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Speech to celebrate his centennial birthday. 1)

On April 19, 1901, a century had passed since the day when Fechner first saw the
light of this world. If today, believed to be called to Nachfeier this day, the Royal
Saxon Society of Sciences as the next to consecrate their erstwhile member one hour
honorific memory, so it is probably aware that our university and our city of Leipzig
to the possession this rare man may earlier rights. The association of this university
he has been consulted by the hour, as the seventeen enlisted as a student of medicine
in the lists of their academic citizens, to the other, because after a turbulent work as a
teacher of physics and the philosophy of Sechsundachtzigjhrige from life
difference. In the city but in which he established his home, and had chosen him in
later days an honorary citizen in this city he was rooted as few others. In the
meadows and forests of their surroundings scooped that sense of everywhere
Wielding life of nature from which his philosophy is satisfied, always fresh food. On
the bench among the trees of the Rose Valley, today over look his Erzbste the
verdant meadow behind the thoughts have arisen, with whom he has not initiated the
final steps of his philosophical.

Held in the auditorium of the University of Leipzig on behalf of the Royal. Schs. Society of Sciences

on 11th May 1,901th

The Society of Sciences is relatively late entrant into the circle of those
relations. When she'd founded in 1846, joined her Fechner only reluctantly. Skeptical
in all that did not belong to the immutable principles of his faith and knowledge, he
distrusted the success of this creation. But after it had come into existence, was and
he remained until his last years one of its most industrious members. Fully than he
had in the second half of his life his teaching gradually reduced and finally all set,
and when he otherwise increasingly withdrew into the silence of your own house,
since it was mainly the meetings of our society, in which it still stepped in scientific
communication with the outside world. Here one was pretty sure to find him every
month, the eyes of the green protective shield shadowed, either attentively listening
to the presentations held or even from the inexhaustible fount of his research new
gifts giving. This is where he shared the first draft of his future broader work or
further additions and modifications to them was. If he thereby also the philosophical
questions that bothered him, usually careful vormied so but relations are well
recognized, in which his character of our negotiations matched exact statements to his
philosophical ideas are. The more impossible it is to even design of the intellectual
work of this long, laborious life in this fleeting hour an approximately zureichendes
image, may I more so therefore probably be assured your indulgence if I mainly
confine myself here to the trial, the relations pursue that exist between the work of
Fechner in the fields of exact research and those peculiar belief that confronts us in its
more general works. How Fechner behaves the naturalist, the founder of
psychophysics and the inventor of the collectives to Fechner the philosopher? As the

observing and computing physicist who opposes all scientific hypothesis

developments with cautious doubts about the in its deepest essence religiously
inclined thinker whose pursuit is widely directed to re renewal and deepening of
apparently become in Christianity God-consciousness beyond the limits of
conventional philosophy at? Did he want to satisfy as a philosopher of mind needs
that had nothing to do with the purposes of his research? Or, if a relationship between
these two directions of his intellectual work is, what is the earlier? Has the
philosopher evolved from the naturalist, or conversely, the exact problems that he
notably presented in his later years, emerged from his philosophical worldview?















Text original
In der Stadt aber, in der er sich sein Heim gegrndet, und die ihn
in spteren Tagen zu ihrem Ehrenbrger erkoren hatte, in dieser
Stadt war er festgewurzelt wie wenig andere.
Contribuu a millorar la traducci

In the first half of his life Fechner's almost exclusively been
naturalists. Observations on the galvanic phenomena, later those on the phenomena of
the subjective vision, the afterimages that contrast sensations occupied him next to a
rich literary activity, dedicated primarily part of the teaching of science, some of the
summary of the physical and chemical individual research time in extensive
repertories was. Those cheerful children of his temper, which he published at the
same pseudonym as Dr. Mises, so characteristic like to reflect this richly talented
personality in them, they are just recreations of serious, hard work. Largely in Taunts
of Schelling's philosophy of nature and the then greatly reveling in universal funds
and concoctions medicine consisting, give fairly faithfully the sentiments again,
which looked down at that time already the rigorous science to the fantastic
hypotheses of natural philosophy and often twinned with her medicine ,
Would Fechner been redeemed in the middle of his career from the serious illness
that has not yet struck the forties in years of infirmity, he would quite different are we
today as a mind. Unless one does his gedchte what indeed probably should happen
only in the narrowest circles of experts, one would probably say of him: He was a
diligent and prudent researcher whose work on galvanism through the ingenuity with
which he of the error then little-trained experimental technique sought to eliminate,
could apply to some extent as a model of methodology today. He has also delivered
presentations summarizing the progress in the field of physics and chemistry, which
were meritorious for their time. All the services are but as they do not have to have
many other scholars of the day, their names are little known even more within their

areas of expertise today. After all, the historian of science would be impossible not to
feel a property of youthful Fechner righteous astonishment, in which it assumed none
of his contemporaries with him, that is the immense labor, which he
operated. Appeared but in the years 1824-1830 by him, in addition to the translation
of a work on the diseases of the brain, an adaptation of Thnard's Textbook of
theoretical and practical chemistry in 6 volumes, such Biot's physics textbook in 4
volumes, the same work secondarily, a completely revised edition in 5 volumes, what
joined 2 volumes of a repertory of chemistry, a report on all significant new research
containing, and in the next few years, until 1832, 3 volumes of just such a repertory
of experimental physics. Added to this was in addition to a number of smaller
chemical and physical work a larger study on the "Mabestimmungen the galvanic
cell", an "elementary textbook of electromagnetism", finally, since 1830, the editorial
staff of a pharmaceutical Zentralblatt; therebetween ago ran a "catechism or
Examinatorium about the physiology of man", a "Catechism of logic or thinking
doctrine", which he had taken for a collection of textbooks, and finally most of those
published under the name of Dr. Mises Humoresken.
These are moderately calculated annually 3 to 4 volumes. If these volumes only, or
at least as to the titles of the main works would seem, for the most part translators
work, it would already be a significant achievement. But a man like Fechner was not
created for mere translator. Where it was not enough for the original because he
proceeded to work independently, or he improved and expanded until only nothing
left. He had been in the preface to the third band of Thnard's explain chemistry, from
now on, in the areas of organic chemistry, he could only use the work of the French
author as other previous textbooks; the main thing after he was forced to work
independently according to the sources. Accordingly, four of the six volumes of the
work quite Fechner own work. Something similar happened to him with Biot's
physics. In optics, this had still clung to the doctrine of emanation; Fechner helped
the wave theory, which was precisely's interference experiments reached only by
Fresnel to victory to their rights, added and improved everywhere else the original
work according to the latest research, and replaced when it is no longer enough, in the
second edition of the galvanism and electrochemistry treated band by a completely
new, excellent for its time working. In truth, then, were these large textbooks to a
substantial extent the intellectual property of the German secretariat. They went
under the name of famous French authors, because these promised a better
bookselling success than the modest German lecturers. No less are the repertories
who joined to this major textbooks, references an amazing worker and one of
substance control on very different fields of exact science, as they have found since
then hardly united in one personality. Not only on the conditions laid down in
numerous time and academic publications experimental single work report is here
faithfully and clearly refundable, even in the sometimes difficult ideas of purely
theoretical, mathematical and physical investigations know the author by luminous
description of the general conditions and results introduce admirably. The time just
came to light treatises of Poisson, Navier, Cauchy on the molecular structure of the
body, on the elasticity and other phenomena of molecular forces, they are explained

by him in their main ideas with unsurpassed clarity, so that these discussions today
with benefits can read. One sees these textbooks and repertories are not literary
manual labor; they are of course the main thing to reproductive services, but they
betrayed but in the way the author has acquired the scientific results and she knows
how to use, a high degree of productive efficiency. If one did not know that really
Fechner has accomplished alone and often aggravating external circumstances all that
one might think that behind a name concealing a whole society of scholars.
Do not volunteer Fechner had taken this enormous burden on himself. Surely it
would have preferred to devote his time exclusively independent investigations. But
the penniless lecturer who had found here in Leipzig a faithful, its essence
understanding oncoming partner was dependent on the work of his pen. Earlier, the
minister's son had recognized from Grosrchen that medicine, the study of which he
whose Baccalaureat he had chosen and purchased, his inner profession is not. He who
is life remained an awkward scholar did not fit, for medical practice, and this,
especially in the condition in which it was at that time, did not fit the for the exact
sciences enthusiastic youth who are already at twenty in his " proof that the moon is
Jodine "- iodine was then used Allerweltsmittel - and a year later in his" panegyric of
current medicine "heartily than she had made fun. As a physicist, he had to rely on an
academic career. This, however, was at that time probably even more than today an
uncertain and thorny. He relied on his labor. In the city of the book trade, it could
give him no lack of literary contracts. In fact, they flocked to him, more than was
good for him; and he proved that even a scholar who merely wrote scientific works
essentially in the former Leipzig able to live off the proceeds of his pen, but not live
in abundance, hardly adequate, but when he was modest in his claims, just
adequately, and provided that he, like Fechner, was able to work for at least three.
Therefore, as the work on the major textbooks and repertories ended, he readily
accepted a new bookselling job that he hoped that he should secure him for a longer
future his outer life. It was the editorial staff of the "house Lexicon", a "complete
handbook of practical life skills for all classes", which appeared in the years 18341838 in eight large volumes. Much of the article, as his biographer Kuntze assured
about one third of the whole and is spreading over a wide variety of subjects, comes
from Fechner ago. Had he understood in the physical repertory to orient the physicist
by those on the results of the most difficult mathematical problems, so he knew in the
house lexicon his presentation to the lowest bass note of the popularity tone down
when good advice for the citizen and compatriot Hand went, how one should treat his
pocket, so that too often costly repairs were not necessary and. the like.
But over the literary ventures Fechner, by which he hoped to secure his outer life,
hovered an unlucky star. By the time he wrote his great textbooks and repertories of
chemistry and physics, these sciences were engaged itself in great inner turmoil. In
the same years, where he worked on the organic chemistry for the Thnard'sche plant
in the most comprehensive way to existing sources, Justus Liebig had founded in
Gieen that laboratory, which launched a new era of this branch of chemical
science. In physics, optics, thermodynamics, and especially the Electricity learned
partly complete redesigns, partly significant enrichments. Faraday's shining star

appeared just now on the horizon of experimental physics, as Fechner's Textbook of

galvanism and its physical Ropertorium came out. So it happened that those works in
which he had exhausted the best part of his youthful vigor, outdated when they were
barely appeared. Even worse he fared with household lexicon. The hope of the same
in a number of years the outer life concerns to be single with the help, was not
fulfilled. The factory had set itself from the outset a false target. It was the same as
what was the Brockhaus'sche encyclopedia for the better educated, make for more
people circles. Perhaps that was a nice, but, at that time at least, an illusory goal,
because. In the circles for which the work was determined the need for such a
formation agent was hardly feltFechner had sacrificed his time and labor in
vain. Although this was seen very soon, so he led but with unswerving devotion to
duty the company to an end. As for the departure of W. Weber to Gttingen in the
summer of 1834 a deputation of Arts appeared to him and told him the time of his
arduous struggle for existence should now come to an end, the faculty had decided
him to full professor of physics to choose, as he explained, first as a member of my
delegation, our late Senior Drobisch, one day told that he could not accept this choice
because he felt bound by the inherited your home lexicon duty. Only in urgent
persuasion of his friends, which undoubtedly also the publisher of the lexicon itself,
his friend Hartel was, he decided to meet the then customary form of a message to the
body which he received because even immediately.
But from the moment he achieved what he sought, an independent position, to own,
self-employment free movement left him, from that moment his power was
broken. The excess of the work they had exhausted. With difficulty he could only
fulfill its obligations lecture. For years dragged on this condition. During this time, it
was where he, after a job looking around, which should satisfy his research engines,
without, however unreasonable him greater mental effort, to which he felt unable to
hit upon the territory of the subjective light phenomena. So his beautiful studies of
the subjective complementary colors on the oscillating and the colored decay of
afterimages on the contrasting sensations, work on which today far built more
research in these areas arose. For him, but these observations were inauspicious. The
general exhaustion of his nervous system had now been found that the observing
naturalist indispensable organ for their symptoms, the visual organ. Now begins for
him those three-year period of suffering, where he spends several months in the dark,
room, which it seeks sometimes darken by a blackened room, into which he looks,
even more, to be so much the more tormented by subjective light phenomena, before
where no Escape is possible. For this makes him his state against any external
influence overexcitable. through days he lives lonely, separated himself from his
neighbor. The doctors knew no advice. But nature helped themselves. The exhausted
nervous system rested, and as gradually, also the visual organ again the light opened
by influences that we will write a salutary autosuggestion safe today because Fechner
felt like a new person. That increased awareness of life that usually accompanies the
recovery after a serious illness, also his intellectual creativity seized.
But this work was now another. The naturalist who sometimes indulged
philosophical dreams in idle hours, had vorwandelt in a philosopher. The ideas of his

