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Biomechanics

Types of Motion

By
Madi.A. Aburreesh

Linear motion, also called translatory motion, occurs in


more or less a straight line from one location to another.
All the parts of the object move the same distance, in the
same direction, and at the same time. If this movement
occurs in a straight line
It is called rectilinear motion,
such as the motion of a child
sledding down a hill

If the movement occurs not in a


straight line but in a curved path, it
is called curvilinear motion.

Movement of an object about


a fixed point is called angular
motion , also known as rotary
motion
All the parts of the object
move through the same angle,
in the same direction, and at
the same time.

Joint Movements
(Osteokinematics)

Joints move in many different directions. Movement occurs


around joint axes and through joint planes.
Osteokinematics, which deals with the relationship of
the movement of bones around a joint axis.
Arthrokinematics, which deals with the relationship of
joint surface movement.

Skeletal muscles act on bones using them as levers to lift


weights or produce motion. A lever is a rigid structure that
rotates around a fixed point called the fulcrum. In the body
each long bone is a lever and an associated joint is a fulcrum.
The levers can alter the direction of an applied force, the
strength of a force, and the speed of movement produced by
A force.

Three different types of lever systems found in the human


body.
Bones serve as levers and joints as fulcrums. The resistance
to rotation of a bone around a joint comes from two sources:
the weight of the part of the body and an external weight to
be lifted

Direction of Displacement
Even if displacement of a segment is confined to a single
axis, the rotatory or translatory motion of a segment
around or along that axis can occur in two different
directions.
For rotatory motions, the direction of movement of a
segment around an axis can be described as occurring
in a clockwise or counterclockwise direction.

movement are independent of viewer perspective and,


therefore, more useful clinically.
Because there are two directions of rotation (positive and
negative) around each of the three cardinal axes, we
can describe three pairs of (or six different) anatomic
rotations available to body segments.

Types of Muscle Contraction

There are three basic types of muscle contraction:


1- isometric,
2- isotonic,
3- and isokinetic.

Isometric contraction:occurs when a muscle contracts,


producing force without changing
the length of muscle

described as a static, or tonic, contraction in


some texts

Isotonic contraction :occurs when a muscle contracts,


the muscle length changes, and the
joint angle changes

Isokinetic contraction:It can be done only with special equipment. The Cybex
and Orthotron
It produce such contractions. resistance to the part varies,
but the velocity, or speed, stays the same. This differs from
an isotonic contraction in which the resistance remains
constant but the velocity varies.

An isotonic contraction can be subdivided


Into:1- Concentric and
2- Eccentric contractions

Concentric contraction:occurs when there is joint movement, the muscles shorten,


and the muscle attachments (O and I) move toward each
other

1. Muscle attachments move closer


together.
2. Movement is usually occurring
against gravity (a raising motion).
3. It is an acceleration activity.

Eccentric contraction:contraction occurs when there is joint motion but the muscle
appears to lengthen; that is, the muscle attachments separate

1. Muscle attachments move


farther apart.
2. Movement usually occurs with
gravity
(a "lowering motion).
3. The contraction is used with
a deceleration activity.

Roles of Muscles

Muscles assume different roles during joint


motion, depending on such variables as the
motion being performed, the direction of the
motion, and the amount of resistance the
muscle must overcome.

An agonist (prime mover) :A muscle or muscle group that causes the motion.

Assisting mover:A muscle that is not as effective but does assist in


providing that motion
Factors that determine whether a muscle is a prime
mover or an assisting mover include:a) Size,
b) Angle of pull,
c) Leverage,
d) Contractile potential.

Antagonist :A muscle that performs the opposite motion of the agonist.


Stabilizer :A muscle or muscle group that supports, or makes firm, a
part and allows the agonist to work more efficiently.
Neutralizer:contracts to prevent the unwanted motion.
Synergist:A muscle that works with one or more other muscles to
enhance a particular motion.
Cocontraction:When the antagonist contracts at the same time as the
agonist

Kinetic Chains
Closed kinetic chain:requires that the distal segment
is fixed (closed) and the
proximal segment(s) moves

Open kinetic chain :The distal segment is free


to move while the proximal
segment(s) can remain
stationary.