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Computers & Structures Vol. 49, No. 5, pp. 797-805, 1993


1994 Elsevier Science Ltd

Pergamon

Printed in Great Britain.


0045 7949/93 $6.00 + 0.00

MODELING, LOADING, AND PRELIMINARY DESIGN


CONSIDERATIONS FOR TALL GUYED TOWERS
C. ANTES,tJI

R.

KHOURY,t

J. J.

CONNOR

and C.

POUANGARE~II

tp.O. Box 31830, lOO 35 Athens, Greece


tEngineering Information Technology, 545 Concord Avenue, Cambridge, MA, U.S.A.
Constructed Facilities Division, Massachusetts lnstitute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, U.S.A.
~9 Nikokleous Street, Ayia Zoni, Limassol, Cyprus
(Received 17 September 1992)

Abstract-The inherent nonlinearity in the structural behavior of guyed towers leads to difficulties in their
structural analysis, and prevents the formulation of a general-purpose_ design methodology. ~s a result,
simplifying analysis assumptions regarding the loading and the mode~m~ of structural behav10~ have to
be made, and approximate design methods are used, that are often unjusttfied, and can lead to drsastrous
~~

In this paper, the authors first summarize the results of an investig~t~on th~y c~rned out on the collapse
of a 1900 ft tall guyed tower under ice and wind loads. B_ased on thi~ mvesttgatton . they then proceed .to
present sorne structural analysis recomm~ndatio~s relatmg to loadmg and modehng c.once.rns. S~ral
emphasis is placed on the importance of rce loadmg, and on the leve! of ~ccuracy requrred m modehng
the nonlinear response behavior. Finally, the conclusio~s drawn from thrs stu~y are used to formulate
preliminary design guidelines. This facilitates a systemattc approach for the desrgn of tall guyed towers.

1. INTRODUCTION

During recent years there has been an increasing


tendency in the structural engineering community for
savings in material that result in lightweight, slender
structures. Guyed towers supporting telecommunication antennas belong to this general class of structures. They consist of a slender, tall mast laterally
supported at severa! levels along its height by sets of
inclined pretensioned guys spaced at equal angles
around the mast.
The actual structural behavior of guyed towers is
extremely complicated. The guys exhibit, in general,
a nonlinear behavior, especially at low values of
pretension. Increasing the pretension of the guys
lessens the nonlinearity and improves the lateral
stiffness, however, it also leads to larger compressive
loads, and therefore, to a higher buckling probability
for the mast itself. The behavior of the mast is also
nonlinear due to its slenderness, and to the large
displacements it experiences under substantial wind
loading. Moreover, decisions that have to be taken in
the design phase regarding loads are also not straightforward. Guyed towers have traditionally been designed for wind loading. However, wind forces are of
a dynamic nature, and consideration of equivalent
static loads is not always adequate. In addition to
wind load, there is also ice load. This load stresses
IIFormerly with the Civil Engineering Department,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA,
U.S.A.

the members of the tower in a completely different


manner than wind, and can therefore be potentially
critical. Simultaneous ice and wind loads can frequently occur, and have been found to be responsible
for severa) catastrophic failures of guyed towers in
the past. And with the inability of analysts or designers to model accurately this complicated behavior, the
attention of investigators has been focused on identifying reasonable simplifications in the required loading and the structural modeling for guyed towers.
A number of researchers have investigated the
structural behavior of cables. A fairly complete description of cable behavior under severa) types of
load can be found in [1, 2]. A commonly used technique to take into account the nonlinearity due to sag
is that of the equivalent cable modulus [3). Design
expressions for the response of cables under concentrated and uniform Joads are given in [4). Interesting
contributions have also been made by designers of
cable-stayed bridges [5, 6] who face similar difficulties
in modeling cable behavior. The advent of digital
computers and the finite element method has led to
the formulation of a series of numerical methods for
cable treatment [7-9). Sorne very recent work published in [10] gives what could be considered to be
state-of-the-art for cable modeling today, comparing
more accurate numerical to approximate analytical
solutions.
Other investigators have dealt more specifically
with behavior and design issues of guyed towers. In
[Il] analytical expressions for the simpler problem
of 'short' towers with a single set of guys are given.

797

798

C.

GANTES

Finite element methods for the analysis of guyed


towers are described in [12-15). The Electronic Industries Association [16], and the German DIN 4131 [17]
provide guidelines for minimum design requirements,
while optimum sizing recommendations are published in [18). A number of papers [19, 20] deal with
the effect of wind loading on towers, while [21, 22]
stress the potential danger induced by ice formation.
Although a considerable amount of research has
been done on the behavior of guyed towers, the
problem of finding a commonly accepted methodology for their design remains unsolved. Currently
used design approaches can lead to unsafe or unstable
towers, as indicated by investigations of severa! failures that occurred in the recent past.
In this paper, the authors first summarize the
conclusions drawn from their investigation of a tower
collapse under combined ice and wind loading. Then,
they try to use these conclusions to formulate sorne
general recommendations pertaining to the analysis
and design of guyed towers. Considerations related to
the types of Joad that have to be accounted for and
how they should be modeled are presented. This is
followed by a discussion of severa! modeling techniques for the mast and cables, and the leve! of
accuracy achieved by each one of them. And finally,
sorne guidelines for the preliminary design of guyed
towers are given.
2. CONCLUSIONS DRAWN FROM GUYED
TOWER COLLAPSE

The mast of the tower, shown in Fig. 1, was a space


truss in the shape of a triangular prism with strong
columns at the three corners, horizontal members at
regular intervals of 5 ft, and diagonal X-bracing. It
was 1900 ft tall, 9 ft per side, and supported a TV
antenna. It was supported laterally by three planes of
guys equally spaced at 120 intervals.
The tower collapsed under heavy ice and light wind
loads. The wind direction and the location of the

et al.
Guy Lin es

North

Guy Unes

Fig. 2. Post-collapse situation.

debris after the collapse are illustrated in Fig. 2.


According to the meteorological data, the wind velocity was around 15 mph, and the ice was distributed
triangularly along the height of the tower with a
maximum thickness of lO in at the top.
An investigation of the response of the tower under
these two loads indicated that it had been sufficiently
designed for lateral wind loads much stronger than
those that occurred at time of collapse. However, the
vertical Joad bearing capacity was inadequate. No
allowance for ice Joad was considered in the initial
design since there was no such code requirement.
lee had a triple effect on the behavior of the
tower. It not only created a substantial axial Joad in
the mast, but also increased the projected exposure
area for the wind and the sag of the guys, thus
reducing their lateral stiffness. The effect of ice on the
structural response is indicated by the deflected
shapes of the mast shown in Fig. 3. The cantilever
type behavior that is observed for wind loads only
changes as ice is applied. Similar deflection patterns
were observed by Williamson [22).
Axial stresses in the legs of the tower under combined ice and wind loads revealed that local buckling

WIND.

....__
wlnd only

Fig. 1. Perspective view of the collapsed tower.

Fig. 3. Influence of ice distribution on deflected shape.

Modeling considerations of taU guyed towers

initiated in a vertical member on the Jeeward side


between the sixth and seventh guy levels. Once this
member buckled, the guys at the seventh and eighth
leve), highly tensioned due to the combined loading,
pulled the upper tower section down causing the
Jower five guy Jevels to behave out-of-phase with one
another. A push-pull mechanism instantly developed
between these remaining five clusters of guys causing
the collapse of the entire tower in a 'domino-effect'
manner.
Location of the debris relative to the tower base
and to the direction of wind at time of collapse
strongly corroborated this failure mechanism. A large
pile of broken members along with chunky ice formations near the base of the tower in the up-wind
direction was the final post-collapse scene. Due to the
extreme pulling and pushing of the guy ca bles, severa)
of them had their concrete foundations upheaved.
In conclusion, the tower collapsed although no
evidence of obvious design or construction errors was
found. The cause for collapse was the Jack of accurate
loading information, and, more specifically, the Jack
of consideration for possible ice formation. While
investigating this failure the authors made severa)
observations regarding analysis and design practice
for tall guyed towers. Besides emphasizing the main
lesson drawn from this collapse, which refers to the
importance of ice loading, in the next sections of this
paper it will be attempted to provide a review of the
state-of-the-art in tall guyed tower design, and recommendations for its improvement.
3. MODELING CONSIDERATIONS