new philosophy had indeed long been excited in him. Already one of the earliest of
its Mises writings that "comparative anatomy of Angels" from 1825, played with
them in jocular form, but, as he later said himself, was not at all meant merely
jokingly.Ten years later, he had then, already anticipated in essential points in the
"book of life after death", perhaps artistically the most perfect among all his works,
the notions that the Zendavesta executed later. But first, in that elation after serious
illness, his views on God and the world, on this world and into a coherent whole
designed. In one of his last writings he, looking back on his life, said of himself: "I do
not belong to the number of those to whom the life was made easy, but find by I
survey the whole context and think for by the worst has been partly spared me worse
in the consequences, partly conveys better the consequences, and that I would have
anything you want, what was denied to me, attained, I would be poorer still more
important in relationships. " I think we can say more: Would those disaster not
occurred, the difference his life force into two halves, he would have perhaps
increased his physical work to some more efficient research. But what he is today for
us, he would have become difficult.
To appreciate the philosophical ideas Fechner properly, one must take them
especially in their relationship to one another and in their relation to certain as yet
unresolved scientific problems in the eye. Who is content to see the essence of this
philosophy is that to you not only the people and the animals, but also the plants, the
Earth, the other planets and the fixed stars animated beings are, and that eventually
all these souls God throne as a world soul, which is certainly see in it little more than
a fancy seal which can not lay claim to sonderliche novelty. Because such teachings
of the universal animation and Allbelebung nature are always and then recurred in
philosophy. but loves the belief Fechner's with these ancient mythological ideas
coincide in certain results, the connection and the justification has become a
significantly different with him. He also has his philosophy not appropriated from
some of the older sources, but it is essentially a that have become out of himself a
philosopher. True, he has come in his youth with the natural philosophy of Schelling
in touch. He has read the first chapter of Oken's philosophy of nature and, as he later
reported, was surprised by the magnificence of many thoughts. Incidentally him the
book remained incomprehensible, and as Dr. Mises he agreed agile in the mockery of
Sciences this natural philosophy a. After all, it may be that a first latent permanent
inclination, remained to certain thoughts in which recalls the later Fechner to Oken
with him. but this image has been displaced by the scientific studies
Provisional. They gave his thought direction and method, so that those arbitrary
abuse of scientific facts and concepts as a Schelling and Oken were guilty
themselves, for it was impossible.
Fechner's scientific talents, as expressed in its various accompanying this field
work, was a most peculiar. They consisted of a combination of equipment, which
certainly is a very rare in such form. On the one hand fascinated him the general law
of natural phenomena, and it was equipped with the highly handover, due intricate

relationships through methodical analysis of their simpler relations. He himself has

said of himself that he is not a mathematician; and it is this severe judgment can not
object if he perhaps expected more in his life than most real mathematicians. About
the of the mathematics presented to it aids he knew admirably to come, and he used it
occasionally from far beyond the borders of the areas for which they were originally
intended. Yes just this transfer to new problems, he expressed sometimes an
admirable mastery. But a creative mathematician, he was not. Where such a new,
directly corresponding to the changed tasks routes would have taken, as Fechner's
ingenuity exhausted in the adaptation of existing tools to the case by case presenting
themselves conditions. However, he had a so rare ingenuity in field of experimental
methodology. The former of observers often haphazardly practiced methods of
procedure he knew due to its principles and from these then develop new, advanced
methods. Thus, a strong sense of striving for accuracy, which was expressed mainly
in the of him from early on applied methods of combining numerous observations for
the purpose of systematic elimination of side effects and of observation errors
combined. Of the "Mabestimmungen the galvanic cell" on up to the formation of
"psycho-physical measurement methods" and the posthumous work on the
"collectives" are the major experimental or the theory of experimental methodology
dedicated work Fechner's a series of brilliant evidence for this rare and in their mode
of operation most peculiar plant.
but given it came at him yet another property that is certainly not often associated
with that exact talent. That was his lively interest in sensuous intuition world,
especially in the time when he enjoyed his still an unclouded vision, for observing all
individuals, even the unexpected and fortuitous on which pass most carelessly; the
senses sharpened. Especially in the world of light and colors enjoyed while at the
same time its aesthetic sense. to the varied and yet for one who has given their time,
so very alluring world of subjective visual: This feature, the distal him early already
at an exact from those studies far, then dragged mostly shunned Publication area
because of its apparent randomness was phenomena. The fact that he has not only
previously discovered here Overlooked but first brought order and rule in the chaos
of these phenomena, which he owes this very connection a lively observation and the
inclination to exact analysis.
But, as always these properties, which were the naturalist to Commandments, even
the philosopher might be conducive, works such as the "book of life after death" or
the "Zendavesta" they could not bring about. Here therefore occurs certainly no less
original, increased though by fates and Area Site added: that deep religious feeling,
which filled the whole essence of this man and probably at times able to withdraw
more than the study of scientific problems, but then again to be his bleibendstes life
interest proven. Certainly it is this religious sense which has just taken out of the
naturalist philosophers.Nevertheless, his philosophy would in turn have not won their
peculiar shape, if it were not born of the spirit of the naturalist.
How close it now but would also be to try to understand from the adversarial action
of such characteristics of the scientist and religious thinker philosophers, so it would
still lack a third condition. It lies in a trait of personality which has the appearance

here and there already in his scientific work, in his religious and ecclesiastical
position which has but given its stamp primarily his philosophy and was perhaps felt
most impressively in personal intercourse with him. I know for this trait hardly find
another general expression than the absolute impartiality and boldness of
conviction . I do not remember to have ever joined this property embodied in another
person to a similar extent; a property of being ever encountered, I think is a captive
win of my life. Leibniz once said of himself, he felt inclined to any view that to meet
him kick to agree under certain restrictions. Fechner might be able to say with greater
right away, he was inclined at first each view and without contradicting any
restrictions. If an opinion widespread recognition enjoyed or respected authorities had
for himself, so it was only appropriate to the more arousing his suspicions. Because
he was convinced that the habit of traditional assumptions and belief in authority are
the most dangerous and most common obstacles a unprejudiced way of looking at
things. But the other hand, could it also be the most daring assumption by a particular
date Believed contradictory hypothesis not impress. He looked as good as the popular
views as a testing worthy opinion, which he therefore certainly no less than those
initially sought to refute with all means available to him reasons. "I'm careful in faith,
but also cautious in disbelief," he once said of himself. The desire to dispute the
opinions, which was peculiar to him, was therefore not that he doubted everything
and his opposition even then held when he had to abandon his counter-arguments; but
where that happened, which of course the rare occasions when he was perfectly
willing to submit to the arguments put forward.Even fewer ever joined his objective
contradiction with the lowest personal irritation, but from his polemic always shone
the purest benevolence. A unsized lasting dispute he could probably break off with
the remark that the alleged opinion may indeed many have for themselves and find
their followers, only for himself, he could not accept it. This designed to quarrel with
him an intellectual enjoyment rarest kind, and even made an unsuccessful such
speech tournament you never went away without sustainable profit.
The only thing that could excite him passionately to a certain degree, was clinging
to dogma, if it did not happen on its own inner conviction. Religious and scientific
dogmas were him in this respect the same. Although he called himself and affirm a
Christian, so he recognized but not a single church dogma as binding for his
faith. And even though he was so convinced of the strict legality of the phenomenal
world, as the precondition of any scientific knowledge that he was not gutted and the
human will of this law, so there was not a single recognized by natural science natural
law, in which he more had seen as an expression linked to the position of our
respective knowledge and therefore possibly future improvements enabled.
This personal character Fechner's one must remain mindful; one must, in my
opinion, have placed some of the prejudice which he himself possessed, even his
philosophy, if one wants to do justice to it. At the entrance to his "Zendavesta" he
noted, he Operating the fundamentally no other logical tools as those who use the
natural sciences, and in addition to which there can not be any, as long as you stay
strictly on the ground of experience, out of him but to gain a coherent view of the
world seeking. These two tools are the induction and analogy : The induction which

deduce general laws of individual facts, and the analogy that other, unknown to us,
judging by the known to us objects of experience. On induction and analogy to that
effect are not merely the individual empirical sciences, but it is also based on it the
ordinary world view their inherited and therefore even in the wider circles of the
educated public that is widespread in science. In the past in the denial of the
traditional notions perhaps most impressive of his philosophical writings has Fechner
these ordinary Weltallsicht the night view called: The night view because this whole
world of colors and sounds, the sensations and feelings, everything so what us lucky
this life can be enjoyed in the contemplation of nature and dealings with our fellow
human beings, as a temporary subjective experience, as an ever-renewing illusion
looks while the world should be wrapped in impenetrable darkness and dead silence
chaos itself. Nothing but vibrating atoms and restless, monotonous movements, and
in this chaos only a few clear and sounding points, the sentient beings that appear for
a while, only to sink back into the surrounding night! That's how Fechner thinks that
the world view of the naturalist, but which has appropriated the Theology without
resistance, without noticing that so God beautiful world is transformed into a Hades,
and that the prospect of a bright Beyond that allows you to consoles, the more
uncertain is, is to make the less comprehensible how could emerge such hereafter
from that dark this world.
But is this Night view in the highest degree satisfactory, it is not, as claimed, the
result of scientific knowledge, but it is in truth emerged only in that the science stood
in their inductions and analogies halfway, and that they therefore an incomplete
picture of the world could manage, that may be suitable for the disposal of certain
relationships, but turned into a wrong, once you look at those limited contexts for the
full reality of things. Fechner investigated the error of this "night view" primarily at
its utter inability two detect problems compared to, problems that have heard at any
time of the deepest and most difficult of philosophy. One is the problem of life , the
other that of consciousness .
How is life? According to the prevailing view of organic compounds have emerged
somewhere and sometime among us unknown conditions of the inorganic materials
of nature. The organisms are thus products of the dead, inanimate nature. It has, as
Fechner noticed consequently given every effort to produce in some way at least
organisms simplest kind of inorganic substances. But this effort was still in
vain. Rather than conclude from this that even the living never arises from the
lifeless, but we do not even content themselves with the assumption that there were
conditions for the formation of organic existed in earlier periods of the earth, that no
longer exist today, and able to produce artificially in our laboratories
once; notwithstanding yet earlier condition of the earth, as far as we can draw
conclusions on them, not the life of the organisms were more favorable than those of
today. By contrast, it goes to the fact that, conversely, all the organisms are the ones
who can first arise from its metabolism and then through their downfall inorganic
substances, heedless over. Yet this experience makes a priori acceptance probable that

the ordinary view is reversed into its opposite: Not the living is out of the lifeless, but
the lifeless emerged from the living.
Suppose this set, so we will now inevitably forced to the conclusion that that living,
have sprung from the one day all living creatures of the earth, the earth itself is: The
Earth We therefore not only in the poetic image, but in real and true sense
our mother should call. We smile pityingly faith of savage tribes who think that
people are created from stones. And what we do better when we look at not only the
people but also animals and plants, all life on earth as a precipitate, which have
randomly deposited on a dead rock mass? We have deepened ourselves in the study
of terrestrial globes in our schoolrooms until we keep the earth itself for a globe, on
the mountains, rivers, seas are painted with their population living merely
externally. Fechner illustrates the absurdity of this opinion by the dream of a
naturalist.This looks at the shore of a clear water in which swimming around a green,
white at two opposite points ball. Egg, thinking of naturalists, what can that
be? Certainly an unusually large infusorium! And he is looking forward to the
mountain of honor, which will be to him as a new Ehrenberg given when describing
this new species. He brings the ball under the microscope. He discovered a patch of
green fringes and eyelashes in all kinds of inks. But as it applies higher
magnifications, it turns out that the new infuser is not composed of cells, as he had
expected, but that around swarm as elementary particles on the surface of trees,
flowers, sheep, horses, dogs, people - and suddenly discovered he in one of the
moving dots themselves. Since the naturalist saw the light. A creature, so he thought,
to which I myself belong with all plants and animals, such a creature can not possibly
be anything other than a living being. The other naturalist, which he said that, of
course, laughed at him. But who was right?
The principal objection that leads to the life of the earth into the field, is that it
points to the lack of all the morphological and chemical components, which we
regard as necessary for the life process. The rock mass of the Earth show no cells, no
tissues and organs, not proteins. But, asks Fechner, is it necessary that the earth as a
whole once again exhibiting all the organic products they already above in the
organisms that it produces, possesses? Certainly, if we call the earth organically, so
we'll have to call in another sense so as the various organic individuals who are their
constituents. We have to be regarded as an individual of higher order, the same nature
as being the other similar world body, not subordinate earthly organisms to
survive. From this viewpoint, but we do get the feature for the distinction of the
living and the nonliving not be possible to build that structure and material
differences, but only in the general characteristics of motions in any, from which
emerge the observed at the various bodies phenomena.Now all movements of organic
and inorganic nature are two great principles subject, the first of which quite
generally accepted, but the second often overlooked or at least not properly, is
acknowledged: the principle of causality and the finality or expediency . According to
the principle of causality return everywhere and at all times, to the extent the same
circumstances occur again, even the same success again.Although this principle
dominates the whole nature, the living like the lifeless, and in the former the spiritual

