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Module 1

Testing and Evaluation


The Registered Strength and Conditioning Coach (RSCC) program is the highest level of distinction
for strength coaches with experience. This module is a part of the continuing education system
which will further educate strength and conditioning coaches on scientifically based testing and
evaluation procedures and practically apply the results to various program designs. This module sets
the RSCC apart from less experienced coaches not certified through the National Strength and
Conditioning Association (NSCA).
This module promotes the standardization of testing procedures and also allows for selection of
tests based on the energy demands of the sport. The content will empower strength and
conditioning coaches to be more than just weight room supervisors by providing valuable
information to identify talent and develop programs to improve performance.
Mission
The mission of this module is to provide evidence-based information derived from both research
and practical experience to standardize athletic testing so every strength and conditioning coach
across the globe can succeed at identifying athletic talent, improving sports performance, and
acquiring baselines for all athletes.
Goals

Alert coaches of the importance of standardization of testing and evaluation procedures


Learn to identify athletic potential
Increase the awareness of appropriate test selection
Provide a system to track athletes progress and provide referenced standards
Educate coaches on how to properly administrate performance, strength, endurance and
baseline testing for all athletes
Determine the strengths and weaknesses of individual athletes so realistic goals can be set
Guide the design of strength and conditioning programs to achieve the desired goals
Compare pre- and post-test data to determine the effectiveness of the strength and
conditioning program
Compare annual test data to determine the progress of the team and individual athletes
Continue to strengthen the NSCA brand

Testing
Every strength and conditioning program should begin with the testing and evaluation of each
athlete. By learning athletes strengths and weaknesses it is much easier to direct their training and

achieve maximum results. Testing also helps determine if the program is effectively achieving the
goals desired and most importantly, how the athlete is progressing. Testing serves as a great
motivator. Many athletes, especially the younger ones, need positive reinforcement that sports
conditioning benefit them before they are willing to put forth the effort needed to obtain maximum
results. Once athletes begin to achieve goals they will be eager to train harder and set higher goals.
It is always better to pull back on an athlete that is motivated versus one that needs to be pushed.
Strength and conditioning coaches that make the effort to test, evaluate, and set goals, have results
that can be documented. Some schools overlook the tremendous benefits of the testing process and
begin lifting or conditioning right away.
Physical needs analysis
Strength and conditioning coaches who have a broad understanding of exercise science can
effectively choose and utilize tests and measurements to make training program decisions that help
athletes achieve their goals and maximize their potential. To do this effectively, the tester must
administer tests correctly, analyze test data accurately, and then combine the results of selected tests
to generate an athletic profile (5).
Completion of needs analyses and custom program design considerations require coaches to address
a variety of factors including the specific sport characteristics. If designing a program for volleyball,
coaches will want to select exercises that develop explosive power because the sport relies on fasttwitch muscle fibers for powerful movements.
Strength and conditioning coaches also need to consider any previous injuries before testing their
athletes. Test data is evaluated to determine the specific needs of each individual athlete so the
program can be designed to improve on their weaknesses and enhance their strengths. An evaluation
form for a needs analysis should contain the following information:
Athlete name
Date
Sport
Position(s) played
Physiological description of the athlete
Movement analysis
Sport analysis
Description of the sport
Most common injuries
Movements that must be trained
Evaluator
Height (previous and present year)
Weight (previous and present year)

Vertical jump (previous and present year)


Pro-agility run (previous and present year)
10-yard dash (previous and present year)
40-yard dash (previous and present year off-season value)

A movement analysis of the sport of volleyball, for instance, indicates that large muscle groups
should be trained with emphasis on lower body power. Recognizing that primary sites of injury for
volleyball athletes are the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and rotator cuff provides necessary
information for preventative treatment and training focus. The muscle actions in volleyball also tend
to be concentric and eccentric, not isometric. A physiological analysis indicates the target energy
source for volleyball is the anaerobic system which involves short explosive bursts. These findings
will be different for nearly every sport and are important for setting goals and designing proper
strength and conditioning programs for every sport.
Training within the NSCA Six Principles, which are covered in more detail in module 3, is essential
for proper training frequency, exercise order, exercises sequencing, progressive overload and
periodization. The training loads and repetitions, volume, rest periods and split routines needs to fall
within the principles and match the needs for the season, in-season, pre-season, off-season, or postseason, for any given sport. Coaches will want to include nutritional considerations, lifestyles and
emotional states to maximize the training effect and reach the desired goals.
Energy system distribution and pre-tests
It is important for strength and conditioning coaches to know which energy system should be
focused on during training for any given sport. For example, cross-country running stresses the
aerobic energy systems to a much greater extent than baseball and should be trained for differently
(10). However, some sporting events require significant energy contribution from both the
anaerobic and aerobic energy systems. Therefore, this difference needs to be reflected in the battery
of performance tests chosen for that sport and subsequent athletes.
The energy systems, which are covered in further detail in module 2, are of great importance to
strength and conditioning coaches. The energy systems can be classified into three general
categories: phosphogen, glycolytic or aerobic. Training an athlete or team in an improper energy
system will affect performance and training results. However, it is not yet possible to identify the
exact percent contribution of any one energy system during any one sporting event so it important
to be familiar with all energy systems.
As athletes perform any type of activity, energy is produced and is both intensity- and timedependent. For example, when lifting or running at very high intensities, like the hang clean or
sprinting, an athlete can only produce maximal amounts of force with great technique for a very
short duration. Inversely, running or lifting at lower intensities means that the athlete can sustain the
activity for a much longer period of time but with about one fourth the amount of force. The

primary source of energy will always be dependent upon the performance time that can be
maintained at a given intensity. As a general rule, anaerobic sports utilize the phosphogen energy
system, intermittent sports utilize the glycolytic system and endurance sports typically utilize the
aerobic system. For more detailed information regarding energy systems, refer to module 2.
When testing athletes based on energy system utilization, strength and conditioning coaches should
use Table 1 to select which tests to use for which sports. It should be taken into consideration that
the physiological demands of each sport are different and require athletes to play in different energy
systems throughout their event. While some sports require that the athletes predominantly use one
energy system over another, others require an interaction of all three energy systems.
Table 1. Sports, Energy System Distribution and Tests (8,10,11)
NCAA SPORTs

Diving
Track Events (100m, 200m Sprints)
Field Events (track & field)
Golf
Football (skill_linemen)
Fencing
Ice Hockey (goalie)
Swimming (50m)
Wrestling
Baseball
Gymnastics
Skiing (Slalom & Jumping)
Softball
Swimming (100m)
Track Events (400m Sprints)
Volleyball
Tennis
Soccer (goalie, wings, strikers)
Soccer (halfbacks or sweeper)
Basketball
Ice Hockey (forwards, defense)
Lacrosse (midfielders, man-down)
Skiing (Downhill)
Field Hockey
Lacrosse (goalie, defense, attacker)
Swimming (200m)
Track Events (800m Sprints)
Water polo
Track Events (1 mile)
Swimming (400m)
Rowing
Swimming (1500m)
Track Events (2 miles)
Track Events (3 miles)
Track Events (6 miles, cross-country)
Skiing (Cross Country)
Track Events (marathon)

ATP-PC Anaerobic
and
Glycolysis
Anaerobic
and
Glycolysis Aerobic
98
2
95
5
95
5
95
5
90
10
90
10
90
5
90
5
90
5
80
15
80
15
80
15
80
15
80
15
80
15
80
5
70
20
60
30
60
20
60
20
60
20
60
20
50
30
50
20
50
20
30
65
30
65
10
60
30
30
20
40
20
30
10
20
10
20
10
20
5
15
5
10
5

Aerobic

5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
15
10
10
20
20
20
20
20
30
30
5
5
30
40
40
50
70
70
70
80
85
95

ATP-PC Anaerobic
and
Glycolysis
Anaerobic
and
Glycolysis Aerobic
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
1
3
1
3
1

Aerobic

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

Predominat
e Energy
System
ATP-PC
ATP-PC
ATP-PC
ATP-PC
ATP-PC
ATP-PC
ATP-PC
ATP-PC
ATP-PC
ATP-PC
ATP-PC
ATP-PC
ATP-PC
ATP-PC
ATP-PC
ATP-PC
ATP-PC
ATP-PC
ATP-PC
ATP-PC
ATP-PC
ATP-PC
Glycolytic
Glycolytic
Glycolytic
Glycolytic
Glycolytic
Glycolytic
Aerobic
Aerobic
Aerobic
Aerobic
Aerobic
Aerobic
Aerobic
Aerobic
Aerobic

Sport Type
Anaerobic
Anaerobic
Anaerobic
Anaerobic
Anaerobic
Anaerobic
Anaerobic
Anaerobic
Anaerobic
Anaerobic
Anaerobic
Anaerobic
Anaerobic
Anaerobic
Anaerobic
Anaerobic
Intermittent
Intermittent
Intermittent
Intermittent
Intermittent
Intermittent
Intermittent
Intermittent
Intermittent
Intermittent
Intermittent
Intermittent
Endurance
Endurance
Endurance
Endurance
Endurance
Endurance
Endurance
Endurance
Endurance

Male
Female
300300Yard
Yard
Shuttle Shuttle
Average Average
59 - 64
65 - 71
59 - 64
65 - 71
59 - 64
65 - 71
59 - 64
65 - 71
59 - 64
65 - 71
59 - 64
65 - 71
59 - 64
65 - 71
59 - 64
65 - 71
59 - 64
65 - 71
57 - 62
63 - 69
57 - 62
63 - 69
57 - 62
63 - 69
57 - 62
63 - 69
57 - 62
63 - 69
57 - 62
63 - 69
57 - 62
63 - 69
54 - 59
58 - 65
54 - 59
58 - 65
54 - 59
58 - 65
54 - 59
58 - 65
54 - 59
58 - 65
54 - 59
58 - 65
52 - 57
56 - 63
52 - 57
56 - 63
52 - 57
56 - 63
52 - 57
56 - 63
52 - 57
56 - 63
52 - 57
56 - 63
54 - 59
58 - 65
54 - 59
58 - 65
54 - 59
58 - 65
54 - 59
58 - 65
54 - 59
58 - 65
54 - 59
58 - 65
54 - 59
58 - 65
54 - 59
58 - 65
54 - 59
58 - 65

Male Beep
Test Levels
8_11 - 11_6
8_11 - 11_6
8_11 - 11_6
8_11 - 11_6
8_11 - 11_6
8_11 - 11_6
8_11 - 11_6
8_11 - 11_6
8_11 - 11_6
11_7 - 12_11
11_7 - 12_11
11_7 - 12_11
11_7 - 12_11
11_7 - 12_11
11_7 - 12_11
11_7 - 12_11
12_12 - 14_8
12_12 - 14_8
12_12 - 14_8
12_12 - 14_8
12_12 - 14_8
12_12 - 14_8
14_9 - 16_9
14_9 - 16_9
14_9 - 16_9
14_9 - 16_9
14_9 - 16_9
14_9 - 16_9
16_10 +
16_10 +
16_10 +
16_10 +
16_10 +
16_10 +
16_10 +
16_10 +
16_10 +

Female
Beep Test
Levels
6_7 - 9_2
6_7 - 9_2
6_7 - 9_2
6_7 - 9_2
6_7 - 9_2
6_7 - 9_2
6_7 - 9_2
6_7 - 9_2
6_7 - 9_2
9_3 - 10_7
9_3 - 10_7
9_3 - 10_7
9_3 - 10_7
9_3 - 10_7
9_3 - 10_7
9_3 - 10_7
10_8 - 12_1
10_8 - 12_1
10_8 - 12_1
10_8 - 12_1
10_8 - 12_1
10_8 - 12_1
12_2 - 13_10
12_2 - 13_10
12_2 - 13_10
12_2 - 13_10
12_2 - 13_10
12_2 - 13_10
13_11 +
13_11 +
13_11 +
13_11 +
13_11 +
13_11 +
13_11 +
13_11 +
13_11 +

Male
Female
VO2ma VO2ma
x
x
44 - 51
35 - 43
44 - 51
35 - 43
44 - 51
35 - 43
44 - 51
35 - 43
44 - 51
35 - 43
44 - 51
35 - 43
44 - 51
35 - 43
44 - 51
35 - 43
44 - 51
35 - 43
52 - 56
44 - 48
52 - 56
44 - 48
52 - 56
44 - 48
52 - 56
44 - 48
52 - 56
44 - 48
52 - 56
44 - 48
52 - 56
44 - 48
57 - 62
49 - 53
57 - 62
49 - 53
57 - 62
49 - 53
57 - 62
49 - 53
57 - 62
49 - 53
57 - 62
49 - 53
63 - 69
54 - 59
63 - 69
54 - 59
63 - 69
54 - 59
63 - 69
54 - 59
63 - 69
54 - 59
63 - 69
54 - 59
70 +
60 +
70 +
60 +
70 +
60 +
70 +
60 +
70 +
60 +
70 +
60 +
70 +
60 +
70 +
60 +
70 +
60 +

The NSCA recommends that strength and conditioning coaches administer three standardized
performance tests in pre-tests; the vertical jump, pro-agility run and 10-yard dash. These tests
measure the phosphogen system and energy released by the breakdown of adenosine triphosphate
(ATP). The tests also help identify talent, determine initial performance levels, track progress, and
evaluate the effectiveness of the strength and conditioning program.
In regard to an energy system, if Table 1 indicates more than a 10% involvement for a given sport,
the NSCA recommends administering one test for that energy system. If there is less than 10%
involvement, there is no need to test that system.
The examples below are pre-tests for sport in each of the three categories. Notice that baseline
testing is mixed with performance testing. Baseline needs to be administered in the pre-test and
before beginning an in-season program.

Example of Pre-Test for Anaerobic Sport Baseball


Day 1 Monday (morning)
Performance Testing
Vertical jump
Pro-agility run (right and left)
10-yard dash
40-yard dash (off-season)
Baseline Testing
Vertical jump (right leg)
Vertical jump (left leg)
Forward hops on right leg for distance
Forward hops on left leg for distance
Lateral hops on left leg for distance
Lateral hops on left leg for distance
Linear agility (5/10/5)
Circle right
Circle left
Day 2 Tuesday (morning)
Anaerobic Capacity
300-yard shuttle sprint with repeat
Example of Pre-Test for Intermittent Sport Soccer
Day 1 Monday (morning)
Performance Testing
Vertical jump
Pro-agility run (right and left)
10-yard dash
40-yard dash (off-season)
Baseline Testing
Vertical jump (right leg)
Vertical jump (left leg)
Forward hops on right leg for distance
Forward hops on left leg for distance
Lateral hops on left leg for distance
Lateral hops on left leg for distance
Linear agility (5/10/5)

Circle right
Circle left
Anaerobic Capacity (afternoon)
300-yard shuttle sprint with repeat
Day 2 Friday (morning)
Aerobic Capacity
Beep Test
Example of Pre-Test for Endurance Sport Cross-Country Skiing
Day 1 Monday (morning)
Performance Testing
Vertical jump
Pro-agility run (right and left)
10-yard dash
40-yard dash (off-season)
Baseline Testing
Vertical jump (right leg)
Vertical jump (left leg)
Forward hops on right leg for distance
Forward hops on left leg for distance
Lateral hops on left leg for distance
Lateral hops on left leg for distance
Linear agility (5/10/5)
Circle right
Circle left
Anaerobic Capacity (afternoon)
300-yard shuttle sprint with repeat
Day 2 Friday (morning)
Aerobic Capacity
Beep Test
Performance Testing
Each test must measure the component it is constructed to measure. Does the test used to measure
performance potential correlate to the specific sport in which the athlete participates? It is important
that strength and conditioning coaches identify tests that measure what they are supposed to

measure (e.g., power, change of direction, acceleration, speed, anaerobic capacity, aerobic capacity,
etc.).
Vertical jump, pro-agility run and 10-yard dash: A critical review
In the 1960s the jump reach was recognized as a valid predictor of athletic talent. It later became
known as the vertical jump. The vertical jump edged out the standing long jump as the best indicator
of athletic talent for power sports (15).
The development of explosive power in the legs is important for success in a variety of
athletic pursuits, from attacking in volleyball to rebounding in basketball. But even for
activities that do not rely specifically on the vertical jump, such as blocking in football,
vertical jump tests provide an effective measurement of power as an indirect measure of
performance. Such tests are used for assessing weightlifters and powerlifters, football and
basketball players, volleyball players, swimmers, and college students (15).
Strength and conditioning coaches should use performance tests such as the vertical jump to
assess athletic ability, which helps identify athletes strengths and weaknesses, chart and
document progress, and assign positions and ranking to individuals. Since most athletes and
coaches strive for an improvement in performance, vertical jump testing can be used to
measure the effectiveness of various training programs in the development of explosive
power, including strength training programs, plyometrics, and periodization training. The
vertical jump can also be used for talent identification and the prediction of future success in
specific athletic disciplines, including weightlifting and swimming (15).
The NSCA recommends four tests for performance testing: the vertical jump, pro-agility run, 10yard dash and 40-yard dash to measure power, agility, acceleration and speed. The 40-yard dash is
included in the off-season but not used during the season to avoid hamstring injuries. The 40-yard
dash should be used in pre-tests unless the tests take place in the off-season.
Dr. Chris Eskridge of the University of Nebraska at Lincoln found that three performance tests
compared to the four tests had a 0.9695 positive correlation (19). This means the 40-yard dash does
not need to be included to identify talent in power sports if the three tests are performed. Elite
athletes demonstrate high levels of explosive power and the ability to accelerate and decelerate to
change directions with great control. The recommended tests measure those characteristics.
For many years the pro-agility run and 10-yard dash were very difficult to time with hand-held
stopwatches which forced coaches to use the 40-yard dash and average different times. The
invention of electronic timers now allows coaches to time the pro-agility run and 10-yard dash to
0.001 of a second.
Recommended process for testing performance and baseline

Strength and conditioning coaches must determine the tests that will be done for each specific
testing session. At this time, coaches can choose to test only performance or incorporate the
baseline testing depending on the time of year (off-season or pre-season). The facility needs to be
reserved as necessary to complete the testing unimpeded. Before testing begins, coaches should
organize the equipment and the facility so that the flow of the testing goes with the order of the
tests. Coaches also need to estimate the time needed for testing so that a plan can be made to
determine who is doing what and when. Volunteers can be recruited to help with some of the testing
as well; usually other coaches are the most reliable. Coaches should notify the athletes of a test
schedule so they know when to be there for warm-up and when their testing session will begin. The
final step of preparation involves developing test data collection cards and printing them for each
individual athlete (8).
Example test data collection card for performance tests
During performance tests athletes should carry data collection cards with them to each test station,
on which coaches can record test results as they are performed. The card should include all the tests
that are administered and personal information, such as name and date. The tests should be listed in
the order in which they are performed to avoid confusion. Coaches record test data on each athletes
card until all tests have been completed.
Figure 1. Example Test Data Collection Card with Baseline (17)
Test Data Collection Card
Personal Information

Name:
Sport:

Position:

Age:

Date:

Height:

Weight:

Body Comp:

%Fat

lbs. of LBM

Performance Tests

Test
Vertical Jump

Score

% Rank

Goal

Test
VJ on Left Leg
Hops on Left Leg
Pro-Agility Split Left
Circle Left

Score

Pro-Agility Run

10-Yard Dash
40-Yard Dash
Average Percentile Rank
Baseline Tests

Test
VJ on Right Leg
Hops on Right Leg
Pro-Agility Split
Circle Right
Linear Agility

Score

Anaerobic Capacity Tests

Test

Score

Rank

Goal

300 Yard Shuttle Run1


300 Yard Shuttle Run2

Aerobic Capacity Tests

Test
Beep Test

Score

Rank

Goal

Figure 2. Example Test Data Collection Card (17)

Test Data Collection Card


Personal Information

Name:
Sport:

Position:

Age:

Date:

Height:

Weight:

Body Comp:

%Fat

lbs. of LBM

Performance Tests

Test
Vertical Jump

Score

% Rank

Goal

Pro-Agility Run

10-Yard Dash
40-Yard Dash
Average Percentile Rank
Anaerobic Capacity Tests

Test

Score

Rank

Goal

300 Yard Shuttle Run1


300 Yard Shuttle Run2

Aerobic Capacity Tests

Test
Beep Test

Score

Rank

Goal

Figure 3. Example Waiver (16)

Order of Recommended Performance Testing Procedures


The following provides the recommended order for performance testing procedures in regards to
planning and what each step entails. The order of tests is as follows: body composition, height,
weight, vertical jump, pro-agility run, 10-yard dash, and 40-yard dash.
Body composition
Measuring an athletes body weight and documenting their weight history provides insight on an
athletes nutritional status and any past weight struggles. Body composition refers to the ratio of lean
body mass (e.g., muscle, bone, vital organs, etc.) to fat mass. By measuring changes in body
composition over extended periods of time, it can be determined whether or not the athlete is
maintaining a body composition range that is beneficial for their sport. Accurately assessing body

composition also tracks whether the athlete is maintaining, gaining, or losing muscle mass. Strength
coach Mike Arthur, of the University of Nebraska at Lincoln, showed than any increase in lean body
mass results in an increase in performance testing scores, and any decrease in lean body mass results
in a decrease in performance testing scores (3). Measuring body fat can also be used as a tool to
assess overtraining and eating disorders, especially in sports that have a large aesthetic component.
There are many different methods used to assess body fat. Some laboratory methods include dualenergy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), underwater weighing, and air displacement plethysmography
(BOD POD) along with some field methods that include skinfold (SKF) calipers, body mass index
(BMI), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and near-infrared interactance and anthropometry
(19). Some of these techniques are advantageous in certain ways compared to others. For example
skinfold measurements, BIA, and BMI are the most convenient and cost effective when testing a
large amount of athletes. However, these measurements can also have high variability within their
accuracy. Underwater weighing, DXA and the BOD POD are more accurate, but these methods
may not be easily accessible or realistic for a school budget. These methods are mainly used in
research settings in a laboratory and/or some university settings.
DXA works by emitting x-rays at two discrete energy levels, which are collimated into a beam and
directed into the body posteriorly to anteriorly. Basically, DXA uses a constant potential x-ray
source and a K-edge filter (cerium) to generate two main energy peaks. The attenuation of soft tissue
is measured rather than assumed. The ratio of x-ray beam attenuation at the lower energy relative to
that at the higher energy is used to distinguish fat from fat-free mass (minus skeletal components)
(19).
DXA is a quick, accurate, and efficient way to measure body fat; however, it is very costly and not
readily accessible. Also, research shows that DXA has shown error when measuring body
composition in older individuals. The gold standard for measuring body fat is DXA, but skinfold
calipers and the BOD POD are also acceptable measures for large groups. Regardless of the method
used, body composition should be measured consistently over a long period of time so changes in
lean body mass can be noted.
Underwater weighing, also known as hydrostatic weighing, is a method of measuring body
composition where the athlete is submerged into a tank of water and body composition is
determined based on total body density. Underwater weighing assumes that the density of lean tissue
is more than water and the density of fat tissue is less than water.
The BOD POD is an egg shaped device that an athlete sits in, and the machine uses air
displacement plethysmography to measure body density (from mass and volume). The BOD POD
obtains body mass from a weighing scale and obtains body volume by first measuring the interior of
the empty chamber and then taking this measure again with the athlete inside. This machine is

relatively easy to use, time-efficient, and can accommodate athletes of all sizes. A disadvantage is
that it is expensive and not easily accessible.
Skinfold calipers are a tool used to assess body composition and are commonly used by coaches.
Skinfold calipers are inexpensive and easy to use; however, there can be high variability with skinfold
calipers. It is vital that the same coach performs the testing each time when pre-testing and posttesting body composition with skinfold calipers. This keeps the test consistent and prevents
interpersonal variability. The first valid skinfold equations were published in 1951 and since that
time, more than 100 prediction equations using various combinations of anthropometric variables
have been reported in literature. Be sure to use the same formula for the pre-test and post-test to
keep the data reliable. One of the most popular skinfold equations was developed by Jackson and
Pollock (19). A high correlation (r = 0.98) was found between the 7SKF and the 3SKF therefore the
feasibility of using just three SKF sites is recommended (19). The three areas that are tested for men
include the chest, abdomen and thigh; and the three areas that are tested for women include the
triceps, suprailiac and thigh (5).
The 3SKF site equation for men 18 61 years Db (g/cc)^b = 1.109380 0.0008267 (3SKF) +
0.0000016 (3SKF)^2 0.0002574 (Age)
The 3SKF site equation for women 18 55 years Db (g/cc)^b = 1.0994921 0.0009929
(3SKF) + 0.0000023 (3SKF)^2 0.0001392 (Age)
BIA measures the impedance to the flow of an electrical current through the tissues of the body
which can then be used to estimate the amount of total water in the body. After the total amount of
water is calculated, the fat-free mass or lean body mass can be calculated.
Regardless of which method is used to determine body fat, strength and conditioning coaches need
to realize that taking body fat measurements is only a part of the total process. One of the most
important steps for a coach is to subtract the fat from what the athlete weights to determine their
lean body mass. Coaches want to develop programs to improve fat-free mass or lean body mass.
Gaining this muscle mass is one of the most important purposes of the weight room. As a result,
one of the most important goals for any strength coach is to develop lean muscle mass in their offseason programs.
Height
Equipment and materials needed to measure an athletes height:
Device to measure height or flat wall against which the athlete stands
Measuring tape or marked area on wall
Device to place on the head of the athlete that forms a right angle with the wall
Procedure:
1. Athlete must take shoes off

2. Athlete must stand with heels, buttocks, back and head against the wall
3. Place device on athletes head so that a right angle is formed with the wall
4. Measure to the nearest 1/2 in. and record height
Weight
Equipment and materials needed to measure an athletes weight:
Scale
Procedure:
1. Athlete must weigh-in with only t-shirt, shorts, and socks (no shoes, sweats or equipment)
2. Athlete should weigh prior to any activity to avoid fluctuations due to dehydration
3. Round body weight to the nearest whole pound
Vertical jump
Equipment and materials needed to measure an athletes vertical jump:
Device or unit to measure vertical jump
Procedure:
1. Athlete stands with side to the unit
2. Make sure feet and hips are next to the unit
3. Athlete then reaches as high as possible with one hand
4. With feet flat, the athlete jumps, touching the highest vane possible (no steps or shuffling of
the feet are allowed)
5. The jump is recorded and displayed to the nearest 1/4 in.
6. Record the better of two trials
Pro-agility run
Equipment and materials needed to measure an athletes pro-agility run:
Electronic agility timer
20 yards or more of flat running surface on wood basketball floor
Procedure:
1. Start in the hit position straddling the center line
2. The athlete always begins by running to the right first
3. Run 5 yards and touch the line with the right hand
4. Return running 10 yards to the left and touch the line with the left hand
5. Run back to the right through the center line
6. The total distance is 20 yards
7. Record time to the nearest 0.001 of a second
10-Yard dash
Equipment and materials needed to measure an athletes 10-yard dash:
Electronic timer
10 yards or more of flat running surface on a wood basketball floor

Procedure:
1. Athlete places one hand on the starting line or start switch
2. Athlete holds steady for a second
3. Athlete runs and the timer starts automatically when the hand leaves the start switch
4. Record time to the nearest 0.001 of a second
40-Yard dash (off-season only)
Equipment and materials needed to test an athletes 40-yard dash:
Electronic timer
40 yards or more of flat running surface
Procedure:
1. Athlete places one hand on the starting line or start switch
2. Athlete holds steady for a second
3. Athlete runs and the timer starts automatically when the hand leaves the start switch
4. Record time to the nearest 0.001 of a second
Recommended Floor Type
A wood basketball floor was determined to provide the safest and most consistent testing surface by
a group of NSCA strength coaches asked to compare testing surfaces in 2007 (5). This decision
opened the door for testing to be done day or night and eliminated many environmental problems
such as the amount of allowable wind. The condition of the field, rain, temperature and darkness are
all eliminated when testing indoors on a wood basketball floor.
Hamstring Problems with the 40-yard Dash
In the 1970s, Mike Arthur found they were putting the athletes at risk by running the 40-yard dash
too often. In one example, the school tested the 40-yard dash at the beginning of a winter
conditioning program by having the athletes run two or three times, then again in the middle of the
6-week program two or three times and finished at the end of the winter program with two or three
more 40-yard dashes. In six weeks they were subjecting athletes to 6 9 maximum effort 40-yard
dashes for time in addition to the demands of the conditioning program itself. They found that
many hamstring injuries occurred as athletes neared top speed during the test. Due to the risk of
hamstring injuries, coaches were forced to back off to performing only two 40-yard dashes at the
beginning of winter conditioning and two at the end (2).
Knowing that a hamstring injury just before the season would not give the athlete time to heal
before the season started, coaches discontinued running the 40-yard dash prior to the start of the
season at the University of Nebraska at Lincoln. The only exceptions during the season might be
incoming freshmen that are not expected to compete.

Replacing the 40-yard dash with the 10-yard dash


When coaches compare the benefits of running 10 yards indoors to 40 yards outdoors, they find that
measuring 10 yards is easier and more beneficial than putting athletes at risk running 40 yards. The
critical action in most sports occurs in the first few steps, so measuring acceleration is just as
important, if not more for measuring top speed.
Acceleration is the rate in the change of speed. It is figured by subtracting the initial speed from the
final speed and dividing by time. Acceleration is greatest at the initial portion of the run. The
greatest rate in the change of speed happens during the initial stages of a sprint. An athlete is either
going to have success or is going to get beat in the first few steps in most power sports. Speed is
relative to the distance run and most power sports are a series of short bursts. Therefore, the athlete
with the greatest acceleration will have the best chance for success.
Some coaches are not used to looking at 10-yard dash times, but once they have an opportunity to
see and compare the 10-yard dash times with 40-yard dash times they will see why 10-yard dash
times are so important. For example, if a male athlete runs the 40-yard dash in 5.00 s that same
athlete should also be capable of running a 10-yard dash time in 1.75 s.
Annual Performance Test Cycle
The combination of testing periods forms an annual test cycle which ideally should take place a
week before a conditioning period starts. Strength and conditioning coaches should put an emphasis
on testing but only three or four times per year (8).
Reliability
Reliability is dependent upon the consistency of testing conditions and results. The testing results
will be different if testing is done outside on the grass one time, then inside on the basketball court
another time. The condition of the field, the time of day, wind, rain, temperature, etc. all affect the
testing results.
The order the tests are given will affect the results as well. The testing order needs to be the same
each and every time and the testing equipment needs to be the same each time. Have the same
coaches administer the same test each time, if possible.
Reliability checklist
Check with medical staff before testing an injured athlete
Use the same warm-up routine prior to testing (never test without a warm-up)
Use the same coach to perform testing procedures
Test fresh not after a workout
Perform tests on the same surface each time

Perform tests using the same equipment each time


Perform tests at the same time of the day each time
With small groups do all athletes at one station then move to the next test station
Large groups have athletes move from test station to test station
Announce number of attempts for each test
Announce number of recommended warm-ups
Post the test procedures
Record the best effort
Cool-down or stretch prior to completing tests

Baseline Testing
Athletes participating in any team or individual speed/ power sport should undergo a pre-practice
assessment to determine baseline data. The assessments can be done by physicians, nurse
practitioners, physical therapists, athletic trainers, or certified strength and conditioning coaches.
Baseline test data is used to assist physicians and therapists to accurately determine an athletes
ability to return to a sport following an injury through use of a pre-/post-injury performance
comparison.
Being able to run straight ahead does not mean an athlete is ready to go back to full competition.
Below are aspects that should be taken into account when evaluating whether an athlete is ready to
return to practice or competition.
Mobility (regaining full dynamic movement)
Functional strength (emphasizing multi-planar progressions for the upper and lower
extremities)
Proprioceptive training (respond to predictable and random stress in different positions with
safe loads that mimic sport-specific conditions)
Power development (achieve moderate to higher volume at a low intensity prior to moving
to higher intensity loading with lower volume)
Athletic movement drills (agility drills include acceleration and deceleration)
Sport-specific progressive loading (measure how increasing load affects the injured area)
Stress and recovery (pushing too fast may aggravate the injury)
When to perform baseline testing
Baseline testing should be assessed a minimum of one time per year with performance testing for
athletes to initially establish where athletes are starting from, to assess their progress in recovering
from injury, and to determine if they are predisposed to injury through any drastic differences
between the right and left sides. For healthy athletes, baseline testing will be performed one time per
year, and athletes that are recovering from injury will test more than once to determine if they are
ready to return to training.

Order of Recommended Baseline Testing Procedures


As previous stated, the order in which baselines tests are performed is important for the validity and
accuracy of the results. Of equal importance is the procedure that accompanies the test. Tests are
only as accurate as their execution. The following provides detailed steps to perform each baseline
test correctly and in the recommended order.
Right foot vertical jump
Equipment and materials needed to test an athletes right foot vertical jump:
Device to measure vertical jump
Procedure:
1. Athlete stands with side to the unit
2. Make sure feet and hips are next to the unit
3. Athlete then reaches as high as possible with the left hand
4. With the right foot on the ground and the left foot slightly raised off the ground, the athlete
jumps, touching the highest vane possible (no steps or shuffling of the feet are allowed)
5. The jump is recorded and displayed to the nearest 1/4 in.
6. Record the better of two trials
Left foot vertical jump
Equipment and materials needed to test an athletes left foot vertical jump:
Device to measure vertical jump
Procedure:
1. Athlete stands with side to the unit
2. Make sure feet and hips are next to the unit
3. Athlete then reaches as high as possible with right hand
4. With the left foot on the ground and the right foot slightly raised off the ground, the athlete
jumps, touching the highest vane possible (no steps or shuffling of the feet are allowed)
5. The jump is recorded and displayed to the nearest 1/4 in.
6. Record the better of two trials
Hop on right leg for distance
Equipment needed to test an athletes right-leg hop for distance:
Tape measure
10 yards of wood floor for testing
Procedures:
1. Start with feet hip width apart and toes pointed straight ahead
2. Standing with the right toe positioned to the zero mark on the tape measure, lift the left foot
off the ground
3. Proceed to jump off the right leg to cover as much distance as possible for three jumps

4. When landing on the final jump, be sure to land on both feet to prevent extra hops or steps
5. Measure the back of the heel that is positioned closest to the starting line
Hop on left leg for distance
Equipment needed to test an athletes left-leg hop for distance:
Tape measure
10 yards of wood floor for testing
Procedures:
1. Start with feet hip width apart and toes pointed straight ahead
2. Standing with the left toe positioned to the zero mark on the tape measure, lift the right foot
off the ground
3. Proceed to jump off the left leg to cover as much distance as possible for three jumps
4. When landing on the final jump, be sure to land on both feet to prevent extra hops or steps
5. Measure the back of the heel that is positioned closest to the starting line
Pro-agility split run starting to the right
Equipment and materials needed to test an athletes pro-agility split run to the right:
Electronic agility timer
15 yards or more of flat running surface on wood basketball floor
Procedure:
1. Start in an athletic position straddling the center line
2. The athlete begins by running to the right first
3. Run 5 yards and touch the line with the right hand
4. Turn and sprint 5 yards finishing through the center line
5. The total distance is 10 yards
6. Record time to the nearest 0.001 of a second
Pro-agility split run starting to the left
Equipment and materials needed to test an athletes pro-agility split run to the left:
Electronic agility timer
15 yards or more of flat running surface on wood basketball floor
Procedure:
1. Start in an athletic position straddling the center line
2. The athlete begins by running to the left first
3. Run 5 yards and touch the line with the left hand
4. Turn and sprint 5 yards finishing through the center line
5. The total distance is 10 yards
Linear pro-agility 5/10/5
Equipment and materials needed to test an athletes linear pro-agility:
Electronic agility timer

15 yards or more of flat running surface on wood basketball floor


Procedure:
1. Start in an athletic position on the center line with the laser in the center of the hip
2. The athlete begins by sprinting forward
3. Run 5 yards and touch the line with the right hand
4. The athlete then runs backwards for 10 yards and touches the line with the right hand
5. The athlete finishes by sprinting through the center line
6. The total distance is 20 yards
7. Record time to the nearest 0.001 of a second
Circle to the right
Equipment and materials needed to measure an athletes circle to the right:
Electronic timer
A circle that measures 4 yards in diameter
Procedures:
1. Position the athlete to where the right side is the side closest to the circle
2. Start in an athletic position with the laser beam in the center of the hip
3. Start sprinting around the circle, staying as close to the circle as possible without touching it
4. Finish sprinting through the position that the athlete started at
5. The test measures 12.5 yards
6. Measure to the nearest 0.001 of a second
Circle to the left
Equipment and materials needed to test an athletes circle to the left:
Electronic timer
A circle that measures 4 yards in diameter
Procedures:
1. Position the athlete to where the left side is the side closest to the circle
2. Start in an athletic position with the laser beam in the center of the hip
3. Start sprinting around the circle, staying as close to the circle as possible without touching it
4. Finish sprinting through the position that the athlete started at
5. The test measures 12.5 yards
6. Measure to the nearest 0.001 of a second
Anaerobic Capacity Testing
The importance of both speed and agility for determining the success of an athlete or team is well
acknowledged among strength and conditioning coaches. However, the importance of these
variables to the athlete is not only related to how fast or how quick they are, but whether the athlete
can maintain speed and agility performance at maximum levels throughout the duration of a
competitive contest (20).

