Paper for Guyed tower design

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Paper for Guyed tower design

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1994 Elsevier Science Ltd

Pergamon

0045 7949/93 $6.00 + 0.00

CONSIDERATIONS FOR TALL GUYED TOWERS

C. ANTES,tJI

R.

KHOURY,t

J. J.

CONNOR

and C.

POUANGARE~II

tEngineering Information Technology, 545 Concord Avenue, Cambridge, MA, U.S.A.

Constructed Facilities Division, Massachusetts lnstitute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, U.S.A.

~9 Nikokleous Street, Ayia Zoni, Limassol, Cyprus

(Received 17 September 1992)

Abstract-The inherent nonlinearity in the structural behavior of guyed towers leads to difficulties in their

structural analysis, and prevents the formulation of a general-purpose_ design methodology. ~s a result,

simplifying analysis assumptions regarding the loading and the mode~m~ of structural behav10~ have to

be made, and approximate design methods are used, that are often unjusttfied, and can lead to drsastrous

~~

In this paper, the authors first summarize the results of an investig~t~on th~y c~rned out on the collapse

of a 1900 ft tall guyed tower under ice and wind loads. B_ased on thi~ mvesttgatton . they then proceed .to

present sorne structural analysis recomm~ndatio~s relatmg to loadmg and modehng c.once.rns. S~ral

emphasis is placed on the importance of rce loadmg, and on the leve! of ~ccuracy requrred m modehng

the nonlinear response behavior. Finally, the conclusio~s drawn from thrs stu~y are used to formulate

preliminary design guidelines. This facilitates a systemattc approach for the desrgn of tall guyed towers.

1. INTRODUCTION

tendency in the structural engineering community for

savings in material that result in lightweight, slender

structures. Guyed towers supporting telecommunication antennas belong to this general class of structures. They consist of a slender, tall mast laterally

supported at severa! levels along its height by sets of

inclined pretensioned guys spaced at equal angles

around the mast.

The actual structural behavior of guyed towers is

extremely complicated. The guys exhibit, in general,

a nonlinear behavior, especially at low values of

pretension. Increasing the pretension of the guys

lessens the nonlinearity and improves the lateral

stiffness, however, it also leads to larger compressive

loads, and therefore, to a higher buckling probability

for the mast itself. The behavior of the mast is also

nonlinear due to its slenderness, and to the large

displacements it experiences under substantial wind

loading. Moreover, decisions that have to be taken in

the design phase regarding loads are also not straightforward. Guyed towers have traditionally been designed for wind loading. However, wind forces are of

a dynamic nature, and consideration of equivalent

static loads is not always adequate. In addition to

wind load, there is also ice load. This load stresses

IIFormerly with the Civil Engineering Department,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA,

U.S.A.

manner than wind, and can therefore be potentially

critical. Simultaneous ice and wind loads can frequently occur, and have been found to be responsible

for severa) catastrophic failures of guyed towers in

the past. And with the inability of analysts or designers to model accurately this complicated behavior, the

attention of investigators has been focused on identifying reasonable simplifications in the required loading and the structural modeling for guyed towers.

A number of researchers have investigated the

structural behavior of cables. A fairly complete description of cable behavior under severa) types of

load can be found in [1, 2]. A commonly used technique to take into account the nonlinearity due to sag

is that of the equivalent cable modulus [3). Design

expressions for the response of cables under concentrated and uniform Joads are given in [4). Interesting

contributions have also been made by designers of

cable-stayed bridges [5, 6] who face similar difficulties

in modeling cable behavior. The advent of digital

computers and the finite element method has led to

the formulation of a series of numerical methods for

cable treatment [7-9). Sorne very recent work published in [10] gives what could be considered to be

state-of-the-art for cable modeling today, comparing

more accurate numerical to approximate analytical

solutions.

Other investigators have dealt more specifically

with behavior and design issues of guyed towers. In

[Il] analytical expressions for the simpler problem

of 'short' towers with a single set of guys are given.

797

798

C.

GANTES

towers are described in [12-15). The Electronic Industries Association [16], and the German DIN 4131 [17]

provide guidelines for minimum design requirements,

while optimum sizing recommendations are published in [18). A number of papers [19, 20] deal with

the effect of wind loading on towers, while [21, 22]

stress the potential danger induced by ice formation.

Although a considerable amount of research has

been done on the behavior of guyed towers, the

problem of finding a commonly accepted methodology for their design remains unsolved. Currently

used design approaches can lead to unsafe or unstable

towers, as indicated by investigations of severa! failures that occurred in the recent past.

In this paper, the authors first summarize the

conclusions drawn from their investigation of a tower

collapse under combined ice and wind loading. Then,

they try to use these conclusions to formulate sorne

general recommendations pertaining to the analysis

and design of guyed towers. Considerations related to

the types of Joad that have to be accounted for and

how they should be modeled are presented. This is

followed by a discussion of severa! modeling techniques for the mast and cables, and the leve! of

accuracy achieved by each one of them. And finally,

sorne guidelines for the preliminary design of guyed

towers are given.

2. CONCLUSIONS DRAWN FROM GUYED

TOWER COLLAPSE

truss in the shape of a triangular prism with strong

columns at the three corners, horizontal members at

regular intervals of 5 ft, and diagonal X-bracing. It

was 1900 ft tall, 9 ft per side, and supported a TV

antenna. It was supported laterally by three planes of

guys equally spaced at 120 intervals.

The tower collapsed under heavy ice and light wind

loads. The wind direction and the location of the

et al.

Guy Lin es

North

Guy Unes

According to the meteorological data, the wind velocity was around 15 mph, and the ice was distributed

triangularly along the height of the tower with a

maximum thickness of lO in at the top.

An investigation of the response of the tower under

these two loads indicated that it had been sufficiently

designed for lateral wind loads much stronger than

those that occurred at time of collapse. However, the

vertical Joad bearing capacity was inadequate. No

allowance for ice Joad was considered in the initial

design since there was no such code requirement.

lee had a triple effect on the behavior of the

tower. It not only created a substantial axial Joad in

the mast, but also increased the projected exposure

area for the wind and the sag of the guys, thus

reducing their lateral stiffness. The effect of ice on the

structural response is indicated by the deflected

shapes of the mast shown in Fig. 3. The cantilever

type behavior that is observed for wind loads only

changes as ice is applied. Similar deflection patterns

were observed by Williamson [22).

Axial stresses in the legs of the tower under combined ice and wind loads revealed that local buckling

WIND.

....__

wlnd only

between the sixth and seventh guy levels. Once this

member buckled, the guys at the seventh and eighth

leve), highly tensioned due to the combined loading,

pulled the upper tower section down causing the

Jower five guy Jevels to behave out-of-phase with one

another. A push-pull mechanism instantly developed

between these remaining five clusters of guys causing

the collapse of the entire tower in a 'domino-effect'

manner.

Location of the debris relative to the tower base

and to the direction of wind at time of collapse

strongly corroborated this failure mechanism. A large

pile of broken members along with chunky ice formations near the base of the tower in the up-wind

direction was the final post-collapse scene. Due to the

extreme pulling and pushing of the guy ca bles, severa)

of them had their concrete foundations upheaved.

In conclusion, the tower collapsed although no

evidence of obvious design or construction errors was

found. The cause for collapse was the Jack of accurate

loading information, and, more specifically, the Jack

of consideration for possible ice formation. While

investigating this failure the authors made severa)

observations regarding analysis and design practice

for tall guyed towers. Besides emphasizing the main

lesson drawn from this collapse, which refers to the

importance of ice loading, in the next sections of this

paper it will be attempted to provide a review of the

state-of-the-art in tall guyed tower design, and recommendations for its improvement.

3. MODELING CONSIDERATIONS

the mast and cables of guyed towers. Towers like the

one investigated in the previous section will be examined, since they constitute a fairly common and quite

representative class of guyed towers. A typical mast

is a space truss with the shape of a triangular

pyramid. The three corner columns are connected at

regular intervals by horizontal beams and diagonal

bracing. The tower is laterally supported by a

series of three guys spaced around the mast at angles

of 120 and distributed along the height of the

mast.

Severa) methods are used in practice for modeling

both the mast and the cables. They vary in the Jevel

of accuracy they can provide, as weil as in the cost

associated with their use. The selection by the designer of one mode) versus another should be based

on the available resources and on the particular

design stage, i.e. preliminary versus final design. The

most common alternatives for modeling the mast and

guys and their corresponding virtues and handicaps

are presented here.

