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Species with "Eighteen + Two" Valence Electron

These species are generally composed of heavy elements. 81 Ti element found as Ti 3+ cation, the system of 18 valence electrons are quite stable. However, Ti cations with the electron configuration [ 36 Kr] 4d 10 4f 14 5s 2 5p 6 5d 10 6s 2 , was also found and even more stable than Ti 3+ cations. This configuration system stability often attributed with the fact full all filled orbitals, specifically known as the electron configuration of the "18 + 2" system or in terms of species with inert electron pair. Elements Ga, In, and Tl (group 13), Ge, Sn, and Pb (group 14), and As, Sb, and Bi (group 15) can be formed sequentially M + , M 2+ , and M 3+ ions, typically with inert electron pair, (4-6) s 2 .

The role of the inert electron pair to the stability of the ion in the group turned out to be stronger with increasing atomic number. For example Tl + , sequentially more stable than In + dan Ga + ; Sn 4+ is more stable than Sn 2+ ; but otherwise Pb 2+ is more stable than Pb 4+ . In group 15, Sb 3+ and Bi 3+ fairly stable, likewise Sb 5+ ; however, Bi 5+ is less stable.

Species with Various Electron Valence

Ions of this type consists of transition elements of d and f group which has an electronic configuration d and f is not full. Generally, these ions have the 8-18 outer electronic structure.

That is ns 2 np 6 nd (0-10) with n = 3, 4, 5. In addition, the transition group elements are known to form cations with various oxidation state.

Group f elements, lantanoide and aktinoide, that each has the electronic configuration


5s 2

5p 6



6s 2 ,




... 5f (1-14) 6s 2 6p 6 6d (0-1) 7s 2 . By removing the

outermost electron, that is (n-1)d (0-1) ns 2 , these elements produce M 3+ cation that more stable with leave the 8 valence electron configuration, but with varying amounts of electrons

inside is not full, (n-2)f (1-14) . The stability of the transition ions and the inner transition, generally associated with the complex compounds formation.

The Ion formation tendency

The sequence of six types of ion stability is that the type of the electronic configuration of noble gases is most stable, followed by eighteen electron configuration type; ion with the transition elements configuration type and the inner transition is most unstable. The more stable the structure of the ion configuration, the less tendency the ion to form complex ion.

The question that appear immediately is what are the factors that support the formation of an ion? Generally it can be predicted that the level of ease of an ion formation is influenced by three main factors, that is:


ion electronic configuration stability that is concerned, the more stable configuration is


formed more easily an element forming the ion, ion charge, the smaller the ionic charge ions more easily formed, and

3) ion size, the greater the size of the cation and the smallest anion size, the both are more

easily formed.

Why is that? Basically, the more electrons are released from the atom or its ion, the greater the energy that is needed because the remainder electron, more stronger bounded by effective nuclear charge of the species that is also greater. But, for atoms which is larger, the outermost electron is not too strong is bound to the nucleus so that these atoms able to form ions with a charge greater than the atoms that is smaller. As an example for the 14 group, C and Si atoms are both difficult to form M 4+ ions, but Sn and Pb are both easy to form M 4+ ion. Otherwise, on the formation the anion, small atoms relatively stronger bind the electrons; for the halogen group, for example, the F atom is easier to form the F - ions than Cl atom, and so Br and I.

Physical properties of Ionic Species

The above description discuss about the release and binding of electrons to form positive ions and negative ions in the molecule compounds. If conditions do not allow for the formation of specific ions, thus, the communion of electrons will occur and a covalent bond is formed. The transition from the ionic nature to the covalent nature is depend on several factors. Criteria for the determination of both types of such properties can be based on the physical properties of the concerned species. Ionic compounds generally have relatively high boiling point and melting point, and is a good conductor of electricity in the molten or solution state. Relatively high boiling point due to the relative amount of energy needed to break the Coulomb forces between ions while the electrically conductive properties caused by the movement of ions in the melt or solution.

Two species extreme example is ionic compound NaCl and covalent compounds CCl 4 . According to the polarization theory developed by Fajan, when two ion is close to each other forming a cloud of electrons, the anion will be affected by the pull of cations, and at the same time the nucleus of anions and the nucleus of cation will repel each other. This will resulted the anions deformation or polarization as illustrated by Figure 3.1

The Ion formation tendency The sequence of six types of ion stability is that the type







Gambar 3.1



ion normal, dan



In general, the cation size is much smaller than the of anions, therefore the polarization properties of the cations are also much smaller than the polarization of anions. The important thing to known is that this polarization effect results in electrons especially valence electrons are no longer fully affected by one of ion or atom. but distributed so that is influenced by both ion or atom are concerned. The greater the influence of both atoms simultaneously, the smaller the degree of ionic nature and the greater the degree of covalent nature of the concerned species. This effect can be formulated as the following description.

1) The amount of the charge. Rising ionic charge resulted in an increase of polarized nature of the counterion, thus lowering ionic properties and covalent properties species ....