This section will address the issue of modeling of


the mast and cables of guyed towers. Towers like the
one investigated in the previous section will be examined, since they constitute a fairly common and quite
representative class of guyed towers. A typical mast
is a space truss with the shape of a triangular
pyramid. The three corner columns are connected at
regular intervals by horizontal beams and diagonal
bracing. The tower is laterally supported by a
series of three guys spaced around the mast at angles
of 120 and distributed along the height of the
mast.
Severa) methods are used in practice for modeling
both the mast and the cables. They vary in the Jevel
of accuracy they can provide, as weil as in the cost
associated with their use. The selection by the designer of one mode) versus another should be based
on the available resources and on the particular
design stage, i.e. preliminary versus final design. The
most common alternatives for modeling the mast and
guys and their corresponding virtues and handicaps
are presented here.
3.1. Mode/ing of the mast

The simplest way to model the mast is by using


an equivalent bearn. Referring to Fig. 4, the crossCAS 49/s--D

799
A

Fig. 4. Schematic mast section.

sectional properties of the equivalent bearn can be


obtained as follows:
(l)

and

(2x) + 2A (x)-3
2

1eq, = A - 3

= -1 Ad 2

(2)

(3)

These expressions neglect the contributions of both


the horizontal and diagonal members of the mast to
the axial and bending stiffness of the equivalent
bearn. More exact calculations performed as part of
this study indicated that this contribution increases I.q
only by approximately 5%, and is therefore indeed
negligible.
The number of bearn elements required to mode)
the equivalent bearn for a finite element analysis
should be suffi.ciently high to accurately represent the
variation in column size or A.q along the height of the
mast. In addition, a number of about ten elements
between successive guy attachment levels was shown
to be adequate to capture nonlinear effects and
buckling of the mast.
Regarding the boundary conditions at the base of
the mast, both pinned and fixed supports have been
used in the past. The actual behavior is somewhere in
between, and can be modeled by using a rotational
spring, an element widely available in commercial
finite element programs. This issue should not be of
major concern anyway, since the boundary conditions only affect the tower locally, in the neighborhood of the base.
A more detailed mast modeling involves idealizing
every single member, vertical, horizontal, and diagonal, with a corresponding element. Treating each
member as a bearn element would be the most
accurate approach. However, the more conservative
solution ofusing truss elements has proven to provide
suffi.cient accuracy, and is considerably more economical, since it cuts in half the active degrees of
freedom.
A comparison of the results obtained when
using the two different mast models indicated the

800

C.

ANTFS

sufficiency of the equivalent bearn mode! in predicting the global tower behavior for preliminary
calculations. This is illustrated in Fig. 5 where
the horizontal displacement at the top of the
tower is plotted against a scale factor for wind
Joad corresponding to 75 mph. Use of the more
exact mode! however, is necessary for final design,
and when we are interested in the response of individual members, or in investigating the influence individual member defects could have on the global
structural response. lt should be noted that the
performance of the equivalent bearn mode! could
be improved by taking shear deformations into account.
Another alternative is to use techniques of discrete
field analysis as proposed in [23). Then, a closed form
solution can be obtained for the space truss that is
accurate and avoids the high computational effort
of a member by member analysis. In addition, bar
forces can then be obtained through back-substitution.

et a/.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

-------'!<

\
\

\
\
\

WIND-

tw

.f.

1\
1

1
1
1

\
1

1
1
1

3.2. Modeling of the guys


The modeling of the guys is more complex than
that of the mast due to the inherent nonlinearity of
cable structures. The behavior of cables is presented
in detail in [1, 2], where interested readers can be
referred to for more information. Here, only issues
of interest for the modeling of guys will be
addressed.
The re are two phases of be ha vi or in the li fe of cable
structures. The first phase includes the deployment
and initial pretensioning of cables and is characterized by being highly nonlinear. The second phase is
the so called in-service phase during which various

Wind Load
Normalized
wrt 75mph
1

Id
1
0.8

d
1

Equivalent beam
model

0.6

Exact mast

p
1

Jj

0.4

1
1

;f
1

0.2

Displacement

,...----

/0

50

(in]
100

150

200

250

Fig. 5. Comparison of P-u graphs for the mast models.

