Sabri Ergun, “Fluid flow through packed columns,” Chemical Engineering Progress, vol. 48, pp. 89–94, 1952

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Sabri Ergun, “Fluid flow through packed columns,” Chemical Engineering Progress, vol. 48, pp. 89–94, 1952

© All Rights Reserved

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Anda di halaman 1dari 7

COLUMN S

SABRI ERGU N

Carnegie Institute of Technologyt, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

The existing information an the flow of fluids through beds of granular Osborne flryadds (23) uas hest to formusolids has been critically reviewed . It has been found that pressure late the resi ante offered by Iriceiat to theo

losses are caused by simultanstous kinetic and viscous energy losses, n'otiun

ofofthe

flu,I

as the sum

ternts,

itioal

respectively

to of

dertw

first

and that the following comprehensive equation is applicable to all types power of t!sr fluid velocity and to the

of flow, product of the density of the fluid with

AP Cl - e) t PU . 1 - s GU second power of its velocity :

where AP is the pressure on alon th e

length L, a the density of the fluid, 11 its

linear velocity, and a and b are factor s

The equation has been examined from the point of view of its dependence upon flow rate, properties of the fluids, and fractional void volume,

orientation, size, shape, and surface of the granular solids . Whenever

possible, conditions were chosen so that the effect of one variable at a

time could be considered . A transformation of the general equation

indicates that the Blake-type friction factor has the following form :

transformation of Equation (1) which

yields a linear expression is :

AP/LU = a+ bG (2 )

where 0,U has been replaced by G, the mass

Sow rate . The above two-term preswrefa a 1 .75+ 150

drop equation has been found to be astir

art

over the range of flow rates enA new concept of friction factor,/. representing the ratio of pressure factory

countered in pecked columns. Lindquist

drop to the viscous energy term is discussed . Experimental results ob- (19), Morcom (20) . and Ergun and

tained for the purpose of testing the validity of the equation are reported . Orning (7) have platted AP/LV ag inst

Numerous other data taken from the literature have been included in G and obtained straight lines as expected

from Equation (2) . The former two authe discussions.

thors have included in their plots factor s

hick

w

ptra in to the

p,s rties of th s aT HE pressure loss accompanying the utilize some of the general equations ten

These

: factors are re important and will

flow of fluids through column s representing the forces exerted by the be discussed later, but they are irreic :ant

packed with granular material has been fluids in motion (molecular, viscous, for the purpose of testing the linearit . of

(2) . As a typical plot. der. obthe subject of theoretical analysis and kinetic, static, etc.) to arrive at a useful Equation

for gas Sow through a be of

factors.porous

A ,.rained

experimental investigation . The pur- expression correlating

ffthese

crushed

solids are shown in N. ;tar e

pose of the present paper is to smnmar . survey of the literature reveals various

I. The experimental results of the present

investigation and those mentioned ax,ve

ice the existing information, to verify expressions derived from - different

( :, 19, 20), as well as the data ott:inmd

further experimentally a theoretical de- assumptions, correlating the particular

the literature (3, 22) . militate that

retopment presented earlier, and to experimental data obtained with or with- . from

the two-term equation accurately cite tiara

.

discuss practical applications of this new out sonic of the data published earlier

the relation between flow rate and ptasure

approach . The experimental studies These correlations differ in many redrop.

have been confined to gas flow through spects ; some are to be used only at low

2. Viscosity and Density of Fluid.

crushed porous solids. This case is the fluid flow rates. while others are apFrom Equation (2) it is seen that as the

velocity a'sproaches zero as a lien t. the

one usually encountered in practice, but plicable only at higher rates . A separate

ratio of pressure drop to velocity ad, beis not identical with the case most thor- survey of all these various correlations

come constant :

oughly studied by previous investiga- is not included here.

iAPC/tors, viz ., the flow of fluid through bells

As most authorities agree, the factors

L m s (3 )U+ e

0

of nonporo(s solids, and more particu- to be considered are : (1) rate of fluid

whi ch is a coalit i on for v iscous flnv, . Act

larly. througi solids having uniform flow, (2) viscosity and density of

cording to the Poiseuille equation and

geometric shapes .

