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Carnegie Institute of Technologyt, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

The existing information an the flow of fluids through beds of granular Osborne flryadds (23) uas hest to formusolids has been critically reviewed . It has been found that pressure late the resi ante offered by Iriceiat to theo
losses are caused by simultanstous kinetic and viscous energy losses, n'otiun
as the sum
to of
and that the following comprehensive equation is applicable to all types power of t!sr fluid velocity and to the
of flow, product of the density of the fluid with
AP Cl - e) t PU . 1 - s GU second power of its velocity :

L p, = 150 a + 1 .75 .a Da AP/L =all + beV (1)

where AP is the pressure on alon th e
length L, a the density of the fluid, 11 its
linear velocity, and a and b are factor s

The equation has been examined from the point of view of its dependence upon flow rate, properties of the fluids, and fractional void volume,
orientation, size, shape, and surface of the granular solids . Whenever
possible, conditions were chosen so that the effect of one variable at a
time could be considered . A transformation of the general equation
indicates that the Blake-type friction factor has the following form :

which are functions of the , system . A

transformation of Equation (1) which
yields a linear expression is :

AP/LU = a+ bG (2 )
where 0,U has been replaced by G, the mass
Sow rate . The above two-term preswrefa a 1 .75+ 150
drop equation has been found to be astir
over the range of flow rates enA new concept of friction factor,/. representing the ratio of pressure factory
countered in pecked columns. Lindquist
drop to the viscous energy term is discussed . Experimental results ob- (19), Morcom (20) . and Ergun and
tained for the purpose of testing the validity of the equation are reported . Orning (7) have platted AP/LV ag inst
Numerous other data taken from the literature have been included in G and obtained straight lines as expected
from Equation (2) . The former two authe discussions.
thors have included in their plots factor s
ptra in to the
p,s rties of th s aT HE pressure loss accompanying the utilize some of the general equations ten
: factors are re important and will
flow of fluids through column s representing the forces exerted by the be discussed later, but they are irreic :ant
packed with granular material has been fluids in motion (molecular, viscous, for the purpose of testing the linearit . of
(2) . As a typical plot. der. obthe subject of theoretical analysis and kinetic, static, etc.) to arrive at a useful Equation
for gas Sow through a be of
A ,.rained
experimental investigation . The pur- expression correlating
solids are shown in N. ;tar e
pose of the present paper is to smnmar . survey of the literature reveals various
I. The experimental results of the present
investigation and those mentioned ax,ve
ice the existing information, to verify expressions derived from - different
( :, 19, 20), as well as the data ott:inmd
further experimentally a theoretical de- assumptions, correlating the particular
the literature (3, 22) . militate that
retopment presented earlier, and to experimental data obtained with or with- . from
the two-term equation accurately cite tiara
discuss practical applications of this new out sonic of the data published earlier
the relation between flow rate and ptasure
approach . The experimental studies These correlations differ in many redrop.
have been confined to gas flow through spects ; some are to be used only at low
2. Viscosity and Density of Fluid.
crushed porous solids. This case is the fluid flow rates. while others are apFrom Equation (2) it is seen that as the
velocity a'sproaches zero as a lien t. the
one usually encountered in practice, but plicable only at higher rates . A separate
ratio of pressure drop to velocity ad, beis not identical with the case most thor- survey of all these various correlations
come constant :
oughly studied by previous investiga- is not included here.
iAPC/tors, viz ., the flow of fluid through bells
As most authorities agree, the factors
L m s (3 )U+ e
of nonporo(s solids, and more particu- to be considered are : (1) rate of fluid
whi ch is a coalit i on for v iscous flnv, . Act
larly. througi solids having uniform flow, (2) viscosity and density of
cording to the Poiseuille equation and
geometric shapes .
the fluid. (3) closeness and orientation
Dar 'a law, the factor a is propcr:ional
Factors determining the energy loss of packing, and (4) site . shape, and
to the viscosity of the fluid . The xher
limiting condition is reached at hign flow
(pressure drop) in the packed beds are surface ai the particles. The first two
when the constant a is negtigil It in
numerous and some of than are not variables concern the fluid, while the rates
comparison to bG. This is a condition for
susceptible to complete and exact mathe- last two the solids,
completely turbulent flow where k-aetic
matical analysis . Various workers in
1. Rate of Fluid Flow, It is known
energy losses constitute the whole vainthe field have made simplifying assump- that pressure drop through a granular tance. The effect of density is already
in G. Equation (2) as be
tions or analogies so that they could bed is propor)ional to the fluid velocity at contained
low flow rates, and approximately to the rewritten :
C o a l Resecrch Laboratory.
square of the velocity at high tests.
API' -a a'pU+b9(P (4 )
1 -6