-aFig. 6. Tower with single cluster of cables.

static and dynamic loads are superposed on the


pretensioned configuration. The response in this second phase can be either linear or nonlinear depending
on the relative magnitudes of the pretensioning and
service loads.
Both straight and curved cable elements have been
developed and incorporated in finite element programs [7-10]. Having access to such a program, the
designer can use either element type to mode! the
guys. A study presented in [10] indicates that five
curved elements or ten straight elements per guy
provide satisfactory accuracy.
The present study, however, addresses situations
where such cable elements are not available. This is
often the case, since many widely used finite element
codes do not include cable elements, but instead
recommend the use of nonlinear truss elements for
the modeling of cable structures. Furthermore, reliable simple models can be very useful during the
preliminary design stage, even if cable elements are
available.
The simplest mode! is the one where each set of
three guys connected to the mast at a given levet is
substituted by a spring. Consider the simple case of
a mast supported laterally by a single set of three
cables with initial prestressing tension TP (Fig. 6). The
approach introduced in [1, pp. 135-139], based on the
concepts of force equilibrium, deformation compatibility, and linear elastic material behavior, was folIowed. Then, the horizontal component of the
resultant of the tension forces in the three guys due
to a horizontal displacement u and a vertical displace-

Modeling considerations of tall guyed towers

ment w in the directions shown in the figure, is given


by

(~) + ~2 (EA

F = 3TPc

)(~

- TPc )

This result is based on the assumptions that w is of


order u 2, and that terms of order u 3 or higher are
negligible. For the opposite horizontal displacement
direction we have

(~) + ~2 (EA

F. = 3TPc

where mg is the dead weight of the cable per unit


length.
This approximate approach is weil known and
provides satisfactory results, especially for high initial
pretensioning and small additional in-service displacements [10]. Note that in reality the tension along
a guy is not constant due to sag and dead weight
effects. Use of an average initial guy tension Tr is
recommended. Theo, the expressions for the horizontal component of tension becomes

)(~ ) (~)
2

- TP c c

x {1

+~(~)(~ )}-

(5)

The vertical component of the resultant is the same


for both horizontal displacement directions

(b-w) +-

F w = 3TPc

801

(b)

k,~N {

3
) 2 (EA g - TPc

For small displacements the terms of order (u fe )2 can


be neglected. In addition, it is assumed that TP ~ EAg.
Theo, we obtain the same horizontal force component regardless of displacement direction

The vertical component is


(8)

Taking advantage of the isotropie nature of the


results for small displacements we can generalize
expressions (7) and (8) for the case of a cluster of N
guys arranged symmetrically around the mast

and for the vertical component


(10)
These results can be modified using Dishinger's formula to take into account the nonlinearity due to
sag [3]

mga) EAg'
1( + - TP
12TP

Hence, the elus ter of guys can be modeled by a linear


spring in the direction of wind, and a vertical concentrated Joad. Ths stiffness of the spring is

(Il)

T,+

~EA (~y

'5 } (~).

2
( mga - EAg

1+-TP
!2TP

(13)

The vertical Joad is given by eqn (10).


This mode! is adequate for initial approximations
and for low in-service loads in comparison to the
pretensioning forces. For a more refined analysis, and
given the Jack of cable elements, the guys can be
modeled as a linkage of nonlinear truss elements. To
avoid having an unstable stiffness matrix due to zero
stiffness of ali degrees of freedom associated with
displacement perpendicular to the cable, the initial
pretensioning strains have to be introduced. A
method that has been used in the past consists of
modeling the cable as a straight series of truss
elements with the initial pretensioning, and theo
applying the dead weight of the cable incrementally
to obtain the deformed configuration at the beginning
of the in-service phase. This mode! however, overestimates the lateral stiffness provided by the guys,
because the stresses due to dead weight are added to
those due to mechanical pretensioning, which is not
an accurate simulation of the real pretensioning
process.
Alternatively, one can use this mode! of a straight
truss linkage with the initial pretensioning, but use a
reduced axial stiffness EAg according to Dishinger's
formula (Il). This accommoda tes for softening of the
cables due to their dead weight. Theo, the service
loads are applied directly on the configuration with
straight cables. This approach gives satisfactory results for cases of high initial pretensioning.
A more general approach is to calculate analytically the sagged cable shape, and to start the finite
element analysis from that deformed configuration.
The sagged geometry can be modeled with a series of
straight truss elements (Fig. 7). Either a continuous

