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Chap-17

B.V.Ramana

August 30, 2007

Chapter

10:15

17
Numerical Analysis

WORKED OUT EXAMPLES

Bisection Method
Example 1: Find a real root of the equation x 3
6x 4 = 0 by bisection method.
[JNTU 2006, Set No. 1]
Solution:

x:
0
1
2 3
f (x) = x 3 6x 4: 4 9 8 5
...
one root lies between 2 and 3. Take x0 = 2,
x1 = 3. By bisection method, the next approxima1
tion is x2 = x0 +x
= 2+3
= 2.5. Now at x2 = 2.5,
2
2
f (2.5) = 3.375 < 0. Thus, a root lies between 2.5
and 3. So the next approximation is x3 = 2.5+3
=
2
5.5
=
2.75.
At
x
=
2.75,
f
(2.75)
=
0.2968
>
0.
3
2
Thus a root lies between 2.5 and 2.75. Next approximation is x4 = 2.5+2.75
= 2.625.
2
Now f (2.625) = 1.6621 < 0. The root lies between 2.625 and 2.75. Then x5 = 2.625+2.75
=
2
2.6875 and f (2.6875) = 0.7141 < 0. So root lies
between 2.6875 and 2.75. The approximate value of
the real root of the given equation is 2.6875+2.75
=
2
2.71875.
Example 2: Find a real root of x 3 5x + 3 = 0
using bisection method.
[JNTU 2006, Set No. 2]
Solution:

x: 0
1 2
f (x) = x 3 5x + 3: 3 1 1
Thus, a root lies between 0 and 1 and another root
lies between 1 and 2.
1
Choose x0 = 1 and x1 = 2. Then x2 = x0 +x
=
2
1+2
=
1.5,
f
(1.5)
=
1.125
<
0.
2
1
So root lies in between 1.5 and 2. So x3 = x2 +x
=
2
1.5+2
=
1.75,
f
(1.75)
=
0.3906
<
0.
2
So root lies between 1.75 and 2. Then x4 = 1.75+2
=
2
1.875, f (1.875) = 0.2167 > 0.
So root lies between 1.75 and 1.875. So the approximate root of the given equation is x5 = 1.75+1.875
=
2
1.8125.
Example 3: Find a real root of the Equation x 3
x 11 = 0 by bisection method.
[JNTU 2007, Set No. 2]
Solution:

x:
f (x) = x 3 x 11:

0
11

1
11

2
5

3
13

A root lies between 2 and 3. Then the rst approxi1

mation is x2 = x0 +x
= 2+3
= 2.5. Now f (2.5) =
2
2
2.125 > 0. So root lies between 2 and 2.5. So
the next approximation is x3 = 2+2.5
= 2.25. Now
2
f (2.25) = 1.859 < 0. So next approximation is
x4 = 2.25+2.5
= 2.375. Now f (2.375) = 0.0215 >
2
0 and f (2.25) < 0.
... Root lies between 2.25 and 2.375. So x =
5

= 2.3125. Now f (2.3125) = 0.946 < 0

and f (2.375) > 0.
2.25+2.375
2

17.1

Chap-17

B.V.Ramana

17.2

August 30, 2007

10:15

MATHEMATICAL METHODS

So root lies between 2.3125 and 2.375. x6 =

2.3125+2.375
= 2.34375, f (x6 ) = 0.4691 < 0. Root
2
lies in (2.34375, 2.375). So
X7 = 2.34375+2.375
= 2.359375.
2
Since f (x7 ) = 0.225 < 0, root lies between
2.359375 and 2.375. So x8 = 2.359375+2.375
=
2
2.3671875.
f (x8 ) = 0.10247 < 0,
root
lies
between
2.3671875 and 2.375. Then
x7 =

=1

(2 1)
[0.2817]
[11.778 (0.2817)]

x2 = 1.329

Now f (x2 ) = f (1.329) = 2.0199 > 0 and f (1) =

0.2817 < 0 so root lies in between 1 and 1.329.
Take x0 = 1, x2 = 1.329.
Then x3 = x0
=1

2.3671875 + 2.375
= 2.37109.
2

Approximate root is 2.37109.

Example 4: Using bisection method, nd a root of
the Equation x 3 4x 9 = 0
x:
f (x) = x 3 4x 9:

0
9

1
12

2
9

3
6

A root lies between 2 and 3. First approximation is

x0 + x 1
2+3
x2 =
=
= 2.5.
2
2
Since f (2.5) = 3.375 < 0, root lies between 2.5
and 3. The second approximation is x3 = 21 (2.5 +
3) = 2.75. Since f (2.75) = 0.7969 > 0, root lies
between 2.5 and 2.75. So third approximation is x4 =
2.5+2.75
= 2.625. Since f (2.625) = 1.4121 < 0,
2
root lies between 2.5 and 2.625. Thus, the fourth
approximation to the root is x5 = 21 (2.5 + 2.625) =
2.6875.
Example 5: Find a real root of xex = 2 using
Regulafalsi method.
[JNTU 2007, Set 4]
Example 6: Find a real root of xex = 3 using
Regulafalsi method.
[JNTU 2006, Set 4]

(1.3291)
[0.2817]
[2.0199(0.2817)]

(x3 x2 )
f (x2 )
[f (x3 ) f (x2 )]

= 1.329

x:
f (x) = xe 3:

0
3

1
0.2817

... 1,
... root lies in (1, 2). Take x0 = 1,
Then
(x1 x0 )
x2 = x0
f (x0 )
(f (x1 ) f (x0 ))

2
11.778
x1 = 2.