world; but it is considered in itself too vague as that one could find in detail the
character of the individual appearance areas and thus also the peculiar differences of
the inorganic and the organic world with its help. The situation is different with the
principle of finality. It arises just as the causality of the general observation of the
course of natural phenomena. But while this highlights only the general laws of
phenomena, referred that the direction in which extends the law. Accordingly,
causality and finality are not quite at odds, but they complement each other, and it
must be necessary provided that the individual laws that determine the course of
symptoms after the causal principle, also include those towards which delineates the
Final principle its course. The unopposed Coexistence principles is therefore essential
that the final principle is itself a consequence of the conditions that exist for the
application of the principle of causality in the world. This general principle has Final
Fechner later, following one of publicans in his book "On the Nature of Comets"
executed consideration, "principle of tendency to stability" called. But the idea itself
is Fechner's property. He is very clear in "Zendavesta" and earlier, in 1849 held in our
society speech "About the law of causality", indicated. The final principle is
expressed hereinafter in the fact that in nature each somehow limited to the outside
and therefore relatively closed system and each relatively independent part seeks to
return to the same state of such after a shorter or longer time again that he had
previously. So swing within a salt crystal, the individual salt particles due to their
thermal condition regularly to the same equilibrium. So take the planet in its orbit
around the sun always an the same positions. And so the same life processes renew
itself in the organisms periodically partly within one and the same essence, partly in
the change of generations. None of us against coming into the natural systems or their
components but the validity of this principle an absolute, but everywhere only an
approximate. The regular oscillations of the molecules change when changing their
thermal condition. The planetary motions experienced disturbances and consequently
very slow variations of its stability. The Lebensprozo of organisms gradually
exhausted their equilibrium and causes at the end its complete repeal. The more
comprehensive a system, the more must however approaching its approximate
absolute uniformity in the recurrence of the same states as the same degree diminish
the disturbances that originate in external influences. Eventually must be valid for the
universe as a whole, therefore, the principle of stability in the absolute sense.
Now, however, appear to be two forms of such a tendency to stability differ, a
simpler and more complicated. An example of simple stability provides any inorganic
molecule: The particles of the crystal, which vibrate around their equilibrium
positions, return immediately back to the same conditions. Examples intricate
stability provide the organisms and their elemental parts. Each cell receives through
the processes of uptake and fuel delivery in a nearly stable state, and the same is true
of the whole composite organism and finally by a succession of generations of
organisms, in the form in the alternation of birth and death, the same organic forms
new. But the tendency to stability comes here only revealed when we compare more
rows of alternating states; Also, the organism only receives in a manner that emerge
from the less stable organic compounds stable inorganic. With the general trend

towards stability therefore combines a tendency to move to more stable states,

organic in inorganic compounds.
Which of these forms now subordinate themselves to the cosmic systems? Like our
earth by returns in its movement around the sun with very high degree of
approximation in the same positions, one part of the perfect stability of inorganic
bodies. On the other hand it corresponds in the intricate course of operations of the
periodicity of the phenomena of life. As our own body, so the soil has a definite
shape by externally completed, internally linked by the sway of forces and relations
purpose a whole, the similar independent and closed whole face in it in the other
world bodies. Likewise, the game of the processes is divided into major and minor,
regularly recurring periods in space and time on it. Behold you therefore the essential
criterion of the organic in this regular structure and re renewal of motions, so no
doubt, after Fechner's opinion prevail, that the change of cosmic movements the most
perfect example of the concept of organic movement is at all. This perfection of
organic periodicity of cosmic processes based but just that at them meshing with the
intricate composition periods an almost perfect stability thereof as great as that only
the inorganic molecules on Earth, connects. This then results in the compulsion
however, to distinguish this organic life of cosmic systems as a singular of which the
individual organisms and their elemental parts. Fechner calls that
the kosmorganische , this the molecular organic . After his causal relationship in
which makes life on earth to the earth itself, but must, in his opinion, the molecular
organic necessary from the kosmorganischen movements emerged; and after the
observed everywhere in the life processes of transition tendency of the less stable into
more stable compounds can be assumed that coincided with the emergence of
molecular organic inorganic from kosmorganischen movements also the first
educational materials. Thus the earth no longer appears as an external living space,
but in the literal sense as the mother of the living creatures on it. And the earth in turn
is only one link in the great kosmorganischen limits of our solar system, which in
turn is subordinate to the overall life of the universe as the last all-embracing unity.
As the question nor the origin of life, it turns to Fechner's opinion and the second
after the origin of consciousness loss as to the ordinary world view. You can emerge
from the consciousness of the unconscious without giving account of how this was
possible. Of course, we are far more than in the previous instructed on this issue on
analogies. Because in the consciousness of another being, we can not look into, since
almost any only his own consciousness is immediately certain. The errors and the
unsatisfactory nature of the ordinary world view lies in the fact that it remains set
with the next and most superficial analogies here. The animals are ascribed to a soul
and therefore a consciousness; because they have a similar to our nervous system,
while not in the least know how this nervous system come into possession of
consciousness, and why it should be different in this characteristic of other
compounds. With the same rights, with which one includes: The animals need nerves
to sensation, so the plants are those who needed with the same rights, one could say:

The violins need strings for notes, including the flute strings will need to
tones. Instead the conditions under which the consciousness of a being comes about,
to be determined according to his own peculiar circumstances, appeal is made to the
requirements applicable to a completely different kind of essential conditions. If the
plant has sensation, so it can not come into existence by nerve course; but who has
ever proved that there is no sensation without nerves? If one but mostly ready,
because of certain manifestations of life attributable to the protozoa, which also have
no nerve sensation. Now, however, the manifestations of life of the plants are in many
respects different nature than the simplest of these animals. But who tells us that
sensations can simply betrayed only by animal manifestations of life? to demand
completely, that the earth, the planet would have to have brain and nervous system, is
a completely inappropriate conclusion from the part to the whole. In the brains of
humans and animals that belong to it, the Earth already has a lot of consciousness
organs of the required type. If it surrounds as a whole all its creatures, then the
organization of these creatures and therefore also theirs equal a substratum of
consciousness can not be repeated in this whole again.
Relies so the common assumption only by inadequate external analogies, but it
remains the answer guilty not only on the question of the origin of consciousness in
general, but also to the other for the causes of the change of the phenomena of
consciousness. come to us and go the ideas. In a given moment our consciousness
always comprises only a very limited content. Here it may soon consist of memories
of bygone perceptions, sometimes can reverse a direct sensation when he not turn to
our attention, initially remain unconscious to later emerge in consciousness. Where
the ideas come from now that, after they had disappeared from the consciousness, reenter the same? And where to go towards those who disappear from him? Fechner
replies: As the single life only as an offshoot of a broader process of life, as can
consciousness, it may now be the first emergence of the same in an individual or by
becoming conscious act of a single idea, are only understood from the fact that each
individual consciousness on a general consciousness rests in the submerge his
experiences, and from which they can rise again. That universal consciousness, to
which every individual consciousness earthly beings rises, but we can think of only
bound to the total life of the earth us. The first origin of our consciousness is thus
akin to awakening from sleep. In fact brings with it the human being at birth a lot of
mental equipment to the world with which can be interpreted as a dark memory. How
then repeated the emergence of individual consciousness in the waking from sleep in
a sense, the coming and going of the ideas and finally even the states of changing the
direction of attention are processes in which the alternation of sleeping and waking
again to the individual contents of consciousness takes place. All these inner
experiences arrange themselves under the image of the threshold of
consciousness. About this threshold initially imposed as a main shaft of a long period
of waking consciousness in its entire context; and then rise above this main shaft still
changing harmonics of a shorter period, the individual feelings and ideas that make
up the specific contents of consciousness, and which thus corresponds to a
temperature above the main emerging "lintel". Accordingly, those main threshold, as

this upper threshold, not to be regarded as a limit that the consciousness of the
unconscious, but only as one that separates a more restricted by a broader
consciousness. However, since the broader awareness will have its threshold, so we
can, wherever, a new individual consciousness, interpret this as a process of
collecting over a threshold. The consciousness of the earth comprises so similarly the
consciousnesses of living belonging to it creatures as our own consciousness his
instantaneous experiences; and that all consciousness has a treasure of memories that
includes the entire history of the earth and its living creatures in it, similar to our own
consciousness looks back to the context of our individual lives. The earth itself but
how the solar system and then integrates as kosmorganisches member with this the
universe, constitutes a consciousness unit again only one link in a row continues
ascending forms of consciousness, the highest, the all-encompassing overall
consciousness of the universe itself is the divine consciousness.
Also on this divine consciousness, in which all other consciousnesses are included
from the highest to the lowest, as his individual experiences, but now turns Fechner,
though nowhere explicitly, yet in fact the principle of threshold, and it makes this at
the same time a very important train of his concept of God, it is different by the most
similar philosophical concept formations. While drawing everything is for the lower
consciousness units below the threshold be for that supreme consciousness above the
threshold, since the only way to Fort preservation and restoration renewal of such
content is secured also for the lower consciousness. But Fechner does not believe that
the divine consciousness carry the whole future of the universe in itself. Rather, it
pushes the idea of development, of which his conception of the origin of life as
consciousness is born, to now apply this thought on God himself. This is done by
right from the beginning a general, in the cosmic laws of causality and finality is
actuated world plan ascribed to the divine consciousness, but sees the exterior design
of this world plan in the course of cosmic events as a series of new experiences
within the divine consciousness. He compares God to an artist, which his work while
hovering from the outset in its general outline in mind, but why not foresee every
single stage of execution. In this sense, according to him the divine consciousness
developed similar to the human, only, of course from the beginning of uniform, wellplanned, lawful; and God him after all, is just as well, the product of his own
experiences, which are also the experiences of the universe, just as the individual is
the product of its destinies. This idea seems to him so seemingly, because it makes
him at the same time possible to think of the people themselves as the accessary and
performer of works of God, and the evil in the world and sin as a true to the original
nature of God strange, but but to look to the completion of creation and to produce
the good and the beautiful indispensable element of the world order. These are
thoughts, in which he recalls the two major German Theosophists the 16th and 17th
centuries, which otherwise his belief many traits in common, at Paracelsus and Jacob
Boehme. But even with the philosophers of his own time, which he was averse
because of their sin against science otherwise, with Schelling, and even with Hegel he
touched here, although they were not these relations have entered himself on the
threshold of consciousness.

If life and consciousness never emerged, but original activities of the universe, so
the idea is now thus also directly suggested, both are in fact only different
expressions of the same events. In fact, the Fechner's conception. What is given to us
externally as a cohesive, but in an extensive fine spatial and temporal processes apart
passing life movement that we collect internally as the intensive unit of our
consciousness. As a district, we first appear different from a point beyond its
periphery and then look from its center, and yet is the same circuit, so are vital
processes and processes of consciousness the same physical-mental events, each
viewed only from a different point of view. Here the whole decomposed in the outer
position in a multiplicity of individual parts, for the inner position it closes in the
unity of consciousness together. Therefore, both positions are complementary, but
both capture the whole of reality. There Fechner no unknowable "thing in itself",
whose mere manifestations were about those two conceptions, but the world is that
bodily and spiritual being itself, as we know them directly to our own bodies and our
own soul. Thus the soul is not a special, unausgedehntes being which had its head
office in a given point in the brain. Fechner makes this monadological or atomistic
his synechologische view opposite. According to her the whole living body is
animated, as indeed is also based psychic life on the interaction of all organs. Those
movements, to which the individual phenomena of consciousness are directly bound,
called Fechner in his later writings "psychophysical movements". As life and
animation are not only created, but originally, as well as the psycho-physical
movement is the original. The kosmorganischen processes are one and all
psychophysical movements. With the differentiation of Kosmorganischen for
molecular organic but the individual psychophysical movements have then formed
that underlie the individual consciousness of the living beings. Accordingly,
henceforth comply psychophysical movement and consciousness. Every single state
of consciousness is bound to a special psychophysical movement; and such an idea as
a souvenir picture only can renew them again, because they in an associated total
consciousness as a real idea continues to exist below the threshold of individual
consciousness, so also the associated movement can only repeat, because, once
created, never sets again, but can be suppressed temporarily. Fechner illustrates this
indefinite period of psychophysical movements by the image of the wave when it
crosses to a water level with another being, disappears to the eye, but in reality in the
composition of the movement continues.
This image shall be sure, the obvious question whether eventually a psychophysical
motion can be transformed so that they do not come to light as the same again; and
this question brings inevitably the other: As it turns with the continuation of our
consciousness, when life ends?
Fechner acknowledges that an answer to this question on the basis of consideration
of the psycho-physical movement is impossible as such. But he thinks that could do
the physical analysis not pretend because of our ignorance of these movements to
vorfolgen whose fates. Accordingly, nothing left but the mental side of the operations

to be envisaged, which then yields both follows the conclusion about the associated
physical page from the context of its own. Here it is now the inevitable proof of the
expanding on the farthest stretches of time continuation of the processes of
consciousness in the expansion of human consciousness on a whole, long human
life. While the human body constantly renewed due to the processes of metabolism,
so that eventually no nuclear has remained the same, the memory of the old man goes
back to earliest childhood. That is, as he says, only comprehensible when also can
transfer once incurred psychophysical movements to new and new body elements.
If, however, in this way the continuity of our mental experiences and their
psychophysical substrates is not bound to certain persisting substances, so we have no
reason to suppose that it is bound by the maintenance of our bodies. Of course, the
dead body is no longer the psychophysical movements capable necessary for the
emergence of feelings and ideas. But why should not continue these movements
somehow in the world around us? In fact, Fechner looks to this assumption by his
whole conception of individual consciousness as a "harmonic" over a temperature
below its threshold "Unterwellenborn" a broader consciousness forced. This would
not be a more conscious, if not continued their existence, the experiences of the
individual spirit in him; and these experiences heard but also as the most essential
consciousness of his own personality. A disappearance of self-consciousness in a
general consciousness therefore appears to him inconceivable. Hearings but each
came to the development of individual consciousness with much to experience this
general consciousness. But he thinks he may assume that the barriers will fall away
by the union with the latter, which are set to the psychic life by attachment to a
limited physical organization. The afterlife is it therefore in truth a life in this
world. However, it is in an analogous manner to a higher level of our present
existence, as this is a higher level to the preceding it dreamlike state before birth
itself. Man does not once but three times on earth. The first stage of life is a constant
sleep, the second an alternating between sleeping and waking, the third an eternal
guards. Do not live in remote, inaccessible spaces above the sky or under the ground
of our departed, but among us. We may, subject to the limits of our body, in thought,
turn into memories with them. But you live with a clear consciousness around us and
in us. After all, some of our thoughts may well arise through their direct participation
in our spiritual life. And that is "the great justice of creation that each creates the
conditions of his future being itself these acts are the people not rewarded by external
rewards or punishments;. There is no heaven and no hell in the ordinary sense of the
Christians, Jews and Gentiles where the soul would after death - but after they
survived the big stage disease, death, it develops quietly to the immutable, any
subsequent stage on the grounds of the former constituent consistency of nature on
earth continue in a and to a higher being; and, depending on a person good or bad,
noble or common acted diligently or been idle, he is healthy or diseased, the
following life a strong or weak organism as his property How.... long but the untrue,
and evil congregation influencing still and may struggle for its existence with the
true, the beautiful, right, it will last defeated by the ever growing power, will be
destroyed by its own-back with increasing force consequences. " Therefore he that