Vol . 48, No. 2

NY 62592

Chemical Engineering Progres s



mere out
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a i.agor in'rlamfpM to the

sat :,bh, of I - -,Ikls ody, t y lir-t brut

of 1?ryru .n,o t41 reprcv,ny riw,nn vmrgy
I . .. ... aoal Ihr 'ao,MI Icon it .. kiorlfc en.
trill h,. .. Thy Knaruy ,ppntiun (if )
.( Ill, viw.ON vu,rgy Term to
rpm-dot 11M prey-ore droop, while the
." and 1'lunuucr (3), sod
I'hdoo and 6 .11,1u10 0) approarln nntdoys
for kneel i. nMray Iran a .nl n,ninoyatcs
the rd, .I i .n ., n .. ids-rpc I,--,, will, a
r ..l , .,W, Uati.,,I i.u'U ,




1. Total cmrgy Irwses in hoot IM,I> ran

I .e erraloi us Its,, solo of viarr.ra AM kinetic
energy tosses.

3. Cleavers (Fractimul Void Volume) and Orientation of Packing . Free .

li,nI y. Md v.duunv has bete one of the
na,-I :,oIr, fads,. h . i 4'1 .'d 073, .n,s. ulc lu,,rvlical Ircauucnls wire
n,n ar. ,,rod m -'al li,hinR the ticpendair d )fir pr . .surc ,.rq. niece iradmual
vied v .dnnn It was sheet who first our
*hllly ,rrtu,l Ile reecho by an approrh ;mnh . ;wu lu I lull ' if Stanton and
I'aun,11 I .5) In gwrurt drop in circular
pile,- . lliake .dnaiwsl Olt- foll.,wlpg dimes .
,and.s- grw1P.ti

_V'.I, It,

.' Mot ,

nhrrr t is the fractkmal void volume . p .

.' ar,,.vitatioINl ca.NtanA and D. the
dia.ndarr of the solid particles. The first
of hcxw aruaps is recognised as the md(iliy.l rfcl .an (actor aid the second as the
n .,slifuvl Reynolds number . Blake sugp,-a,l the inner of these groups be
I11 .it.s1 against the latter. Since both di
- group, ro,tafn the fractiona l
, .id e,Aume. it can be deduced that pres.ure drop is not a function of a single
Group aluMsc
The failure of lux earlier attempts to
arrive at a useful expression can be attn .
hard to the want of recognition of the fact
that pressure drop is caused by simultanew, kinetic and viscous energy losses ,

the garter needling tilt fractional vow

ndunIe Icing (I - r)/e' . This range of tl .e
plot at Blake tae generally 4m over .
la .ke,L
Basel no the theory of Reynolds for
resfstanet to doid flow and the method of
K.rsoy, a gateral ol .atirnl was developed
by Ergun and Orniol; fur pressure drop
thr.wgb fixed beds, In summary the folluwiou raxlusknra can he drawn from
U .eir w.xk :

shred o, One law ., 4

Fig . 1 . Typfiwl phsrs of the On... hew of
. .tar.wlrop .quill. . rot . cynic pochsd 'a
diltonmt hoetlit of veld salver.., 0g.. .'1.. (2).
aurae.. cow ihrwak 1670 ere, high 1.w
pin .NN pen cake. P.nki domitp ra 1 .046
g./m Crowsnuik..w.l oron of rob. 7.74
wtse . fall .1 724 ms Ms . and 21' C .