(1.04 1.329)
[2.0199]
[0.05 (2.0199)]

x4 = 1.08 is the required approximate root.

Example 7: Find a real root of ex sin x = 1 using
RegulaFalsi method.
[JNTU 2006, Supply, Set No. 1, Code No.
R059010202]
Solution:

x:
0
1
root lies in
ex sin x 1 = f (x): 1 1.2874
(0, 1).
By bisection method: f (0.5) = 0.2094, root lies in
(0.5, 1).
By bisection method: f (0.75) = 0.443 root lies in
(0.5, 0.75).
Since f (0.5) < 0, choose b = 0.75. Then by
RegulaFalsi method

Solution:

f (x0 )

x3 = 1.04
Now f (x3 ) = f (1.04) = 0.05 < 0.
Since f (x2 ) = 2.0199 > 0, root lies between 1.04
and 1.329. Then
x4 = x2

Solution:

(x2 x0 )
[f (x2 )f (x0 )]

x1 = x0
= 0.5

f (x0 )
(b x0 )
f (b) f (x0 )
(0.20941)
(0.75 0.5)
(0.443 + 0.20941)

Chap-17

B.V.Ramana

August 30, 2007

10:15

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS

(0.5, 0.6605).
Since f (a) = f (0.5) < 0; we have b = 0.6605
x2 = 0.5

0.2094
(0.6605
(0.1876+0.2094)

0.5)

x2 = 0.5 + 0.08465 = 0.58466

At x2 , f (x2 ) = 0.009653.
So x2 = 0.58466 is an approximate root of the given
transcendental equation.
Example 8: Using RegulaFalsi method, nd an
approximate real root of the transcendental Equation
x log10 x = 1.2.
Solution:

x:
1
2
3
f (x) = x log10 x 1.2: 1.2 0.59794 0.23136
... a root lies between 2 and 3.
Take x0 = 2, x1 = 3. Then approximate root
x1 x0
x2 = x0
f (x0 )
f (x1 ) f (x0 )

x2 = 2.72102

Now f (x2 ) = f (2.72102) = 0.0179, so root lies

between 2.72102 and 3. Then
x3 = x2

x1 x2
f (x2 )
f (x1 ) f (x2 )

= 2.72102

starting from an initial guess x0 , better successive approximations x1 , x2 , x3 , . . . of an unknown solution

of (1) are computed step by step.
Generally, iterative methods are easy to program.
The bisection method and RegulaFalsi method are
two such iterative methods which are known as interpolation methods or bracketing methods because
the root (guess) is bracketed between two estimates
(one for f (x) > 0 and one for f (x) < 0). The other
kind of iterative methods such as xed point iteration method, Newton-Raphson method, its variant secant method are known as extrapolation
methods or open-end methods in which a single value
(initial estimate) is chosen.
Fixed-point iteration method
Rewriting the Equation (1) in the form
x = g(x)

(3 2)
=2
[0.59794]
[0.23136 + 0.59794]

17.3

(2)

observe that the roots (or solutions) of (1) are same as

the points of intersection of the straight line y = x
and the curve representing y = g(x), as shown in
the gure. The exact solution (root) is which is the
intersection of y = x and y = g(x).

(3 2.72102)
(0.0179)
[0.23136 + 0.0179]

x3 = 2.74021

Similarly, we get x4 = 2.74024, x5 = 2.74063. Note

at x5 ,
f (x5 ) = 0.0000140385
... An approximate root is x5 = 2.74063.

Fig. 17.1

Iteration Methods
In general, there is no formula for the exact solution
of
f (x) = 0

(1)

which may be an algebraic equation or transcendental equation. In such cases the iterative method,
which is an approximation method, is used in which

Starting with an initial estimate x0 , compute the

rst approximation x1 given by
x1 = g(x0 )
Now, treating x1 as the initial value, compute the
second approximation x2 as
x2 = g(x1 )

Chap-17

B.V.Ramana

17.4

August 30, 2007

10:15

MATHEMATICAL METHODS

In general the n + 1th approximation is

xn+1 = g(xn )

for n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

The name of the method is motivated, since a solution

of (2) is called a xed point of g.
This method converges in an interval (a, b) if
|g  (x)| k < 1
Example 9: Find a real root of the Equation 2x
log10 x = 7 by successive approximation method.
[JNTU 2006, Set No. 3]

