the building may not be as good as one with simple architectural
features. Decisions made at the planning stage on building configuration are more important,
or are known to have made greater difference, than accurate determination of code specified
design forces.
superstructure are reduced significantly.

Mitigation measures

Your first line of protection against earthquakes is the strength of your home. The strength of
your home depends largely on the contractor who built it and the building standards that the
contractor used. Each state sets minimum quality standards, known as building codes, that
contractors and builders must follow.


1.Bolt bookcases, china cabinets, and other tall furniture to wall studs. Brace or anchor high
or top-heavy objects. During an earthquake, these items can fall over, causing damage or
2.Secure items that might fall (televisions, books, computers, etc.). Falling items can cause
damage or injury.
Install strong latches or bolts on cabinets. The contents of cabinets can shift during the
shaking of an earthquake. Latches will prevent cabinets from flying open and contents from
falling out.
3.Move large or heavy objects and fragile items (glass or china) to lower shelves. There will
be less damage and less chance of injury if these items are on lower shelves.
Store breakable items such as bottled foods, glass, and china in low, closed cabinets with
latches. Latches will help keep contents of cabinets inside.
Store weed killers, pesticides, and flammable products securely in closed cabinets with
latches, on bottom shelves.
Chemical products will be less likely to create hazardous situations from lower, confined
Hang heavy items, such as pictures and mirrors, away from beds, couches, and anywhere
people sit. Earthquakes can knock things off walls, causing damage or injury.
Brace overhead light fixtures. During earthquakes, overhead light fixtures are the most
common items to fall, causing damage or injury.
Strap the water heater to wall studs. The water heater may be your best source of drinkable
water following an earthquake. Protect it from damage and leaks.
Bolt down any gas appliances. After an earthquake, broken gas lines frequently create fire
nstall flexible pipe fittings to avoid gas or water leaks.

Flexible fittings will be less likely to break.

Repair any deep cracks in ceilings or foundations. Get expert advice if there are signs of
structural defects.
Earthquakes can turn cracks into ruptures and make smaller problems bigger.
Check to see if your house is bolted to its foundation. Homes bolted to their foundations are
less likely to be severely damaged during earthquakes. Homes that are not bolted have been
known to slide off their foundations, and many have been destroyed because they are
Consider having your building evaluated by a professional structural design engineer. Ask
about home repair and strengthening tips for exterior features, such as porches, front and
back decks, sliding glass doors, canopies, carports, and garage doors. Learn about
additional ways you can protect your home. A professional can give you advice on how to
reduce potential damage.
Follow local seismic building standards and safe land use codes that regulate land use along
fault lines. Some municipalities, counties, and states have enacted codes and standards to
protect property and occupants. Learn about your area's codes before construction.


Disaster recovery planning basically involves asking What ifs to

prevent later If only (CSSC, 2000).
II. Studies have found that pre-disaster planning can save lives and
injuries, limit property damage, and minimize disruptions, enabling
communities to recover more quickly (MCEER, 2000).
III. Planning for recovery has a number of components. The following
general planning steps are adapted from the California Seismic Safety
Commission Strategic Plan (2003):
A. Planning for Business Continuation:
Business continuation planning is aimed at allowing an organization to
resume its regular business activities as quickly as possible after a
disaster. In the case of governments, this means being able to continue to
provide essential services to the public with as little disruption as possible.
This is not just a matter of marshalling physical resources; it also involves
providing the appropriate authorities with human resources to enable
government and business to continue under extreme conditions.
B. As with other aspects of emergency preparedness, business continuation
planning should be an ongoing program from which an organization develops
and modifies its continuation plans. And to be fully effective, it should involve all
members of the organization.
C. Dealing with Building Damage:
Repairing and rebuilding damaged buildings is one element that covers the
entire recovery cycle. Initially, the concern is to prevent further loss of life or
injury, particularly from aftershocks following the initial seismic activity. Damage
to structures must be assessed and buildings posted to indicate which buildings
are safe to use. A system of inspecting and posting key buildings is therefore
essential if injury and loss of life are to be minimized.
D. Inspections often take the form of two main evaluations:
one rapid and one detailed:

1. A rapid evaluation is carried out to identify and post apparently safe and
obviously unsafe structures, and to designate buildings whose strength and
safety cannot be determined without a more thorough examination. These
evaluations usually are done by local building inspectors, assisted by volunteer
civil/structural engineers, architects, building contractors, and other individuals.
2. A detailed evaluation is carried out to evaluate and post buildings of
questionable safety, usually those that have already been posted as "Limited
Entry." Detailed evaluations are designed to be performed by volunteer
engineers within a few hours or days after the rapid evaluation phase, and are
intended to provide reasonable assurance about whether a building can be
returned to or not.
3. The effectiveness of any post-earthquake structural assessment program
depends on effective protocols for the assessment. As well, it depends on a
trained and accessible core of volunteer engineers with the necessary authority,
supplies, and equipment to perform their function.
E. Removing Debris:
A major earthquake is likely to cause a significant amount of damage, so debris
removal is a key element of recovery (as well as of response).
1. Initially, streets must be cleared quickly to allow emergency vehicles access
to help the injured and extinguish fires.
2. Subsequently, removing what is left of destroyed buildings allows
reconstruction to begin earlier. The personnel and equipment of governments
and private sector companies probably will be needed to remove debris.
3. Suitable places to dump earthquake rubble will have to be identified so that
environmental problems and higher future costs for cleanup can be avoided.
Therefore, it is important for governments to identify potential disposal sites in
advance, and to plan for the logistics of moving debris to them.
4. The authority to make decisions about the disposition of debris should be
assigned before the event, since such decisions will have to be made quickly
once the emergency has occurred.
F. Rebuilding: Building regulations need to be established to enable the
rebuilding process to proceed as quickly as possible. In the meantime, temporary
housing must be found for the homeless. Health and safety information must be
distributed among the population to minimize the risk of a disease outbreak
resulting, for example, from drinking contaminated water.
G. An effective rebuilding program needs to be supervised by a reconstruction
authority. Such an agency may act for a number of governments, and the
creation of one should be contemplated as part of a long-term recovery plan.
IV. Economic Recovery: To find out how best to revive the economy, impact
studies have to be carried out to identify how damaged the various elements are,

what needs repair, and how the repairs can be made. Only then can appropriate
financial assistance programs be put into place.

Earthquake Awareness Programme

The prediction of time and location of earthquake is a difficult phenomenon. The
recent earthquakes in all over the world have created a threat to the human
society. The Killari (1999), Bhuj (2001) and Kashmir (2005) earthquakes are
testimony to the great loss of human of life and property. Significant part of our
population lives under a constant threat of a possible devastating earthquake
particularly in high seismic zone like Himalayas and Gujarat. The Himalayas
Tectonic belt is constantly generating active stresses not only along Himalayan
Zone but also its neighbouring regions. The periodic accumulation of strains is
being released in various segments in producing earthquakes. NCR Delhi lies in
Seismic zone IV, IS 1893 (2002), having a population of 13 million. Delhi is
under a threat of a moderate earthquake in near future, which may cause a loss
of life and property. A great earthquake in the Himalayan region may cause
damage and loss of life in Delhi. As a capital it is growing with population and
urban agglomeration. Any big earthquake from Himalayan Source is also a
biggest threat to the human population in Delhi.
Training of students and teachers on earthquake preparedness is essential as the
catalyst in the dissemination of knowledge and information. The learning level of
the students, who are the future of our country, depends also on the learning
level of the teachers. There is greater need childrens education as well as
training of master trainers in schools on earthquake preparedness.

The beneficiaries were school children teachers and staff of various schools of

Knowledge and skill development among the school children, teachers and staff
about the earthquakes, safety measures, causes & effects, history, and different

Lectures based on the following themes

Basics, Causes and Effects of earthquakes

Explanation of different earthquake terminologies and earthquake


Steps to be taken pre, during and post an earthquake with pictures

and diagrams

Visual display on earthquakes

Circulation of earthquake kits & literature

Conclusion for Earthquakes:

You cannot stop earthquakes, but we can learn more, in hopes of discovering ways
to protect ourselves from them. There are a few ways we could help prevent some
damage of earthquakes in the future. Many buildings are constructed in areas of
earthquake risk. If a building is being constructed in a city that has experienced
earthquakes, new plans and building materials should be used to strengthen the

building. Recently, materials like this have been invented, such as a combination of
steel and rubber plates on buildings to absorb the shock of the earthquake. Another
easy safety thing for earthquakes is for the government of a city to invest in a proper
seismograph centre, and make sure there is always at least one person monitoring it
in case of an earthquake. Simple precautions are the most effective way to minimize
earthquake damage.

Bibliography and References

Reference of internet website: