Anda di halaman 1dari 8

SATUAN ACARA PENGAJARAN

MATA KULIAH : IMUNOLOGI


KODE/SKS

: KK 172/2 SKS

SEMESTER

: VII

PERTEMUAN

: XIII

DOSEN

: JULIANRI SARI LEBANG, M.Si, Apt

MATERI

: VAKSIN

SEKOLAH TINGGI ILMU FARMASI (STIFA)


MAKASSAR
2015

Kompetensi Utama :
Mampu dalam penguasaan dan pengembangan teknologi bidang farmasi dan kontrol kualitas.
(KU,2c)
Kompetensi Pendukung :
1. Memiliki penguasaan dan keterampilan bidang bahasa asing dan teknologi informasi.
(KP,5c).
2. Mampu mengembangkan diri dalam pengembangan obat dan sediaan bahan
alam. (KP,8e)
Kompetensi Lainnya:
Mampu untuk memotivasi dan memfasilitasi masyarakat. (KL,11e)
Sasaran Belajar (TIU):
Setelah mempelajari matakuliah ini mahasiswa diharapkan dapat mengenal, memahami dan
menjelaskan mekanisme pertahanan tubuh terhadap penyakit infeksi, sel kanker, penyakit
autoimun melalui sistem imun, pencegahan danpengobatan penyakit infeksi dan non infeksi
menggunakan agen- agen imun dan vaksin.
Capaian Pembelajaran (Learning outcomes):
1. Mampu menerapkan konsep teoritis berbagai bidang ilmu kefarmasian dalam melakukan
riset bidang kefarmasian.
2. Mampu membangun hubungan interpersonal dan kerjasama dengan berbagai pihak.
3. Mampu mengambil keputusan yang tepat berdasarkan anlisis informasi dan data, mampu
bertanggung jawab atas pekerjaan sendiri, dan dapat diberi tanggung jawab atas
pencapaian hasil kerja tim.
4. Mampu mengikuti perkembangan iptek untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan, keterampilan
dan kemampuan diri secara berkelanjutan.
Sasaran Pembelajaran (TIK):
Mampu menjelaskan dan memahami reseptor kanal ion terkait ligan
Materi Pembelajaran:
1. Vaksin, mekanisme dan karakteristik
2. Peran adjuvant dalam vaksin

Materi ke XIII
Immunization is the process of eliciting a long-lived state of protective immunity against
disease causing pathogen. Immunization can divided into :
1. Passive immunization ; Methods of acquisition include natural maternal antibodies,
antitoxins. Immune molecules are transferred from another person or from animal to
human.
2. Active immunization ; Active immunization can be achieved by natural infection with
a microorganism, or it can be acquired artificially by administration of a vaccine.
Relatively permanent.
Type

Acquired through

Passive Immunity

Antibody
Natural maternal antibody
Antitoxin

Active Immunity

Natural infection
Vaccines :
-

Inactived organism

Purified microbial macromolecules

Cloned microbial antigens

Toxoid

Mechanism vaccine induce immunity


Vaccine-induced immune effectors

are essentially for antibodies produced by B

lymphocytes and capable of binding specifically to a toxin or a pathogen. Other potential


effectors are cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes (CTL) that may limit the spread of infectious
agents by recognizing and killing infected cells or secreting specific antiviral cytokines. The
final goal of vaccine is long term immunity. Long-term immunity is conferred by the
maintenance of antigen specific immune effectors and/or by the induction of immune
memory cells that may be sufficiently efficient and rapidly reactivated into immune effectors
in case of pathogen exposure.
We can compare immune respon when body injected with vaccine and second
exposure after vaccine injected.

Fig 1. Body respone when injected with vaccine

Fig 2. Body respone to pathogen exposure after vaccination

Strategies On Vaccine Development


1. Attenuated and Inactivated Bacterial and Viral Vaccines
Vaccines composed of intact nonpathogenic microbes are made by treating the
microbes in such a way that they can no longer cause disease (i.e., their virulence is
attenuated) or by killing the microbes while retaining their immunogenicity.
The advantage is that they elicit all the innate and adaptive immune responses
(both humoral and cell mediated) that the pathogenic microbe would, and they are
therefore the ideal way of inducing protective immunity.