When performing sports that require multiple sprints followed by bouts of recovery such as soccer,
basketball, lacrosse, hockey, etc., the more efficiently the player can regenerate ATP after each bout
of anaerobic activity, the more effective the next sprint will be. In a game, the inability to recover
from a forward sprint while attacking may lead to a delay in assuming the correct defensive or
offensive position, which can leave the team in a vulnerable position. A player who is able to rapidly
recover and repeat intense actions such as sprinting will perform better, especially in the closing
stages of the match or game (20).
The 300-yard shuttle run test is an excellent test of the anaerobic capacity of an athlete. The use of
this test is beneficial to any sport in which there are rapid changes of direction in multiple planes of
movement. Athletes that participate in sports such as soccer, rugby, football, basketball, baseball,
wresting, ice hockey and field hockey will all benefit from this test. This test measures the athletes
ability to handle extreme levels of intensity as well as the ability to maintain high performance levels.
The 300-yard shuttle predominantly measures the lactic acid system with some interplay of the
phosphogen system (ATP-PC) system in relation to the short bursts of acceleration upon changing
direction for each lap of the course (14).
300-Yard shuttle run
Purpose: This is a test of anaerobic endurance and agility.
Equipment and materials needed to test at athletes 300-yard shuttle run:
Stopwatches
Measuring tape and cones
40 yards of flat running surface
Procedure:
1. Cones are placed 25 yards apart (on lines) to indicate the sprint distance
2. Warm-up properly before beginning the two trial test
3. The athlete lines up behind the start line in a two-point stance
4. The athlete starts on the timers command and sprints to the opposite 25-yard line and
touches it with their hand
5. The athlete turns and sprints back to the start line and touches it with the opposite hand
6. This round trip is repeated six times (down and back is one round trip) without stopping
covering 300 yards total
7. Rest 5 min
8. Repeat test
Scoring:
Record times for both runs and compare the difference between the two times
Athletes with poor anaerobic endurance will have trouble with the second run
Average both runs and compare the average score with Table 1
Comments:

This is a maximal anaerobic lactic endurance capacity test and in order to receive the highest
score, players must sprint at 100% effort the entire time
Encourage athletes not to pace themselves
Athletes must touch the lines with opposite hands to prevent them from turning to their
dominate side every time

Aerobic Capacity Testing


Athletes are required to possess abilities that are specific to their sport therefore must be tested
correctly to identify and assess these performance components; based on Table 1, sports with more
than 10% of an aerobic component need to include an aerobic capacity test in their battery of tests.
The NSCA recommends the beep test or a modification if it fits a sport better.
Many types of athletes such as distance runners, cyclists, swimmers, and tri-athletes want to increase
performance and efficiency while reducing fatigue and injury. At a standard submaximal power
output, there is less reliance on anaerobic metabolism and a greater proportion of energy is derived
via aerobic metabolism. A higher percentage of exercise time spent in the aerobic energy system
means less metabolic stress, decreased lactate production, and decreased lactate accumulation (18).
These factors can potentially cause an increase in work time and a reduction in fatigue during sports
performance.
When an athlete has reached a certain level of aerobic capacity, further gains may produce little to
no additional benefit to recovery or performance in high-intensity, intermittent sports. Therefore,
VO2max results may not accurately predict the ability of elite athletes to perform well in intermittent
sports if they all have a good aerobic base. This ceiling effect has been shown in infantry solders as
well as field hockey, soccer, ice hockey, and basketball players with a VO2max ranging between 55
60 mL/kg/min (1,4,12,13). Further research is needed to confirm the ceiling effect as well as
determine a minimum aerobic capacity necessary to recover from intermittent sports.
Although training the aerobic system may lead to slower performance times at a lower power level, it
will extend the total work performed by the athlete (4). However, specific training to increase
aerobic endurance may limit maximal strength and power, so careful analysis of an athletes program
goals are necessary (7).
In elite athletes, VO2max is not a good predictor of performance. The winner of a marathon race for
example, cannot be predicted from maximal oxygen uptake (8). Perhaps more significant than
VO2max is the speed at which an athlete can run, bike or swim at a certain percentage of VO2max.
Two athletes may have the same level of aerobic power but one may reach their VO2max at a
running speed of 20 km/hr and the other at 22 km/hr. While a high VO2max may be a prerequisite
for performance in endurance events at the highest level, other markers such as lactate threshold are
more predictive of performance for anaerobic sports (14). Again, the speed at lactate threshold is

more significant than the actual value itself. Think of VO2max as an athletes aerobic potential and
the lactate threshold as the marker for how much of that potential they are tapping.
Sports with less than 5% of an aerobic component do not need to include an aerobic capacity test in
their selection of tests. Training to increase aerobic capacity may limit maximum strength and power
therefore measuring volume of oxygen consumption is not necessary for anaerobic sports.
Beep Test
Purpose: This is a test of aerobic endurance.
Equipment needed to perform the Beep Test:
Flat non-slip surface
Cones
Measuring tape
Beep Test CD
CD player and speakers
Procedure:
1. This test involves continuous running between two lines 20 m apart in time to recorded
beeps
2. The test subjects stand behind one of the lines facing the second line, and begin running
when instructed by the CD or tape (the speed at the start is quite slow)
3. The subject continues running between the two lines, turning when signaled by the recorded
beeps
4. After about 1 min, a sound indicates an increase in speed, and the beeps will be closer
together (this continues each minute or level)
5. If the line is not reached in time for each beep, the subject must run to the line turn and try
to catch up with the pace within 2 more beeps
6. The test is stopped if the subject fails to reach the line (within 2 m) for two consecutive ends
Scoring:
An athlete's score is the level and number of shuttles (20 m) reached before they were unable
to keep up with the recording
Record the last level completed (not necessarily the level stopped at)
This level score can be converted to a VO2max equivalent score using Table 1
Table 2. Beep Test Scores

Level Shuttles
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

7
8
8
9
9
10
10
11
11
11
12
12
13
13
13
14
14
15
15
16
16

Speed Shuttle Time Total level


Cumulative Cumulative Time
Distance (m)
(km/h) (seconds)
time (s)
Distance (m) (min and seconds)
8
9
63
140
140
1:03
9
8
64
160
300
2:07
9.5
7.58
60.63
160
460
3:08
10
7.2
64.8
180
640
4:12
10.5
6.86
61.71
180
820
5:14
11
6.55
65.5
200
1020
6:20
11.5
6.26
62.61
200
1220
7:22
12
6
66
220
1440
8:28
12.5
5.76
63.36
220
1660
9:31
13
5.54
60.92
220
1880
10:32
13.5
5.33
64
240
2120
11:36
14
5.14
61.71
240
2360
12:38
14.5
4.97
64.55
260
2620
13:43
15
4.8
62.4
260
2880
14:45
15.5
4.65
60.39
260
3140
15:46
16
4.5
63
280
3420
16:49
16.5
4.36
61.09
280
3700
17:50
17
4.24
63.53
300
4000
18:54
17.5
4.11
61.71
300
4300
19:56
18
4
64
320
4620
21:00
18.5
3.89
62.27
320
4940
22:03

Strength Testing
Test strength during a training program occurs at the end of each phase. Strength testing is kept
separate from performance testing because strength tests measure effort in the weight room and not
raw talent.
Order of recommended strength tests
The order of recommended strength tests is the hang clean and bench press followed by the squat.
The following are proper procedures for each strength test in the recommended order.
Strength Testing Procedures
Hang clean
Equipment and materials needed to test an athletes hang clean:
A platform or rubber floor with 30 x 36 in. area on it
An Olympic bar, bumper plates, and locks
Procedure for the hang clean:
1. Squat down to pick up the weight and stand erect with the bar held at arms length touching
the top part of the thigh
2. Keeping the back flat, lower the bar to the top of the knees by flexing at the hips (this will
put the athlete in the power position)

3. Extend immediately at the hips, knees, and ankles explosively to achieve triple-extension and
accelerate the bar upward while extending onto the balls of the feet and shrugging the
shoulders
4. Begin pulling the body under the bar by flexing at the elbows and keeping them high to keep
the bar close to the body
5. Jump the feet into a stance keeping them in the area and flex at the hips, knees and ankles to
sit into a quarter-squat position
6. Quickly rotate the elbows down and then up ahead of the bar catching it on the front
portion of the shoulders
7. Stand erect with the feet flat on the ground and shoulders directly over the balls of the feet
for the repetition to count
8. Lower the bar in a slow, controlled manner between reps by keeping the elbows slightly
flexed, sitting into a squat position, and allowing it to land on the thighs aiding in its
deceleration
Comments:
Once the bar is lifted off the platform the lift begins
Each athlete is allowed one attempt of a maximum of five consecutive repetitions
Lower the bar to the thighs in a controlled manner between repetitions without resting the
bar on a lifting belt
Stand erect after each repetition
If the bar is dropped to the platform the lift is over. The bar must remain under control at all
times; during the downward phase of the lift, between repetitions, and including lowering
the bar to the platform at the completion of the fifth repetition
Bench press
Equipment and materials needed to measure an athletes bench press:
Flat bench and Olympic set
Procedure:
1. The bench press is performed on a flat bench with a spotter
2. Grasp the barbell wider than shoulder-width apart with a pronated, closed grip
3. Both feet should be flat on the floor, and the back flat on the bench
4. With the assistance of the spotter, the bar is taken off the rack and brought over the lifters
shoulders
5. The bar is lowered to the chest (the athlete cannot bounce the weight off the chest)
6. Keeping the feet on the floor and the back flat on the bench, the athlete pushes the bar back
up, and slightly toward the head.
7. The repetition is good only when the arms are fully extended with the bar above the
shoulders
8. Take a weight that can be done for 4 6 reps then use the 1-Repetition Maximum (1RM)
calculator to determine the 1RM