hiernieden left a treasure of love, respect, reverence, admiration in the memory of

people behind him. What he left for's worldly life behind him, he wins with death by
winning the summary awareness of everything think the Posthumous from him; he
rescinded a bushel, from which he merely counted individual grains in life.This is one
of the treasures that we should gather for the sky. "
By thus here and beyond come together in a single everlasting life, its place for the
people is the earth, to their spiritual being it participates, and which forms the
mediation with the all-encompassing divine being for him, thus refuted by himself
that night view of the prevailing science that sees only a temporary illusion in the
luminous and sounding natural. Well, it must, therefore saw the light of going hear
sound, giving a seeing and hearing creatures. But is not the whole surrounding us
nature a being that is divided into the various creatures that it has produced, and
whose lives are captively for them only in its individual parts? Therefore, it is the
natural view that preceded that bleak outlook on nature of science today, and will
remain, if this goes down again, that the light beam, the capstan itself felt, because
the whole world illuminated by the same vision, of the same hearing is through
sounds that makes the people enjoy the surrounding nature itself. This is the Day that
Fechner juxtaposes the night view, and which he considers not only compatible with
the results of science, but of which he is also convinced that they coinciding Only the
mystery of the afterlife in the context of our experience and knowledge way have
solved. Evidence can be sure, this Day, as he admits, just as little as can be proved,
the night view. But once the belief has been called in to help to fill the gaps of
knowledge, so it tolerates him no doubt that the Day is the consoling faith richer. And
as you also may think about himself in any event an abiding faith fulfilled his
philosophy with a feeling of happiness that at all heavy, which earned him the
existence, probably made him one of the luckiest people who have ever lived. He
himself has said of himself: "Would not the darkest and seemingly most hopeless
time of my life, the first dawn of the Day in the ideas of" booklet already preceded
the afterlife, "I would not have to endure that time." Ergreifend be talking this out in
some of the poems that have arisen, especially in these darkest days. So in that "song
in tribulation":
If everything darkens,
Extinguished is the bill,
The lonely still sparkled
from the last stars are;
0 thinking 'that a sun
vivid still is,
a new day of bliss
Someday before you is;

or in the final verses to the booklet "on the three motives and reasons of faith":
In God rests melne soul;
The angel whole flock
In its many hills
light Beaming I see go,
and a carrying me even.

The idea of Allbelebung nature and the omnipresence of God in you through all
these songs. The poetic expression most probably this thought in a "Morning and
Spring" named poem found:
God, I should like to pray to you,
It prays all about me;
but I find the words not that it
would do,
like myself, as I find you?
How questioningly erbanget so
my heart,
Ching secretly through the hall:
What in us Langet love for you,
God is it myself only.
in thee also he encourages his
the stretch by us from,
not seeking 'him where the world
With you, God is in the house.

The time when Fechner philosophical writings first appeared in the public, was for
your action, the worst possible. As the three volumes of Zendavesta, this
comprehensive presentation of his views, published in 1861, dominated the scientific
world completely different interests. The natural philosophy had thoroughly made
fiasco, and the star of Hegelian philosophy had faded; the pessimist Schopenhauer
waited in Frankfurt still avail of the resurrection of his forgotten work, at that time no
one believed but himself. Ludwig Feuerbach and in the following years, the walking
in his footsteps physiological materialism came to meet the popular philosophical
needs, while the more stringent science retreated to their areas of expertise and
philosophy in general usually looked for a subdued position.How could there a work
which already heralded in the title as a lesson from the things of heaven and the
afterlife, as anything other than as a fantastic dream appear, which have nothing to do
with science!
Fechner suffered greatly under these unfavorable times. He is not tired of the
convictions, which he won, and he felt happy to proclaim again and again in a new
form of the world. The Zendavesta he followed, in the hope that the shorter form of
the dissemination of his ideas is conducive smaller fonts. In the Preface to the treatise
"On the soul question" he says to an audience that absolutely can not find his way out
of bed old views that he had for the first time called out in his "book of life after
death": "Get up! " When one does not hear him, because he had spoken again and
again: "Stand up!" "Now I call a fifth time, and if I live, I will a sixth and seventh
times, Stand up! ' call, and always there is just one thing, Get up! ' . But be for calls
that will awaken a sleeping world, has a strong breath; I'm just a breath in this breath

Most of all he protests against the name of a dreamer. A dreamer, he says, you call
rightly those who assume somewhere in heaven or on earth things as real, that
contradict the seized laws of the phenomenal world, and for which no reasons in the
context of the experience could show. In this sense, for. Example, was the doctrine of
the transmigration of souls fantastic, or whether it be fantastic to assume that the
human soul in a sun or a planet or anywhere else in a distant world on living. Fancy is
therefore basically the whole day prevailing religious belief, because they
acknowledge no mediations or relations between the world of our present and of our
future existence. But you show me again, so he asks the point where my view
contradicts the established facts! You will find this point nowhere. On the contrary,
what I teach, which is drawn from the perception of the real nature and real
life. However, it is not already included in this immediately detectable for us reality
of things. But philosophy is it not a matter of knowledge, but of faith. One can not
prove a worldview, how to prove a mathematical theorem, and they can not
demonstrate empirically how one can observe a natural phenomenon. In this regard,
philosophy and religion him stand on the same ground. The philosophy is at the same
time in the middle between religion and science. She has to reconcile both by
developing a worldview that remains with the results of science in line, while
providing the religious mind needs satisfaction.
One sees Fechner makes philosophy a different task than they usually made
available by all those who regard this task as a scientific one. Of the great
philosophers of the past, there is little that is known writings rare in Fechner's as
Kant. From the demand of Kant, which has since remained an axiom of scientific
philosophy, before you even informative about the nature of things something had
before especially the ability of our faculty of knowledge are tested to such statements
of this requirement is Fechner's philosophy remained untouched. One would look in
vain for her something that could have been addressed as epistemology or ethics in
the scientific sense, as a critical examination of the principles of human
action. Therefore one would but also measure this philosophy with an incorrect scale,
if you wanted to create the scientific philosophy to them. This they will in principle
not be. Rather, it is just as well in a reinterpretation of religious beliefs as an addition
to the scientific results, with those reinterpretation and this supplement should be
made in a way that faith and knowledge into a single, harmonious in itself, the desire
for knowledge as the necessity of welfare of people satisfactory belief
unite. Therefore Fechner's philosophy is essentially religious philosophy or, perhaps
more aptly expressed yet, theodicy. But it is not a theodicy in Leibniz's sense. It does
not attempt to bring the Christian dogmas system with a first independently formed of
her philosophy in harmony. The dogma is Fechner against completely free. It would
prove an envelope which hides the religious core of the Christian faith often than
protects. The more so him this core Renowned as an inalienable asset of humanity.
It is after all, have to give the Fechner law if they reject the name of a dreamer. In
fact, his philosophy is fanciful, but fantastic in terms of the reality arbitrarily
changing play of the imagination, it is not. Of course, it has all mere possibilities of

thought. More afford to but she also does not pledged himself. The justification of
this position looks just Fechner that faith not a separated kingdom besides knowledge
was, but that he was indispensable in the middle of this into rich, to connect and
complement its components. If we assume that other people a consciousness in itself
contribute similar to our own, or that in distant spaces and times of the universe
applies no less as in the world around us, the law of causality, as well as those are
indispensable for science prerequisites basically only a matter of faith. Completely
the assumptions about the matter and its forces, about the most general laws of nature
and the spiritual life, they reveal themselves already characterized as beliefs that in
them not a unanimity is any achieved.Some of them apparently keeping just about for
sure, because you get used to it. At this point Fechner's now employs philosophy. It
requires that you strictly distinguish between the actual knowledge and faith alone,
and that one can not therefore accept beliefs even as true because they are transmitted
to us or in general application. Rather, faith is so indispensable to supplement the
knowledge, yet can only be regarded as the criterion of a legitimate belief that he was
bringing such a supplement satisfactorily concluded. This criterion fails now to its
firm belief in the beliefs of the ordinary world view, as it is sanctioned by the modern
science. He sees it the other hand the full extent fulfilled in his own world view, the
reversal is in the most essential relationships that. It is the consciousness of this
opposition, coupled with a firm belief in the blissful content of his teaching, which
gives Fechner's philosophical writings a peculiar charm. He does not want to
convince merely by arguments, but he has something of the spirit of a prophet who
has revealed himself in who wishes to liberate humanity from inveterate errors and
make the happiness of the new God and knowledge of the world partake.
However, Fechner might not be tired to be always resound anew his wake-up call,
he could gradually perception not ignore that, apart from participation, which found
its smaller popular writings on individual religiously inclined minds, his philosophy
no in wider circles exercised penetrating power, so that they, what was the most
painful for him, was as good as from the natural sciences, unnoticed by the scientific
world of the official philosophy. Another was perhaps annoyed by such a failure, on
distant attempts his conviction to provide input have declined. Not so Fechner. The
confidence with which filled him his own firm belief, he has not ceased to pursue his
goal. Nevertheless transformed over the last thirty years of his life to the part of the
character of his works. In the major works which he published during this period, he
changed, if I may use the expression, the tactics of his trial; Yes he changed this
primarily in the most important of these works, in the "elements of psychophysics",
so much so that for a superficial examination of the purpose of himself than another
could appear.
Nowhere is this so apparent as when comparing the psychophysics with ten years
earlier appeared Zendavesta. Where we may serve also the Zendavesta, we feel
displaced in the sphere of mystical-theosophical speculation, in a not so much
philosophical as poetic worldview. We are moving exclusively in the sky and in the

hereafter. The earth and all that lives on it, has only one meaning for this book,
because it is one of the "things of heaven". In psychophysics we walk the path of
sober and accurate investigations. Pure empirical observations, carefully worked-out
methods of the experimental design and the error elimination, finally mathematical
laws formulations which follow strictly to the existing experimental results, follow
each other. Should not there. believe in the "elements" have an exact spirit of the first
rank with all the trained naturalist and mathematician disposal to caution
systematically build a new field of knowledge started; in the "Zendavesta" but have
that same spirit a dream world poetically designed that have to do with those exact
psychophysical work basically just as with the same author "Mabestimmungen of
galvanic" something? But who the last chapter of psychophysics and who has read all
the Zendavesta must come back from this opinion. Since it is obvious that the
psychophysics of Fechner's been nothing but itself as the most comprehensive and
thorough attempt he made to justify the designed in the Zendaveata belief by the side
of the postulated by her relationships between physical and mental world accurately
and so at least within the current drawn by the experience limits to rise from the
sphere of mere faith in the knowledge. But psychophysics is not limited to this task,
but it sounds from all over the world view that had been developed in the ZendAvesta, in the teachings of God and the world as well as in the conception of body
and soul, as this more limited proportion as the prove psychophysics investigated, let
fire back immediately to that all-encompassing. It arises because the more one
penetrates into these works, always more clearly that both a basically and have the
same content, even though the individual parts of this content are arranged and
treated very differently in them. In truth, return all the essential ideas of Zendavesta
in psychophysics again; but there are also reversed the principles of psychophysics to
find already in Zendavesta.
In connection with his view that the material and spiritual bonded together,
divorced only by the position of the outer and inner view properties of reality are,
Fechner had already considered the question in Zendavesta if not between the
phenomena of our consciousness and their corresponding physical movement
processes let notice a mathematical regularity. He had answered that question in the
affirmative readily. By limiting the generality of the principle of causality on the one
hand and through the bondage of consciousness to certain physical processes on the
other hand, such a legitimate relationship is called after him, and he keeps it at the
same time for the highest degree probable that they in a uniform, for all interactions
between body and soul valid in the same way mathematical law exists. He goes by
the ratios of mathematical function, which in this case, a priori suggest. The simple
proportionality appears unacceptable to him because they are going to the different
nature of the corporeal does not do justice as a combination of the manifold as a
variety of many movements and the spiritual. He studied then clarify the relationship
by series, which proceed by a different law. Here finally urges him a relationship as
the most likely to: The simple arithmetic progression l, 2, 3, 4, 5 .... to the geometric
l, 2, 4, 8, 16 .... In it he seems initially a vivid picture of the intense , the simple
progress of mathematical series parallel continuous changes of the psyche, and