Theoretical corsitkratwns of later workers

(3, 7) indicate that dependency of each
energy loss upon fractional void volume is
different. Burke and Plummer proposed
the theory that the low resistance of the
packed bed can be treated as the
stun of the separate resistances of the
individual particles in it. Accordingly, via
coos energy loss was found to be woporuonal to (1-r)/, and kinetic loss to
(1 -The authors, however, failed to
recognise the additive nature of these
losses and correlated the pressure drop by
the use of dimensionless groups similar to
those of Blake . For viscous flow . Koarny(14) arrived at an equation widely used
later (4 . 10, 11 . 13. 1 .5, 261 by ssvunnng
that the granular bed is equivalent to a
group of similar parallel darnels . The
derival dependency up'Mn fractional void
volume was (I-s=/e'. This factor is
different by a (raaio . 0 - r)/q iron the
factor derived by Burke for viscous flow.
Fair and Hatdt 410) . Carman (4) . Inn
and Surse (13), Fowler and Hertel (11) .
and others (6. 13, 1:. 36) verified the
Koteny factor experimentally, For a general correlation valid at all flow rotes, however, Carman recommended the plot of the
dimensionless groups of Blake. Recently .
Leva (24) anal horse (22) also adopted
Blake's procedure in presenting the pressure drop data in filed beds . Lena, et al .
(18) stated that the pressure drop was proportiorwl to (1 - .) /.' at lower dove rates
and to (1 - s)/.' at higher flow rates.

Carman noted that at low fluid-flow rates

the method of Blake leads to the Koreny
eguatiou. hesxe to tux actor
APR. (I- .)' p('

2. Viacom clergy kenos art pr .pxglknual

to') t -c)'/ .' ae.l tIm kiotir energy (I - .1/0. Since u a.Ml h of F.quatiat (4)
represent the e..MTxkmls of viscous a,Ml
kinetic energy losses . rcnprrdvtly. it is
,spoiled that a he pnpn,etbnal to
(I - s)'/.' and h to O- .)/.' in order for
the theory to be valid. .\ItMmch the above
author. have curr,lat .,l tirade data suctt sfully single systems have nip been thoroughly examined at various frarti .n .al v, .kl
volumes . One of tow aims of IIM present
work bas, been to inveslieatc Ow sinalr
systems at various packing densities . A
known amomn of solids was packed 6 t 20
different bulk densities each resulting in
a different fractional void volume . For
each packing the coefficients it and b of
Equation (2) were determined from pressure drop and flow rate measurements
(Fit. 1) . Firures 2 and 3 show typical
plow of a against(, and b .globe
(I-t)/e' obtained from Figure 1 . Saab
plot, yield straight lines ach passing
through the origin . The graphical representation is simple, yet most ective in tie
investigation of the function of fractional
void volume. A similar procedure has been
adopted recently by Arthur, et at (1) it,
testing the validity of the S.oaeny vuatias
and by ErFun (0) in camrctiun with particle density determinations for porous
solids, It is of in :crust also to note that
the two extreme ranges of the Blake plot
lead to the tern of the general equation
proposed by Ergun and Oreins- The pro.
parliorralities an he expressed in the formulae :

aneo"(=-~r) (7)
:I, = b" .~'

(g )

where a" and b' are factors of proporti-

iE .


On the other hand, at high flow rates
fie. 2, .' is- wet hkw *
. oofBurke set Plummer for turbulent
ansinl I.- - f .oakr .ol said -I.-, aq ..
tint al .rod .(Q, lasnapis .wet dopes .ro_.b .
M Nf *d 1. at fig .. I by --*,W of asks 7- (6 )

rig. 7. O.p..d. .r. at vista., ..orgy f.w ..
tq,..riw. (7). 0 ...
.brok.od hr akregw 4- through 7040 .lath,
fags soh., liamak deWry as 1 .27 0./oe.
Croe'u ..ri.o1 0- -0 It . %4. w 7.24 pose .
Ink Dos in 740 . ..u M* laid 23' C

Chemical Engineering Progress

Februory, 1952



alley . Their substitution into Equation (2)

yields :

A rearrangement of Equation (9) leads to :

Equation (10) makes it possible to group
at data of Figure I on a single line by
AP s'