Squat
Equipment and materials needed to test an athletes squat:
Squat or power rack and Olympic set
Procedure:
1. The bar should be placed across the center of the shoulders with the hands grasping it tightly
with a pronated, closed grip
2. Place the feet hip-width to shoulder-width apart with the toes pointed as straight ahead as
comfortably possible or slightly out
3. Head and eyes should be focused straight ahead to prevent arching and rounding of the back
4. Inhale and hold, isometrically contracting the abs and low back to stabilize the torso-trunk
5. The torso should be kept flat and straight with the axis of flexion running through the hip
thigh joint (the torso-trunk should be held between 35 and 45 degrees)
6. Push the hips back and down while simultaneously flexing at the knees and distribute body
weight to the heels
7. Maintain torso-trunk position and descend slowly in a controlled manner not allowing the
knees to extend past the toes (DO NOT bounce, jerk or stop the squat at the bottom)
8. Drive the feet through the floor while simultaneously raising the hips and shoulder
9. Keep the abs tight; maintain proper head-eye and torso-trunk position to stand erect and tall
back in the starting position for the repetition to count
Comments:
When performing the back squat, the proper depth has been achieved when the mid-thigh is
parallel to the floor, while still maintaining the proper back squat form
Squatting to additional depth with proper back squat form will result in greater core
flexibility, muscular development, and strength of the lower body than the mid-thigh
position
Squats will vary based on differences in body types, length of the legs, and flexibility of the
ankles
Technique will vary based on differences in foot stance widths, the use of heel pieces, and
the positioning of the bar on the back
Evaluation
Testing and evaluation can take strength and conditioning coaches from weight room supervisors
and make them the most important members on the coaching staff because of the ability to identify
athletic talent. Evaluating the test results of each athlete can dictate to the coach which athletes
produce the most power, change direction the quickest, accelerate the fastest and are in the best
shape. By knowing this information, coaches can know what athletes to play and recruit. Many
coaches today do not test and evaluate their athletes because they are afraid that if they show any
decrements in performance they could lose their job.

On the contrary, the testing and evaluation of athletes can monitor the progress of athletes and add
job security. Also, how can a coach really know their athletes are improving if there is no
testing/evaluation process? Testing and evaluation adds insight to guiding the design of strength and
conditioning program to address the strengths and weaknesses of the team.
This section on evaluation teaches the process of how to analyze test data and what to do with it.
The primary evaluation objective is to teach coaches how to distinguish initial strengths and
weaknesses of their athletes and team and how to monitor individual and team progress through the
use of pre- and post-testing.
To be a successful strength and conditioning coach, it is vital that the progress of each athlete is
tracked throughout their career. Testing and evaluating the athlete one time throughout the year is
not enough because the test data only tells the coach where the athlete is currently at. One set of
testing data cannot conclude whether the athlete has improved or decreased in performance. Each
athlete should be tested and evaluated between each phase of training (i.e. pre-season, in-season,
post-season and off-season) of each year. A history of each athletes testing results should be
recorded and kept so the coach can accurately monitor improvements and/or decrements in athletic
performance.
Table 3. Individual Test History Example Form
Personal Information
Last

First

Age

Curtis
Curtis
Curtis
Curtis
Curtis
Curtis
Curtis
Curtis
Curtis
Curtis
Curtis
Curtis

John
John
John
John
John
John
John
John
John
John
John
John

18
19
19
19
19
19
20
20
20
20
20
21

Cycle Information

Sport Year
Baseball
Baseball
Baseball
Baseball
Baseball
Baseball
Baseball
Baseball
Baseball
Baseball
Baseball
Baseball

Micro

Date

Body Comp

FR
Pre-Test
8/4/08
FR Off-season 10/3/08
FR Pre-season 12/19/08
FR In-season 2/20/09
FR Post-season 6/5/09
SO
Pre-Test
8/3/09
SO Off-season 10/5/09
SO Pre-season 12/23/09
SO In-season 2/19/10
SO Post-season 6/4/10
JR
Pre-Test
8/2/10
JR Off-season 10/1/10

100%
98%
92%

96%
94%
100%

96%

185
189
194
192
188
193
198
200
204
196
200
208

19.3
17.1
16.5
17.2
16.8
16.5
15
14.2
14.8
14.5
15.2
14

149
156
162
159
156
161
168
171
174
168
170
179

Baseline Testing
V.J. V.J. Pro-A Pro-A Linear Circle
Date
Right Left Right Left Agility Right
8/4/08 19.25 18.00 2.49 2.55
4.87
3.88
10/3/08
12/19/08
2/20/09 19.75 18.75 2.45 2.52
4.71
3.81
6/5/09
8/3/09 19.50 18.50 2.47 2.56
4.78
3.84
10/5/09
12/23/09
2/19/10 20.50 19.50 2.43 2.50
4.67
3.77
6/4/10
8/2/10 20.00 19.25 2.44 2.50
4.69
3.81
10/1/10

Performance Testing

Attendance WT. BF % LBM

Vertical
Jump
26.25
27.50
29.00
30.50
28.00
27.00
30.25
32.00
33.25
31.00
29.75
32.50

V.J. Pro- Pro-A 10-Yard 10 40-Yard 40


Rank Agility Rank Dash Rank Dash Rank
60
4.77
47.5
1.97
55
5.04
60
50
4.65
42.5
1.89
52.5
4.91
52.5
57.5 4.58
47.5
1.78
65
65
4.51
52.5
1.73
72.5
52.5 4.57
47.5
1.80
62.5
47.5 4.62
45
1.82
60
4.82
65
52.5 4.53
45
1.77
60
4.75
62.5
62.5 4.49
47.5
1.71
67.5
67.5 4.44
50
1.66
75
57.5 4.57
42.5
1.73
65
50
4.60
40
1.78
60
4.73
65
65
4.35
50
1.64
72.5
4.68
65

Anaerobic Capacity

Aerobic Capacity

Circle Hops on Hops 300


300
Level Projected Meets Min
Difference Average
Left
Right on Left trial 1 trial 2
Obtained VO2Max Standard
3.92
22.4
21.2
58
69
11
63.5

3.86

23.2

21.9

56

65

60.5

3.90

23

22.3

59

68

63.5

3.81

24.1

23.3

53

60

56.5

3.85

23.8

23

57

65

61

For evaluating athletes, there are two different types of evaluations. There is a pre-test evaluation
and a post-test evaluation.

Pre-test evaluation
The purpose of the pre-test evaluation is to establish a baseline for each individual athlete and the
team as a whole. Performance testing measures body composition, power, change of direction,
acceleration and speed, and anaerobic/aerobic capacity testing measures conditioning levels. By
measuring all of these areas, coaches can then identify the strengths and weaknesses of each
individual athlete and team. By knowing the strengths and weaknesses of the team, strength and
conditioning coaches can know what issues need to be addressed in designing the strength and
conditioning program for that team. For example, if a volleyball team tests and the vertical jump
scores are low, speed and agility scores are higher, and conditioning levels are high, then this will tell
the coach that he or she needs to design a program that will enable the team to improve in
generating power. By evaluating the test results, coaches will also be able to set realistic goals in each
test for each individual and team to improve in at the next testing session. Setting these goals will
help motivate both the athlete and the team to improve.
Pre-test evaluation objectives
Initial performance level
Initial conditioning level
Baseline level
Determine strengths and weaknesses
Help athlete set goals
Guide program design
Post-test evaluation
The purpose of the post-test evaluation is to identify the individual and team progress that was made
during each training session. During this evaluation coaches will be able to determine how successful
the training program was and what or if any specific part of the program needs to be changed. This
could include exercises that need to be added, changed or eliminated, increasing or decreasing sets
and reps, manipulation of the rest intervals, etc.
The post-test evaluation also allows for coaches to continue identifying strengths and weaknesses of
an athlete and the team as a whole. Also, the post-test evaluation is vital in determining whether or
not each athlete can handle the energy demands of each sport. For example, if a soccer player tests
and his body fat has increased, his performance tests have gotten worse, and he is not finishing the
anaerobic/aerobic capacity tests at an acceptable level, it will be easy for the coach to determine that
he is not performing at a level that is fit for play. This test data could mean that the athlete is simply
out of shape, or something could be physically wrong. Either way coaches are aware of the situation
and are in the best position to protect the athlete. Another advantage of the post-test evaluation is
that it will enable the athletes to see that they have reached their goals. They will acquire a sense of
accomplishment and their self-confidence in their ability to perform their sport at a high level be

boosted tremendously. Even if they do not fully reach their goals, they will still be in a position to
see the progress that they have made.
Post-test evaluation objectives
Individual progress
Team progress
Position specific progress
Determine effectiveness of the strength and conditioning program
Determine the athletes ability to handle the energy demands of the sport
Table 4. Performance Scores and Percentile Ranks by Age for Elite Athletes
19 Year Old - Elite Male Athletes

19 Year Old - Elite Female Athletes

Performance Scores and Percentile Ranks


Percentile
Rank
99
95
92.5
90
87.5
85
82.5
80
77.5
75
72.5
70
67.5
65
62.5
60
57.5
55
52.5
50
47.5
45
42.5
40
37.5
35
32.5
30
27.5
25
22.5
20
17.5
15
12.5
10
7.5
5
2.5

Vertical Jump
Inches
36.25 <
36
35.75
35.5
35.25 - 35
34.75 -34.5
34.25 - 34
33.75 -33.5
33.25 - 33
32.75 -32.5
32.25 - 32
31.75 -31.5
31.25 - 31
30.75 -30.5
30.25 - 30
29.75 -29.5
29.25 - 29
28.75 -28.5
28.25 - 28
27.75 -27.5
27.25 - 27
26.75 -26.5
26.25 - 26
25.75 -25.5
25.25 - 25
24.75 -24.5
24.25 - 24
23.75 -23.5
23.25 - 23
22.75 -22.5
22.25 - 22
21.75 -21.5
21.25 - 21
20.75 -20.5
20.25 - 20
19.75
19.5
19.25
< 19