the fluid. (3) closeness and orientation

Dar 'a law, the factor a is propcr:ional

Factors determining the energy loss of packing, and (4) site . shape, and

to the viscosity of the fluid . The xher

limiting condition is reached at hign flow

(pressure drop) in the packed beds are surface ai the particles. The first two

when the constant a is negtigil It in

numerous and some of than are not variables concern the fluid, while the rates

comparison to bG. This is a condition for

susceptible to complete and exact mathe- last two the solids,

completely turbulent flow where k-aetic

matical analysis . Various workers in

1. Rate of Fluid Flow, It is known

energy losses constitute the whole vainthe field have made simplifying assump- that pressure drop through a granular tance. The effect of density is already

in G. Equation (2) as be

tions or analogies so that they could bed is propor)ional to the fluid velocity at contained

low flow rates, and approximately to the rewritten :

C o a l Resecrch Laboratory.

square of the velocity at high tests.

API' -a a'pU+b9(P (4 )

1 -6

NY 62592

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Source: http://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/nnhp0209

a i.agor in'rlamfpM to the

of 1?ryru .n,o t41 reprcv,ny riw,nn vmrgy

I . .. ... aoal Ihr 'ao,MI Icon it .. kiorlfc en.

trill h,. .. Thy Knaruy ,ppntiun (if )

.( Ill, viw.ON vu,rgy Term to

rpm-dot 11M prey-ore droop, while the

." and 1'lunuucr (3), sod

ill'

I'hdoo and 6 .11,1u10 0) approarln nntdoys

for kneel i. nMray Iran a .nl n,ninoyatcs

the rd, .I i .n ., n .. ids-rpc I,--,, will, a

r ..l , .,W, Uati.,,I i.u'U ,

I

1

nee

d

.ai

.t

I .e erraloi us Its,, solo of viarr.ra AM kinetic

energy tosses.

li,nI y. Md v.duunv has bete one of the

na,-I :,oIr,nrr.cd fads,. h . i 4'1 .'d 073, .n,s. ulc lu,,rvlical Ircauucnls wire

n,n ar. ,,rod m -'al li,hinR the ticpendair d )fir pr . .surc ,.rq. niece iradmual

vied v .dnnn It was sheet who first our

*hllly ,rrtu,l Ile reecho by an approrh ;mnh . ;wu lu I lull ' if Stanton and

I'aun,11 I .5) In gwrurt drop in circular

pile,- . lliake .dnaiwsl Olt- foll.,wlpg dimes .

,and.s- grw1P.ti

_V'.I, It,

.' Mot ,

ll

.' ar,,.vitatioINl ca.NtanA and D. the

dia.ndarr of the solid particles. The first

of hcxw aruaps is recognised as the md(iliy.l rfcl .an (actor aid the second as the

n .,slifuvl Reynolds number . Blake sugp,-a,l Il.at the inner of these groups be

I11 .it.s1 against the latter. Since both di

- group, ro,tafn the fractiona l

, .id e,Aume. it can be deduced that pres.ure drop is not a function of a single

Group aluMsc

The failure of lux earlier attempts to

arrive at a useful expression can be attn .

hard to the want of recognition of the fact

that pressure drop is caused by simultanew, kinetic and viscous energy losses ,

ndunIe Icing (I - r)/e' . This range of tl .e

plot at Blake tae generally 4m over .

la .ke,L

Basel no the theory of Reynolds for

resfstanet to doid flow and the method of

K.rsoy, a gateral ol .atirnl was developed

by Ergun and Orniol; fur pressure drop

thr.wgb fixed beds, In summary the folluwiou raxlusknra can he drawn from

U .eir w.xk :

Fig . 1 . Typfiwl phsrs of the On... hew of

pe

. .tar.wlrop .quill. . rot . cynic pochsd 'a

diltonmt hoetlit of veld salver.., 0g.. .'1.. (2).

aurae.. cow ihrwak 1670 ere, high 1.w

pin .NN pen cake. P.nki domitp ra 1 .046

g./m Crowsnuik..w.l oron of rob. 7.74

wtse . fall .1 724 ms Ms . and 21' C .