3.1. Mode/ing of the mast

an equivalent bearn. Referring to Fig. 4, the crossCAS 49/s--D

799

A

obtained as follows:

(l)

and

(2x) + 2A (x)-3

2

1eq, = A - 3

= -1 Ad 2

(2)

(3)

the horizontal and diagonal members of the mast to

the axial and bending stiffness of the equivalent

bearn. More exact calculations performed as part of

this study indicated that this contribution increases I.q

only by approximately 5%, and is therefore indeed

negligible.

The number of bearn elements required to mode)

the equivalent bearn for a finite element analysis

should be suffi.ciently high to accurately represent the

variation in column size or A.q along the height of the

mast. In addition, a number of about ten elements

between successive guy attachment levels was shown

to be adequate to capture nonlinear effects and

buckling of the mast.

Regarding the boundary conditions at the base of

the mast, both pinned and fixed supports have been

used in the past. The actual behavior is somewhere in

between, and can be modeled by using a rotational

spring, an element widely available in commercial

finite element programs. This issue should not be of

major concern anyway, since the boundary conditions only affect the tower locally, in the neighborhood of the base.

A more detailed mast modeling involves idealizing

every single member, vertical, horizontal, and diagonal, with a corresponding element. Treating each

member as a bearn element would be the most

accurate approach. However, the more conservative

solution ofusing truss elements has proven to provide

suffi.cient accuracy, and is considerably more economical, since it cuts in half the active degrees of

freedom.

A comparison of the results obtained when

using the two different mast models indicated the

800

C.

ANTFS

sufficiency of the equivalent bearn mode! in predicting the global tower behavior for preliminary

calculations. This is illustrated in Fig. 5 where

the horizontal displacement at the top of the

tower is plotted against a scale factor for wind

Joad corresponding to 75 mph. Use of the more

exact mode! however, is necessary for final design,

and when we are interested in the response of individual members, or in investigating the influence individual member defects could have on the global

structural response. lt should be noted that the

performance of the equivalent bearn mode! could

be improved by taking shear deformations into account.

Another alternative is to use techniques of discrete

field analysis as proposed in [23). Then, a closed form

solution can be obtained for the space truss that is

accurate and avoids the high computational effort

of a member by member analysis. In addition, bar

forces can then be obtained through back-substitution.

et a/.

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

-------'!<

\

\

\

\

\

WIND-

tw

.f.

1\

1

1

1

1

\

1

1

1

1

The modeling of the guys is more complex than

that of the mast due to the inherent nonlinearity of

cable structures. The behavior of cables is presented

in detail in [1, 2], where interested readers can be

referred to for more information. Here, only issues

of interest for the modeling of guys will be

addressed.

The re are two phases of be ha vi or in the li fe of cable

structures. The first phase includes the deployment

and initial pretensioning of cables and is characterized by being highly nonlinear. The second phase is

the so called in-service phase during which various

Wind Load

Normalized

wrt 75mph

1

Id

1

0.8

d

1

Equivalent beam

model

0.6

Exact mast

p

1

Jj

0.4

1

1

;f

1

0.2

Displacement

,...----

/0

50

(in]

100

150

200

250

pretensioned configuration. The response in this second phase can be either linear or nonlinear depending

on the relative magnitudes of the pretensioning and

service loads.

Both straight and curved cable elements have been

developed and incorporated in finite element programs [7-10]. Having access to such a program, the

designer can use either element type to mode! the

guys. A study presented in [10] indicates that five

curved elements or ten straight elements per guy

provide satisfactory accuracy.

The present study, however, addresses situations

where such cable elements are not available. This is

often the case, since many widely used finite element

codes do not include cable elements, but instead

recommend the use of nonlinear truss elements for

the modeling of cable structures. Furthermore, reliable simple models can be very useful during the

preliminary design stage, even if cable elements are

available.

The simplest mode! is the one where each set of

three guys connected to the mast at a given levet is

substituted by a spring. Consider the simple case of

a mast supported laterally by a single set of three

cables with initial prestressing tension TP (Fig. 6). The

approach introduced in [1, pp. 135-139], based on the

concepts of force equilibrium, deformation compatibility, and linear elastic material behavior, was folIowed. Then, the horizontal component of the

resultant of the tension forces in the three guys due

to a horizontal displacement u and a vertical displace-

by

(~) + ~2 (EA

F = 3TPc

)(~

- TPc )

order u 2, and that terms of order u 3 or higher are

negligible. For the opposite horizontal displacement

direction we have

(~) + ~2 (EA

F. = 3TPc

length.

This approximate approach is weil known and

provides satisfactory results, especially for high initial

pretensioning and small additional in-service displacements [10]. Note that in reality the tension along

a guy is not constant due to sag and dead weight

effects. Use of an average initial guy tension Tr is

recommended. Theo, the expressions for the horizontal component of tension becomes

)(~ ) (~)

2

- TP c c

x {1

+~(~)(~ )}-

(5)

for both horizontal displacement directions

(b-w) +-

F w = 3TPc

801

(b)

k,~N {

3

) 2 (EA g - TPc

be neglected. In addition, it is assumed that TP ~ EAg.

Theo, we obtain the same horizontal force component regardless of displacement direction

(8)

results for small displacements we can generalize

expressions (7) and (8) for the case of a cluster of N

guys arranged symmetrically around the mast

(10)

These results can be modified using Dishinger's formula to take into account the nonlinearity due to

sag [3]

mga) EAg'

1( + - TP

12TP

spring in the direction of wind, and a vertical concentrated Joad. Ths stiffness of the spring is

(Il)

T,+

~EA (~y

'5 } (~).

2

( mga - EAg

1+-TP

!2TP

(13)

This mode! is adequate for initial approximations

and for low in-service loads in comparison to the

pretensioning forces. For a more refined analysis, and

given the Jack of cable elements, the guys can be

modeled as a linkage of nonlinear truss elements. To

avoid having an unstable stiffness matrix due to zero

stiffness of ali degrees of freedom associated with

displacement perpendicular to the cable, the initial

pretensioning strains have to be introduced. A

method that has been used in the past consists of

modeling the cable as a straight series of truss

elements with the initial pretensioning, and theo

applying the dead weight of the cable incrementally

to obtain the deformed configuration at the beginning

of the in-service phase. This mode! however, overestimates the lateral stiffness provided by the guys,

because the stresses due to dead weight are added to

those due to mechanical pretensioning, which is not

an accurate simulation of the real pretensioning

process.

Alternatively, one can use this mode! of a straight

truss linkage with the initial pretensioning, but use a

reduced axial stiffness EAg according to Dishinger's

formula (Il). This accommoda tes for softening of the

cables due to their dead weight. Theo, the service

loads are applied directly on the configuration with

straight cables. This approach gives satisfactory results for cases of high initial pretensioning.

A more general approach is to calculate analytically the sagged cable shape, and to start the finite

element analysis from that deformed configuration.

The sagged geometry can be modeled with a series of

straight truss elements (Fig. 7). Either a continuous

C. GANTES et a/.

802

used for the analytical calculations. Discretization of

each cable into 12 straight two-node truss elements

and Jumping of the dead Joad on the correpsonding

nodes has shown sufficient accuracy in our calculations. The caluclation of the deformed shape is

based on the known initial tension. A more general

formulation concerning cables under multiple concentrated Joads given in [11, pp. 25-34], can be used

here. This approach consists of calculating the moments at ali points of application of concentrated

loads, and setting them equal to zero. Then we obtain

the following element sag

(!__) i(J -

d =a

'

H

21 1

i)

stiffnesses.

The accuracy of the spring model for small displacement analyses is evident. lts effectiveness is

decreased at higher altitudes where the sag is relatively large. Figure 8 illustrates the range of validity

of the equivalent spring model. The horizontal displacement at the top of the tower is plotted against

the scaling factor of wind Joad corresponding to a

wind speed of 75 mph. In both cases an equivalent

bearn was used to model the mast. As expected, the

stiffening of the guys at increased deformation is

modeled effectively by the truss linkages but not

by the springs. The performance of the equivalent

spring model can be improved if iterations are carried

out during which the calculated spring reactions

are used to update the values of spring constants in

order to account for the nonlinearity of the response [23].