;rr ;t

LU (1 - .) "
against G/(I- .) . This is demonstrated
ht Figure 4 .
Up to this point the aim has been to
formulate the effect of fractional void volume in fixed beds, and the effect of orientation was not included . The orientation of
the randomly Packed beds is not susceptible
to exact mathematical formulation . This is
especially true it the particles have odd
shapes and are not negligible in size conpared with the diameter of the container .
Furnas (12) has treated the subject at
length and introduced the concept of "sarnwl packing" which was obtained by a
slaunlard procedure. In tine present investigation, however, such a concept had to be
abandoned, The problem was to pack a
known amount of solids to various bulk
densities . yet each packing had to be antforin and reproducible.
This was accomplished by admitting gas
below the supporting grid after the solids
were pound in. The gas rate was sufficient
to keep the bed in an expanded state and
the use of a vibrator attached to she tube
assured the uniformity of the packing . By
varying the rate of upward gas flow, the
bulk density could he varied from the
tightest possible to tie loosest stable pack .
ing, For crushed material the most tightly
packed bed having a height of 30 cm. could
easily be expanded by 6 to 7 con . When the
desired pa,kiug density was at taincnl, the
vibrator was ltxnlnulvcw1 anal the gas now
rut off- The bed that was ready for pres .
sure drop and flow rate measurements.
Highly reproducible packings can be obtained by this method, and more important.
the particles are believed to be oriented by
the gas doming upward . This is evidenced
by the existence of a theoretical relationship (7), verified experimentally, between
the bed expansion and the flow rate . A
further evidence for particle orientatio n
was found in the fan that the most tightly
packed beds have been obtained by slowly
reducing the rate of upward gas flow to an
initially expanded bed while subjecting it to
vibration .
It will be evident on inspection of the
form of Equation (9) that the estimation
rat fractional void volume is important, particularly since it enters to second . and
tlntrd-power terms aid is in many aces
difficult sea measure directly. Whenever the
particle density and the total weight of the
granular material filling a given volume are
known . a may be readily alculated . But
the particle density of crushed porous materials is not readily known and its determination has presented a problem which
was much discussed Fractional void volumes were usually calculated by the use of
apparent specifu gravities which were determines by variant procedures . Use of
such values for a in the pressurcdrop
equations masticated the introduction of
correction factors . This often caused the
workers to doubt the validity of the factors
describing the dependence of pressure dro p

,,' ;? Vol. 48, No. 2

upon . and to seek little correlations . However, this was believed to be unwarranted
(g) sitter the determination of pressure
drop through beds of porous panicles
hinges upon the evaluation of the particle
density. Therefore. a gas flow method was
developed (8) for the determination of the
particle density of porous granules . The
method was ducked by the densities obtained for nonporous solids and the agreewin was good. Use of the particle densities of coke obtained by the method described, in the determination of fractional
void volume sad hence in the promote drop
equation, resulted in excellent agrexnwuu.

cases the concept of specific surface was

believed to be not applicable by Burk : who
suggested compensation by cmpirica factors in connection with the use e f the
Blake plot .
Determination of specific surface in~clves
the mcasurerne" of the solid surface area
as well as that of solid volume stint presents no problem for uniform geo :nctric
shapes . For irregular solids, especially fur
porous materials, however, surfs" area
determination becomes involved. The surface of porous materials is necessari .y full
of holes and projections. Different surface
arms are usually defined in connection with
porous materials, viz., total surface area

4. Sits, Shape and Smrface of the

(including that of pores), external visibl e
Particles T he effect o f the particle site
. is-best
Pt e
area, Cie.
and shape
analysed in the light
-of .A surface
geometric sur
face, as dis ti nct f rom ex .
theoretical implications of the Blake plot .