Rewriting the given equation as

x=

1
(cos x + 1) = g(x).
3

Observe that
|g  (x)| = 13 | sin x| < 1 in 0, 2 .
Starting with x0 = 0, the xed point iteration methods yields the following successive approximations.
x1 = g(x0 ) =

1
(cos 0 + 1) = 0.6667,
3

1
(cos(.6667) + 1) = 0.5953,
3
1
Solution:
x3 = g(x2 ) = (cos(.5953) + 1) = 0.6093,
x: 1
2
3
4
3
f (x) = 2x log x 7: 5 3.301 1.4471 0.398
1
x4 = g(x3 ) = (cos(.6093) + 1) = 0.6067,
... A root lies between 3 and 4.
3
Rewrite the given equation as
1
x5 = g(x4 ) = (cos(.6067) + 1) = 0.6072,
1
3
x = [log10 x + 7] = g(x)
1
2
x6 = g(x5 ) = (cos(.6072) + 1) = 0.6071.
3
Thus the approximate root is 0.6071 since x5 and x6
Now |g  (x)| = | 21 x1 log10 e| < 1 when 3 < x < 4.
1 1

are nearly equal.
when x = 3, |g (3)| = | log10 e| = 0.07238
2

x2 = g(x1 ) =

when x = 4, |g  (4)| = | 21 41 (0.4343)| = 0.0542

Since |f (4)| = 0.398 < 1.4471 = |f (3)|, The root
is near to 4. Now taking the initial guess as x0 = 3.6,
we apply the xed point iteration method yielding
the successive approximations as
1
x1 = g(x0 ) = (log10 (3.6) + 7) = 3.77815,
2
1
x2 = g(x1 ) = (log10 (3.77815) + 7) = 3.78863,
2
1
x3 = g(x2 ) = (log10 (3.78863) + 7) = 3.78924,
2
1
x4 = g(x3 ) = (log10 (3.78924) + 7) = 3.78927.
2

Example 11: Find the negative root of the equation x 3 2x + 5 = 0.

Solution: If , , are the roots of
x 3 + 0 x 2 2x + 5 = 0

Then the equation whose roots are , , is

x 3 + (1) 0 x 2 + (1)2 (2x) + (1)3 5 = 0
or x 3 2x 5 = 0
(2)
To nd the positive root of (2), we have
f (x) = x 3 2x 5, f (2) = 1 < 0, f (3) = 16 >
0. So root lies between 2 and 3 and it is nearer to 2
(since |f (2)| = 1 < 16 = |f (3)|).
Rewriting the Equation (2) we get
1

x = (2x + 5) 3 = g(x)
2

Example 10: Using iteration method, nd a real

root of the Equation cos x = 3x 1.
Solution:
Here, f (x)
 = cos x 3x + 1, and
f (0) = 2 > 0 and f 2 = 3
+ 1 = 3.71 < 0
2

.
. . A root lies between 0 and .
2

(1)

Then |g  (x)| = | 13 (2x + 5) 3 2| < 1 in (2, 3).

Choosing x0 = 2.1, we apply the xed point iteration method. Then
1
x1 = g(x0 ) = [2(2.1) + 5] 3 = 2.09538,
1
x2 = g(x1 ) = [2(2.09538) + 5] 3 = 2.09468,
1
x3 = g(x2 ) = [2(2.09468) + 5] 3 = 2.09457,

Chap-17

B.V.Ramana

August 30, 2007

10:15

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS

x4 = g(x3 ) = 2.09455, x5 = g(x4 ) = 2.09455

Hence the approximate root of (2) is 2.09455; so the
negative root of the given Equation (1) is 2.09455.
Example 12: Find a solution of x 3 + x 1 = 0 by
iteration.
Solution:

x:
0
1
f (x) = x 3 + x 1: 1 1
... A root lies in (0, 1).
Rewriting the given equation,
x=

1
= g(x)
1 + x2

so that
xn+1 =

1
.
1 + xn2

2|x|
Also |g  (x)| = (1+x
2 )2 < 1 for any x.
Choosing x0 = 1, we obtain

1
1
= = 0.5
1 + 12
2
1
= 0.800,
x2 =
1 + (0.5)2
1
= 0.610,
x3 =
1 + (0.8)2
x4 = 0.729, x5 = 0.653, x6 = 0.701
x1 =

Approximate root is 0.701.