In conclusion, the simple equivalent spring model

is an acceptable solution for preliminary design purposes, especially for large initial cable pretensioning

and small in-service loads. For more detailed analysis

and final design, the modeling of the guys in their

sagged position as linkages of pretensioned straight

truss elements provides an acceptable solution when

cable elements are not available.

4. LOAOING CONSIDERATIONS

(14)

'

horizontal component of the known initial tension T,

a is the horizontal projection of the cable, and J is the

number of elements. This formula assumes discretization in elements of equal horizontal projection. Then,

the tension in each element can be obtained since the

geometry is known and the horizontal component H

remains constant along the cable. Since the slope at

the base is changed due to sag, sorne iterations are

required to match H and T. The starting configuration for the finite element analysis of the in-service

phase consists of using this deformed shape, and

applying the calculated initial tension in ali elements

and the lumped dead weight on ali nodes. This system

is self-equilibrating except for the influence of the

discretization error.

Table 1 compares the tangent stiffness of the eight

cable clusters of the collapsed tower calculated with

dynamic response under turbulent wind Joad. The

connecting guy cables also behave dynamically, and

are very susceptible to galloping, especially when

their pretensioning is low. Galloping is an unstable

Wind Load

Normalized

wrt 75mph

/

0.8

0.6

p'

0.4

Table 1

/

Leve!

Truss mode!

Spring mode!

02

/

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

1215.1

575.9

399.4

252.1

180.4

158.2

178.9

101.2

1215.5

579.1

411.7

263.3

193.3

175.0

203.3

117.5

"'

Displacement

(in]

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

mode!.

result in a single degree of freedom motion [21].

As long as the designer can avoid unstable behavior of both the tower and the cables, the dynamic

nature of the wind Joad can be accounted for by

applying a gust factor on the equivalent static loads.

Ali available preliminary design approaches, including the methodology proposed in this paper, are

based on the behavior of towers under equivalent

static Ioads using height and gust factors.

The combination of the wind loads with the accumulated ice loads complicates the response further.

As discussed earlier, accumulated ice formation on

the tower and the cables bas a multiple effect. The

dead Joad increases considerably. The projected area

of the members increases, and therefore, the wind

loads become larger. The sag in the cables also

increases and, as a result, their lateral stiffness decreases. In addition, the distribution of ice along the

height of the tower is not uniform. Usually, there is

more ice at the top than at the bottom. This worsens

the effect of the combined ice and wind action on the

tower. This effect is illustrated by both our studies

(Fig. 3), and those of Williamson [22].

The most recent guidelines for the design of guyed

towers are the ones given by the ANSI/EIA-222-D

code [16], and our studies have been carried out in

accordance with them. The design wind Joad on the

tower and the guys is determined using the expressions provided by this code. The expressions for

the drag and lift forces on the guys involve the angle

between the wind direction and the cable direction.

Three angles of attack for the wind relative to the

vertical plane of a series of guys have been taken into

consideration. These angles are 0, 60, and 90, with

respect to one of the three symmetry axes of the

triangular mast basis.

The Joad combinations used are

D +0.75W;+l,

structure without ice, W; is the wind Joad on the

structure with ice, and 1 is the ice Joad.

Again, the effective area taken into account for

wind loads on the structure without ice, is smaller

than the one used to calcuJate wind Ioads on the

structure with ice. As a general rule, the projected

area of the members is increased by bA = 2tL, where

t is the accumulated ice thickness and L is the length

of the member. Based on weather reports, it is also

reasonable to assume a linearly varying ice thickness

from a low value at the bottom of the tower to a

maximum value at the top.

It should be noted, however, that the assumption

of triangular ice distribution along the height of the

tower, although an improvement in comparison to

uniform distribution, is not a satisfactory represen-

803

'in cloud' icing, and the deposits on guy wires will be

influenced not only by altitude, but also by wind

direction relative to guy cable direction. Significantly

different cable tensions at each of the three guys at a

level can be expected because of irregular ice deposits.

The overall tower safety will ultimately be ensured

only if these unsymmetric loading cases are taken into

consideration. Further research on statistical aspects

of these irregular deposits is necessary before recommendations for their consideration on design

practice can be formulated. Until then application of

higher factors of safety is recommended.

5. PRELIMINARY DESIGN GUIDELINES

their design is today still a trial-and-error procedure.