ternal visible surface, may be visual.ted as

the surface of an impervious envelote surrounding the body in an aerodynamic sense .
Irregularities and striae on the surface
would not be taken into full accoui .t in a
geometric surface area in contrast to external surface area. Whether the value of
the total, external or geometric surface area
is .lesircd will depend on the purpose for
which it is to be used. Geometric surface
APy ./L = 2"S: U .(I --s)s/a'
arm is believed (9) to be the relev .,nt one
+ (p/8)GU .S.(1 - .)/s' (11)
in connection with the pressure crop in
parked columns. This is made evident by
where a and p are statistical constants, g,
the close agreement between the nurface
is the gravitational constant, and S. is the
specific surface of solids . i.e.. surfs" of areas determined by gas-flaw methods and
those by microscopic and light extinction
the solids per out volume, of the solids.
meshetls . inasmuch as the surface rough.
Instead of specific surface. S., surface per
ness affects both the geometric surface area
unit packed volume . S . has been employed
by some workers. Since the latter quantity' and the particle density, the deterntisation
involves the fractional void volume, use of
of its influence upon pressure drop ties in
the evaluation of the effective values of
specific surface has been preferred in the
then quantities.
present work. The relation between the
two quantities is expressed by
It has been customary to use a ch uracteristic dimension to represent the part cle site
Sea (1- .)S
in pressure-drop atculations. The charocEquation Ill) involves the concept of
terutie dimension generally used is the
"mean hydraulic radius" in its theoretical
diameter of a sphere having the specific
development (7) . Its validity has been
surface. S.. which is expressed by
tested with spheres, cylinders, tablets, sot

The identity between the two extreme

ranges of the Blake plot and the theoretical
equations developed respectively by Kozeny
and Burke for viscous . and turbulent-flow
ranges has already been shown . Also, is
has been pointed out that these two expressions cotnsinnad the following general
equation developed by Ergun and Qrning
(7) :

doles, round sand and crushed materials

(glass. coke, coal, etc .) and found to be
sotisneunry . The experiments have not
been extended to inctale solids having
holes and other special shapes. Few thos e

Snbatitutiat of Dr into Equation (11)

yields :
Ails. (I - .)' AU . + k 1 - . GU .
~so k

where k. en 72 a and k. = 3/4 o, , Pinar

torn of Equation (12) is :

(13 )
N ., = D
The left-hand side of Equation (13) is the
ratio of pressure drop to the viscau energy term and will be designated by f .APD

L U . (1^ .)

(13a )

/. = k.+ k . -I V-=~ (136)

mtg . 4. A gsaersl plat for single grins.
petition to dgdarem #,*a* l odd "4e. pats
.ap.. ~ arknj tqst w i p) 'a straigh

Chemical Engineering Progress

According to Estwtiot (13) a linear relatio udnip exists between I. and A's ./ 1- e .
Data of the present investigation mi those
presented earlier have been treated accordsngly, std the coefficients Jr. and Its have
been determined by the method of least
squares. The values obtained are lit o ISO
and ter at 1 .75 representing 64( experinicala. Data involved various-"l spheres.

sand, pulverized coke, and the ollowing

gases : CO. N. CH . and Hs. Otwe the
constants Jr. and A . were obtained it wa s

Page 91





' I


P, coos s,r
f 1 1

! 0 N

e !

r 00 ! r- e r Neo ! s

tnno dl plnwmo r


s 'o


11111 1

I :
! a s a e sin ! i


. I j
7 I,
e N0a e

` Iyaom~l


n ! ! a r NO ! !

~ ,

. Nee !

Ks. 7. Gr
.pbksl mpeesewwdea at prwvra dreg I. toed hod.
Cow of rigor
. 3 an .ptatad.
In all rhroo seas wild tees or
lde tbol sod ore dresr
. seeardisg to rgnat]a. (]db) . The wdiass.
Is rap's-tool by is, tgnatua, ll4

N . S. A sonars] yrapbKOl nrprewewtias el pswwr

. drop
opplieabb w bath risooar and w,b.&W Mw f . .ynu,o sonsidend.
Solid nee, in oil 0, . . a..
., wo draws asssrdNe w FA- 14 . (13o)
by 1.
end sr
. t ...a an .rolwatk pasts. Th wdlnoh is sproo
fgoarlgn (13..) .


l0 1

i i

! l~l

possible to construct the genera] equation .

