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Assignment on elements and process

of communication


Communication is a process of transferring information from one
entity to another. Communication processes are sign-mediated
interactions between at least two agents which share a repertoire of
signs and semiotic rules.
Communication is the process of exchanging information, usually
through a common system of symbols. It takes a wide variety of
forms from two people having a face to face conversation to hand
signals to messages sent over the global telecommunication
networks. Common forms of communication include speaking,
writing, gesturing and broadcasting. Therefore, communication
means to inform, tell, show, or spread information. When a person
communicates, he/ she establish a common ground of
understanding. In the organizational context, it brings about a unity
of purpose, interest and effort.
Communication is a process whereby information is enclosed in a
package and is channelled and imparted by a sender to a receiver
via some medium. The receiver then decodes the message and
gives the sender a feedback. All forms of communication require a
sender, a message, and an intended recipient,
Communication requires that all parties have an area of
communicative commonality. There are auditory means, such as
speech, song, and tone of voice, and there are nonverbal means,
such as body language, sign language, paralanguage, touch, eye
contact, through media, i.e., pictures, graphics and sound, and


Communication is a process where people (communicator) sending

stimulus in purpose to change or to make behaviour of other people.
( Hovland, Janis & Kelley : 1953 )
Communication basely is a process which explain who, says what,
in which channel, to whom, with what effect.
( Lasswell : 1960 )
Communication: the transmission of information, idea, emotion,
skills, etc., by the use of symbols-words, pictures, figures, graphs,
etc. It is the act or process of transmission that is usually called
(Berelson and Steiner, 1964).
Communication is the process that involves the transmission and
accurate replication of ideas ensured by feedback for the purpose of
eliciting actions which will accomplish organizational goals.
( William Scott: 1977)
Communication is a continuing and thinking process dealing with
the transmission and interchange with the understanding of ideas,
facts and course of action.
(Terry and Franklin 1984)
Communication is the process of meaningful interactions among
persons in an organization resulting in meanings being perceived
and understanding effected among such persons.
(Rustom Davar 1980)

According to Keith Davis, The process of passing the information

and understanding from one person to another. It is essentially a
bridge of meaning between the people. By using the bridge a
person can safely across the river of misunderstanding.

Communication can also be defined in the following ways:

The process by which information and feelings are
shared by people through an exchange of verbal
and non-verbal messages.
The successful transmission of information through
a common system of symbols, signs, behaviour,
speech, writing or signals.
The creation of shared understanding through
interaction among two or more agents.
Communication is usually described along a few major dimensions:
Message (type of what things are communicated), source / emisor /
sender / encoder (by whom), form (in which form), channel (through
which medium), destination / receiver / target / decoder (to whom),
and Receiver. Wilbur Schram (1954) also indicated that we should
also examine the impact that a message has (both desired and
undesired) on the target of the message [9]. Between parties,
communication includes acts that confer knowledge and
experiences, give advice and commands, and ask questions. These
acts may take many forms, in one of the various manners of
communication. The form depends on the abilities of the group
communicating. Together, communication content and form make
messages that are sent towards a destination. The target can be
oneself, another person or being, another entity (such as a
corporation or group of beings). Communication requires that the
communicating people share an area of common interest and ideas.

The process of communication and Elements of

According to Harold D Lasswell elements are mainly in 5 basic ,
They are
The communication process involves the sender, the transmission
of a message through a selected channel and the receiver .
Although the process of communication is more than the sum total
of these elements, understanding them can help to explain what
happens when one person tries to express an idea to others.
According to R.C.Bhatia the elements are in 7 basis they are;
(a) SENDER : The process of communication begins with a
sender , the person who transmits a message. The sender is also
called the encoder because to encode is to put a message into
words or images.The branch manager explaining new product lines
to the sales force , a computer programmer explaining a new
program to a co-worker, an accounting giving financial report to its
superior are all sender of communication.
(b) MESSAGE: The message is what the sender wants to convey
to the receiver. A message is any signal that triggers the response
of a receiver . Messages could be verbal( written or spoken ) or
non-verbal (such as appearance, body language , silence, sounds
yawns, sighs etc.).

(c) ENCODING: The sender must choose certain words or

nonverbal methods to send an international message. This activity
called encoding. While encoding a message , one needs to consider
what contents to include , how the receiver will interpret it and how
it may affects ones relationship. A simple thankful message will be
relatively easy. In construct to inform 200 employees of a bad news
about salary cut or bid on engineering plans to construct a 50 crore
industrial building will require much more complicated , carefully
planned message.
(d) CHANNEL: How will you send your message???? Should it
be sent via an electronic word processing system to be read on the,
screen or through the printed word or through graphic symbol on
paper , or via the medium of sound ?
The choice of channel or medium is influenced by the interrelationships between the sender and the receiver. It also depends
upon the urgency of the message being sent. Besides, one may
consider factors such as importance, number of receivers, costs
and amount of information. Generally , it has been observed that if
message requires an immediate answer, an oral channel may be
the better choice. For communication to be efficient and effective,
the channel must be appropriate for the message.
Oral communication may be staff meeting reports , face to face
discussions, speeches, audio tapes, telephone chats,
External written communication media may be letters, reports,
proposals, telegrams, faxes, electronic mails, telexes, postcards,
contracts, ads, brouchers, catalogues, news release etc. You may
communicate orally face to face , by telephone, or by speeches in
solo or in panel situations personally before groups or via
teleconferences or television.

(e)RECEIVER; Receiver is the person or group for whom the

communication is intended. A receiver is any person who notices
and attaches some meaning to a message . In the best
circumstances, a message reaches its intended receiver with no
problems. In the confusing and imperfect world of business,
however, several problems can occur.

(f)DECODING; There is no guarantee that it will be understood as

the sender intended it to be. The receiver must still decode it.
Attaching meaning to the words or symbols. It may be noted that
decoding is not always accurate. It depends upon individual
experiences. The problem is that all of us do not have identical
experiences with the subject or symbols chosen by the sender.
Even attitudes , abilities , opinions , communication skills and
cultural customs vary. There are greater chance of misinterpretation
; personal biases may intervene, as each receiver tries to perceive
the intended meaning of the senders idea in his or her own
receptor mechanism.
(g)FEEDBACK; Ultimately the receiver reacts or responds to the
communication sent by the sender . It is the reaction to receiving the
message. The response could be based on clear interpretation of
the symbols sent or it could b based on misunderstanding or
misinterpretation of the symbols sent. Whatever the response of a
receiver to a sender is , it is called feedback. Some feedback is
nonverbal- smiles, sighs, nods and so on. Sometimes it is oral as
when you react to a colleagues ideas with questions or
The whole process is straightforward the sender encodes the
message and transmits it through the most appropriate channel to
the receiver who decodes it and sends the corresponding feedback.


Communication is sharing of thoughts and feelings at different

levels , weaving relationship that are more or less healthy , requiring
various skills.
Communication is everywhere and always. Its is a continuous
And the elements are SENDER Who Says, MESSAGE-What he
says, CHANNEL- In which channel, RECEIVER- To whom,
EFFECTS- with what effect.