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Universiti Teknologi Petronas - Malaysia

The International Geology Course Programme

Petroleum and Regional Geology

Northeast Java Basin, Indonesia
7 11 December 2015


prepared by:

Salahuddin Husein


Yogyakarta, 2015

DAY -1
07.30 - 08.00


08.00 - 08.30

Opening; Introduction; Photo session

Head of Department

08.30 - 09.45

Lecture 1: Petroleum Exploration in NorthEast Java Basin

Dr. Sugeng Sapto Surjono

09.45 - 10.00

Coffee break

10.00 - 12.00

Lecture 2: Petroleum exploration and


12.00 - 13.00

Lunch and praying break

13.00 - 14.30

Lecture 3: Regional Geology of East Java

14.30 - 14.45

Coffee break

14.45 - 16.00

Lecture 4: Overview on the geological

excursion of NE Java Basin

DAY -2
07.00 - 08.30




Dr. Jarot Setyowiyoto

Salahuddin Husein, Ph.D.

Salahuddin Husein, Ph.D.

Location / Instructor

Gunung Gajah

11.30 - 11.45

Depart from Yogyakarta to Bayat

Field observation 1: Basement structure and
initial basin in-filling sedimentation of
Wungkal-Gamping Formation
From Bayat to lunch location

11.45 - 13.00

Lunch and praying break

Javanese traditional fried

chicken Bu Mayar Restaurant

13.00 - 15.00

From Klaten to Alaskobong

Field observation 2: Kerek Formation at
Kendeng fold-thrust belt
From Alaskobong to Purwodadi
Check-in, dinner
Discussion on the basement geology and
Kendeng fold-thrust belt

08.30 - 11.30

15.00 - 16.00
16.00 - 18.00
18.00 - 19.30
19.30 - 21.00
DAY -3
06.00 - 07.00
07.00 - 08.00
08.00 - 09.00
09.00 - 11.30

Breakfast and check-out
Depart from hotel to Bledug Kuwu
Field observation 3: Mud volcanism of
Rembang Zone
From Bledug Kuwu to Blora

Hotel Griya Laksana, Purwodadi
Salahuddin Husein, Ph.D.

Location / Instructor
Hotel Griya Laksana, Purwodadi
Bledug Kuwu

11.30 - 13.00
13.00 - 13.30
13.30 - 14.30
14.30 - 15.00
15.00 - 16.30
16.30 - 17.00
17.30 - 19.30
19.30 - 21.00

Lunch and praying break

From Blora to Polaman
Field observation 5: Depositional system of
Ngrayong reservoir sandstones
From Polaman to Braholo
Field observation 4: Stratigraphy of Tawun
and Ngrayong Formation and deformation
of Braholo Fold
From Braholo to Blora
Check-in, dinner
Discussion on the mud volcanism and
Rembang petroleum system

Gajah Restaurant, Blora



Hotel Kencana, Blora

Salahuddin Husein, Ph.D.

DAY -4
06.00 - 07.00
07.00 - 08.00

Breakfast and check-out

Depart from hotel to Ledok Field

Hotel Kencana, Blora

08.00 - 11.00

Oil field visit

Ledok Field

11.00 - 11.30

From Ledok to Gadu

Field observation 4: Fluvio-laharic deposit of
Kabuh Formation
From Gadu to Cepu
Lunch and praying break
From Cepu to Solo
From Solo to Yogyakarta

11.30 - 12.30
12.30 - 13.00
13.00 - 14.00
14.00 - 18.00
18.00 - 19.00
19.00 - 21.00


DAY -5


Location / Instructor


Tunas Asri Restaurant, Cepu

Taman Sari Restaurant, Solo
MM Hotel UGM, Yogyakarta

Salahuddin Husein, Ph.D.;
Sarju Winardi, M.T.;
Rahmadi Hidayat, M.Eng.