2. Purified Antigen (Subunit) Vaccines


Subunit vaccines are composed of antigens purified from microbes or inactivated
toxins and are usually administered with an adjuvant. Example : Vaccines composed of
bacterial polysaccharide antigens are used against pneumococcus and H. influenzae.
Subunit vaccine can contain 1-20 antigens, so its necessary to identify which antigen is
more potent. In some cases, vaccine can use epitope or hapten to induce immune respone.

Hapten: a low molecular weight molecule that bind to immune cells receptors but
cannot themselves induce a spesific immune respone so they must conjugate to a
suitable carrier.

Epitope: the portion of an antigen that is recognized and bound by an Ab or


TCR/MHC complex (aka antigenic determinant).

3. Recombinat Vector Vaccines


A goal of vaccine research has been to identify the most immunogenic microbial
antigens or epitopes, to synthesize these in the laboratory, and to use the synthetic antigens
as vaccines.
Antigens are encode in specifik gene that arranged in DNA. This DNA can used to
produce antigen (protein) using DNA-recombinant methods. Vaccines made of
recombinant DNA-derived antigens used to produce vaccine for hepatitis virus, herpes
simplex virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, human papillomavirus, and rotavirus.

4. DNA Vaccines
DNA Vaccine is a more recently strategy to produce vaccine. This methods utilizes
DNA plasmid encoding antigenic protein injected to recipient muscle. This DNA plasmid
than take up by host cell and process through endogenous MHC Class I presentation
pathway helping activate CTL

Vaccine Adjuvant
Adjuvants can be defined as pharmacological and immunological components that are
able to modify and/or enhance antigen-specific immune responses. To vaccinate against such
organisms, nonliving antigens are used, ranging from whole, inactivated viruses and
microorganisms to single recombinant antigens. Nonliving vaccine antigens, especially
purified or recombinant subunit vaccines, are often poorly immunogenic and require

additional components to help stimulate protective immunity on antibodies and effector T cell
functions.
Adjuvants are currentlu used clinically to :

Increase antibody responses.

Induce cell-mediated immunity, e.g. TH1 cytokines (interferon-g)

Decrease the dose of antigen in the vaccine

Decrease the number of doses of vaccine necessary

Overcome competition between antigens in combination vaccines

Enhance immune responses in the young or elderly, who often respond poorly to
vaccines.

In general, adjuvants can be classified into two categories according to their component
sources:
1) Delivery carriers : deliver and present vaccine antigens to the antigen presenting cells
with a controlled manner to induce adaptive immune response and increase the antigenspecific immune response.
2) Immunostimulants : act on the immune system to enhance immune responses of
various antigens. Typical examples are Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, cytokines,
saponins and bacterial exotoxins which stimulate immune responses.

There are several adjuvants had approve and use clinically show in table below
Adjuvant
(Vaccine where use)

Component

Major Immune Effect

Aluminium
(Diphteri,
Tetanus,
Hepatitis A & B, HPV)

Aluminium adsorp antigen

Protect antigen from


degradation,
increase
local
inflammation,
improve antigen uptake
by APCs increase
antibody production

Virosomes
(hepatitis and influenza)

Vesicle where antigens in aqueous


volume are enclosed within a
standard phospolipid cell membrane
bilayer (see liposome)

Protect antigen, increase


uptake by APCs,

Monophosphoryl lipid A
(MPL) in adjuvant system
AS04
(Hepatitis B. HPV)

(3-deacyl-monophosphoryl lipid A)
derived from LPS from Salmonella
Minnesota, Aluminum salts

Directly stimulates TLR4


increasing APC
maturation and Thelper1
respones

MF59 in AS03
(Influenza seasonal and
pandemic)

Oil in water
squalene

emulsion

using

Enhance uptake by APCs