for extensive , the greater levels of geometric corresponding multiplicity of

physicality to have seen. The scheme of both series aroused as he notifies later,
suddenly one morning, on 22 October 1850 in. He got the idea, it could possibly an
equal proportionate increase in kinetic energy exercise correspond a same absolute
growth of spiritual intensity. So the first formation of the so-called psychophysical
Basic Law came in the form of the logarithmic function, such as those contained in
the following that series observations of the second volume of Zendavesta as "a
concise explanation of a new principle of mathematical psychology". Here already
seen Fechner a main value of this function is that it, since the logarithm for a given
size of the argument zero and then becomes negative, giving over the threshold of
consciousness accountable and it is therefore likely to make that the decline below
the threshold requirements in a general, can continue to exist consciousness. On
individual empirical confirmations of the law, including the relationship of musical
intervals on the frequencies and the subjective sensations of light to the objective
light levels, it has become retrospectively aware only.
The extent to which this representation has changed in the elements of
psychophysics! Because, after the psychophysics is generally defined as an exact
theory of the dependency relationship between body and soul, at first made the so
stated object purely empirical solve. Among those dependency relationship is the
easiest, the singled out the sensation to the external stimuli give rise to them. Then
the information necessary for such an investigation measurement methods are
developed. This is followed by the found of physiologists and physicists, belonging
here results, now preceded by the classic studies Ernst Heinrich Weber's about the
sense of touch. By referred Weber as the one who first tried to determine a general
law between stimulus and sensation, forms from now on by him after that named
"Weber's law" the foundation of all further discussions. This is followed by rows, the
reflections on the threshold. The concept of threshold is the juxtaposed the
"difference threshold". It is the ratio of the physical stimulus motion discussed with
those processes of motion inside the nervous system that go of feeling directly in
parallel, and for which he now the term "psychophysical movements" introduces. Is
the Weber's law expression of a relation between the outer physical movement and
the psychophysical movement? Or it corresponds to the relationship between
psychophysical movement and sensation?Evidence of the latter assumption
considered Fechner characterized for provided that the facts of the threshold and the
difference threshold demanding a matching statement. The difference threshold but
must be related to the transition of the psychophysical movement in the sensation,
since the constancy of the relative magnitude of the difference threshold prove their
direct connection with the Weber's law. This law itself or the corresponding him
logarithmic function can now very well as a fundamental dependency relationship
between the two areas of the physical and the mental, never be thought of as between
different components of the course of physical stimuli such. Similarly Fechner sees
where he discovered "parallel law" according to which the difference between two
stimuli is the same felt great when the irritability for both to-uniform or decreases, a
confirmation of this view. but He also sees the same parallel law a kind of transfer of

Weber's Law from the outside inwards, which mediates the transition from the
"outside", in the "inner psychophysics". Because of this all fall to the changes in the
sensations and the psychophysical movements that are caused directly by external
stimuli. Accordingly further contact also the change of sleep and waking, the
convertible states of attention, the coming and going of memory pictures under the
aspect of "inner psychophysics". By now holds proven by the parallel law for
Fechner that Weber's law also applies for this, and the fact that threshold must return
to her after him. It then shows the immediate observation that us the concept of
threshold confronts here even in multiple configurations: So the alternation of
sleeping and waking as overall threshold of consciousness, the change of attention as
Partialschwelle for individual performances. Thus arises the general view of the
processes of consciousness that wave scheme, which had been hinted at in
Zendavesta. With the wave scheme but also the transfer of the image of the upper and
lower shaft is suggested by the individual consciousness on the further declining
conditions. The individual consciousness blends so in a "psychophysical hierarchy of
the world". Without those universal animation of the universe, to which each
individual consciousness belongs as part of consciousness, the individual soul life
would not be explained by Fechner. So psychophysics turn flows in natural
philosophy, and this. In that religious fundamental view that, in the human as in every
spiritual being sees the world an unfolding of the divine essence a beam from the
light fullness of the divine spirit Gradually and unexpectedly, the reader of the exact
and empirical observations of the outer has been returned by the inner psychophysics
to theosophy Zendavesta. Thus psychophysics Fechner to an inductive proof system
for his philosophy. Was the attempt of these to provide for its own sake input failed,
he hoped now a first perhaps more limited, but in order to achieve higher goal: He
hoped this philosophy to a, if not to make absolutely proved, at any rate than that
prove that was the most likely for the position of exact science. To this end, he did
not only withdraw his subjective convictions at first to let speak the facts and based
on them laws formulations for himself but unselfishly he denied the basic parts of the
work, even the authorship of his very own creation, the psychophysical constitution,
to put it under the protective name EH Weber's, and, somewhat unjust to himself, he
called Weber the "father of psychophysics", certainly not without intending thereby
prepare a favorable reception to the new area.
The asked the initial question whether Fechner's philosophical beliefs of his exact
investigations, or, conversely, whether this had resulted from his philosophy, is
therefore, I think, answered. Certainly, from home was Fechner naturalist; and the
exact work of the first period of his life is no different trend based than the solution of
concrete problems themselves, with which they deal. One meaning of his philosophy
have only indirectly, in scientific methodology, won by training his mind. His
peculiar worldview but, those half-poetic, half-philosophical doctrine of Allbelebung
and universal animation, of the hierarchical structure and the development of the
essence, it is initially independent of his scientific works were. This varies from the

moment where his philosophy has won more solid shape. Now the exact work is
classified entirely under the philosophical purposes. From the Zendavesta that is
"atomic theory", are the "ideas of creation and evolution", and is the emerged
"psychophysics" against all. From psychophysics has still, prompted by specific
questions of psychophysical methodology that branched off "collectives", but which
was also excited by the justified also in philosophical views interest in proving the
following general law of natural phenomena. Here the reflections of this posthumous
work touch with the first lecture Fechner held on 18 May 1849 in our society "on the
mathematical treatment of organic forms and processes". So the principal work
Fechner's stand in this later period directly or indirectly under the sign of his
philosophy. The exact researches are placed close to him not only by philosophical
questions, but the most important among them, he has taken only for the purpose for
his world to gain a firmer basis and at the same time the tools to give their input in
science. It is significant that, as long with him scientific research and philosophical
speculation fro nebeneinan-of without touching directly, he all that is outside of the
exact work, philosophical and religious considerations as well as poems and
humorous stories, behind the pseudonym of Dr. Mises hides. This contrast disappears
also on the popular religious and philosophical writings of the moment when he
represents the exact research in the service of his philosophy; only for Humoreskes
and the riddle book he has kept him in the later editions.
What success had now to conquer a secured position with the weapons of science
this final attempt Fechner's, his philosophy?
As to the appearance of the "elements of psychophysics" had passed years, he was
able to close that if the ultimate goal of this work, the conversion of the scientific
world had been to his philosophical and religious beliefs, he again does not reach this
target is not the fact would have. Well excited psychophysics stir. About their
problems and methods created lively discussion in the circles of the closest
stakeholders, the physiologists and psychologists. The modes of procedure for testing
the relationship between stimulus and sensation were trained carefully. The Weber's
law has been partly extended to other sensory spheres, partly restricted within the
limits of its validity. The mathematical formulations Fechner soon learned consents
soon temptations, and especially the interpretation of Weber's law was highly
controversial: The psychophysical conception occurred a physiological who laid the
foundation of the law in the ratio of external physical stimulus movement to the
central psychophysical movements and psychological, which saw a general
expression of the relativity of mental states and processes in him opposite. But the
basic philosophical notions Fechner's, those views on the relationship of the
individual consciousness at a price below its threshold total consciousness and the
consequent classification of both in a psychophysical Stufenbau the world - all this
keystone of his teaching to which the foregoing was only preparation and justification
should be, was passed over in silence. It seemed doubtful that even those who were
busily involved in the collaboration on the issues of outer psychophysics, the chapter
on the "inner psychophysics" had just read.
This situation may be exempt disconcerting at first glance; On closer inspection, it

is understandable enough. As convincing Fechner himself might be the classification

of consciousness in those Stufenbau the world by the fact of the threshold, received a
good portion of their persuasive force, but these psychophysical grounds for him
precisely because the ideology on which it ran out, irrespective of all psychophysics
had taken firm root in him. But whoever objective faced those reasons and the
assumptions it included, whatever their metaphysical context considered, which could
here legitimate concerns not close. That a psychophysical motion as such is persisting
into infinity, to cross the threshold of consciousness after a long interval, once again,
for it offered the Fechner image of the continuance by crossing shafts, especially in
view of the general phenomena of the transformation of energy, no sufficient
maintenance. but completely the subordination of the various states of consciousness,
such as the change of sleep and waking, the going and coming of the memory images,
the fluctuations of attention, with the same idea of up and down climbing a never
dying psychophysical undulation had deeper psychological analysis in penetrate the
nature of the transactions examined, the more than a superficial analogy appear to
conceal the true nature of the processes more than is suitable to enlighten. Whether
you look at all these concerns, which could excite trapped in psychophysics
psychology, when discussing the publication of the work following were clear
accountability, may however be doubted, since they never came to the resolute
expression. But precisely when such objections to the wave scheme suggested more
instinctively than with clear critical consciousness, so they led the more easily to the
conclusion that the whole "inner psychophysics" with all the conditions attached to
them inferences beyond the discussion remained. The creator of the new science
found itself thereby enables the position of having to continually into the outer
fortifications which surrounded it defend his work, while the center of his position, to
which he sake actually had just built his outworks, the opponent does not seemed to
exist. This circumstance has the later written to the defense of his psychophysical
standpoint work Fechner's imprinted their character. The energy and stamina with
which he as a defended his conception of Weber's Law, connecting mental and
physical world fundamental principle is understandable when one considers that with
that psychophysical considers the whole value for him psychophysics as accurate
foundation his philosophical worldview possessed, stand or had to fall. Yes in terms
of this close connection its view with its deepest philosophical convictions we can not
fail to admire the self-control with which he completely unprejudiced discussed
dissent and they sought to do justice by their own presuppositions.
It has since also the mood of his last years apparently not bitter in the least, hardly
tarnished when he finally Recognizing but could not close that he stood with his
conception of the psychophysical law virtually alone, and so that when he had said
his philosophy by means of psychophysics in science to gain entrance, this hope had
failed. He wore it with the serene calm of the ways of not doubts that the truth will
eventually prevail over error, whether now may have been his own conviction truth or
error. A tone of resignation is but by some remarks of his last years. How make the
future of psychophysics, he says at the end of 1882 for the "Allgemeine Zeitung"
written popular confrontation, will depend mainly on two issues: first of which

prevail the different views on the importance of the psychophysical law one day, and
second, whether the'll prove 'inner psychophysics "Stable. Depending on the decision
of these questions will psychophysics "either continue gehends only a modest
supporting role alongside psychology and physics as a link both games or big and
new prospects in the whole field of existence Anhalt and provide support."
Certainly has been unjust to himself in that judgment, the Author of
psychophysics. It is here he fared like so sometimes creative spirits who, when their
ideals not want to realize, now also the valuable treasures despise, they have gained
on the way to their vainly aspired goals. When Kepler in his "Harmonice mundi" the
third of its three major makes laws, which determines the conditions of the periods of
the planets to their mean distances from the sun, as it were fantastic ideas about the
mystical significance of regular polygons and the harmonic musical intervals for the
Kosmos, who had passed his speculations, and in that law itself he saw only one of
the building blocks that make up the wonderful construction of its mystical world
harmony composed. Kepler's world harmony has long disappeared. But the third of
its laws has become the basis of the theory, in which the idea that world harmony
again arose in scientific purer form, the general theory of gravitation. So might also
like the metaphysical speculations that Fechner has built on its "inner psychophysics"
prove bogeys and be forgotten with time. What will never be forgotten, it is that he
introduced as the first accurate methods, exact principles of measurement and
experimental observation in the study of the spiritual life, and that he has thus made a
scientific psychology in the strict sense of the word at all possible. Already Herbart
had it hovered as a target, but he had completely missed the path that could lead to
him. Physiologists, on the border areas of the physical and the psychical were
manifold active since Johannes Mller had been working in detail, but without a clear
awareness of the general task and without thinking of the training rigorous
methods. Only Fechner, has opened the path for accurate exploration of the spiritual
life with his "psychophysical measurement methods" which, initially intended for a
particular problem, were easily extended to other areas. For Fechner this task has
grown entirely of metaphysical ideas out, and as he looked at her only as the tool for
the assertion of these ideas, he has underestimated its importance and scope. He said
that if that metaphysical purpose of time trap, the psychophysical methodology will
remain only as a modest addition to psychology. Today we will its value not least just
may see that it is not affected by changeable philosophical views and has thus
significantly helped to secure the psychology itself the character of a body
independent of the Armed metaphysical systems positive science.
As it stands now, however, so it is after all the questions, with Fechner's
philosophical worldview? Has it, in addition to that of its author hardly this result, in
itself no value? Or come as doubtful may look like with their psychophysical and
psychological reasons, however also their permanent significance? In answering this
question one may well remember the word Fechner, that philosophy is not a
mathematical theorem, which must be either true or false. Ever's philosophy is no
clear concept. In the history of philosophical worldviews divorced clearly two types
of systems of thought. Some seek the science of their time, often in a one-sided