08.00 - 10.00

Overview and Wrap-up

10.00 - 10.15

Coffee break

10.15 - 10.30

Closing ceremony

Head of Department

10.30 - 17.00

City tour

Guided by assistants

Excursion Map


Bledug Kuwu






: Fieldtrip day-1
: Fieldtrip day-2
: Fieldtrip day-3

The Team

Salahuddin Husein, Ph.D. (Lead Instructor)

Rahmadi Hidayat, M.Eng. (Instructor)
Muhamad Nasir Lukman (Assistant)
Hafiz Fatah Nur Aditya (Assistant)
Mohamad Sakur (Assistant)

UTP UGM Field Trip

Petroleum Geology and Regional Geology Northeast Java Basin

December 8 10, 2015

Trip Guide
Prepared by Salahuddin Husein

A. Introduction
This geologic excursion is crossing several physiographic1 zone of Java, perpendicular to
major east-west structural trends of the island (Figure 1). Therefore, studying physiographic
expression is a transient approach to understand geological formation of a particular region and
its tectonic history. This excursion starts at the northern fringe of Southern Mountains Zone, a
peneplained Eocene-Miocene volcanic belt. Successively the excursion runs to the north, crosses
the Solo Zone, a low land formed by modern volcanic belt of Java Island, on to Kendeng Zone, a
rolling and hilly area composed of inverted deeper marine sediments. To the north, the journey
continues to Randublatung Zone, a narrow depression formed at the edge of Sundaland
continental platform, which is dotted by astonishing mud volcanism. The excursion will be
concluded in the Rembang Zone, an inverted continental platform which hosts the Northeast Java
Basin, a prolific basin in the Java Island.

Figure 1.

Physiographic zonation of central and eastern part of Java Island (Pannekoek, 1949; van
Bemmelen, 1949).

The excursion is covering the history of Java Island throughout Kenozoic, which was built
upon a complex interaction between subduction-related volcanism and stable continental
platform, and tying them to its hydrocarbon potential (Figures 2, 3).

Physiography refers to specific features and attributes of land surface, which resembles unique geologic
processes and their controlling rock formation. Physiographic zonation of Java Island was established by
Pannekoek (1949) dan Van Bemmelen (1949).
Page 1 of 17

Figure 2. Tectonic elements of East Java.

Figure 3. Stratigraphy of East Java.

Page 2 of 17

B. Southern Mountains
The Southern Mountain of East Java is a mountainous region occupying the southern part
of eastern Java Island, aligned in ESE-WNW trend from Parangtritis of Yogyakarta to Ujung Purwo
of Banyuwangi. It is an Eocene Middle Miocene volcano-sedimentary basin that conformably
overlying by Middle Miocene Pliocene limestones, and later was uplifted and block-faulted so
their formation gently dipped to the south (Husein & Srijono, 2007).
Although it has interesting geologic history and the occurrence of certain petroleum system
components, so far exploration over thhe Southern Mountains has resulted in little indication of
possibilities. Potential source rocks of Eocene marine shales were observed in Jiwo Hills, a small
basement window exposed to its northern foot. Apparently, understanding long-lived volcanism
and magmatism throughout Cenozoic becomes the substantial success key in exploring this

The western part of Southern Mountains was studied in detail by van Bemmelen (1949),
which is divided into three geomorphic units (Figure 4). The southern part composed of karst
topography, dominated by connical hills which is known as a region of thousand hills (Gunung
Sewu Javanese language), and bounded directly by Indian Ocean. To the north of Gunung Sewu,
lying a circular flat terrain, known as the Wonosari Plateau. The northern part composed by
remnants of volcanic edifices, known as Baturagung Ridge, which is bounded to the north by the
Solo Zone.

Figure 4.

Physiographic zonation of western part of Southern Mountains (Husein & Srijono, 2007; after
van Bemmelen, 1949).

Surface rivers eroding the Southern Mountains commonly flowing to the south and joining
the Indian Ocean, most of them crossing the Gunung Sewu karstic morphology as sub-terranean
drainage system. Northern flank of the northern ridges are dissected by rivers flowing to the
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north, to the Solo Zone. To the west of Pacitan Bay, a dried, incised river valley assumed as the
ancient Bengawan Solo runs southward to the Indian Ocean, before was pirated and turned
northward to the Solo Zone by Late Pleistocene block-faulting of Baturetno Graben (Husein &
Srijono, 2007).

The following stratigraphy of Southern Mountains were compiled from numerous
researchers (van Bemmelen, 1949; Sumosusastro, 1956; Surono et al., 1992; Jurusan Teknik
Geologi FT UGM, 1994; Novian et al., in prep.; Figure 3):
1) Metamorphic rocks: as the oldest rock unit that exposed in the Jiwo Hills, composed of
phyllites, mica schists, calc-silicate schists, and marble. Both (1929) found Orbitulina in a
boulder of schist, suggesting this unit formed within Late Cretaceous to Paleocene. Epidoteglaucophane schists were also found adjacent to serpentinite. Some Eocene carbonates were
metamorphosed into garnet-wollastonite skarn by diabasic intrusion.
2) Wungkal-Gamping Formation: unconformably overlying the metamorphic rocks,
composed of quartz conglomerates, polymict breccias, quartz sandstones, calcareous
sandstones, calcareous siltstones, intercalated by nummulitic limestones. Their age
was Early to Middle Eocene (P8-P13), deposited in a transgressed shallow marine
platform. Gradually, volcanic materials increased toward the next volcaniclastic
3) Kebo-Butak Formation: deposited during Middle Eocene to Early Miocene (P12-N4),
composed of pebbly sandstones, siltstones, claystones, tuff, and shales. Basaltic lavas with
pillow structures were found in the lower part, whilst the upper part was characterized by
intercalation between polymict breccias and sandstones. Numerous Late Oligocene intrusion
of diorite, diabase, andesite porphyry, and basalts, were frequently observed in Jiwo Hills.
4) Semilir Formation: conformably interfingered deposited over Kebo-Butak Formation during
Late Oligocene to Early Miocene (N3-N8), composed of lapilli tuff, tuffaceous sandstones,
autoclastic breccias, and polymict breccias, with calcareous tuffaceous sandstones in the
upper part. Andesitic lava occurred in the lower part, whilst lignite and carbonaceous
siltstones were found in the middle part. U-Pb age dating indicates 20 Mya (Early Miocene)
for its deposition (Smyth, 2005). Their environment ranges from terrestrial to deeper marine
in a volcanic island arc setting.
5) Nglanggran Formation: interfingered with Semilir Formation in Early Miocene (N5-N6),
composed of polymict conglomerates, pebbly sandstones, tuffaceous sandstones, andesitic
breccias, tuff, and basaltic lavas.
6) Sambipitu Formation: conformably overlying Nglanggran Formation in the late Early Miocene
(N6-N9), composed of interbedded of calcareous sandstones with tuffaceous siltstones, with
increasing carbonate components upward.
7) Oyo Formation: deposited in upper to lower bathyal environment during the late Early
Miocene to early Middle Miocene (N9-N12), thus interfingered with Sambipitu Formation, this
formation composed of intercalation between muddy allochem limestones and tuffaceous
sandstone, gradually developed into foraminiferal limestones in the upper part.
8) Wonosari Formation: interfingered with Oyo Formation from late Early Miocene to Late
Miocene (N10-N18), composed intercalation between limestones and sandy limestones, and
cross-bedded limestones, deposited in carbonate platform. In Jiwo Hills, this formation was
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intruded by diabase.
9) Kepek Formation: interfingered with the upper part of Wonosari Formation, deposited during
Middle to Late Miocene (N17-N18) in middle bathyal to platform environment, composed of
intercalation of tuff with claystones, gradually covered by limestones.
10) Quaternary deposit: composed of fluvio-volcanic sediments from Merapi Volcano since
Pleistocene to Recent.

Stop site
Observation on the Southern Mountains will be located in Gunung Gajah, Bayat (Figure 5).
A nonconformity contact of Paleogene deposit upon metamorphic basement was exposed.
Phyllite was block-faulted and overlied by basal breccias of Early Eocene (P8). Overlying
sequences was deposited after short hiatus by calcareous sandstone-siltstones of Middle Eocene
(P10-P11), containing large foraminifera of Nummulites that were randomly scattered,
accompanied plutonic quartz and metamorphic fragments. Diabasic sills have intruded those
Eocene sequences, where it might be account on the occurrence of graphite in the outcrop. In the
upper part, as indicated by age of P13, volcanic quartz have come about, and gradually became
more dominant as carbonate component diminished, suggesting that they were conformably
developed into Kebo-Butak Formation.

Figure 6. Nonconformity contact between nummulitic limestones and phyllite.

C. Solo Zone
Solo Zone (sensu lato2) is an open depression in the median of Java Island, aligned in ESEWNW, trending from Solo to Banyuwangi, which is further divided into three sub-parallel
compartments (van Bemmelen, 1949), from north to south:
1) Ngawi sub-zone, a narrow depression between Kendeng Zone and the Modern volcanic arc.
2) Solo sub-sone (sensu stricto3), intermontane plains between present-day volcanoes (Figure 7).

In a broader sense (Latin)

Page 5 of 17

3) Blitar sub-zone, a depression between the Modern volcanic arc and the Southern Mountains

Figure 7. Lawu Volcano, located to the east of Solo City, one of main volcanoes occupying the Solo Zone
(photo taken from

At the present-day, Solo Zone is an active sedimentary basin with fluvial environment
receiving sediment supply from the adjacent active volcanoes, Southern Mountains Zone, and
Kendeng Zone. A number of large rivers is flowing through this zone and depositing their deposit
along the way, i.e. the Bengawan Solo, Bengawan Madiun (which later joined Bengawan Solo in
Ngawi City), and Brantas River. At the end of their journey, those large rivers actively formed
broad deltas in the coastal strip of Surabaya and Gresik. Stratigraphically, this zone was assumed
to be similar with Kendeng Zone.

D. Kendeng Zone
Kendeng Zone is composed of elongated hills aligned in E-W direction, lying directly to the
north of Ngawi sub-zone. This zone was formed by marine sedimentary sequences that has been
intensively deformed onto anticlinorium4, with the length of fold-thrust belt reached 250 km and
maximum width of 40 km (de Genevraye & Samuel, 1972), stretching from Ungaran Volcano in its
western end to Mojokerto lowland in its eastern end. However, this zone is still extended in
subsurface in the Madura Strait. Tectonic deformation were more intense in the western part,
and getting weaker to the east. In the central part, this anticlinorium was intruded by Pandan
Volcano of Early Pleistocene (Lunt et al., 1998). As fold pattern around the volcano have been
symmetrically deflected, it is assumed that Kendeng deformation took place at the same time
with Pandan volcanism, around Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene.
As rock formation dominated by soft, fine grained marine sediments, erosional processes is
so intense and were being able to inverse the existing morphology, such as anticlinal valleys and
synclinal hills. These soft rock formation also made Bengawan Solo possible to maintain its
direction while perpendicularly crossing the anticlinorium belt along 15 km length, and made this
river as an antecedent stream during the Plio-Pleistocene tectonic uplift.
Although the Kendeng Zone is known as the deepest sedimentary basin in the eastern Java,

In a strict sense (Latin)

A series of anticlines and synclines so grouped that taken together they have the general outline of an
arch, and those minor folds were superimposed each other.
Page 6 of 17

however the occurrence of petroleum system is still poorly understood. Complex thrust faults
have been responsible to poor seismic interpretation.

Main references in composing the stratigraphy of Kendeng are publication of de Genevraye
& Samuel (1972) and Pringgoprawiro (1983) (Figure 3). Kendeng was formed deep marine
sediment at its lower part, and getting shallower upward, and finally become terrestrial deposit.
Their sediments mainly of clastic turbidites, carbonates, and volcaniclastics.
1) Pelang Formation: as the oldest formation exposed at the surface with an age of Late
Oligocene Middle Miocene (N3-N9), composed of marl with bioclastic limestones, without
any occurrence of volcanic material, and have been deposited during regression system
(Irwanto et al., 2015).
2) Kerek Formation: conformably interfingered with the upper part of Pelang Formation during
Middle to Late Miocene (N8-N17), composed of interbedded between claystones, marls,
calcareous tuffaceous sandstones, and tuffaceous sandstones. Sedimentary structures in any
places suggest that this formation was mainly deposited in turbidity current.
3) Kalibeng Formation: conformably overlying the Kerek Formation during Late Miocene to
Pliocene (N16-N21), in the lower part composed of massive marl that rich in planktonic
foraminifera and frequently disrupted by volcanic sandstones, which developed as debris
deposit in the western part (Banyak Member) and as turbidite deposit in the eastern part
(Atasangin Member). The upper part of this formation were composed of limestones (Klitik
Member) graded to marls and bluish claystones.
4) Pucangan Formation: deposited as laharic facies and black clay, conformably overlying the
Kalibeng Formation, suggesting regression stage up to terrestrial enviroment.
5) Kabuh Formation: deposited in fluvio-lacustrine environment and composed of cross-bedded
sandstones with conglomerates and tuffs.
6) Notopuro Formation: mainly as laharic deposit during Late Pleistocene.
7) Bengawan Solo terrace deposits: composed of polymict conglomerate.
Stop site
Observation on the Kendeng Zone will be located in Alaskobong, Sumberlawang, and
Karangtengah, Ngawi.
1. Alaskobong
A railcut cliff exposes a folded Kerek Formation in an inverted synclinal hill (Figure 8). It
is composed of tuff that gradually overlying by tuffaceous marls and calcareous sandstones,
deposited in outer shelf during lower Middle Miocene (N8-N9). At the northern end an
anticline occurred in association with a reverse fault. The axial plane of anticline is
N102E/89. At the median of synclinal hill, the axial plane N64E/78. Those attitudes of fold
axis suggests the occurrence of conical (non-cylindrically) fold (Figure 9).