C. GANTES et a/.

802

--------------- a ---------------Fig. 7. Inclined cable under lumped dead Joad.

or Jumped representation of the dead Joad can be


used for the analytical calculations. Discretization of
each cable into 12 straight two-node truss elements
and Jumping of the dead Joad on the correpsonding
nodes has shown sufficient accuracy in our calculations. The caluclation of the deformed shape is
based on the known initial tension. A more general
formulation concerning cables under multiple concentrated Joads given in [11, pp. 25-34], can be used
here. This approach consists of calculating the moments at ali points of application of concentrated
loads, and setting them equal to zero. Then we obtain
the following element sag

(!__) i(J -

d =a
'
H

21 1

i)

this approach, to the corresponding linear spring


stiffnesses.
The accuracy of the spring model for small displacement analyses is evident. lts effectiveness is
decreased at higher altitudes where the sag is relatively large. Figure 8 illustrates the range of validity
of the equivalent spring model. The horizontal displacement at the top of the tower is plotted against
the scaling factor of wind Joad corresponding to a
wind speed of 75 mph. In both cases an equivalent
bearn was used to model the mast. As expected, the
stiffening of the guys at increased deformation is
modeled effectively by the truss linkages but not
by the springs. The performance of the equivalent
spring model can be improved if iterations are carried
out during which the calculated spring reactions
are used to update the values of spring constants in
order to account for the nonlinearity of the response [23].
In conclusion, the simple equivalent spring model
is an acceptable solution for preliminary design purposes, especially for large initial cable pretensioning
and small in-service loads. For more detailed analysis
and final design, the modeling of the guys in their
sagged position as linkages of pretensioned straight
truss elements provides an acceptable solution when
cable elements are not available.
4. LOAOING CONSIDERATIONS

(14)

'

where P is the total weight of the cable, H is the


horizontal component of the known initial tension T,
a is the horizontal projection of the cable, and J is the
number of elements. This formula assumes discretization in elements of equal horizontal projection. Then,
the tension in each element can be obtained since the
geometry is known and the horizontal component H
remains constant along the cable. Since the slope at
the base is changed due to sag, sorne iterations are
required to match H and T. The starting configuration for the finite element analysis of the in-service
phase consists of using this deformed shape, and
applying the calculated initial tension in ali elements
and the lumped dead weight on ali nodes. This system
is self-equilibrating except for the influence of the
discretization error.
Table 1 compares the tangent stiffness of the eight
cable clusters of the collapsed tower calculated with

As rather flexible structures, guyed towers exhibit


dynamic response under turbulent wind Joad. The
connecting guy cables also behave dynamically, and
are very susceptible to galloping, especially when
their pretensioning is low. Galloping is an unstable

Wind Load
Normalized
wrt 75mph
/

0.8

}" Spring madel

0.6

p'

0.4

Table 1
/

Leve!

Truss mode!

Spring mode!

02
/

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

1215.1
575.9
399.4
252.1
180.4
158.2
178.9
101.2

1215.5
579.1
411.7
263.3
193.3
175.0
203.3
117.5

"'
Displacement

(in]
50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

Fig. 8. Comparison of P-u graphs for truss and spring


mode!.