NewtonRaphson Method
Example 13: Find a real root of xex cos x = 0
using NewtonRaphson method.
[JNTU 2007, Set No. 1],
[JNTU 2006, Supply, Set No. 4, (R059010202)]
Solution: f (0) = 1 < 0, f (1) = 2.178 > 0
Here, f (x) = xex cos x. Root lies between 0 and
1. Also f  (x) = xex + ex + sin x
By NewtonRaphson method:
f (xn )
f  (xn )
xn
(xn e cos xn )
= xn
(xn exn + exn + sin xn )
xn+1 = xn

xn+1

17.5

Since f (1) = 2.178 and f  (1) = 6.2780 are of the

same sign, we choose x0 as 1. Then for n = 0,
we have x1 = x0 ff(x(x0 )) or x1 = 1 2.178
= 0.653,
6.278
0
f (x1 ) = 0.46, and f  (x1 ) = 3.7835. Then for n = 1,
0.46
we get x2 = x1 ff(x(x1 )) = 0.653 3.7835
= 0.5314.
1
Now f (x2 ) = 0.042, f  (x2 ) = 3.11213. For n = 2,
0.042
we get x3 = x2 ff(x(x2 )) or x3 = 0.5314 3.11213
=
2

0.518. Then f (x3 ) = 0.000738, f (x3 ) = 3.0433.
So for n = 3, x4 = x3 ff(x(x3 )) = 0.518 0.000738
=
3.0433
3
0.5177. Since f (0.5177) = 0.000174, we take
x4 = 0.5177 as an approximate root.
Example 14: Find a real root of x + log10 x 2 =
0 using NewtonRaphson method.
[JNTU 2007, Set No. 3]
Solution: Here, f (x) = x + log10 x 2, f  (x) =
1 + x1 log e10 = 1 + 2.3026
.
x
Since f (1) = 1 < 0 and f (2) = 0.3010 > 0, a
root lies between 1 and 2. Again at 1.5, we have
f (1.5) = 0.324, root lies between 1.5 and 2.
Choose x0 = 1.8. Then for n = 0, we have the rst
0.0553
approximation as, x1 = x0 ff(x(x0 )) = 1.8 2.2792
,
0

x1 = 1.7757. Then x2 = x1 ff(x(x1 )) = 1.7757

0
0.0251
= 1.7648.
2.2967
Now x3 = x2 ff(x(x2 )) = 1.7648 0.0015
= 1.7598,
2.3047
2

0.0053
Again x4 = x3 ff(x(x3 )) = 1.7598 2.3084
= 1.7575
3
f (x4 ) = f (1.7575) = 0.002395, we may take x4 =
1.7575 as an approximate root.

Example 15: Find a real root of x tan x + 1 = 0

using NewtonRaphson method.
[JNTU 2006, Aug. Supply. Set 2]
Solution:
Rewriting x sin x + cos x = 0, so
f (x) = x sin x + cos x, f  (x) = x cos x. Then NR
iteration formula is
xn+1 = xn
with
n
0
1
2
3

xn sin xn + cos xn
xn cos xn

x0 = , the successive iterations

xn
f (xn )
xn+1
3.1416 1.0
2.8233
2.8233 0.0662 2.7986
2.7986 0.0006 2.7984
2.7984
0.0
2.7984

are:

Chap-17

B.V.Ramana

17.6

August 30, 2007

10:15

MATHEMATICAL METHODS

... Approximate (exact) root is 2.7984

Example 16: Find f (2.5) using newtons forward
formula from the following table.
x: 0 1 2
3
4
5
6
y: 0 1 16 81 256 625 1296
[JNTU: 2006, Set No. 1]
Solution: Here, h = 1, x0 , y0 = 0, x = 2.5, q =
xx0
= 2.50
... q = 2.5.
h
1
Finite difference table

16

15

81

65

256

625

6 1296

Dy
1

175
369
671

D 2y
14
50
110
194
302

D3y

36
60
84
108

D 4y

D5y

24

D6y

24

24

Here y0 = 1, 2 y0 = 14, 3 y0 = 36, 4 y0 = 24,

5 y0 = 0, 6 y0 = 0.
Using Newtons forward formula y = y0 + qy0 +
q(q1) 2
 y0
2!
+ q(q1)(q2)
 3 y0
3!
+ q(q1)(q2)(q3)
 4 y0
4!

+ 0 + 0.

Substituting the values, we get at x = 2.5,

(2.5)(2.5 1)
y(2.5) = 0 + 2.5(1) +
(14)
2!
(2.5)(2.5 1)(2.5 2)
+
(36) +
3!
+

(24) + 0 + 0
4!

= 2.5 + 26.25 + 11.25 0.9375 = 39.0625.

Example 17:
Given that sin 45 = 0.7077,
sin 50 = 0.766, sin 55 = 0.8192, sin 60 = 0.866,
nd sin 52 using Newtons forward differences
formula.
[JNTU 2006, Set No. 2]

Solution: Here, h = 5 , x = 52 , x0 = 45 , y0 =

= 5245
= 75
0.7077, q = x45
2
5
Finite difference table

D2y

y = sin x Dy

x0

y0

45

0.7077

50

0.766

55

0.8192

60

0.866

Dy0
0.0583
0.0532
0.0468

D3y

D2y0
0.0051
0.0064

D3y0
0.0013

Using Newtons forward differences formula

y(52 ) = 0.7077 + 75 (0.0583)
 

+ 75 75 1 0.0051)
7 7
 7

+ 5 5 1 5 2 (0.0013) = 0.7869008
Example 18: Find y(1.6) using Newtons forward
differences formula from the table
x
y