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Figure 8. Photo mosaic of Alaskobong outcrop and its zoom in on syncline and anticline, facing to east
(Husein et al., 2008).




Figure 9. Graphic solution on axial plane of anticline (a) and syncline (b), by following method of Marshak
and Mitra (Husein et al., 2008).

2. Karangtengah
A sand quarry exposes a section of fluvio-laharic deposit of Kabuh Formation (Figure
10). It is mainly composed of volcanic sandstones with trough and planar cross-bedding
structures, which contain pebbly, rounded fragments of pumice and andesites.
Conglomerates were deposited in channel structures. Those fluvio-laharic deposit were
separated into lower and upper conglomeratic sandstones by one meter thick, massive tuff.
The upper sandstones were reddish in color, scouring into the tuff layer.

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Figure 10. Planar cross-bed volcanic sandstone of Kabuh Formation, camera facing to east.

E. Randublatung Zone
Randublatung Zone is a narrow depression between Kendeng and Rembang zones, covering
area of Purwodadi, Cepu, and Bojonegoro. It is an undulating lowland with some gentle folds
trending east-west such as Dander and Ngimbang hills (van Bemmelen, 1949). Sedimentation
within this zone have been active since Late Tertiary until present-day, receiving sediments from
adjacent Kendeng and Rembang zones. Drainage system within this zone are divided into Lusi and
Bengawan Solo system. In the western part, sedimentation were done by Lusi River that later
joins Serang River to form Serang Delta, producing the prograding coastal plain of north Java. In
the eastern part, Bengawan Solo runs to the east to form Ujung Pangkah Delta in the northern
part of Gresik. Stratigraphically, this zone was assumed to be similar with Rembang Zone. A
remarkable feature in the Randublatung Zone is the occurrence of mud volcanism (Figure 11).
Although their mechanism is still poorly understood, those mud volcanism were good indication
for the existence of petroleum system.

Figure 11. Eruption of Kuwu mud volcanism (photo taken from

Page 9 of 17

Stop site
Observation on the Randublatung Zone will be located in Kuwu mud volcano. It is an active
mud volcano, with periodic eruption of mud, water, gas, and rock fragments. A variation of gas
were observed from biogenic gas, petroleum gas, as well as dry condensate gas (Burhannudinnur
et al., 2012).
Mud volcano forms typical morphology of pie, salsa, and pool (Figure 12). The Kuwu mud
volcano is a large pie with a diameter of 60 m, which is composed by several smaller pie aligned in
particular direction. Erupted water exhibits pH of 6.5-7.0 with temperature ranges 30-32 C and
high Na, Cl, and Mg content. Erupted mud contains smectite, kaolinite, quartz, and feldspar
(Burhannudinnur et al., 2012). Paleontologic analysis indicates the oldest mud material from N7-N9
interval (Early to Middle Miocene), suggesting their source from Tawun Formation.

Figure 12. Dried gryphone and pond in Kuwu mud volcano.