Pro-Agility
Seconds
< 4.04
4.05 - 4.06
4.07 - 4.08
4.09 - 4.10
4.11 - 4.12
4.13 - 4.14
4.15 - 4.16
4.17 - 4.18
4.19 - 4.20
4.21 - 4.22
4.23 - 4.24
4.25 - 4.26
4.27 - 4.29
4.30 - 4.32
4.33 - 4.35
4.36 - 4.39
4.40 - 4.43
4.44 - 4.47
4.48 - 4.51
4.52 - 4.55
4.56 - 4.59
4.60 - 4.63
4.64 - 4.67
4.68 - 4.71
4.72 - 4.74
4.75 - 4.77
4.78 - 4.80
4.81 - 4.82
4.83 - 4.84
4.85 - 4.86
4.87 - 4.88
4.89 - 4.90
4.91 - 4.92
4.93 - 4.94
4.95 - 4.96
4.97 - 4.98
4.99 - 5.00
5.01 - 5.02
5.03 <

10-Yard Dash
Seconds
< 1.53
1.54 - 1.55
1.56 - 1.57
1.58 - 1.59
1.60 - 1.61
1.62 - 1.63
1.64 - 1.65
1.66 - 1.67
1.68 - 1.69
1.70 - 1.71
1.72 - 1.73
1.74 - 1.75
1.76 - 1.77
1.78 - 1.79
1.80 - 1.81
1.82 - 1.83
1.84 - 1.85
1.86 - 1.87
1.88 - 1.89
1.90 - 1.92
1.93 - 1.94
1.95 - 1.96
1.97 - 1.98
1.99 - 2.00
2.01 - 2.02
2.03 - 2.04
2.05 - 2.06
2.07 - 2.08
2.09 - 2.10
2.11 - 2.12
2.13 - 2.14
2.15 - 2.16
2.17 - 2.18
2.19 - 2.20
2.21 - 2.22
2.23 - 2.24
2.25 - 2.26
2.27 - 2.28
2.29 <

Performance Scores and Percentile Ranks


40-Yard Dash
Seconds
< 4.56
4.57 - 4.58
4.59 - 4.60
4.61 - 4.62
4.63 - 4.64
4.65 - 4.66
4.67 - 4.68
4.69 - 4.70
4.71 - 4.72
4.73 - 4.74
4.75 - 4.76
4.77 - 4.78
4.79 - 4.80
4.81 - 4.82
4.83 - 4.84
4.85 - 4.86
4.87 - 4.88
4.89 - 4.90
4.91 - 4.92
4.93 - 4.95
4.96 - 4.97
4.98 - 4.99
5.00 - 5.01
5.02 - 5.03
5.04 - 5.05
5.06 - 5.07
5.08 - 5.09
5.10 - 5.11
5.12 - 5.13
5.14 - 5.15
5.16 - 5.17
5.18 - 5.19
5.20 - 5.21
5.22 - 5.23
5.24 - 5.25
5.26 - 5.27
5.28 - 5.29
5.30 - 5.31
5.32 <

Percentile
Rank
99
95
92.5
90
87.5
85
82.5
80
77.5
75
72.5
70
67.5
65
62.5
60
57.5
55
52.5
50
47.5
45
42.5
40
37.5
35
32.5
30
27.5
25
22.5
20
17.5
15
12.5
10
7.5
5
2.5

Vertical Jump
Inches
27 <
26.75
26.5
26.25
26
25.75
25.5
25.25
25
24.75
24.5
24.25
24
23.75 -23.5
23.25 - 23
22.75 -22.5
22.25 - 22
21.75 -21.5
21.25 - 21
20.75 -20.5
20.25 - 20
19.75 -19.5
19.25 - 19
18.75 -18.5
18.25 - 18
17.75 -17.5
17.25
17
16.75
16.5
16.25
16
15.75
15.5
15.25
15
14.75
14.5
< 14.25

Pro-Agility
Seconds
< 4.51
4.52 - 4.53
4.54 - 4.55
4.56 - 4.57
4.58 - 4.59
4.60 - 4.61
4.62 - 4.63
4.64 - 4.65
4.66 - 4.67
4.68 - 4.69
4.70 - 4.71
4.72 - 4.74
4.75 - 4.77
4.78 - 4.80
4.81 - 4.83
4.84 - 4.86
4.87 - 4.89
4.90 - 4.92
4.93 - 4.96
4.97 - 5.01
5.02 - 5.05
5.06 - 5.08
5.09 - 5.11
5.12 - 5.14
5.15 - 5.17
5.18 - 5.20
5.21 - 5.23
5.24 - 5.26
5.27 - 5.28
5.29 - 5.30
5.31 - 5.32
5.33 - 5.34
5.35 - 5.36
5.37 - 5.38
5.39 - 5.40
5.41 - 5.42
5.43 - 5.44
5.45 - 5.46
5.47 <

10-Yard Dash
Seconds
< 1.81
1.82 - 1.83
1.84 - 1.85
1.86 - 1.87
1.88 - 1.89
1.90 - 1.91
1.92 - 1.93
1.94 - 1.95
1.96 - 1.97
1.98 - 1.99
2.00 - 2.01
2.02 - 2.03
2.04 - 2.05
2.06 - 2.07
2.08 - 2.09
2.10 - 2.11
2.12 - 2.13
2.14 - 2.16
2.17 - 2.19
2.20 - 2.22
2.23 - 2.25
2.26 - 2.28
2.29 - 2.30
2.31 - 2.32
2.33 - 2.34
2.35 - 2.36
2.37 - 2.38
2.39 - 2.40
2.41 - 2.42
2.43 - 2.44
2.45 - 2.46
2.47 - 2.48
2.49 - 2.50
2.51 - 2.52
2.53 - 2.54
2.55 - 2.56
2.57 - 2.58
2.59 - 2.60
2.61 <

40-Yard Dash
Seconds
< 5.34
5.35 - 5.36
5.37 - 5.38
5.39 - 5.40
5.41 - 5.42
5.43 - 5.44
5.45 - 5.46
5.47 - 5.48
5.49 - 5.50
5.51 - 5.52
5.53 - 5.54
5.55 - 5.56
5.57 - 5.58
5.59 - 5.60
5.61 - 5.62
5.63 - 5.65
5.66 - 5.68
5.69 - 5.71
5.72 - 5.74
5.75 - 5.77
5.78 - 5.80
5.81 - 5.83
5.84 - 5.86
5.87 - 5.89
5.90 - 5.91
5.92 - 5.93
5.94 - 5.95
5.96 - 5.97
5.98 - 5.99
6.00 - 6.01
6.02 - 6.03
6.04 - 6.05
6.06 - 6.07
6.08 - 6.09
6.10 - 6.11
6.12 - 6.13
6.14 - 6.15
6.16 - 6.17
6.18 <

As mentioned earlier, a major advantage of testing and evaluating athletes is that it gives coaches the
ability to identify how much athletic talent an individual possesses. Through years of collecting and
analyzing data, the NSCA has devised a system for coaches to compare performance scores of their
athletes to the normative data of elite athletes that are the same age. The NSCA performance scores
and percentile ranks by age for elite athletes are listed for both males and females from ages 12 and
under to 22 and over (17). Below are detailed examples that use Table 4.
A coach tests a 19 year-old female volleyball player, and she records a 31 in. vertical jump, a 4.30 s
pro-agility run, and a 1.69 s 10-yard dash. The coach knows right away that he has an extraordinarily
talented athlete because she ranks in the top 99th percentile on all three tests. Her athletic potential
is through the roof, and because the strength coach has this information, he can inform the sport

coach of her athletic ability. With this information, that athlete could potentially go from a back-up
to a starter. Identifying the athletic potential of athletes is a secret weapon for strength coaches.
Table 4 allows coaches to see where the athlete ranks on a larger scale. This athlete could be the star
athlete at his school, but when his test results are compared to the elite norms of his age group, he
looks much more average. This is not in any way to degrade the athlete, but to show him the
importance of the need to train and improve performance each year. The chart will help to motivate
the athlete. If an athlete sees that he ranks 54%, he will realize that he must work really hard to
improve so he can compete at a higher level.
From the percentile ranking, coaches can also determine athletes strengths and weaknesses. For
example an athlete scores in the 40th percentile in the pro-agility run, and therefore, it is clear that
he needs to improve his ability to change direction. Knowing this weakness, coaches need to
incorporate exercises when he is designing the program that will allow the athlete to improve his
cutting ability.
Another advantage of the percentile rank by age charts is that the data of each chart improves with
each age. If an 18 year-old male jumps 34.25 in. for his vertical jumps, he is in the 99th percentile
rank. However, if he does not improve and jumps 34.25 in. when he is 19, then he will only be in the
80th percentile. This reinforces the fact that the athlete must keep training and improving to stay at
the top of his competition.
To summarize, the NSCA percentile rank by age chart helps coaches identify athletic talent, gauge
where athletes stand on a bigger level, identify strengths and weaknesses, and aid in motivating the
athletes to accomplish their training goals. The charts are a very effective tool in evaluating the
athletic performance of athletes.
Baseline test evaluation
Table 5 provides an example of an athletes history of baseline tests. It is clear from the second row
that something was not right when the athlete tested. When comparing the right and left test scores,
there is a drastic difference. At this point the athlete should be evaluated by the athletic trainers.
After evaluation, it is found that the athlete suffered a high ankle sprain and needs to undergo
treatment and rehabilitation for his left foot. After he undergoes his treatment, he must undergo his
baseline testing again to determine if he can start working out again. From looking at the third row,
it can be concluded that the athlete recovered from his injury and is now safe to return to practice.
Table 5. Baseline Testing