1
3.49

1.4
4.82

1.8
5.96

2.2
6.5

[JNTU 2006, Set No. 3]

Solution: Here, h = 0.4, x = 1.6, x0 = 1, y0 =
.6
0
3.49, q = xx
= 1.61
= .4
= 23
h
0.4

Dy

3.49 = y0

Dy0

1.4

4.82

1.8

5.96

2.2

6.50

1.33
1.14
0.54

D2y
D2y0
0.19
0.60

D3y
D3y0
0.41

Using Newtons forward differences


formula
y(1.6) = 3.49 + 23 (1.33) + 23 23 1 (0.19)



+ 23 23 1 23 2 (0.4) = 5.4925.
Example 19: Show that fi2 = (fi + fi+1 )fi
[JNTU 2006, Set No. 4] (Question Corrected)
Solution: We know that fi = fi+1 fi
2
Then fi2 = fi+1
fi2 = (fi+1 + fi )(fi+1 fi )
= (fi+1 + fi )fi
Example 20: Find the unique polynomial P (x)
of degree 2 or less such that P (1) = 1, P (3) = 27,

Chap-17

B.V.Ramana

August 30, 2007

10:15

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS

P (4) = 64 using Lagrange interpolation formula.

[JNTU Aug. 2006, Supply. S 2004]

f (3) = 1

Solution: x0 = 1, x1 = 3, x2 = 4, y(x) = P (x),

so y0 = P (x0 = 1) = P (1) = 1, y1 = P (x1 = 3) =
27, y3 = P (3) = 27. By Lagranges interpolation
formula, we get
y(x) = P (x) =

(x x1 )(x x2 )
y0 +
(x0 x1 )(x0 x2 )

(x x0 )(x x2 )
y1 +
+
(x1 x0 )(x1 x2 )
+

(x x0 )(x x1 )
y2
(x2 x0 )(x2 x1 )

(x 1)(x 4)
(x 3)(x 4)
1+
27+
(1 3)(1 4)
(3 1)(3 4)

17.7

(3 1)(3 2)(3 4)(3 5)(3 6)

+
(0 1)(0 2)(0 4)(0 5)(0 6)

+ 14

(3 0)(3 2)(3 4)(3 5)(3 6)

+
(1 0)(1 2)(1 4)(1 5)(1 6)

+ 15

(3 0)(3 1)(3 4)(3 5)(3 6)

+
(2 0)(2 1)(2 4)(2 5)(2 6)

+5

(3 0)(3 1)(3 2)(3 5)(3 6)

+
(4 0)(4 1)(4 2)(4 5)(4 6)

+6

(3 0)(3 1)(3 2)(3 4)(3 6)

+
(5 0)(5 1)(5 2)(5 4)(5 6)

+19

(3 0)(3 1)(3 2)(3 4)(3 5)

(6 0)(6 1)(6 2)(6 4)(6 5)

18
36
36
12

14 +
15 +
5
240 60
48
48
18
12
6+
19
60
240

= 0.05 4.2 + 11.25 + 3.75 1.8 + 0.95 = 10.

+

(x 1)(x 3)
64
(4 1)(4 3)

1
[48x 2 114x + 72] = 8x 2 19x + 12
6

Example 21: Using Lagranges formula, calculate

f(3) from the following table.
x
0 1
2 4 5 6
f (x) 1 14 15 5 6 19

Example 22: If yx is the value of y at x for which

the fth differences are constant and y1 + y7 =
784, y2 + y6 = 686, y3 + y5 = 1088, then nd y4 .
[JNTU 2007, Set No. 3]
Solution: Since 5th order differences are constant,
we have 5 yn = constant for any n. Then all the
higher order differences are zero i.e., 6 yn = 0 and
7 yn = 0, etc. for any n. We know that

0 = 6 y0 = y6 6y5 + 15y4 20y3 + 15y2

Solution: Here, x0 = 0, x1 = 1, x2 = 2, x3 = 4,
x4 = 5, x5 = 6 and f (x0 ) = 1, f (x1 ) = 14, f (x2 ) =
15, f (x3 ) = 15, f (x4 ) = 5, f (x5 ) = 6, f (x6 ) = 19.
From Lagranges interpolation formula, we get

5


f (x) =

5

i=0

f (xi )

j =0
j
=i

5

j =0
i
=1

5

i=0

21y2 + 7y1 y0

(x xj )

since n yk = yn+k n c1 , yn+k1 + n c2 yn+k2 +

. . . + (1)n yk .
Adding, we get

(xi xj )

5

(x xj )
f (xi )
(x
i xj )
j =0
j
=i

6y1 + y0
7

Given, y1 + y7 = 784, y2 + y6 = 686 and y3 +

y5 = 1088
Therefore 784 6(686) + 15(1088) 20y4 = 0
or y4 = 721.

Chap-17

B.V.Ramana

17.8

August 30, 2007

10:15

MATHEMATICAL METHODS

following data.