direction, but essentially but under the influence of all participating major factors
combine to the whole of an ideology. This character has all the other above the
Aristotelian philosophy that has dominated as the most complete expression of the
science of antiquity for centuries scientific thought. In the 17th century Descartes
similar striven for and achieved in part, and at the end of 18 we may well the
teachings of Kant recognize the position of this narrow sense "scientific
philosophy". There are, however, a second kind of philosophy. You want to be a
strictly scientific system, but, dissatisfied with the results of conceptual thinking, she
wants to make a world view that the needs of the mind creates satisfaction and the
desire for knowledge beyond the limits of time helps set the cautiously advancing
scientific research with the help of the imagination are. This philosophy is that in
order to solve the riddles of existence in its desire, married to the seal. It is a seal in
terms that sees if necessary, where the resources of conceptual language fail, realized
their thoughts with vivid views and so the philosophy back to its original source, the
myth returns. Could it for the right of existence of this poetic form of philosophy
enter sprechenderes testimony as the fact that the thinkers, the scientific philosophy
of Western humanity has begon-nen, and probably still lower than any of the who
came to him in science , religion and life nachwirkt among us that Plato, wherever
denied him the help of strict conceptual thinking, the myth, the philosophical poetry
took refuge? And if we ask ourselves what has been the two sides in this greatest of
philosophers, the most effective, so we may doubt well if not the philosophical poet
but deserves the palm before the dialectician.
Which of these two kinds of philosophical worldviews Fechner's Gedankensysystem belongs can not be doubtful. It belongs to the series of philosophical seals,
and basically he did not want to even know otherwise considered. The philosophy
was to him as a matter of faith, not of knowledge. But as the philosophical poetry at
all in the development of philosophical systems has their right, so may invoke the law
for themselves, that they have a historically well-grounded in the series of related
systems of thought and, in my view, takes a more prominent position than Fechner's
philosophy those who will be granted her in the presence of a rule. initially the
natural philosophy of Schelling and his school related - your general character to this
philosophy - that can not be doubtful. But the ideas of natural philosophy return to
her in a mature, mellow, to claims of science oncoming way again. Therefore, if the
thoughts developments of the 19th century is in those events closer together
advancing perspective granted by the greater distance, overlook in the latter days of
the historian of philosophy, he may well say: In the beginning of this century where
the intellectual contemplation of the world was replaced by a more vivid view of
nature as it mainly in Goethe found its poetic expression, and where at the same time
new discoveries in all fields, tied in science on the galvanism, the chemical processes
of life phenomena, the general interest because rose under the cooperative effect of
these designs a fantastic, gone slightly to the astray bottomless speculations natural
philosophy that had the science necessary come into conflict, because their
representatives to the strict method of scientific thought lacked, and because the time
for a philosophical exploitation of new results yet has not been ripe. This was the

natural philosophy of Schelling and his school. But then, half a century later, a man
who led the company this Romantic philosophy of nature at the end with better
means arrived. Thoroughly trained in the mature become however natural science of
his time, he has created a world view that certainly remained a philosophical poetry,
but in which recurred the confused ideas that natural philosophy in a mellow, more
scientific shape while its author the same time in carrying out his mission in life
positive sciences zufhrte a wealth of new ideas and suggestions. This man was
Fechner, the renovator and perfecter of romantic natural philosophy of the nineteenth
Side dishes.
l. Personal memories.
In Fechner's personality loomed one of those quiet, unassuming scholar natures, as
in the first half of the 19th century often still the physiognomy of our universities
particular, over the demanding presence.Even the small apartment in the
Blumengasse Leipzig bore the stamp of an outwardly very humble, but inwardly
contented existence. In the unadorned small study room there was a simple square
table, which, when, long its color had ever had a painting deprived. On the walls of
the room and the even smaller alcove-like adjoining room were a few bookshelves,
raw in the wood, on which very little books, but large shocks were piled
manuscripts. The own reading Fechner was almost entirely denied by his longstanding eye condition, and if supported by reading him participating friends and
especially girlfriends few hours every day, so it was just a miserable substitute. So
was he who had distinguished himself in his youth by an astonishing erudition in
various fields, to rely on in the later years, mostly to draw from themselves and from
what he offered the treasure his memories. The book, which he most commonly used
was the logarithms, which almost always lay on his table; and the reading that
occupied him preferably, was his own manuscripts, which he so long repeatedly
reworked until they had won him a satisfactory form. First, he used quite unreadable
for others to write down his thoughts on loose sheets Quart. Then this design was
elaborated in coherent form; and thereto finally closed the last clean copies in Folio,
which often two followed each other. He wrote, in order to facilitate the reading, in
large lettering, the deciphering for himself slightly, for the translator was very hard
times. On dictation he could never get used to.
As an embarrassing careful writer, so Fechner was an extremely conscientious
hosts. The amount of the individual invoices which he has carried out for
psychophysics and for collectives is incalculable, and he failed hard to convince
himself by repeatedly calculating the accuracy of a result. Yet in recent years he used
when slid inwards younger scientists whose work appeared in the field of
psychophysics, reconsider almost every single of their bills.
So most of his time was divided between thinking and writing. Because it could
happen well that he, if he had a daily walk with the faithful companion, he allowed
himself the only recovery in days, just begun, once returned from the street into his

study to rapidly an idea that he had come to put on paper. Nevertheless they had when
you visited him, never the impression to disturb him in a work. He loved to manifest
itself with other on pending issues, which then make the call to his way immediately
to disputes were to entertain. Often the subject of conversation concerned him clearly
for some time afterwards.Because it could happen that, the next day letter caught up
an argument that had occurred to him too late, and that continued an occasional
discussion in a lengthy correspondence in this way. He loved it but to limit the
conversation to positive themes. His philosophical and religious convictions, for
which he so tirelessly made propaganda in his writings, he touched rare. Even
otherwise, he was in terms of the work that bothered him, not communicative. It was
learned from them is usually only when they were completed. The most striking
evidence of this is the "collectives". When I at the request of the widow arranged his
papers after his death, I was surprised in the highest degree, in the different the stages
described above, who used to wander through his manuscripts, finding a large part of
this work. No one had known of the existence of this work, neither Mrs Fechner any,
although he had been carrying the plan about twenty years and probably busy
preparing itself for nearly a decade of his friends and colleagues. In the excellent
output and complement this work, the GF Lipps on behalf of the Royal. Society of
knowledge Stick has worried you can clearly .erkennen the stage where there was
Fechner's work, as surprised him the death, because the publisher has taken care to
make the accompanying supplements in contrast to their own versions of the author
indicated. Only those who have seen the manuscript itself, can certainly make an
adequate idea of the difficulties of the work, by which it is the issuer managed to save
this last work Fechner for science.
2. Fechner relation to the philosophy of his time.
Fechner himself noticed with Schelling's philosophy of identity he could do "to
find any clear points of contact". But rooted in Schelling's views work, naturephilosophy Oken's, have him "by his titanic daring first on the ordinary view of the
nature and also some time in his direction urged" (Zendavesta II, p 351). In fact, one
can at Oken find numerous places which resonate the ideas Fechner's. I raise the
following shows: Oken, Textbook of Natural Philosophy 1809-11, I, p 24: "Without
life, there is no being Nothing is merely the fact that it is.." "There is no new life
force in the universe; life is nothing new in the world Come after being created, but
an original, an idea, a thought of God, the entelechy itself with all its
consequences." P. 25: "Every living thing is a double: A existing in itself and an
Absolute in the Submerged." P. 81: "The space is spherical and that an infinite
sphere." "The sphere is therefore the most perfect form, the original form." "If God
wants to be real, it must appear under the form of the sphere, another form of God
does not exist. The existent God is an infinite sphere." "The universe is a sphere, and
everything is a Totales in the universe, is a ball." P. 86: "The more perfect the motion
of a thing is circular, the more perfect it will be." II, S. 15: The Urschleim been
created from all organic, is the sea slime "(See Fechner, ideas for creation and
development history, page 86..) P.16:". Where it succeeds where rising sea organism

to take shape, as a higher organism from it emerges. "p.17: All organic individuals
must die." But this destruction is not for nature. . This results in the same instant
others organisms elsewhere "" Even the world body is eternal, without change.
"P.18:". Dying is a call back to God, from whom everything has gone "" Dying is no .
destroy, but only a change "" the disappearance and appearance of individuals is only
a metamorphosis of one into the other, a transmigration whose way is through God.
"page 25:" the archetypal organism is the image of the planet. He must therefore have
the spherical shape "p.26:". The archetypal organism is due to the solicitation of the
air bubble "" The first organic dots are bubbles.. The organic world has its basis an
infinity of bubbles ". (Infusoria) p.27:" If the organic world out infusoria, so the
whole organic world must develop from infusoria to; Plants and animals can only
Metamorphoses of Infusoria be "(a proof of this looks Oken that the death of
organisms arise again infusoria.) P.81:". It is therefore not create organism which is
greater than a infusorischer point. It will not create the organism and is never a been
created, which is not microscopic. "" Everything Larger is not created, but developed.
"" Man is not created, but developed. "
In addition to such places of work, in which Fechner more or less touched close to
him, can be found, of course, many other, and there are generally just those who play
a particularly prominent role in the natural philosophy of Schelling and his school,
which Fechner never would have agreed. Thither principally include recurring
transfers the polar opposites of galvanism and magnetism to the various natural and
where possible also mental processes, and playing with analogies at all that but, still
exceeds because the fairly wide limits, which has Fechner allows significantly , (See.
Eg. As Oken, aa 0. III, S. 126, 130.) After all, it must be acknowledged that it is
precisely at Oken real familiarity with the facts of positive science to speculative
fantasies are a way through which he occasionally newer notions anticipates in
admittedly still raw form. This is especially true of its developmental records whose
principal listed above. When was sometimes praised recently by Schelling, that he
was a forerunner of the theory of evolution, that claim is completely
erroneous. Schelling has never unlike that ideal sense understood the concept of
development, in which Goethe's "Metamorphosis of Plants", which was here mainly
on him by influence, had considered the flower as a higher level of the sheet. For this
is a clear testimony that Schelling, after he had constructed in the "Ideas for a
Philosophy of Nature" and in the "world soul" the development as an ascending, in
the "first draft of a system of natural philosophy" the thing reversed, so the sequence
of stages in downward direction continuous treated, only to return in the
"Introduction" on the draft back to the ascending order. Oken is, as far as I can see,
the only one of these natural philosophers who has the organic development clearly a
real construed as and transferred these thoughts to humans. He was so in this sense
the true precursor of the theory of evolution, while in his infusorienartigen "bubbles"
and his "protoplasm" certain notions of cell and protoplasmic theory are also
So now unmistakably book is an intellectual affinity linking Fechner's philosophy
with the philosophy of Romanticism, he has yet touched by the obligations which the

system Hegel's life just unappealing.In his predominating interest in natural

philosophy and the discomfort that caught him Hegel'sehe dialectic, which is
understandable. From the "world spirit" of Hegel he could form no idea. He saw in
him only a sum of individual human minds and said that a real unity of mankind
could but come only by general, bonded to a substrate real spiritual principle
materialize. Fechner is and remains natural philosopher. The spiritual world has for
him, in a sense only as a development product of natural interest and importance,
while it conversely nature is indeed conceivable only as an intellectual activity. Here
touching without being directly affected, Fechner's ideas about nature and spirit, on
this world and probably the closest to those of the deepest philosophical and poetic
romantics, Novalis. (See. Novalis' writings Edited. Ernst Heilborn, 2nd part, I.Hlfte,
S. 3, 4, 244 ff.)
From all which also explains Fechner's position to other philosophers, notably Kant
in "Zendavesta" Kant's name is rarely mentioned. in the "Day", he comes several
times to talk to him, but only to reject the notion of the "thing in itself", which
seemed like an attempt to destroy the joy of the world. Most frequently he employs in
his writings with Herbart and Lotze. Herbart's mathematical psychology it seemed
good in that first inspired him the idea to search for an exact functional relationship
between physical and psychical (Zendavesta II, p 373). From Herbart he has also
taken the concept of "threshold", which then of course with him won a far-reaching
metaphysical meaning that he is not obsessed with that. In Herbart and Lotze he
fought the way with striking reasons monadological view of the soul, to face her his
As Fechner has drawn his philosophy essentially of yourself, so you will also be
able to say of him that he showed recent philosophical systems, a relatively poor
understanding. For epistemological investigations and historical considerations he
lacked the sense. Nature and religion - these were the two poles around which his
philosophical thought moving. Where he went to other areas, such as the ethics in the
treatise "On the highest good", or even to the psychology, as in the final chapters of
psychophysics as his observations always lead out in its nature and philosophy of
religion ,
This compound nature and philosophy of religion motives are also the philosophy
Fechner's their pantheistic character. He himself, when he was called a "pantheist",
not contradicted. But it is of course also been of the opinion that this expression not
much was said. In fact, the nature of his thoughts based more on where they differ
from the other common forms of pantheism than on where they are in accordance
with them. Because this character you will be able to find mainly in three
characteristics. One is to adjust his philosophy to the positive results of scientific
research. So far Fechner goes beyond the latter, he gets nowhere with them in a direct
contradiction. This is a train which separates his philosophy from their otherwise
closely related notions of natural philosophy Schelling as the older mystical
theosophy. His philosophy is theosophy, yes in their teachings about the world
beyond probably mystical theosophy; but it is Theosophy a naturalist of the
present. Second, it differs from the traditional forms of development of Pantheism in