The results are shown on the top of Figure
5. To be able to include a wider range of
data, a - logarithmic scale has been used
which results in a curve for the straight
line of Equation (13) . Data of Burke and
Plummer and those of Morcom are also
shown in Figure S . In all three cases the
solid lines are identical and are drawn or .
cording to the following equation :
I. . ISO+ 115



IH 4

i ~

u:r- a raes

I.nthso (liopldmi npr0wModen of pwrwrg dreg I. poe#ed mkrwns, Salta 3bo


. a h

Q hossot Msvotipaflon Atosssas

X hark . grad rl .wr
Cl.- sad Worwe.


Pogo 92

1 Data shown in Figure 5 and some additional data obtained from the literature
covering wider ranges of flow rate are included in Figure 6, together wilh the
asymptotes of the resulting Curve on the
logarithmic scale. Again the solid line
represents Equation (13x) .
A different form of Equation (121 is
represented by :

APg . D, os
:z k . 1a + k
L GG . - rs N

i i


Chemical Engineering Progres s

The left-hand side of Equation (14) is the
ratio of total energy losses to the terns
repeetertling kinetic energy losses and will
be designated by / .
,_ PE D sot J . (14.)
E 11150 1Ns. + 1 .75 (1db )

February, 1952


1. is similar to the friction factor more

commonly used and is identical with the
dimensionless group of Blake . It will be
noted that Burke and Plummer plotted
essentially ft vs, ( - .)/M. . which per,
according to Equation (14), should yield a
straight inc lon an arithmetic scale. The
authors apparently failed to recognize this
fact . The best curve drawn through the
expert usI pants on an arithmetic scale
does not differ markedly from the line
representing Equation (14b) . The scatter
to be seen an the plot of Burke and Plummer was largely due to the systems involving mixtures and those for which the ratio
of tube diameter to particle size was less
than 10. 1 hew systems have been emitted
in Figure 5, It has been customary, however, to plot f. against N.,/(1 - e) instead
of the inverse of the last variable. This type
of plot is the one suggested by Blake and
adopted by Carman, Morse and others.
Figure 7 shows I. plotted vs. N . ./(I- .)
for the data already presented in Figure 5 .
Figure I is a more comprehensive presentstion. The solid 1 act arc drawn according
to &luation (lob) . A comparison of
Figure 6 with 8 is analogous to that of
1. with ft. Both plots are capable of presenting the data. However, I. pus a big
advantage over ft in that it is a linear
functioc. of the modified Reynolds number ,
,) . The curve of Figure 6
is a straight line on an arithmetic scale . On
the other hard. I ., which has been used aln,ost exclusively, is an inverse function. A
comparison of various empirical representations with Equation (I2) as to be seen in
Figure 9.
The foregoing treatment so far has
been confined to studying the factors involved in the pressure loss in packed
beds and to analyzing experimentally
the theoretical developments presented
earlier . It is only proper that the equations presented are also analyzed briefly
from the standpoint of pure fluid dynamics . Fortunately, the equations lend
themselves for such analyses . By definition :

1) to 6/S. (150 )
S. = S,/AL(1 - .) (15b)
where S, = total geometric surface
area of the solids and A = cross-sectional area of the empty column . The
total iorep exerted by the fluid on the
solids = GPp,Ao . therefore the tractive
force per unit solid surface area, usually
referred to as the shear stress, e, is
expressed by :

r or .>Ag.A ./S, (15e)

The ratio of the volume Occupied by
the fluid in the bed, AL., to the surface
area it sweeps, St, is the hydraulic
radius, rs,

varied with the fractional void volume .

Whether or not kt is a constant is to
be decided on inspection of the lower
end of Figure 6 and the upper end of
Figure 8 where viscous energy losses
are dominant However, the inherent
inaccuracies involved in the meusurcments of specific surface, fractional
void volume, eta, must be borne in
mind In the present work, moreover,
single systems were investigated at different fractional void volumes and no
evidence of variance of its with . was
found. This point is clearly supported
by the proportionality of a to (I- .)s/
es as to be seen from Figures 2 and 3,
and similar other graphical representations (1, 8, 9) . The factor ks(sa 3/4B)
is subject to treatment similar ta that
of kt (7, 8, 9),

Substitution of Equations (lSarr) into

Equation (13a) give s
f. s. 36 r (16)
and into Equation (140) gives
!ass6 P- (17 )
Similarly proper substitution will yield
Na' as 6pnra (18)
Therefore, Equations (13) and (14 )
respectively will become :