Solution: Finite differences table is

x
x
0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7
0.9
1.1
1.3 20
F (x): 0.003 0.067 0.148 0.248 0.370 0.518 0.697 25

354

30

291

35

260

40

231

45

204

and nd F (0.6) using a cubic that ts at x = 0.3, 0.5,

0.7 and 0.9 using Newtons forward formula.
[JNTU 2007, Set No. 2]

0.1 0.003
0.3 0.067
0.5 0.148
0.7 0.248
0.9 0.370
1.1 0.518
1.3 0.697

0.064
0.081
0.100
0.122
0.148
0.179

0.017
0.019
0.022
0.026
0.031

0.002
0.003
0.004
0.005

0.001
0.001
0.001

0
0

q=

Example 24: Find f (22) from the following table

x0 using Gauss forward formula
x
f (x)

20
354

25
332

30
35
40
45
291 260 231 204
[JNTU 2007, Set No. 4]

332

Df
22
41
29
29
27

D2f
19
12
0

D 3f

D4f

31

43

12

14

Gausss forward (rst GI) interpolation formula (see

(1) on page 17.19)
f (x) = f0 + qf0 + q(q1)
2 f1
2
(q+1)q(q1) 3
+
 f1 + . . .
6
0
Here, x = 22, x0 = 20, h = 5, q = xx
= 2220
=
h
5
2
0.4, f0 = 354, f0 = 41,  f1 = 19,
3 f1 = 31
f (22) = 354 + (0.4)(41) + (0.4)(0.6)
(19)
2
(1.4)(0.4)(0.6)
(31)
+
6
= 354 16.4 + 2.28 1.736 = 338.144
Example 25: Using Gauss backward differences
formula nd y(8) from the following table.
x;
0 5 10 15 20 25
y(x): 7 11 14 18 24 32

0.6 0.3
x x0
=
= 1.5
h
0.2

with x0 = 0.3, x1 = 0.5, x2 = 0.7, x3 = 0.9 we can

t a polynomial of degree 3.
By Newtons forward differences formula, with
y0 = 0.067, y0 = 0.081, 2 y0 = 0.019, 3 y0 =
0.003, 4 y0 = 0.001, 5 y0 = 0, we get, F (0.6) =
(0.019)+
0.067 + (1.5)(0.081) + (1.5)(1.51)
2!
(1.5)(1.51)(1.52)
+
(0.003)+
3!
+ (1.5)(1.51)(1.52)(1.53)
(0.001)
4!
= 0.067 + 0.1215 + 0.0071 0.0011 + 0.000002
F (0.6) = 0.194502

f(x)

[JNTU 2007, Set No. 1]

0
, x = 8, x0 = 10, h = 5
Solution: Here, q = xx
h
810
so q = 5 = 0.4. The Gauss backward differences formula (Gauss second G2: see (2) on Page
17.19).

y(x) =
1) (q1)
3!
3 y2 +

y0 + qy1 +

q(q+1)
2!

(q+2)(q+1)q(q1) 4
 y2
4!

11

10

14

15

18

20

24

25

32

D
4
3
4
6
8

D2
1
1
2
2

2 y1 + q(q +

+ ...

D3
2
1
0

D4

1
1

Chap-17

B.V.Ramana

August 30, 2007

10:15

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS

Using the Gauss backward differences formula with

y0 = 14, y1 = 3, 2 y1 = 1, 2 y2 = 2, we get
y(8) = 14 + (0.4) 3 + (0.4)(0.6) 1

EXERCISE

+ (0.6)(0.4)(1.4)
(2)
6
y(8) = 12.792.
Example 26: If f (x) = u(x)v(x) show that
f [x0 , x1 ] = u[x0 ] v[x0 , x1 ] + u[x0 , x1 ] v[x1 ]
[JNTU 2006, Aug. Supply. Set No. 4]
Solution: From the denition of rst order divided
differences, we have
0]
0]
u[x0 , x1 ] = u[xx1 ]u[x
, v[x0 , x1 ] = v[xx1 ]v[x
,
x
x
1

[x0 ]
and f [x0 , x1 ] = f [xx1 ]f
1 x0
Thus RHS
 = u[x0 ] v[x0, x1 ] + u[x0 , x1 ] v[x1 ]
0]
0]
+ u[xx1 ]u[x
v[x1 ]v[x1 ]
= u[x0 ] v[xx1 ]v[x
x
x
1

1
x1 x0

+[u[x1 ] v[x1 ] u[x0 ] v[x1 ]}

{u[x1 ]v[x1 ] u[x0 ] v[x0 ]}

1
x1 x0

1
{f [x1 ]
x1 x0

f [x0 ]} = f [x0 , x1 ].