modern philosophy, such that the doctrine of the "psychophysical benching" the
universe a mainly by the systems of Spinoza and Hegel and from the general
character to here to vice-end philosophy of Schopenhauer by personal concept of God
is not only possible, but demands. Because for her the divine consciousness closes
while all other consciousnesses in itself, but it is not the same identical to the
sum; but it behaves according to one of Fechner often used comparison similar to
them, as an enclosing circle for lying in it inscribed circles. This union of theism and
pantheism brings Fechner's notions into contact with previous and simultaneous
forms of mystical theosophy. Like its psychophysi Shearing Stufenbau the world
resonates on ancient Emanationsideen so Fr. Krause's life philosophy contained
Schelling's later, positive philosophy, Franz Baader's creation and redemption
doctrine, Chr. Related ideas. But is Fechner's philosophy of this pre-vious and
simultaneous theosophical speculation independently, and it is superior to them by
the ruling in its scientific form of problems.
A third feature of Philosophy Fechner finally this that it rejects any transcendent
terms. There is no world of things in themselves behind the phenomenal
world. Therein lies an essential motive of "Day", which consists precisely in the
conviction that the nature that we see, hear, feel the real nature. But God and the
intermediate beings between him and the people, animals and plants are just as they
are given to us in intuition, really. The universe that we though only partially, but still
perceive in this part in all its majestic grandeur, is the real world; the Godconsciousness that we experience in us, is God himself, not a mere action of God, no
publication of its individual attributes. In this view, that being and appearance are
one, meets Fechner, without knowing it, perhaps most famously with the other
course, quite different type teaching Hegel's together. However, coming as in Hegel
in the "absolute idea", so even with him in the dualism of body and soul the
transcendent reappear. Really, he points out, that science only by their "night view"
gelange that they equate their abstractions of reality of things, he has remained but
caught himself in this confusion. Material and spiritual world remain him always, in
the spirit of the attributes teachings of Spinoza, two objectively different sides of
being, whom we indeed occupy a different position of observation, but where yet
again changed this position only because the content of the perception, because this
self after each of the two sides is different. Only under the condition of such a real
difference in the physical and the psychical had indeed his view of Weber's law as a
principle of interaction between the two sides of being a meaning. Had he ever
considered close kicked that science and psychology have not various items for its
content, but are merely different forms of processing of the same unified experience,
so he could have his "Day" to hold the scientific dogmatism opposite; but he would
be sure to all be without the transcendent speculation, which he had founded on the
concept of "threshold".
3. Fechner philosophical method.
In the introduction to "Zendavesta" (Vol. I, p XXI ff.) Fechner has stressed that he
is in his philosophy no other methods Operating the than ever, and especially in

science recognized in science, namely the "generalization by induction and analogy

". He remained with his inductions and analogies not stop halfway or incomplete
results, but seeking them consistently through to the end; and the whole holds sway
with him before the recovery of the analogy, while in science they resign from the
induction. One may call this self-characterization of his method applicable; but you
will but can not help but find them incomplete. With respect to the induction it is that
it addresses unconsidered leaves one of the most characteristic peculiarities of
Fechner'schen induction, the fact that it usually comes from a particular fact group,
without looking to any accompanying auxiliary inductions. With regard to the
analogy it is because they turn to heap on the specific peculiarity of Fechner'schen
process analogies and refer entirely different experience areas, passes. These
properties but induction and analogy are with him not only in opposition to each
other, but they also stand in contrast to the policy followed in the positive sciences
methods of use of these methods. Here, it is generally as a rule that the induction to
give the widest possible basis, and that the analogy to the next instances, to those
cases, the questions closest to the problematic object restrictive. This formal
opposition between induction and analogy is due to the logical nature of both
methods well. The induction will find the general principle, which the individual
facts which have served as its basis, can be subsumed: given is absolute requirement
that will not overlook any essential fact that so the induction is as complete as
possible. The analogy contrast infers from one object to another, by in determined
given properties back closes on compliance in other, not given in the same
match. You must therefore proceed from the outset it to limit their comparisons to
individual, as close as possible to each other stationary objects. By now Fechner
performs as limited as possible and his analogies as comprehensive as possible
reversed his inductions, cares for him even the induction finally run out in a mere
analogy, assume during his analogies vehicle by their number on the character of
inductions, without this, however, their Security would be beneficial because the
contrary analogies, emanating from different points of attack, often conflict with each
other, so must contradict, simply because the analogy such crossing different
directional comparisons can not bear to their logical character. A few examples will
illustrate this.
One of the main inductions Fechner's is the one that is based on his concept of
life. The alleged by him with great energy negative instance that still all attempts to
bring out Unorganischem organic life, have failed, you will certainly not refuse her
authorization. the basis of this induction But if he is then limited to obtaining a
positive concept of life essentially on an examination of the life processes under the
purely mechanical point of together somehow sedate regular periodicity, as is
certainly much too tight. The concept of life must not only of this very abstract,
mathematical-physical side, it must be above all on the chemical and physiological
properties which characterize life, determined; this can be but that abstract
mechanical point not subordinate. Nevertheless, rests the whole theory of the origin
of Molokularorganischen from Kosmorganischen on this purely formal, unimportant
for the physiological concept of life property. As a result of this limited basis but also

fall within the whole method of proof of the role of induction in the analogy. The
concept of life is here in truth not by induction, but merely characterized emerged
that the regular periodicity of cosmic processes was brought in analogy with that of
the metabolic and reproductive processes of organic life.
As the induction by the restriction to a very limited number of features becomes a
mere analogy, then designed now but at Fechner the abundance of analogies which he
seeks to justify his main sets to a strange replica of the induction process. So the
"Zendavesta" is as inexhaustible in the highlighting of analogies between the
properties of the earth and those of living beings on it, as in the rejection of the
objections that could be taken from the non-compliance of certain features. But the
more Fechner strives to use all possible positive instances that are just finding any,
and including sometimes those that he would if they did not comply with the purpose
of his argument safely discard, loses more so his deduction their scientific
impartiality, and the easier it happens that the adjacent herlaufenden analogies
actually incompatible. So can he possibly agree when he says that one should expect
again for the Earth as an organic whole is not the same organization as the living
creatures on it, since the sense organs, nerves and brains of all its creatures belong to
herself. But if he have the option can not be missed, to bring the surface of the sea as
the eye of the earth with transparent and spherical curved parts of the eye in relation
etc. (Zendavesta II, pp 225ff.), Then one must nevertheless say that such an eye in the
large and corresponding optical nerve and an associated brain would require
large. Here the analogies damage mutually by the new objections summon back, who
had just beaten up the previous from the field. In later writings Fechner has become
more cautious in the use of analogies. But all he has not avoided this harmful
accumulation here.
4. The pre-school aesthetics and the subsequent scientific writings.
Among the later works Fechner's are notably two by-compliance with them in
tactics of scientific reasoning with psychophysics on the same ground: the "atomic
theory" and the "ideas of creation and evolution." You lined up by their directed
against the prevailing tendency philosophical method nor the "pre-aesthetic", which,
however, so far at the same time occupying a notable exception position when she
avowedly at all on the relationship to a general belief makes waiver. But it is
precisely this renunciation is rooted here clearly in the quest to bring out the contrast
belief Fechner's against the standpoint of the ruling philosophy sharper. The
"aesthetics from above", which will explore from general philosophical principles,
not from direct observation and comparison of aesthetic objects, the essence of
beauty, is Fechner's "aesthetics from below" against. He wants to show that here as
well as in other fields, the experience is the source of our knowledge; and he draws
for this purpose in addition to the observation of the psychological effects of the art
the experimental determination of the conditions of pleasure and displeasure of
simple form and fair to rate, so as to lay the foundations of an "experimental
aesthetics".From the results of observation and experiment he passes only then the
principles from which strictly empirical, founded only on the ratio of the indentation

to its psychological effect validity is highlighted.So here the absence of the

relationship to a more general philosophical belief in the subject of the work is well
founded. The protest against the conventional aesthetics could only be so insistent, if
in this company also own belief resigned completely. The relationship with the
general direction of his thinking but can also not be ignored. This will everywhere,
even in the ideas of God and immortality that use direct lively intuition in their
rights; and in this it is the abstract, operating with intuition without concepts
speculation hostile. For this philosophy of living intuition there could not be more
favorable area to show their strength, than the aesthetics that has everywhere dealing
only with structures of immediate intuition. Would Fechner came about as he
suggests it to be possible to put aesthetics to his psychophysical basic views in
relationship, so why would the "pre-aesthetic" probably came to such philosophical
in his sense aesthetics in the same proportion in which the first part of psychophysics
to the teachings contained in the second of the "inner psychophysics' stands.
In another area, he had taken up the fight against the abstract speculative
philosophy previously in his "philosophical and physical atomic theory". But visibly
acts in this document with already striving to reconcile the ruling in physics views
with the conditions that demands his own philosophy, to make it clear. Having
demonstrated the groundlessness of philosophical objection to atomism, he first
examines the atomistic idea to its simplest form, due to the simple point-like atoms,
by rightly remarks that the mathematical analysis, where it makes use of the atomic
theory, only the force needed points. But not in those remarks, in which he, following
the way of looking at the time, everywhere treated the atomistic constitution of matter
as Noting but in the other possible ideas he developed the laws of forces effects, is
the then applicable teachings against, the originality of its designs. Philosophically
here is mainly the record significant that in reality never the matter itself, but only the
laws of their effects are given to us, from which we got back close to those. Now,
would the uniform nature of Kausaulprinzips accordance, our need of explanation of
nature be satisfied most perfect, if it were possible to find a single law, which as its
special cases would exclude any special laws in themselves. That the law of gravity,
as has been supposed at times, this law can not be to teach the effects of molecular
forces. Fechner therefore seeks to include them with that in a single power law by
accepting, the effects of two particles to each other are also dependent on the
presence of other particles, so that these progressively complicate the form of the law
with the increase in the number. Now provides the same to carry out such hypothesis
so great mathematical difficulties that a deduction of phenomena is provisionally
impossible in this way, it is nevertheless in principle of great interest by showing that
it is quite conceivable to a conventional of the substantially different ways to achieve
the goal of a unified explanation of nature. It would allow the hypothesis of multiple
forces, not only subordinating the gravitational forces and the molecular one and the
same general laws; but also the law of inertia, which is usually regarded as a
adventitious to the outward-acting forces property of matter, could be described as
the simplest special case perceive that general force law. Namely, as the gravitational
effect between two power centers a and b as the product of both

directions from and ba, therefore appears as the square of their distance, so the inertia
could be regarded as the the single center of force corresponding product of zero
distance. As the principle of inertia down, they would but then up the molecular
forces that soon attractive are depending on the number of particles entering into a
relationship soon repulsive, be classified the same approach. Here these molecular
forces are now not only the chemical, but what is the most valuable result for
Fechner, should be numbered among the organic forces, which are expressed in the
phenomena of life. A regular periodicity of the movements by the continued together
different forces coming effects As with the cosmic movements reached, namely the
periodic vital phenomena of organisms will be derived from such molecular forces of
a higher order. This is the general law of force itself to the source of that principle of
stability, which Fechner faces as the most common cosmic Final principle the
principle of causality. If he so in an attempt to eliminate the specific concept of
inertia, zoom clips already on ideas that have occurred in the recent speculations of
theoretical physics on the causes of gravity, so has its consideration of the molecular
forces point to a way of expediency, the of organic structures can be as a result of
action of the mechanical laws recognize himself. In this introduction of teleological
principle Fechner touched with ideas that have become active again in the latest
development of science. But while the neo-vitalism today physiology usually steers
back to the Irrpfade the old vitalism with its specific life forces, Fechner points to a
path that can avoid this untenable long position.
To elaborate way, are these conclusions from the general law of nature forces
largely only in the second of natural philosophy in the abovementioned publications,
in the "Ideas for creation and evolution of organisms." Although the time to later as
the "Elements of Psychophysics", this writing has yet its material content to here
between the atomic theory and psychophysics, their place. Among those who already
put the general idea of the development of the organic world expressed before the
appearance of Darwin, would probably Fechner can receive his pension. Already in
"Zendavesta" he had developed this idea in connection with his ideas about the
Allbelebung nature. Yes he had here as one of the ways in which one can try to
understand the organic development, the accumulation of random, incurred by
external factors differences referred to and even pointed out those analogies in the
breeding of plants and animals in which Darwin later so important support his theory
saw (Zendavesta II, p 179). But Fechner had explained this way from the beginning
of impassable. Also was especially the theory of evolution outside of its former
sphere of thought. In the preface to the "ideas" he confesses that he was only after
much reluctance converted to her. This means that the form of presentation in this
later work is now but an altered. Had he put forward in the earlier works of his
peculiar theory of evolution in direct connection with his doctrine of Allbelebung
with nature and the Earth as the next intermediate beings between God and the
earthly creatures, so he now takes quite the standpoint of the Darwinian idea of
evolution in generally inclined towards, but at the same time practicing on the nature
of the formulation and execution of the same independent review naturalist one. To
this end, he first studied the consideration thereby vortiefen that he is a conceptual