36 r=s a 150 + 1 .75 6prs

# at
(19 )
6Puts Its 130 s +1.75

It is seen that these transformations
The laws of fluid flow through granemploying the absolute values of shear
ular beds have several aspects of pracstress, fluid density, and velocity elimitical consequence . They generally find
nate the fractional void volume. The
use in correlating the rate of mass and
terms involved in Equations (16.20)
heat transfer to and from moving fluids
are well known in the fields of hydro(24) . The extension of such relationand aerodynamics. Other forms of de- ships to packed columns will rtquire
pendences upon . ascribed to a general formulation of the laws of fluid flow
equation, as encountered in the litera- through granular beds . Empirics, corture, would not lead to complete elimi- relations are generally useful for the
nation of the fractional void volume particular purpose for which tl..ey are
upon transformation to these fundamen- made, but may not shard light for a
tat variables.
different purpose. For the sake of
The theoretical significances of the clarity in the application and use of the
constants let and lea have been omitted data obtained in packed columns, it
in the foregoing treatment The former-* seemed desirable to develop expressions
of these constants is discussed by Car- (Equation (12)) in a comprehensiv e
form applicable to all typos of flow . I n
man and Lea and Nurse (15) in connection with the Kozeny equation. As
doing so the theoretical developments,
a result of comparison of various sysas well as the empirical approaches,
tems involving different fractional void' have been considered and the following
volumes, Lea and Nurse (16) concluded
conclusions have been drawn :
that a(=let/72) was not a constant but
1. Total energy loss in fixed beds can

]III I Wild




ot1 ai t o

rs or ALe/Sd (1Sd)
The actual average velocity of the fluid
in the bed is obtained from the ratio
of the superficial fluid velocity to th e
fractional voids,
a to f1/.

. :952

Vol. 48, No. 2

2 3 4 6

3 4 6 e 100

4 6 s1000 2 3 4


r1 . a a e.n pe
.h.adv. s4a at pnwr4 dm0 in fund beds, Data dd rfe.e k or. ..pbno d .
) This sep. at plus 4 idntnol with dear at sink. . a.ra atw is den rwu.rdt .9 sit aq ..t:o . (146) ,

Chemical Engineering progress

pogo 93


Use _ ouptrticial fluid velocity nice

sacred at average pressure
a coefficient of viscous energy
tern, in Equation (11 )
A = coefficient of kinetic energy
tern, is Equation (I1 )
= fractional void volume in bed
p am absolute viscosity of fluid
p = density of flui d
= average shear stress, defined
by Equation (lSc )


,,fit l a .n. .a ,IMS a

*"Y .

a ...Yt

1 . Arthur, J. R ., Linnet, J. W Raynor,

E. J ., and Sington . E. P. E, Trans .
Faraday Sat. . 46, 270 (1950) .

NYS la, Ns l

ra Nr111s .1

Literature Cited

;7. ii
a ,o


a 4 a Io00

peg. 9. Coupwls.a at w eSa, .w*Uk1 npr.mnta$ .ns rrta, ew/fs . (12).
be treated as the sum of viscous and
kinetic energy losses.
2. Viscous energy losses per unit
length are expressed by the first term
of Equation (12) :
ISO 0(1-e)s ssU
es per
and the kinetic energy losses by the
second term :

3 . For any set of data the relative

amounts of viscous and kinetic energy

losses can be obtained from either
Equation (13) or (14) .
4 . A new form of friction factor, f,
representing the ratio of pressure drop
to the viscous energy term has been
given (Equation I3c) and should have
advantages over the conventional type
of friction (actor .
5. A linear equation .too been shown
to represent the conventional type of
friction factor, vie ., the ratio of pressure drop to energy term representing
kinetic losses (Equation 146) .

