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HVAC 101

The Basics of Heating, Ventilation


and Air Conditioning
Presented by: Mike Barcik and Jeff Ross-Bain, PE
Southface Energy Institute

Southface Energy Institute


Sensible Solutions for Environmental Living

Energy
Code
Workshops
Greenprints
Commercial
Systems
EarthCraft
House
www.southface.org

HVAC
Heating, Ventilation and Air
Conditioning
Provides comfort for people
Allows humans to exist
under adverse conditions.

Comfort
Comfort is primary
intent of HVAC
systems.
Productivity
Building Durability
Health

Mold

Load Calculations
Heating and Cooling
Accuracy important!
Design conditions
Building shell load
R, U value
Internal load
Ventilation load
Infiltration
Occupancy schedules

Heat Transfer
Conduction
Convection
Radiation
Resistance (R-Value)
U=1/R
Q = U x A x T

U-Value is the rate of


heat flow in Btu/h
through a one ft2 area
when one side is 1oF
warmer

Solar Heat Gain Coefficient

The

amount of solar
heat energy allowed to
pass through a window
Example:

SHGC = 0.40
Allows 40% through and
turns 60% away

Psychrometrics
Dry bulb temp.
Wet bulb temp.
Humidity
Dew point
Moisture content
Heating
Cooling
Humidify
De-Humidify
Psychrometric Chart

Basic Refrigeration Cycle


Condenser
Compressor
Expansion
Valve
Evaporator

Basic HVAC Equipment


Fans / Blowers
Furnace / Heating unit
Filters
Compressor
Condensing units
Evaporator (cooling coil)
Control System
Air Distribution System

System Types and Common Terms


Packaged Rooftop
Unit

Constant Volume

Split System

Indoor Air Quality

Heat Pump
Geothermal
Air to Air
Hydronic (water)
PTAC / PTHP

Variable Volume
Direct Expansion

Packaged Rooftop Units

Split System
Ductwork

Heating
and Cooling
Equipment
FURNACE
A/C UNIT

Temperature &
Humidity Controls

Heat Pump
Operate on simple
refrigeration cycle
Reversing the cycle
provides heating
Temperature
limitations
Air to air
Water source
Geothermal
Lake coupled

Geothermal Heat Pump


Systems

Variable Air Volume

Heat Coil w/Temp


Reset

Cool Coil w/Temp Reset

Filters

Return Air

Variable Speed
Supply Fan

Supply Ducts

VAV Box
Reheat Coil
T

Zone Thermostat

Variable Speed
Return Fan

Return Ducts

HVAC-17

Terminal Units
Variable volume:
Parallel

Constant volume:
Series

Hydronic systems
Pumps
Piping
Valves

Control Devices
Thermostats

Manual

Programmable

Optimum Start
DDC Systems
Variable Speed Drives
Automatic Valves and Dampers
Outdoor Sensors

Major Equipment
Chillers
Boilers
Cooling Towers

Economizers

Air Side

Water Side

Economizers
Free cooling source: When available, use cool outdoor air
instead of mechanically cooled air.
Minimum supply
of outside air

55 oF

80 oF
Normal Operation
Outside air dampers are
positioned to provide the
minimum outside air

55 oF and
up
85%
outside
air
85%
exhaust

80 oF

Economizer Operation
Outside air dampers are fully
open. Maximum outside air is
provided
HVAC-23

Zoning and Economizers


Economizers provide free cooling
when outdoor conditions are optimal
Proper orientation & zoning yields
comfort & efficiency
N
W

Core

HVAC-24

Air Distribution
Ductwork

Metal
Flexible
Ductboard

Grilles, Louvers,
& Registers
Dampers

Shut off
Fire
Smoke

Sealants
Supports

Return Plenum Problems

HVAC-26

Additional Equipment
Energy Recovery Units
Desiccant Systems

Additional Equipment
Heat Exchangers
Humidifiers
Silencers

Mechanical Dehumidification
Return air is mixed with ventilation air
Cold coil condenses moisture

Filter

Heat is added back (electric or gas) so that


room air is not over cooled- Reheat

Historical Minimum Ventilation


Rates (cfm/person)
70
Smoking 62-89

60
50
40
Nightengale
1865

30

Flugge
1905

Billings
1895

Smoking 62-81

20
Tredgold
1836

10

ASHRAE
62-89

ASHRAE
62-73

Yaglou
1938

ASHRAE 62-81

96

19

89

19

82

19

75

19

68

19

61

19

54

19

47

19

40

19

33

19

26

19

19

19

12

19

05

19

98

18

91

84

18

18

77

18

70

18

63

18

56

18

49

18

42

18

18

35

Improved Ventilation Effectiveness


Mechanically provide filtered and
dehumidified outdoor air to the
breathing space
Vary ventilation based on the
number of occupants and process
loads - changes in occupancy can
be measured by CO2 sensors
Consider designs that separate
ventilation and space conditioning
Utilize heat recovery systems to
reduce system size and ventilation
energy costs

Improved Ventilation Effectiveness


Effective mixing of
ventilation air within space
Net positive pressure in
the southeast; exhaust
from appropriate spaces
Provide clean outdoor air,
avoid:

loading docks
exhaust vents
plumbing stacks
waste collection
stagnant water

Additional Information / Resources


ASHRAE The American Society of Heating,
Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
www.ashrae.org
Southface Energy Institute
www.southface.org
Geothermal heat pump consortium
www.geoexchange.org
www.buildingscience.com
www.energycodes.gov