Modeling considerations of taU guyed towers

condition triggered by self-excited vibrations that


result in a single degree of freedom motion [21].
As long as the designer can avoid unstable behavior of both the tower and the cables, the dynamic
nature of the wind Joad can be accounted for by
applying a gust factor on the equivalent static loads.
Ali available preliminary design approaches, including the methodology proposed in this paper, are
based on the behavior of towers under equivalent
static Ioads using height and gust factors.
The combination of the wind loads with the accumulated ice loads complicates the response further.
As discussed earlier, accumulated ice formation on
the tower and the cables bas a multiple effect. The
dead Joad increases considerably. The projected area
of the members increases, and therefore, the wind
loads become larger. The sag in the cables also
increases and, as a result, their lateral stiffness decreases. In addition, the distribution of ice along the
height of the tower is not uniform. Usually, there is
more ice at the top than at the bottom. This worsens
the effect of the combined ice and wind action on the
tower. This effect is illustrated by both our studies
(Fig. 3), and those of Williamson [22].
The most recent guidelines for the design of guyed
towers are the ones given by the ANSI/EIA-222-D
code [16], and our studies have been carried out in
accordance with them. The design wind Joad on the
tower and the guys is determined using the expressions provided by this code. The expressions for
the drag and lift forces on the guys involve the angle
between the wind direction and the cable direction.
Three angles of attack for the wind relative to the
vertical plane of a series of guys have been taken into
consideration. These angles are 0, 60, and 90, with
respect to one of the three symmetry axes of the
triangular mast basis.
The Joad combinations used are

D +0.75W;+l,

where D is the dead Joad, W0 is the wind Joad on the


structure without ice, W; is the wind Joad on the
structure with ice, and 1 is the ice Joad.
Again, the effective area taken into account for
wind loads on the structure without ice, is smaller
than the one used to calcuJate wind Ioads on the
structure with ice. As a general rule, the projected
area of the members is increased by bA = 2tL, where
t is the accumulated ice thickness and L is the length
of the member. Based on weather reports, it is also
reasonable to assume a linearly varying ice thickness
from a low value at the bottom of the tower to a
maximum value at the top.
It should be noted, however, that the assumption
of triangular ice distribution along the height of the
tower, although an improvement in comparison to
uniform distribution, is not a satisfactory represen-

803

tation of reality. The critical ice formation will be of


'in cloud' icing, and the deposits on guy wires will be
influenced not only by altitude, but also by wind
direction relative to guy cable direction. Significantly
different cable tensions at each of the three guys at a
level can be expected because of irregular ice deposits.
The overall tower safety will ultimately be ensured
only if these unsymmetric loading cases are taken into
consideration. Further research on statistical aspects
of these irregular deposits is necessary before recommendations for their consideration on design
practice can be formulated. Until then application of
higher factors of safety is recommended.
5. PRELIMINARY DESIGN GUIDELINES

Due to the complicated behavior of guyed towers,


their design is today still a trial-and-error procedure.
Our conclusion, both from an extensive Iiterature
survey, and from discussions with experienced designers, is that the selection of initial trial sizes for
member cross-sections and leve! of pretensioning is
largely based on past experience. To our knowledge,
no systematic procedure exists in the literature that
actually cornes up with recommendations for initial
dimensioning. In this section a simple but systematic
methodology for this initial selection is proposed. The
procedure is based on the observations made in the
preceding sections.
Severa) simplifying assumptions have been adopted
in order to obtain analytical expressions for the
response. The main assumption is that the mast will
remain approximately straight in the deformed position and will just rotate about its base by an angle
tjJ. This assumption is based on the so-called 'straightness constraint' [6], according to which the deformations at ali guy attachment points must be Jess
than 6 in from a line joining the tower base to its top.
The physical meaning of this constraint is to reduce
individual member deformations and overall buckling probability.
The deformed configuration of the model used for
preliminary design is shown in Fig. 9. The equivalent
spring mode! is used for the guys and the equivalent
bearn model for the mast. The tower is subjected to

~(y)

~(y) 1y

1
1
1
1
1
1

l-Ui
1
1
1
1

lc:.

f
bi

l
Fig. 9. Mode! used for preliminary design.

804

C.

GANTES

vertical loads qY (y) including, in general, dead Joad


of the mast, ice on the mast, and concentrated loads
from the cables due to their own dead weight, ice, and
wind, and horizontalloads q,(y) resulting from wind
on the mast and the guys.

et al.