(3, 7) indicate that dependency of each

energy loss upon fractional void volume is

different. Burke and Plummer proposed

the theory that the low resistance of the

packed bed can be treated as the

stun of the separate resistances of the

individual particles in it. Accordingly, via

coos energy loss was found to be woporuonal to (1-r)/, and kinetic loss to

(1 -The authors, however, failed to

recognise the additive nature of these

losses and correlated the pressure drop by

the use of dimensionless groups similar to

those of Blake . For viscous flow . Koarny(14) arrived at an equation widely used

later (4 . 10, 11 . 13. 1 .5, 261 by ssvunnng

that the granular bed is equivalent to a

group of similar parallel darnels . The

derival dependency up'Mn fractional void

volume was (I-s=/e'. This factor is

different by a (raaio . 0 - r)/q iron the

factor derived by Burke for viscous flow.

Fair and Hatdt 410) . Carman (4) . Inn

and Surse (13), Fowler and Hertel (11) .

and others (6. 13, 1:. 36) verified the

Koteny factor experimentally, For a general correlation valid at all flow rotes, however, Carman recommended the plot of the

dimensionless groups of Blake. Recently .

Leva (24) anal horse (22) also adopted

Blake's procedure in presenting the pressure drop data in filed beds . Lena, et al .

(18) stated that the pressure drop was proportiorwl to (1 - .) /.' at lower dove rates

and to (1 - s)/.' at higher flow rates.

the method of Blake leads to the Koreny

eguatiou. hesxe to tux actor

APR. (I- .)' p('

to') t -c)'/ .' ae.l tIm kiotir energy I.to (I - .1/0. Since u a.Ml h of F.quatiat (4)

represent the e..MTxkmls of viscous a,Ml

kinetic energy losses . rcnprrdvtly. it is

,spoiled that a he pnpn,etbnal to

(I - s)'/.' and h to O- .)/.' in order for

the theory to be valid. .\ItMmch the above

author. have curr,lat .,l tirade data suctt sfully single systems have nip been thoroughly examined at various frarti .n .al v, .kl

volumes . One of tow aims of IIM present

work bas, been to inveslieatc Ow sinalr

systems at various packing densities . A

known amomn of solids was packed 6 t 20

different bulk densities each resulting in

a different fractional void volume . For

each packing the coefficients it and b of

Equation (2) were determined from pressure drop and flow rate measurements

(Fit. 1) . Firures 2 and 3 show typical

plow of a against(, and b .globe

(I-t)/e' obtained from Figure 1 . Saab

plot, yield straight lines ach passing

through the origin . The graphical representation is simple, yet most ective in tie

investigation of the function of fractional

void volume. A similar procedure has been

adopted recently by Arthur, et at (1) it,

testing the validity of the S.oaeny vuatias

and by ErFun (0) in camrctiun with particle density determinations for porous

solids, It is of in :crust also to note that

the two extreme ranges of the Blake plot

lead to the tern of the general equation

proposed by Ergun and Oreins- The pro.

parliorralities an he expressed in the formulae :

aneo"(=-~r) (7)

:I, = b" .~'

1

(g )

iE .

s1

(5)

On the other hand, at high flow rates

Bake

t

tttethod

g

iv

ise

t

o

th

e

e

q

uatio

n

es

r

fie. 2, la.ps.d.- .' is- wet hkw *

. oofBurke set Plummer for turbulent

ansinl I.- - f .oakr .ol said -I.-, aq ..

tint al .rod .(Q, lasnapis .wet dopes .ro_.b .

M Nf *d 1. at fig .. I by --*,W of asks 7- (6 )

p-t)'

ir

rig. 7. O.p..d. .r. at vista., ..orgy f.w ..

.

fc.

.eel

mid

wotw..

tq,..riw. (7). 0 ...

,

.w

.brok.od hr akregw 4- through 7040 .lath,

fags soh., liamak deWry as 1 .27 0./oe.

Croe'u ..ri.o1 0- -0 It . %4. w 7.24 pose .

Ink Dos in 740 . ..u M* laid 23' C

Februory, 1952

Source: http://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/nnhp0209

It

yields :

(9)

A rearrangement of Equation (9) leads to :

(10)

Equation (10) makes it possible to group

at data of Figure I on a single line by

plotting

AP s'

;rr ;t

LU (1 - .) "

against G/(I- .) . This is demonstrated

ht Figure 4 .