distinction of organic and inorganic molecular state, and then developed on the basis
of this distinction, the adoption of kosmorganischen state of matter, from which the
molecular organic and therefore everything that we "life" call in the usual sense, had
emerged. By then going on to a review of the established principles of Darwin the
struggle for existence and natural selection through adaptation to the external
conditions of life, it is quite inclined to give this their meaning. But as the only and as
the decisive conditions he can not accept, partly because they eventually traced back
to the empirically nowhere detectable formation of the living from the lifeless, partly
because for them the Expedient would emerged from the accidental and purpose
lots. Still in the book about the "Day View" he wanted to illustrate the impossibility
of such an assumption by one of its striking similes. A client, which is an unlimited
time at command, decided not to leave his house to run on a specific schedule. He
gives the builders bricks and mortar and assigns them to the stones quite arbitrarily,
as it adds the chance to heap another. Since he had time to wait, so will indeed by
many inexpedient developments also at some time the wall of a residential building
appear. Indeed, after millennia this event occurs really. But forgets the builder
unfortunately, his men to halt, and so it happens that this the next moment the newly
created wall erode again. Meanwhile, it has his neighbor, who gave the builders a
specific plan in hands, long established residential.
must the principles of organic development, as asserted Fechner, how the principles
of interpretation of nature at all, above all, taken the phenomena itself, before you
look around to otherwise experience that can be transferred to them. As such, the
development processes themselves immanent principles but he thinks he may view
mainly three: the principle of stability, the reference point differentiation, and the
decreasing variability. The next thing we encounter when looking at the living
creatures, is not their variability, but the consistency with which repeat their
development states. But therein operates the principle of stability in the same more
perfect form in which it is seen in the cosmic movements are so divorced in this
feature, the organic and the Cosmic equally from the niedereren stability of the
inorganic. Where now occur within this general tendency to repeat the same
development conditions changes, as take such generally always part of a system that
belong to each other: They are carried out as a "reference example"
differentiations. So already differentiate the organs of the individual organism
through the correlation of their functions, and similarly in nature different organic
species, such. As the floral organs of certain plants and the body forms and
colorations of them visiting insects. For such a mutual adaptation can most help after
even the beginnings of respect exhibit differentiation occurred after Fechner's opinion
of the struggle for existence; the origin of the latter as the result to be regarded
merely random variations, however, contradicts all likelihood. Rather, this process
must be based on a ratio of togetherness of different organic species is based from the
very beginning to today, which is the correlation of the organs of the individual
organism completely analogous. This is, however, expressed that the kingdom of
organisms does not consist of independently existing being, but that it is part of a
whole, which itself has the essential characteristics of a living being. Such a whole is

now apparently our earth whose single vibrant parts are all present on their plants and
animals. By finally the principle of "decreasing variability" assumes that now in
organic nature existing preponderance of tendency to stability over whether to
differentiate gradually only occurred in earlier creative periods so do the revising
conditions have been more effective than it is today, it first examines the difficulties
to eliminate, which seem to prepare the origin species striking features on the paths of
natural development. Fechner says, all this would point out that in earlier periods the
differences were made in a more rapid pace than at present.This, too, would remain
incomprehensible if you wanted to look at all the changes than the merely accidental
results of an external struggle for existence. Because it is a mystery why this struggle
in the world today between different as between similar nature should not persist in
undiminished strength. Fasse one hand the organic development as a continuous
process, so will such a different course probably understand how because indeed
today rapidly at first and then successes nor the development of individuals and more
slowly. As the Storm running early development ever therefore will the transition of
kosmorganischen in the molecular organic movements to be regarded, was followed
only gradually reaches for the latter, the principle of the tendency to stability in
increasingly advantage.
Thus Fechner, in his creation story the reader from the questions at the beginning of
the recognition of Darwinian evolution concept step by step to a conception which is
the complete reversal of the prevailing theory in the most essential
relationships. Where these operated with unrestricted random deviations; as he calls
correlative changes. Where there the organic individuals independently confront each
other, as they organize here from the outset the idea of a broader unity among
organic. The distinction of kosmorganischen and the molecular organic movement,
the concept of the earth as the great, inclusive of all earthly creatures mother
organism, thoughts that were placed at the head in the earlier natural philosophical
writings, they result here on the way of an investigation which apparently only is to
review and consequent development of the existing scientific hypotheses. Only after
he led the reader so far, he ends with a reference to the "beliefs" on completion of the
designed image of organic development in addition; and as it is now, summarized in a
few pages, again, the whole doctrine of the things of the "sky and Beyond", which
had once formed the theme of "Zendavesta" with which closes this development
5. Fechner psychology.
The principles of Fechner's psychology contained in its "inner
psychophysics". This has already been said that the empirical analysis of mental life
that we make psychology as a task today, in her does not matter, but that it is
essentially a metaphysical psychology. It is this but also in the sense that the question
of the relation of the mental to the physical and the other to the future fate of the soul,
so to the psychological reasons for the faith perspectives and the following items
dominated. After Fechner in the discussions on the seat of the soul, against the
monadological and the materialistic view has his conception of life and animation

corresponding "synechologische" well founded, it is almost exclusively the term

"threshold" in its various applications, of him employed. His whole psychology, as
far as she gets involved with an interpretation of empirical facts, is the application of
this emerging concept in a variety of mental processes: the emergence of
consciousness in the child, to the change of sleep and waking, the coming and going
of ideas , on the migration of the attention on the processes of differentiation. Again,
it is therefore the analogy, the plays the role alleinherrschende. Everything that
happens in the human consciousness falls, for Fechner under the aspect of an
emerging phenomenon; and as our consciousness are changing operations generally,
it is clear that when any change is called a rise above a threshold or a fall below a
threshold, this can never fail. What is the real object of psychological analysis, the
Aufzeigung the multiplicity and variety of mental processes, but remains completely
in the background: It is behind the emerging concept and is more than in the image of
the upper and lower shafts to an inadequate expression. The whole interest Fechner's
not just heard of psychology as such to, but this is for him only a part of nature and
philosophy of religion. He does not know how the mental life itself behaves, but as
the "psychophysical Stufenbau World" arranged in the integrates the individual
soul. Why he cared so much the existence of the threshold, in which he seemed to see
the direct evidence of the relationship of the individual consciousness with a general
life of consciousness. but why he thought also, with the examination and
Nachweisung of Weber's law is basically the task of experimental psychology
exhausted. So carefully he studied until the end of his work, which related to this
issue, anything he let unread. Of the chronometric Try to take the observations of
association, memory processes, etc. knowledge, he could never be persuaded.
Had Fechner in his "inner psychophysics" achieved what he sought, he would have
succeeded to demonstrate the emerging concept in the established by it meaning as
the dominant and all-explaining the psychology, he would have led his philosophy to
objectives which actually according to his own statement exceeded the task of
philosophy. For this philosophy would now but have been little more than a mere
belief, they would have had in the 'inner psychophysics "a scientific basis that might
not be an end but the next, and especially those who carry on their structured
conclusions, but that in itself the hierarchical structure of this world based. If Fechner
this objective is not achieved because the "inner psychophysics" insufficiently
proved, to solve the problems of psychology, so therefore won so his philosophy
basically just that character of a religious intuition again, she had taken from the very
beginning lay claim , In the pursuit, his conviction to enforce, but Fechner had
actually abandoned in his later writings, especially in psychophysics, this original
faith program. He had attempted to raise his philosophy with the exact sciences.
6. Fechner relation to spiritualism.
Fechner's firm belief in an afterlife of the spirit in the sphere of his worldly life
brought him from himself in direct contact with the ideas of spiritual distance effects,
clairvoyance, ghosts, as they have at all times acted on philosophical mysticism. Also
in Fechner is a successor of natural philosophy from the beginning of the 19th

century, the yes men like Ennemoser, GH Schubert, among others these supposedly
magical and mystical side of psychic life zealously cultivated. Especially the 3rd
band of "Zendavesta" he refers several times to the writings of those named, as well
as on Justinus Kerner's and other communications on somnambulist, to Swedenborg's
"Heaven and Hell", etc. Of course, he leads these testimonies as "views" on, similar
to his, were (Zendavesta III, S. 78ff.), without the fight for the reality in such
mystical writings Reported. But since he used as arguments, he would surely any
factual basis consider it probable. Since it was inevitable because that was called in
the later years of the followers of new mystic teachings and directions Fechner with
preference as a witness or requesting a verification of alleged miraculous facts. Thus
Reichenbach him as he accuses himself, with his Odlehre "on the heels stapled" and
almost against his will, forced him to a stake in his experiments brought Allow
(memories of the last days of Odlehre and its author, 1876) , Similarly has later
spiritism gives him some unpleasant hour. The fact that even the spiritualists came to
him, it he has indeed not even surprised. On the contrary, in his diary he once wrote:
"To some extent, I am surprised that my views of the afterlife, as I have developed
'book of life after death' and in greater detail in the 3rd part of the 'Zend Avesta',
despite their relationship have remained with the views of the spiritualists and
compatibility with the spiritualist experiments, in the circle of spiritualists themselves
virtually unnoticed;. which by the way should be no reason for me to meddle in their
literature. "
But just as Fechner's steps might be used in spiritualist circles, to himself indulged
by the followers of this movement, especially in the years 1877-78, from different
sides invitations to participate in sances. But he had become more cautious since
"Zendavesta". From the scientific weapon of "psychophysics" he promised at this
time greater success than "magical spiritual life" by the dubious phenomena of; and
he therefore refused such invitations from consistently. As surprised one day Fr.
publicans, the famous astrophysicist, a wreath, which apart from a few other
colleagues, Fechner and W. Weber belonged to a guest, - this guest was the famous
American medium Slade. So Fechner was almost an involuntary witness and
participant of several spiritualistic sessions. I own two acts pieces of Fechner's own
hand of those meetings, a detailed run from him diary from November 1877 to
January 1878, in which he carefully what they have seen and the impression it made
on him, reports after each session, and a addressed to me, twelve closely written
sheets filled letter in June 1879 in which he finally sets out its position on
spiritualism. Since this letter coincides objectively and sometimes even literally
exactly with later this subject in the "Day" dedicated to comments, so has the same
present no particular interest more. So much more interesting and more characteristic
of Fechner's "caution in faith as in disbelief" is the diary. First are the impressions he
receives from Slades art performances, mostly unfavorable. After, had been
demonstrated on several occasions all the known benefits that slate writings under the
table, lifting tables and chairs, etc., he said: "Shall I after the general character of the
presented productions go, so outweighed for me throughout the impression of a . sent
performed, composed of various interesting tricks legerdemain, the juggler always

keeps the reins in his hands and no evasion, allowed out of the circle, he now knows
to control precisely from a scientific study of the presented phenomena was not
mentioned; it lacked all the conditions to do so. We just had the Watching, or had
suffered when even with just execute what Slade had proposed. on our part, proposed
amendments have not been addressed, and yet would be an exact investigation to
carry only so that the circumstances and ways of trials would possible modified from
certain face Punk th and addressed. "
In these blocks, the position is probably called that initially the Slade'schen
experiments took with Fechner W. Weber opposite. Something is happening, by how
Fechner reported publican who was already convinced in secret, was moved to tears,
but which also shook the doubts of the hitherto skeptical remaining observers:
publican had to his hypothesis of the four-dimensional world of spirits to check out
sunning to leave aprons in a zugesiegelte at its end string without solution of the seal
knots by the spirits. And this experiment was apparently succeeded! The holding also
Weber and Fechner for an "experimentum crucis". But while publicans welcomed the
result with enthusiasm, Fechner added reluctantly. It prevailed with him the uneasy
feeling that if these phenomena should prove truth, the silly and foolish character
same aroused an unworthy idea of the activities of the spirit world, to his own ideas
about life after death in an unpleasant contrast was standing. He helped himself
because, as he knew that "Experimentum crucis" nothing to oppose, with the
assumption that it is probably involved here is abnormal, pathological events, through
which one the prospects into the next world must not let wither yourself. It is the
position which is expressed at the end of the "Day": "The day view may be made
with or without spiritualism, but stocks but rather without than with the same,
because if already it in important respects meets with him and herein a prop could
seek, yes, I think, up to certain limits really found it, it disturbs but with its
abnormalities not only in them, but in the entire system of our previous knowledge
into it. "
Considering how much Fechner had sought throughout his life, finding evidence
for his belief, wherever they always want to offer, so you can not help but admire the
objectivity with which he confronts the spiritualist demonstrations, and with the he,
even after he alleged the Experimentum cruets believes he must add, the value of this
testimony more negative than positive opinion: he would do without it rather than
that he can rely to a certain extent it is now. When he finally agreed by that
experiment for overcome and consequently also other alleged ghost manifestations as
may not be forced to admit based on deception, so clearly, the fact was by the way,
next to his principle of absolute impartiality, authoritative that he could decide
difficult a man who possessed the outside of an honest man, to hold for a
swindler. Had therefore Fechner read the messages, the years after the widow of a
servant who had accompanied Slade on his travels (as far as I remember in the
"present"), has published, he would have at his initial judgment that in order to
sleight pieces handle, stand still. After these messages Slade was namely "rubber
man" have been, but had to the profession have to give up because of a slight
stroke. So was he to "medium" become. While his hands on the table quietly with

those of the so-called "observers" were merged to form the "chain", he led all the art
pieces from under the table with the legs and feet, which were latter wearing shoes
without soles and silk stockings, so that he could use the toes than fingers. The slate
writings, lifting tables and chairs were of course easy to perform in this manner, and
another bag players who had not accidentally been through preschool the rubber's,
might after all be able to explain with a clear conscience, that these services are
impossible in the way of ordinary sleight ,Even the secret of how he brought the
"Experirnentum crucis" with the four nodes in the supplied sealed cord materialize,
Slade has hardly taken to the grave, because just with known and often been led real
sleight pieces possesses this power a striking family resemblance.