Renee
(18)
Moment equilibrium about the base gives

5.1. Preliminary design of the guys

The design strategy for the preliminary design of


the guys is based on the following criteria:

"f.Fx,bi =

yqAy) dy +tan 4;

yqy(y) dy= Mext

(19)
The working stresses in ali cables should be very
close to their allowable stress so that full advantage of the material used is taken.
Ali guy clusters should provide equallateral resistance to the tower. This leads to a relatively uniform distribution of forces along the height of the
mast.

Mext is known for 4;


Then,

= 4>max.

In addition, Fx,

F" 'Vi.

(20)

Applying this relation for the nth guy, we get


Renee, the proposed preliminary design methodology
is based on a clear philosophy regarding the desired
behavior, consisting of satisfaction of the straightness
constraint, stressing of the guys at ali levels to their
full capacity, and uniform lateral resistance.
The critical wind direction for the guy design is the
one shown in Fig. 6. The calculation of the required
pretensioning is based on the first criterion. The
tension T, in the ith guy is given by
.T, = Tr,

2
+ E,q,Ag, (a,u,)
-~ + O(u ),

(15)

(21)

The other k 1s can then be obtained from (18). For the


cross-sections Ag, eqn (13) gives
Ag, = _ _ _ _c-=-1 k_,---:-~;---

N[, + l E~!:j

(22)

1+-r_,_
12~,

where Tp, is the initial pretension, Eeq, is calculated


from Dishinger's formula, A,, is the cross-section area
of the guy, and a1 , b,, c,, u, refer to the notation of
Fig. 6. For the working stresses we have
, = P

'

rl

E, ,

a E

1+-~-'-

(a-,cb,)tan 4;,
1

(16)

'

12;,

where l' is the density of the material of the cable.


Assuming that the geometry of the guys is known, 1
is equal to the allowable stress aJb and 4> is specified
as the maximum allowable rotation 4>max, we can
solve the above equation numerically for p,. The
method of successive iterations can be used for the
numerical solution starting with the trial value
p, = 0.4. 11 as recommended in [18]. Renee, the
initial trial values for the pretensioning stresses can be
calculated. It is interesting to observe that these
values depend only on geometry and material properties, and not on the intensity of applied externat
loads. Variations in this intensity is accommodated
by appropria te scaling of cross-sections as explained
below.
The calculation of the cross-sections of the guys is
based on the second criterion. ln order to have equal
lateral resistance by ali springs, it is required that

Renee, the initial trial sizes for the required crosssectional areas of the guys can also be calculated.
5.2. Preliminary design of the mast

The design of the mast is quite straightforward.


Knowing the guy reactions, equilibrium considerations at any desired mast leve! can provide the axial
force F and the bending moment M for the corresponding cross-section. Keeping eqn (2) in mind, and
choosing d, we can obtain the required section area
A of the columns
(23)

It should be stressed here again that the procedure


proposed in this section can serve only as a methodology for the preliminary initial sizing of the basic
components of a guyed tower. Using these results as
a starting point the designer should proceed and carry
out a more refined analysis taking nonlinear and
dynamic effects into account.
6. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

The first part of this paper investigates the collapse


of a tall guyed tower under ice and wind loads. The
observations of previous investigators about the
importance of ice loads are verifed. Then, severa!

Modeling considerations of tall guyed towers


approaches for the modeling of the mast and the guys
are evaluated. An equivalent bearn model appears to
be a simple and acceptable solution for the mast,
while equivalent springs are satisfactory for modeling
of the guys for preliminary analysis. A nonlinear truss
representation in the sagged configuration is possible
for a more exact finite element analysis when cable
elements are not available. Considerations about
the calculation of wind and ice loads are also
presented.
Finally, a methodology for preliminary design is
proposed as a first step towards a more systematic
approach for the design of guyed towers. It is believed
that this methodology constitutes an improvement to
today's state of the art by introducing a clear design
philosophy as outlined in Sec. 5.1, and by recommending specifie initial trial values for member crosssections and guy pretensioning. This approach is
intended to improve the current trial and error tower
design practice.
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805

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