Up to this point the aim has been to

formulate the effect of fractional void volume in fixed beds, and the effect of orientation was not included . The orientation of

the randomly Packed beds is not susceptible

to exact mathematical formulation . This is

especially true it the particles have odd

shapes and are not negligible in size conpared with the diameter of the container .

Furnas (12) has treated the subject at

length and introduced the concept of "sarnwl packing" which was obtained by a

slaunlard procedure. In tine present investigation, however, such a concept had to be

abandoned, The problem was to pack a

known amount of solids to various bulk

densities . yet each packing had to be antforin and reproducible.

This was accomplished by admitting gas

below the supporting grid after the solids

were pound in. The gas rate was sufficient

to keep the bed in an expanded state and

the use of a vibrator attached to she tube

assured the uniformity of the packing . By

varying the rate of upward gas flow, the

bulk density could he varied from the

tightest possible to tie loosest stable pack .

ing, For crushed material the most tightly

packed bed having a height of 30 cm. could

easily be expanded by 6 to 7 con . When the

desired pa,kiug density was at taincnl, the

vibrator was ltxnlnulvcw1 anal the gas now

rut off- The bed that was ready for pres .

sure drop and flow rate measurements.

Highly reproducible packings can be obtained by this method, and more important.

the particles are believed to be oriented by

the gas doming upward . This is evidenced

by the existence of a theoretical relationship (7), verified experimentally, between

the bed expansion and the flow rate . A

further evidence for particle orientatio n

was found in the fan that the most tightly

packed beds have been obtained by slowly

reducing the rate of upward gas flow to an

initially expanded bed while subjecting it to

vibration .

It will be evident on inspection of the

form of Equation (9) that the estimation

rat fractional void volume is important, particularly since it enters to second . and

tlntrd-power terms aid is in many aces

difficult sea measure directly. Whenever the

particle density and the total weight of the

granular material filling a given volume are

known . a may be readily alculated . But

the particle density of crushed porous materials is not readily known and its determination has presented a problem which

was much discussed Fractional void volumes were usually calculated by the use of

apparent specifu gravities which were determines by variant procedures . Use of

such values for a in the pressurcdrop

equations masticated the introduction of

correction factors . This often caused the

workers to doubt the validity of the factors

describing the dependence of pressure dro p

upon . and to seek little correlations . However, this was believed to be unwarranted

(g) sitter the determination of pressure

drop through beds of porous panicles

hinges upon the evaluation of the particle

density. Therefore. a gas flow method was

developed (8) for the determination of the

particle density of porous granules . The

method was ducked by the densities obtained for nonporous solids and the agreewin was good. Use of the particle densities of coke obtained by the method described, in the determination of fractional

void volume sad hence in the promote drop

equation, resulted in excellent agrexnwuu.

believed to be not applicable by Burk : who

suggested compensation by cmpirica factors in connection with the use e f the

Blake plot .

Determination of specific surface in~clves

the mcasurerne" of the solid surface area

as well as that of solid volume stint presents no problem for uniform geo :nctric

shapes . For irregular solids, especially fur

porous materials, however, surfs" area

determination becomes involved. The surface of porous materials is necessari .y full

of holes and projections. Different surface

arms are usually defined in connection with

porous materials, viz., total surface area

(including that of pores), external visibl e

Particles T he effect o f the particle site

. is-best

surface

area,

Pt e

area, Cie.

and shape

analysed in the light

-of .A surface

geometric sur

face, as dis ti nct f rom ex .

theoretical implications of the Blake plot .

.1

the surface of an impervious envelote surrounding the body in an aerodynamic sense .

Irregularities and striae on the surface

would not be taken into full accoui .t in a

geometric surface area in contrast to external surface area. Whether the value of

the total, external or geometric surface area

is .lesircd will depend on the purpose for

which it is to be used. Geometric surface

APy ./L = 2"S: U .(I --s)s/a'

arm is believed (9) to be the relev .,nt one

+ (p/8)GU .S.(1 - .)/s' (11)

in connection with the pressure crop in

parked columns. This is made evident by

where a and p are statistical constants, g,

the close agreement between the nurface

is the gravitational constant, and S. is the

specific surface of solids . i.e.. surfs" of areas determined by gas-flaw methods and

those by microscopic and light extinction

the solids per out volume, of the solids.

meshetls . inasmuch as the surface rough.