Example 27: Find the unique polynomial P (x)

of degree 2 or less such that P (1) = 1, P (3) = 27,
P (4) = 64 using Newton divided differences formula.
[JNTU Aug. 2006, Supply. Set No. 2]
Solution: Divided differences table
x

P (x)

x0 = 1

P0 = 1

Divided differences
of order
1
2
[x0 , x1 ] = 271
31
= 13

x1 = 3

P1 = 27
[x1 , x2 ] = 6427
43
= 37

x2 = 4

P2 = 64

1. Show that

n1

k=0

2 fk = fn f0
[JNTU 2003]

Hint:  fk = fk+1 fk

n1
 2
 fk = 2 f0 + 2 f1 + 2 f2 + . . . + 2 fn1
2

k=0

= (f1 f0 ) + (f2 f1 ) +

. . . (fn fn1 )
= fn f0 .
2. Consider the following data for g(x) =

{u[x0 ]v[x1 ] u[x0 ] v[x0 ]

[x0 , x1 , x2 ]
= 3713
=8
41

17.9

sin x
.
x2

x:
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
g(x): 9.9833 4.9696 3.2836 2.4339 1.9177
Calculate g(0.25) accurately using Newtons
forward method of interpolation.
[JNTU: Aug. 2003]
Hint: q = 0.250.1
= 1.5, h = 0.1, x = 0.25,
0.1
x0 = 0.1, g(0.25) = 9.9833 + 1.5(5.0137) +
(1.5)(0.5)
3.3277
2
+ 1.50.5(0.5)
(2.4919)
32
+ 1.50.5(0.5)(1.5)
1.9886
432
Ans. g(0.25) = 3.9134.
3. For x = 0, 1, 2, 4, 5; f (x) = 1, 14, 15, 5, 6. Find
f (3) using forward differences table.
[JNTU 2004]
Hint: x = 3, h = 1, q =

f (3) = 1 + 13(3)+

30
1

=3

3(2)
3(2)(1)
(12)+
2
321
(1)

Here, x0 = 1, P0 = 1, [x0 , x1 ] = 13, [x0 , x1 , x2 ] = 8

Using Newtons divided differences formula
Ans. 5.
P (x) = P0 + (x x0 )[x0 , x1 ] + (x x0 )(x x1 )
4. Find y(25) given that y20 = 24, y24 = 32, y28 =
[x0 , x1 , x2 ]
= 1 + (x 1) 13+(x 1)(x 3)8
35, y32 = 40 using Gauss forward differences
= 8x 2 19x + 12
formula. [JNTU Aug. 2006, Supply. Set No. 1]

Chap-17

B.V.Ramana

17.10

August 30, 2007

10:15

MATHEMATICAL METHODS

Hint: x0 = 28, x = 25, h = 4, q =

y = f(x)

x 2 = 20 y 2 = 24
x1 = 24

y1 = 32

x0 = 2.8

y0 = 35

x1 = 32

y1 = 40

2528
4

= 43

[JNTU 2002]
Hint: x0 = 1, x1 = 7, x2 = 15, x = 10,
f0 = 168, f1 = 192, f2 = 336
f (10) = (107)(1015)
168 + (101)(1015)

(17)(115)
(71)(75)
192+
+ (101)(107)
336
(151)(157)

D y D2y D3y
8

Ans. 231.005


 3  3

4 4 1
3
y(25) = 35 +
3+
2
4
2!


 3  3
4 4 1 43 + 1
+7
3!

7. Compute f (3.5) from the following data

x:
1 2 3 4
f (x): 1 2 9 28
Using Lagranges, interpolation of 2nd and
3rd-order degree polynomials.
Hint: x0 = 1, x1 = 2, x2 = 3, y0 = 1, y1 = 2,
y2 = 9, x = 3.5
(a) 2nd order f (3.5) = 16
(b) 3rd order: x0 = 1, x1 = 2, x2 = 3, x3 =
4, y0 = 1, y1 = 2, y2 = 9, y3 = 28, x = 3.5,
f (3.5) = 16.625.

Ans. y(25) = 34.4453.

5. Use Gauss backward differences formula to nd
y(8) from the following table.
x
y

0
7

5
11

10
14

15
18

20
24

25
32

[JNTU Aug. 2006, Supply, Set No. 4]

Solution: x0 = 10, y0 = 14, h = 5, x = 8, so q =
xx0
= 810
= 25 = 0.4
h
5

y(x)

x2 = 0 y 2 = 7
x1 = 5 y1 = 11
x0 = 10

y0 = 14

x1 = 15

y1 = 18

x1 = 20

y2 = 24

x1 = 25

y3 = 32

4
3
4
6
8

1
1
2
2

2
1
0

1
1

8. Find a real root of x 3 x 1 = 0 by bisection

method.
Hint: root in (1, 2), x2 = 1.25, x3 = 1.375, x4 =
1.3125, x5 = 1.34375, x6 = 1.328125
Ans. 1.328125.
9. Using bisection method, nd a real root of x +
tan x 1 = 0.
Hint: f (0) = 1, f (0.5) = 0.0463, root (0, 0.5).

Ans. 0.4795.
10. Find out an approximate root of x sin x = 1 using
bisection method.