Evaluating Athletes in Different Energy Systems


Figure 4 provides an example of both a pre-test and a post-test evaluation for a 19 year-old male
baseball player who is also an incoming freshman. According to Table 2, baseball players are
supplied with 80% of energy from the ATP-PC system and anaerobic glycolysis, 15% of energy
from anaerobic glycolysis and aerobic systems, and 5% from strictly aerobic systems. Therefore, the
NSCA suggests that the athlete undergo all three performance tests, baseline testing and the 300yard shuttle run as the recommended tests for anaerobic capacity. Note that since baseball players
only use 5% of their aerobic systems, there is no need to test their aerobic capacity.
Figure 4. Anaerobic Sport Evaluation Profile

In this example, the athlete reports for school in early August and initially undergoes performance,
baseline, and anaerobic capacity testing. Notice that the athlete does not strength test until October.
This is because if the coach has not seen the athlete lift before, there is no need to see how much
weight he can lift when the technique is not sound. The strength and conditioning coach in this
particular example should teach the athlete proper technique and then strength test him at the end
of each lifting phase.
The numbers in orange are the athletes pre-test results. Once all of the test data is recorded, it is
graphed on the athletes evaluation form by using the NSCAs percentile rank by age charts to
correctly identify the athletes percentile rank based off of his performance test scores. After the
three performance test percentile ranks are recorded separately, the three ranks are averaged and the
result is the athletes average percentile rank (which in this example is 49%).
The 40-yard dash is recorded in the pre-test because this is the off-season training phase for baseball.
The athletes 300-yard shuttle run is circled in blue because it is does not meet the minimum
requirements for baseball. By recording, calculating, and graphing all of this data, the coach
establishes:
Where the athlete is starting from
This specific athlete is performing at an average performance level of 49%
According to the Table 1, the athletes anaerobic capacity (63.5) is slightly below where it
should be (56.7 62)
The athletes weaknesses are change of direction and anaerobic capacity, and the athlete is
stronger in power and acceleration
Areas that need to be addressed in the athletes training program are strength, power, agility,
and high-intensity anaerobic training
All of the previous information can be determined by simply mapping the athletes test results on an
evaluation profile. This data also helps motivate the athlete to set and achieve reasonable goals by
the next testing session. By physically seeing where he ranks, the athlete will be encouraged to
improve. If the coach successfully uses the data from the evaluation profile in designing this specific
athletes program, the athlete should improve his performance scores (especially agility), increase
lean muscle mass, and improve in his anaerobic capacity.
After the athlete completes a pre-test, he goes through his training program. Upon completion of
the program, he then completes a post-test. His results are graphed on the same evaluation form as
the pre-test so the results of both testing sessions can be compared. From the post-test evaluation,
the coach can determine that in between pre-testing and post-testing:
This specific athlete gained 6 lb of lean muscle
This specific athlete increased his average percentile rank by 7%
This specific athlete improved his ability to generate power, change direction, and accelerate

The strength and conditioning program was effective and improved the performance of this
specific athlete
This specific athlete improved his anaerobic capacity from a score that was below his
recommended level of 63.5 for his sport to a level that is acceptable (i.e., 61).

The data that used as the athletes post-test information should also serve as the pre-test data for his
next training phase. The coach can still take the post-test data and use it to assess the status of the
athlete, his strengths and weaknesses, and what type of training the athlete needs to do for the next
phase of lifting and conditioning. Even though the athlete has improved his performance, he still
has an average percentile rank of 56% so he needs to continue to improve, especially in his agility.
The evaluation form allows the coach to use testing information to keep the athlete motivated to
continually improve.
Even though this specific example was for an individual baseball player, coaches should also keep an
evaluation profile for the entire team so team progress can be monitored as well. The only difference
for the team evaluation profile would be that the coach inserts the team averages in the appropriate
places for body composition, performance testing, average percentile rank, anaerobic capacity and
strength testing. This is important so the coach can identify strengths, weaknesses, and overall
progress of the entire team.
Figure 5. Intermittent Sport Evaluation Profile

Figure 5 is an example of both a pre-test and a post-test evaluation for a 19 year-old female soccer
player who is also an incoming freshman. According to Table 1, female soccer players are supplied
with 60% of their energy from the ATP-PC system and anaerobic glycolysis, 20% of their energy
from anaerobic glycolysis and aerobic systems, and 20% of their energy from strictly aerobic systems.
Therefore, the NSCA suggests that the athlete undergo all three performance tests, baseline testing,
and the 300-yard shuttle as the recommended test for anaerobic capacity, and the Beep Test as the
recommended test for aerobic capacity. Since a relative amount of energy is supplied by anaerobic
glycolysis and aerobic systems, soccer athletes should test their anaerobic and aerobic capacities.
Similar to the previous example, this athlete reported for school in August where initial body
composition, baseline, performance, anaerobic and aerobic capacity testing was performed. Again,
strength testing was not done right away. The test results were then recorded, calculated, and
graphed on the evaluation form. Based off of the initial pre-test, the athlete is found to be below
average on performance testing, and also below the recommended levels for her sport for the 300yard shuttle run and Beep Test (the numbers circled in blue). From the form, the coach can
conclude:
Where the athlete is starting from
This specific athlete is performing at an average performance level of 39%
According to Table 1, the athletes anaerobic capacity of 67 is slightly below where it should
be (i.e., 58 65)
According to Table 1, the athletes aerobic capacity (9_8) is below where it should be (10_8
12_1)
The athlete is weak in all performance scores and is not fit for the energy demands of the
sport
Areas that need to be addressed in the athletes training program are strength, power, agility,
high-intensity anaerobic training, and aerobic capacity
This example mimics many incoming freshmen that have not trained during the off-season and have
become detrained. They arrive at their college or university not knowing what to expect only to find
out that they are not performing at an appropriate level. If they are dedicated and guided by a proper
training program, they should successfully adapt to their training and see improved results. By
looking at the post-test results, it is easy to conclude that the athlete did just that.
Figure 6. Aerobic Sport Evaluation Profile

Figure 6 is an example of an evaluation form for a 17 year-old male who runs marathons. According
to the Table 1, male aerobic athletes are supplied with less than 5% of their energy from the ATPPC system and anaerobic glycolysis, and 5% of their energy from strictly aerobic systems. Therefore,
the NSCA suggests that the athlete undergo all three performance tests, baseline testing, the 300yard shuttle as the recommended test for anaerobic capacity, and the Beep Test as the recommended
test for aerobic capacity. Even though endurance athletes are primarily working in their aerobic
systems, the NSCA still recommends that they undergo performance testing and anaerobic capacity
testing. This is because research has shown that increasing strength and power can improve
performance in endurance athletes (6).
Following the athletes evaluation profile, this particular athlete does his pre-testing in June. At this
time he undergoes testing for body composition, performance, baseline, strength, anaerobic and
aerobic capacity testing. Unlike the other two examples, notice that the athlete performs his strength
testing at this time. This is only under the conditions that the coach has taught the athlete proper
technique, and the coach is comfortable with the athlete lifting heavy loads underneath the bar.
From the initial pre-test evaluation, the coach can conclude:
Where the athlete is starting from
This specific athlete is performing at an average percentile rank of 15%
According to Table 1, the athletes anaerobic capacity where it should be (70+)
According to Table 1, the athletes aerobic capacity is where it should be (16_10+)
The athlete is weak in all performance scores, but he is fit for the energy demands of his
sport

Areas that need to be addressed in the athletes program are strength, power, and aerobic
capacity

This athlete may have low performance test scores, but this is because the athlete primarily functions
in the aerobic energy system. However, with this being said, the coach should still incorporate
strength and power training into the athletes program. If the athlete can cover more distance with
each step, make each step faster, or a combination of both, he will be able to improve his aerobic
performance. From the post-test evaluation in September, the coach can conclude:
This specific athlete gained 6 lb of lean muscle
This specific athlete increased his average percentile rank by 10%
This specific athlete improved his ability to generate power, change direction, and accelerate
The strength and conditioning program was effective and improved his performance
This specific athlete improved his overall strength and power in the weight room
The athlete is well above the minimum aerobic capacity
The athlete improved his aerobic capacity from an initial Beep Test level of 16_10 to the
post-test level of 17_4
The athlete increased his strength and power while also improving his aerobic performance
Especially for endurance athletes, the evaluation profile is a beneficial tool to prevent the
overtraining of athletes. If a coach can show that an athlete has decreased in performance from a
pre-test to a post-test, then the coach will know that something is not right with that athlete. From
here, the coach can determine what factors could have influenced the decrement. These factors can
include injury, overtraining, poor nutrition, unhealthy lifestyle choices, or a combination of all of
these.
The evaluation profile is a very important tool in the development of individual athletes and the
team. To summarize the overall points of each of the previous examples, the goals of evaluation are:
Determine strengths and weaknesses for an individual
The test scores from one test period alone do not tell the entire story; a history of each
individuals testing should be kept
The athlete will show the most progress in the first year of training
The key is to continue to show progress in the weakest areas
Determine improvement of the team or athlete from test period to test period and from year
to year
Compare present test averages with past averages to determine strengths and weaknesses in
the program
Evaluate the effectiveness of the strength and conditioning program
It is difficult to predict performance potential at an early age with a high degree of probability.
Genetic testing or performance testing will let an athlete know where they stand but what is needed

is a development program; testing alone is not enough. Athletes need to be put on an appropriate
lifting program for their age and sport then need a sport skill analysis and coaching for the sport.
Testing can provide a basis for predicting those individuals who have a chance of succeeding in
power sports. There is a strong relationship between the results of the recommended tests and
individuals who achieve a high level of athletic success in power sports. Parental influence, peer
group contribution, and nutritional status can contribute to the evolution of an athlete as well.

References
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