F. Rembang Zone
The Rembang Zone composed several anticlinoria aligned in E-W direction, stretching from
Purwodadi to Madura Island. It is further divided into North Rembang Anticlinorium and South
Rembang Anticlinorium, which is also known as Cepu Antiklinorium (Van Bemmelen, 1949). Those
two anticlinoria are separated by Lusi River in the west and Kening River to the east. Anticlines are
the main structural traps in hydrocarbon exploration over the region (Figure 13).
Folds in Rembang Zone were arranged in left-stepping en-echelon pattern, controlled by
several ENE-WSW sinistral basement faults with small lateral slip (Husein et al., 2015). This
pattern can be noticed in the North Rembang Anticlinorium from Dokoro Fold to Lodan Fold,
whilst in the South Rembang Anticlinorium stretches from Jamprong Fold to Gabusan Fold. Fold
formation took place in the Late Pliocene, during deposition of Lidah Formation, by a N-S regional
compressional stress, which was re-oriented to NW-SE direction when approaching the basement
faults (Husein et al., 2015).
Surface erosion in the zone is not as rigorous as Kendeng Zone, due to higher resistance of
limestones to erosion, so that there were no occurrence of topographic inversion. Denudational
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processes were only carried out by smaller rivers which brought their sediments directly to the
Java Sea, and they are not able to form considerable deltas.
The Rembang physiographic zone, is a geomorphic expression for the North East Java Basin,
a prolific basin in the island of Java. Although it contributes only a small amount to the 1.3 millionbarrel oil per day of national production, has a significant means to the oil industry. It has the first
well drilled in Indonesia (Ledok #1). The well is located about 20 km west of Cepu and it was
drilled in 1893. This well marked the beginning of oil industry in Indonesia. Since then, numbers of
oil field have been developed in the region (Kawengan, Ledok, Semanggi - Nglobo and other
smaller fields). Some of those fields are currently still in production. Currently, local peoples mine
the oil using a traditional method.

Figure 13. Physio-tectono-stratigraphic zonation of East Java with oilfields (Nachrowi & Koesoemo, 2003).

Stratigraphy of Rembang Zone mainly follows publication of Pringgoprawiro (1983). Based
on sub-surface data from hydrocarbon exploration, the oldest Tertiary stratigraphic unit is
Ngimbang Formation, but it was never exposed at the surface (Figure 3).
1. Pre-Tertiary Basement: Wells data indicate that basement rock comprises accretion wedges of
gabro, ophiolites, metamorphic rock, and metavolcanic/volcanic, igneous, cretaceous
sediments, which is lithified sequences of sandstonelshale with some chert.
2. Ngimbang Formation: The middle Eocene sediment comprises of a sequence of sandstone,
siltstones and shales unconformably overlies the cretaceous basement. This sequence is
overlaid unconformably by the middle to late Eocene series of the fluvial, deltaic, lacustrine
and marginal marine deposits of the middle to late Eocene Ngimbang Formation. This
sequence can be divided into 2 (two) main sedimentary units, which are the Ngimbang clastic
and Ngimbang carbonate.

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3. Kujung Formation: The formation is dominantly composed by marl, interbedded with thin
bedded green fossiliferous sandstone and limestone, and contains larger foraminifera, algae
and coral debris. It was deposited in the deep open marine during the Late Oligocene (P18N3).
4. Prupuh Formation: The formation is constituted by interbedded reefal bio-calcarenite, biocalcilutite and bluish grey marl. They were deposited in the outer neritic during the Late
Oligocene Early Miocene (N3-N5).
5. Tuban Formation: The formation is formed by monotonous black-grey claystone, and several
thin bedded bioclastic limestone where algae, coral debris decrease their size and their
quantity. The planktonic foraminifera analysis shows the age of Early Miocene (N5-N9).
6. Tawun Formation: The lower part of the formation is dominated by black-grey claystone to
marl, and changes gradually to grey siltstone in the upper part. The uppermost part of the
Tawun Formation is the so-called Ngrayong Member (but more renowned as Ngrayong
Formation), presented by bedded quartz sandstone and micaceous, lignitic shale containing
mollusc and intercalated by thin bedded orbitoid limestone, and laterally changes in facies
westward to black pyritic claystone. Frequent facies changes are occurred in this member,
since it was deposited in the transitional environment during Early to Middle Miocene (N8N13).
7. Bulu Formation: The formation is constituted by bedded grainstone and wackstone which its
bioclastic content is consisted of large forams, algae, echinoderms, coral fragments, and
mollusc in the lower part. This formation was deposited in the shallow open marine, where
reef buildups were developed in certain areas, during Middle Miocene (N13-N14).
8. Wonocolo Formation: It composed by massive grey fossiliferous sandy marl and intercalated
thin bedded grey fossiliferous calcarenites. It was deposited during Late Miocene (N15-N16),
in the outer neritic environment.
9. Ledok Formation: The formation is composed by interbedded thickening upward glauconitic
fossiliferous greenish grey calcareous sandstone, and thinning upward fossiliferous greenish
grey sandy marl. They were developed in the upper part of the formation, indicating of the
outer to inner neritic environment. The age of the formation is Late Miocene (N16-N18).
10. Mundu Formation: The formation is dominated by fossiliferous greenish grey marl, while in
the upper part of this formation is presented by interbedded fossiliferous greenish grey sandy
calcarenite and greenish grey sandy marl, the so-called Selorejo Member (or also long known
as Selorejo Formation). The formation was deposited during the Late Miocene to Pliocene
(N19-N21) in the outer neritic environment.
11. Lidah Formation: This formation consists of bluish claystone and bedded marl with
intercalations of sandstone and lenses of coquina, deposited during Pleistocene (N22-N23).
The lower part of this formation is supposed to have been deposited in middle to outer
sublittoral environment. Shallowing upward sequence occurred in the upper part of this unit,
where a shallow water environment prevailed, indicated by the presence of molluscan
bearing layers.
12. Paciran Formation: Composed of reefal limestones, partially converted to karst topography
and chalky limestones, deposited from Pliocene (N19) up to Recent.

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Stop sites
Observation on the Rembang Zone will be conducted in 2 locations: i.e. Polaman and
1. Polaman
Ngrayong Formation is well exposed in this abandoned quarry (Figure 14). The lower
part composed of shales that gradually changed to sandstones. Gastropods and pelecypods
become more abundant upward. Amber and lignite are also frequently observed. The upper
part was composed of cycloclypeus limestones, which suggests that Ngrayong deposition
had shifted from tidal flat to shallow marine platform.

Figure 14. Outcrop of Polaman quarry, showing gradational changes of calcareous sandstones to
cycloclypeus limestones, camera facing east.

2. Braholo
On this 31 meter height rocky cliff, transition from Tawun to Ngrayong formartion can
be observed (Figure 15). The lower part were composed of rudstones that gradually changed
to quartz sandstones. Aerial exposures have been assumed to be occurred before deposition
of Ngrayong, as diagenetic processes were prevailed on the limestones, as suggested by
good porosity and intense cementation. This location also exposes anticline axis of Braholo
Fold, with its associated faults.

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Figure 15. Braholo outcrop, showing gradational change from limestones to siliciclastics and to mixedsiliciclastics and limestones at the uppermost part. Camera fasing southwest.

Exploration history
Hydrocarbon exploration in the Northeast Java Basin has been started since 1871, based on
surface geology and oil or gas seepages in the area, exploration drilling were conducted and
finally resulted the discovery of the Kuti Gunug Anyar Oil Field (1888), Lidah Oil Field (1889) in the
Surabaya area, and the Ledok Oil Field (1893) and Kawengan Oil Field (1894) in Cepu area.
Following these discoveries, during the same decade, more than 25 oil fileds have been
discovered and developed in the Cepu - Surabaya area, but most of them were now abandoned.
In the 1970s, Pertamina conducted modern and intensive exploration in Cepu and
surrounding areas, several exploration wells such as Kujung-I, Dermawu-I, Purwodadi-I, Dander-I
and Jatirogo-1 have been drilled but failed to discover oil or gas in commercial quantities. In the
19801s, Pertamina in Cepu area, JOB-Stanvac in Gundih area and JOB-Trend in Tuban area, run
geological and geophysical surveys and drilled several exploration wells but again they failed to
discover oil or gas.
In the 19901s, modern sequence stratigraphy concept was world widely applied in the
petroleum industries. Based on this modern concept, Pertamina, Humpuss, JOB-Santa Fe and JOBHuffco Brantas, started again to explore the onshore area of the Northeast Java Basin. Finally,
JOB-Santa Fe discovered oil in Tuban area, Pertamina found gas in Rembang area and JOB Huffco

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Brantas found gas in Porong area, while Humpuss is still continuing exploration in Cepu and
surrounding areas.
In the 20001s, Humpuss and Mobil-Oil, finally discovered the oil reserve in commercial
quantities within "the reservoir of the Prupuh reefal limestone formation" in the Kalitidu area,
south of Bojonegoro - East Java.

Oil and Gas Fields

For the time being, only 5 (five) oil fields and l (one) gas field in the onshore area of the
Northeast Java Basin are still being kept in production, i.e.: Kawengan oil field (Pertamina), 2.
Ledok oil field (Pertamina), Nglobo - Semanggi oil fields (Pertamina), Traditional Wonocolo oil field
(Pertamina), Soko-Tuban oil field (JOB-Santa Fe), and Balun gas field (Pertamina). The other oil
fields, which have been developed and produced since 1888 until 1900's, have already
Kawengan is the biggest oil field in the Northeast Java Basin, the cumulative production
reached 150 million cubicmeter in the 1990's. The production layers are the upper part of the
Tawun Formation (the Ngrayong sand) and the lower part of the Wonocolo formation. The quartz
sand of the Ngrayong formation is the main reservoir, it is porosity range from 16-21%
permeability 31 - 165 milidarcy, with water saturation (Sw) more than 90% with the depth varies
from 400 - 600 meter in Kawengan-Wonocolo area. Structurally, Kawengan is an asymmetric
anticline with NW - SE direction. The south flank is bounded by the reserve fault with the same
direction. Several normal faults with NE -SW directions devided Kawengan anticline into several
blocks or culminations and become the boundaries of production system. They are Kidangan
(east), Ngudal, Wonosari, Kawengan and Wonocolo (west).
Balun is the only gas field in the Northeast Java Basin (onshore) structurally is a simple
symmetric anticline, east-west direction the reservoir is the globigerenid sand of the Selorejo
Formation in a depth around 400 - 500 meter. The Selorejo formation composed almost entirely
of sand size planktonic foraminifera and has major type of interparticle primary porosity, with
porosity range from 28-42% permeability from 53-963 milidarcy.
There is no agreement on what could be the source rocks for the oil. Weeda (1958)
suggested the thick marine Early Miocene Tawun clays are the most likely source rocks. However,
unpublished geochemical analyses suggest the oils were derived from a non-marine source, which
would have to be looked for deeper in the section.

Ledok Traditional Oil Mining

Starting from 1989, in the Ledok Oilfield, located at Sambong District, rights for old oil wells
exploration was given to a group of local people (known as "miner") through cooperation contract
with Pertamina Employee Cooperation Body "Patra Karya" (Figure 16). These group of miner will
work under Patra Karya and get compensation fee from each litre oil they got. It is claimed that
almost 90% abandoned wells of Pertamina was succesfully recovered by traditional methods. In
the beginning, their production rate only about 600 litre per day, but recent numbers grow to
30,000 litre per day. This incredible number is even larger than what Pertamina could have done.
Salary rate was set by Pertamina in 2004 as IDR 215 per litre oil. If the miner group could
reach production level of 1 million litre per month, they will get approximately IDR 200 million.
With member of 220 people, assuming those salary equally divided, each member will get IDR
900,000 per month, or IDR 30,000 per day work. These number are 14 times larger than grossPage 15 of 17

income rate of Sambong District year 2003 of IDR 778,000 per month, or even more if comparing
to minimum salary level of Blora Regency year 2003 of IDR 366,000.
Thus, from economic point of view, these traditional oil mining have multipliers effect, which
is providing local job, income source, decreasing poverty level, and preventing urbanisation.
Although it requires capital of about IDR 10 million to operate a traditional oil mining, people with
group could share the expenses during first year operational. Apparently, people of Ledok Village
could take economic advantage, as shown in 2004 by numbers of autocar vehicles (35 unit) and
could send their children to universities (there was 81 bachelor-degree holder).

Figure 16. (upper left) scenery of traditional oil mining in Wonocolo Village (photo : Alan Yudhis); (lower
left) final residue of traditional distillation. One well could produce 2-3 barrel oil of diesel and
gasoline; (right) wooden oil rig.

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