Tlae author acknowledges the encouragement and advice of H . H .
Lowry and J . C. Elgin, and the assistance rendered by Curtis W. Dewalt.
Jr., in preparing this manuscript.
n oo'd = coefficients in Equations (1),
k (4), and (7), respectively
A = cross-sectional area of the
empty column

6.6" coefficients in Equations (1)

and (8), respectively
Ds a effective diameter of particles
as defined by Equation
(ISa )
factor, which repro
sends the ratio of pressure
loss to viscous energy loss
and which is linear with
mass flow rate, defined by
Equation (13a )
friction factor . identical with
the dimensionless group of
Blake, defined by Equation
gravitational constan t
G m mass-flow rate of fluid.
G=,v U
At n coefficient of the viscous ear
ergy term in Equation
(12) ; k, = 15 0
kg - coefficient of the kinetic energy term in Equation
(12) ; k2 - U S
L = height of bed
Nt,, = Reynolds number,
Na, = D,G/p: .
P s pressure loss, force units
ra = hydraulic radius of packed
bed, defined by Equation
(lSd )
S = surface of sagida per unit vol .
time of the bed
St = total surface area of the
solids in the bed
S, = specific surface, surface of
solids per unit volume of
Solid s
is actual velocity of fluid in the
U superficial fluid velocity based
on empty column croon section

2. Blake, F . E. Tram. Am. Inst. Cheap .

Sages. . 14, 415 (1922) .
3. Burke, S. P ., and Plummer, W. B., l,sd.
Env . Chen,., 20. 1196 (1928) .
4. Carman. P. C, Trans. last. Chsa, .
Engrs. (London), IS, 150 (1937).
5. Chilton, T. H,, and Colbum . A. P .,
lad . Exp. Chem ., 23, 913 (1931) .
6. Donal, J Wuurkrds a. Watsen,'irt,,
225 (1919) .
7. Ergun, S., and Orning, A. A. Ind,
Eng . Chew., 41, 1179 (1549) .
8 . Ergun. S, Anal. Chem., 23, 151
(19$1) .
9. Ergun. S .. "Determfnatioa of Gm` metric Surface Area of Crushed
Porous Solids." Not yet published.

10. Fair. G. 3f ., and Hatch, L P .. J . Aan.

Naar Works Assoc., 2$, 1551
(1933) .
It . Fowler, J. L, and Hertel. IC L, J. Ap
Nied,Phy, ., It . 496 (1940) .

12. Furnas. C. C., U . S. Bar. Mines Bull .,

307 (1929)
. Hatch, L. P., .13 J. Applied Vrrha,iee, 7 ,
109 (1940) .
14 . Koseny, J ., Abed. Wise.
It'irn,^ blase.-nausea. Alan, 136
(AM. ]Ice), 271 (1927).

15. Lea, F. At., and Nurse, R. W., J. Soc.

Clem . Ind ., 58, 277 (1939) .

16. Lea, F. It ., and Nurse, R . W., To-s.

less. Chem . Loge . (London), 25,
Supplement, pp . 47 (1947) .
17 . Lewis, W. IC . Gilliland, E. R ., and
Bauer, W . C.. led. Esp. Chen,., 41,
1104 (1949) .

18. Leas. It., and Grammer, H ., Chre, .

Eng. Prop-,; 43, 549, 633, 713
(1947) .
19 . Lindquist, E., "?tvmier Ganges des
Grander Barrages." Vol. V, pp. 8199, Stockholm (1933) .
20 . Marcum, A . R ., Trans. lest. Chum .
Engr,. (London), 24, 311 (1946) .
21 . Morse, R. D, lad. R.O. Chew., 41 .
1117 (1949) .
22. Oman . A. O, and Watson K . 3d . .
NaN. Pcaraleum New, 36, R79$
(1944) .
21 Reynolds. O, "Papers on Mechanical
and Physical Subject., ." Cambridge -_
University Press (1900) ,

24, Sherwood . T. K., "Absorption and

Extraction .' McGraw-Hilt Book
Ca, New York N. Y. (1937) .
25. Stanton, T. E, and Pannell . J . R
9 Tr (ans.
)oy. So
.. (Leaden), A214 ,
R1914 .
26. Traxlee. R. N., and Baum. L A . K.
Physic, 7, 9 (1936) .
27. Wilhelm, R. H, and Kwauk, al ..
Chew. Exp. Progress, 44. 201
(1948) .

.,r. : r
nh rR
that ;

cc; -3



Palo 94

Chemical Engineering Progress

February, 1957