Instead of specific surface. S., surface per

ness affects both the geometric surface area

unit packed volume . S . has been employed

by some workers. Since the latter quantity' and the particle density, the deterntisation

involves the fractional void volume, use of

of its influence upon pressure drop ties in

the evaluation of the effective values of

specific surface has been preferred in the

then quantities.

present work. The relation between the

two quantities is expressed by

It has been customary to use a ch uracteristic dimension to represent the part cle site

Sea (1- .)S

in pressure-drop atculations. The charocEquation Ill) involves the concept of

terutie dimension generally used is the

"mean hydraulic radius" in its theoretical

diameter of a sphere having the specific

development (7) . Its validity has been

surface. S.. which is expressed by

tested with spheres, cylinders, tablets, sot

ranges of the Blake plot and the theoretical

equations developed respectively by Kozeny

and Burke for viscous . and turbulent-flow

ranges has already been shown . Also, is

has been pointed out that these two expressions cotnsinnad the following general

equation developed by Ergun and Qrning

(7) :

(glass. coke, coal, etc .) and found to be

sotisneunry . The experiments have not

been extended to inctale solids having

holes and other special shapes. Few thos e

yields :

Ails. (I - .)' AU . + k 1 - . GU .

.

W

~so k

(12)

torn of Equation (12) is :

(13 )

N ., = D

p

The left-hand side of Equation (13) is the

ratio of pressure drop to the viscau energy term and will be designated by f .APD

L U . (1^ .)

(13a )

B

mtg . 4. A gsaersl plat for single grins.

petition to dgdarem #,*a* l odd "4e. pats

e

tln

gol.~

.ap.. ~ arknj tqst w i p) 'a straigh

According to Estwtiot (13) a linear relatio udnip exists between I. and A's ./ 1- e .

Data of the present investigation mi those

presented earlier have been treated accordsngly, std the coefficients Jr. and Its have

been determined by the method of least

squares. The values obtained are lit o ISO

and ter at 1 .75 representing 64( experinicala. Data involved various-"l spheres.

gases : CO. N. CH . and Hs. Otwe the

constants Jr. and A . were obtained it wa s

Page 91

C-D

Ln

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CD.

CD

CD

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Source: http://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/nnhp0209

' I

II

it

P, coos s,r

.igorr.0

f 1 1

li

! 0 N

e !

r 00 ! r- e r Neo ! s

w

w

tnno dl plnwmo r

1

I

s 'o

.o

11111 1

I :

! a s a e sin ! i

I

i

. I j

I

7 I,

e N0a e

r

I

` Iyaom~l

.t

re

n ! ! a r NO ! !

~ ,

. Nee !

N

!-E

Ks. 7. Gr

.pbksl mpeesewwdea at prwvra dreg I. toed hod.

Cow of rigor

. 3 an .ptatad.

r

In all rhroo seas wild tees or

.

lde tbol sod ore dresr

. seeardisg to rgnat]a. (]db) . The wdiass.

,

Is rap's-tool by is, tgnatua, ll4

. drop

opplieabb w bath risooar and w,b.&W Mw f . .ynu,o sonsidend.

Solid nee, in oil 0, . . a..

., wo draws asssrdNe w FA- 14 . (13o)

.nwd

by 1.

end sr

. t ...a an .rolwatk pasts. Th wdlnoh is sproo

fgoarlgn (13..) .

IC'

l0 1

i i

! l~l

The results are shown on the top of Figure

5. To be able to include a wider range of

data, a - logarithmic scale has been used

which results in a curve for the straight

line of Equation (13) . Data of Burke and

Plummer and those of Morcom are also

shown in Figure S . In all three cases the

solid lines are identical and are drawn or .

cording to the following equation :

I. . ISO+ 115

pear

I II

IH 4

i

i ~

u:r- a raes

N

I.nthso (liopldmi npr0wModen of pwrwrg dreg I. poe#ed mkrwns, Salta 3bo

.pnwals

r

at

. a h

X hark . grad rl .wr

Cl.- sad Worwe.

IF

Pogo 92

1 Data shown in Figure 5 and some additional data obtained from the literature

covering wider ranges of flow rate are included in Figure 6, together wilh the

asymptotes of the resulting Curve on the

logarithmic scale. Again the solid line

represents Equation (13x) .