Our conclusion, both from an extensive Iiterature

survey, and from discussions with experienced designers, is that the selection of initial trial sizes for

member cross-sections and leve! of pretensioning is

largely based on past experience. To our knowledge,

no systematic procedure exists in the literature that

actually cornes up with recommendations for initial

dimensioning. In this section a simple but systematic

methodology for this initial selection is proposed. The

procedure is based on the observations made in the

preceding sections.

Severa) simplifying assumptions have been adopted

in order to obtain analytical expressions for the

response. The main assumption is that the mast will

remain approximately straight in the deformed position and will just rotate about its base by an angle

tjJ. This assumption is based on the so-called 'straightness constraint' [6], according to which the deformations at ali guy attachment points must be Jess

than 6 in from a line joining the tower base to its top.

The physical meaning of this constraint is to reduce

individual member deformations and overall buckling probability.

The deformed configuration of the model used for

preliminary design is shown in Fig. 9. The equivalent

spring mode! is used for the guys and the equivalent

bearn model for the mast. The tower is subjected to

~(y)

~(y) 1y

1

1

1

1

1

1

l-Ui

1

1

1

1

lc:.

f

bi

l

Fig. 9. Mode! used for preliminary design.

804

C.

GANTES

of the mast, ice on the mast, and concentrated loads

from the cables due to their own dead weight, ice, and

wind, and horizontalloads q,(y) resulting from wind

on the mast and the guys.

et al.

Renee

(18)

Moment equilibrium about the base gives

the guys is based on the following criteria:

"f.Fx,bi =

yqAy) dy +tan 4;

(19)

The working stresses in ali cables should be very

close to their allowable stress so that full advantage of the material used is taken.

Ali guy clusters should provide equallateral resistance to the tower. This leads to a relatively uniform distribution of forces along the height of the

mast.

Then,

= 4>max.

In addition, Fx,

F" 'Vi.

(20)

Renee, the proposed preliminary design methodology

is based on a clear philosophy regarding the desired

behavior, consisting of satisfaction of the straightness

constraint, stressing of the guys at ali levels to their

full capacity, and uniform lateral resistance.

The critical wind direction for the guy design is the

one shown in Fig. 6. The calculation of the required

pretensioning is based on the first criterion. The

tension T, in the ith guy is given by

.T, = Tr,

2

+ E,q,Ag, (a,u,)

-~ + O(u ),

(15)

(21)

cross-sections Ag, eqn (13) gives

Ag, = _ _ _ _c-=-1 k_,---:-~;---

N[, + l E~!:j

(22)

1+-r_,_

12~,

from Dishinger's formula, A,, is the cross-section area

of the guy, and a1 , b,, c,, u, refer to the notation of

Fig. 6. For the working stresses we have

, = P

'

rl

E, ,

a E

1+-~-'-

(a-,cb,)tan 4;,

1

(16)

'

12;,

Assuming that the geometry of the guys is known, 1

is equal to the allowable stress aJb and 4> is specified

as the maximum allowable rotation 4>max, we can

solve the above equation numerically for p,. The

method of successive iterations can be used for the

numerical solution starting with the trial value

p, = 0.4. 11 as recommended in [18]. Renee, the

initial trial values for the pretensioning stresses can be

calculated. It is interesting to observe that these

values depend only on geometry and material properties, and not on the intensity of applied externat

loads. Variations in this intensity is accommodated

by appropria te scaling of cross-sections as explained

below.

The calculation of the cross-sections of the guys is

based on the second criterion. ln order to have equal

lateral resistance by ali springs, it is required that

Renee, the initial trial sizes for the required crosssectional areas of the guys can also be calculated.

5.2. Preliminary design of the mast

Knowing the guy reactions, equilibrium considerations at any desired mast leve! can provide the axial

force F and the bending moment M for the corresponding cross-section. Keeping eqn (2) in mind, and

choosing d, we can obtain the required section area

A of the columns

(23)

proposed in this section can serve only as a methodology for the preliminary initial sizing of the basic

components of a guyed tower. Using these results as

a starting point the designer should proceed and carry

out a more refined analysis taking nonlinear and

dynamic effects into account.

6. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

of a tall guyed tower under ice and wind loads. The

observations of previous investigators about the

importance of ice loads are verifed. Then, severa!

approaches for the modeling of the mast and the guys

are evaluated. An equivalent bearn model appears to

be a simple and acceptable solution for the mast,

while equivalent springs are satisfactory for modeling

of the guys for preliminary analysis. A nonlinear truss

representation in the sagged configuration is possible

for a more exact finite element analysis when cable

elements are not available. Considerations about

the calculation of wind and ice loads are also

presented.

Finally, a methodology for preliminary design is

proposed as a first step towards a more systematic

approach for the design of guyed towers. It is believed

that this methodology constitutes an improvement to

today's state of the art by introducing a clear design

philosophy as outlined in Sec. 5.1, and by recommending specifie initial trial values for member crosssections and guy pretensioning. This approach is

intended to improve the current trial and error tower

design practice.

REFERENCES

2. J. W. Leonard, Tension Structures: Behavior and Ana/ysis. McGraw-Hill (1988).

3. A. G. Davenport and G. Steels, Dynamic behavior of

massive guy cables. J. Struct. Div., ASCE 91, 43-70

(1965).

4. A. J. Wilson and R. J. Wheen, Inclined cables under

load--design expressions. J. Struct. Div., ASCE 103,

1061-1078 (1977).

5. M.-C. Tang, Analysis of cable-stayed girder bridges.

J. Struct. Div., ASCE 97, 1481-1496 (1971).

6. Task Committee on Cable-Suspended Structures of the

Committee on Special Structures of the Committee on

Metals of the Structural Division of ASCE, Commentary on the tentative recommendations for cable-stayed

bridge structures. J. Struct. Div. ASCE 103, 941-959

(1977).

7. R. L. Huston and J. W. Kamman, Validation of finite

segment cable models. Comput. Struct. lS, 653-660

(1982).

805

for the analysis of cable structures. Comput. Struct. 14,

325-333 (1981).

9. J. W. Leonard and J. H. Nath, Comparison of finite

element and lumped parameter methods for oceanic

cables. Engng Struct. 3, 153-167 (1981).

10. D. Bruno, F. Maceri and R. S. Olivito, Analysis of the

elastic response of stays and stayed systems. IABSE

Periodica 1, 29-44 (1990).

11. A. Chajes and W.-S. Chen, Stability of guyed towers.

J. Struct. Div., ASCE lOS, 163-174 (1979).

12. N. V. Raman, G. V. Surya Kumar and V. V. Sreedhara

Rao, Large displacement analysis of guyed towers.

Comput. Struct. 28, 93-104 (1988).

13. F. Rosentha1 and R. A. Skop, Guyed towers under

arbitrary 1oads. J. Struct. Div., ASCE 106, 679-{i92

(1980).

14. F. Rosentha1 and R. A. Skop, Method for ana1ysis

of guyed towers. J. Struct. Div. ASCE 108, 543-558

(1982).

15. B. A. Schrefter, S. Odorizzi and R. D. Wood, A total

Lagrangian geometrically non1inear analysis of combined bearn and cable structures. Comput. Struct. 17,

115-127 (1983).

16. E1ectronic Industries Association, Structural standards

for steel antenna towers and antenna supporting structures. American National Standard, ANSI/EIA-222-D1986 (1986).

17. DIN 4131, Antennentragwerke aus Stahl (1988).

18. W. H. Greene, Minimum weight sizing of guyed antenna towers. J. Struct. Engng, ASCE lll, 2121-2137

(1985).

19. R. T. Nakamoto and A. N. L. Chiu, Investigation of

wind effects on tall guyed tower. J. Struct. Engng, ASCE

lll, 2320--2332 (1985).

20. J. W. Vellozzi, Tall guyed tower response to wind

loading. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Wind E.ffects on Buildings and Structures,

(Edited by K. J. Eaton) pp. 735-743, Heathrow,

London (1975).

21. M. Novak, A. G. Davenport and H. Tanaka, Vibration

of towers due to galloping of iced cables. J. Engng

Mech. Div. ASCE 104, 457-473 (1978).

22. R. A. Williamson, Stability study of guyed towers under

ice 1oads. J. Struct. Div., ASCE 99, 2391-2408 (1973).

23. R. R. A. Issa and R. R. Avent, Microcomputer ana1ysis

of guyed towers as lattices. J. Struct. Engng, ASCE 117,

1238-1256 (1991).

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