(0.4)(0.6) 1
2
Ans.
(0.4)(0.4 1)(0.4 + 1)2
2
+
6
11.
(0.4)(0.4 1) + (0.4 + 1)(0.4 + 2)
+
(1)
24
Ans.
y(8) = 14 + (0.4) 3 +

Ans. y(8) = 12.7696.

6. Evaluate f (10), given f (x) = 168, 192, 336 at
x = 1, 7, 15 respectively. Use Lagranges interpolation.

Hint: f (0) = 1, f (1) = 0.158529, f (1.5) =

0.496, root in (1, 1.5); x3 = 1.125, x2 = 1.25,
x4 = 1.0625, x5 = 1.09375, x6 = 1.109375,
x7 = 1.1171875, x8 = 1.11328125.
1.11328125.
Use bisection method to nd a real root of 667.38
(1 e0.146843x ) = 40 x.
14.5.
Hint: f (12) = 6.067, f (16) = 2.269, root in
(12, 16).

Chap-17

B.V.Ramana

August 30, 2007

10:15

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS

17.11

which lies between 3.5 and 4 by RegulaFalsi 17. Find a real root of tan1 x x = 1.
method.
[JNTU 2006, Set No. 3] Ans. 2.1323.
Ans. 3.789.
Hint: g(x) = 1 + tan1 x, xn+1 = 1 + tan1 xn ,
Hint: x0 = 3.5, x1 = 4, x2 = 3.7888,
f (2) = 0.10, f (3) = 0.75; choose x0 = 1,
f (x2 ) = 0.0009, f (x1 ) = 0.3979,
x1 = 1.7854, x2 = 2.0602, x3 = 2.1189, x4 =
root (3.7888, 4), x0 = 3.7888, x1 = 4,
2.1318, x5 = 2.1322, x6 = 2.1323.
x3 = 3.7893
18. Using xed point
iteration method, evaluate apIteration Method
proximately (a) 12 (b) 1 .
12

Ans. (a) 3.46425 (b) 0.2887.

Ans. 4.3311
Hint: (a) 12 = x, x 2 = 12 or x = 12
= g(x).
x
Hint:
f (4) = 20 < 0,
f (5) = 50 > 0
Since 9 and 16
are
nearest
numbers
to
12 with

root in (4, 5), xn+1 = x10+1 = g(x),

perfect
squares
9
=
3,
16
=
4.
Take
x0 =
n

5
=
3.4285,
x
=
3.5,
x
3.5,
x
=
3.4285,
x4 =

1
2
3
|g (x)| = (x+1)3/2 < 1 in (4, 5). Take x0 = 4.2
=
3.46425.
3.5, approximate root = 3.4285+3.5
2
1
1
x1 = 4.38529, x2 = 4.30919, x3 = 4.33996,
(b) x = 112 , x 2 = 12
or x = 12x
= g(x)
x4 = 4.32744, x5 = 4.33252, x6 = 4.33046,
1
choose
x0 = 3.5 = 0.285,
x1 = 0.2924,
x7 = 4.33129, x8 = 4.33096, x9 = 4.33109,
x2 = 0.285, x3 = 0.2924, approximate root
x10 = 4.33104, x11 = 4.33106, x12 = 4.33105,
= 0.285+0.2924
= 0.2887.
2
x13 = 4.33105
19. Find a real root of ex sin x = 1 using Newton
14. Find the real root of the Equation
x

x5
x7
x9
x 11
x3
+

+ ...
3
10 42 216 1320
= 0.4431135.

Ans. 0.4769.
3

11

x
x
+ 1320
Hint:
x = x3 x10 + x42 216
+
0.4431135
x1 = 0.4699,
Choose
x0 = 0.44,
x2 = 0.4755, x3 = 0.47664, x4 = 0.47686,
x5 = 0.47690.

15. By iteration method, nd a real root of sin x =

10(x 1).
Ans. x = 1.088.
Hint: f (1) > 0 and f (2) < 0, root in (1, 2)
choose x0 = 1, x1 = 1.084, x2 = 1.088, x3 =
1.088
16. Using method of successive approximation nd
a root of x 3 3x + 1 = 0.
Ans. 0.347.
Hint: f (0) = 1 > 0, f (1) = 1 < 0, xn+1 =
xn3 +1
.
3

Raphsons method.
[JNTU Aug. 2006, Supply Set No. 3,
R059010202]
Hint:
f (x) = ex sin x 1,
f  (x) =
x
f (2) = 5.7188,
e (sin x + cos x).
f ( ) = 1; f  (2) = 3.6439.
Since f (2) and f  (2) have the same sign
choose x0 = 2. NR formula is
xn+1 = xn

exn sin xn 1
,
exn (sin xn + cos xn )

= 0.4305, f (x1 ) = 0.358,

x1 = 2 5.7188
3.6439
f  (x1 ) = 2.039, x2 = 0.606, f (x2 ) = 0.044,
f  (x2 ) = 2.5507, x3 = 0.5887,
f (x3 ) = 0.0004178. Approximate root x3 =
0.5887.