A different form of Equation (121 is

represented by :

APg . D, os

:z k . 1a + k

L GG . - rs N

..

i i

I

1'0.

(14)

The left-hand side of Equation (14) is the

ratio of total energy losses to the terns

repeetertling kinetic energy losses and will

be designated by / .

,_ PE D sot J . (14.)

E 11150 1Ns. + 1 .75 (1db )

February, 1952

Source: http://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/nnhp0209

commonly used and is identical with the

dimensionless group of Blake . It will be

noted that Burke and Plummer plotted

essentially ft vs, ( - .)/M. . which per,

according to Equation (14), should yield a

straight inc lon an arithmetic scale. The

authors apparently failed to recognize this

fact . The best curve drawn through the

expert usI pants on an arithmetic scale

does not differ markedly from the line

representing Equation (14b) . The scatter

to be seen an the plot of Burke and Plummer was largely due to the systems involving mixtures and those for which the ratio

of tube diameter to particle size was less

than 10. 1 hew systems have been emitted

in Figure 5, It has been customary, however, to plot f. against N.,/(1 - e) instead

of the inverse of the last variable. This type

of plot is the one suggested by Blake and

adopted by Carman, Morse and others.

Figure 7 shows I. plotted vs. N . ./(I- .)

for the data already presented in Figure 5 .

Figure I is a more comprehensive presentstion. The solid 1 act arc drawn according

to &luation (lob) . A comparison of

Figure 6 with 8 is analogous to that of

1. with ft. Both plots are capable of presenting the data. However, I. pus a big

advantage over ft in that it is a linear

functioc. of the modified Reynolds number ,

,) . The curve of Figure 6

is a straight line on an arithmetic scale . On

the other hard. I ., which has been used aln,ost exclusively, is an inverse function. A

comparison of various empirical representations with Equation (I2) as to be seen in

Figure 9.

The foregoing treatment so far has

been confined to studying the factors involved in the pressure loss in packed

beds and to analyzing experimentally

the theoretical developments presented

earlier . It is only proper that the equations presented are also analyzed briefly

from the standpoint of pure fluid dynamics . Fortunately, the equations lend

themselves for such analyses . By definition :

1) to 6/S. (150 )

and

S. = S,/AL(1 - .) (15b)

where S, = total geometric surface

area of the solids and A = cross-sectional area of the empty column . The

total iorep exerted by the fluid on the

solids = GPp,Ao . therefore the tractive

force per unit solid surface area, usually

referred to as the shear stress, e, is

expressed by :

is

The ratio of the volume Occupied by

the fluid in the bed, AL., to the surface

area it sweeps, St, is the hydraulic

radius, rs,

Whether or not kt is a constant is to

be decided on inspection of the lower

end of Figure 6 and the upper end of

Figure 8 where viscous energy losses

are dominant However, the inherent

inaccuracies involved in the meusurcments of specific surface, fractional

void volume, eta, must be borne in

mind In the present work, moreover,

single systems were investigated at different fractional void volumes and no

evidence of variance of its with . was

found. This point is clearly supported

by the proportionality of a to (I- .)s/

es as to be seen from Figures 2 and 3,

and similar other graphical representations (1, 8, 9) . The factor ks(sa 3/4B)

is subject to treatment similar ta that

of kt (7, 8, 9),

Equation (13a) give s

f. s. 36 r (16)

and into Equation (140) gives

!ass6 P- (17 )

Similarly proper substitution will yield

Na' as 6pnra (18)

Therefore, Equations (13) and (14 )

respectively will become :

# at

.0

(19 )

and

6Puts Its 130 s +1.75

Summary

(20)

It is seen that these transformations

The laws of fluid flow through granemploying the absolute values of shear

ular beds have several aspects of pracstress, fluid density, and velocity elimitical consequence . They generally find

nate the fractional void volume. The

use in correlating the rate of mass and

terms involved in Equations (16.20)

heat transfer to and from moving fluids

are well known in the fields of hydro(24) . The extension of such relationand aerodynamics. Other forms of de- ships to packed columns will rtquire

pendences upon . ascribed to a general formulation of the laws of fluid flow

equation, as encountered in the litera- through granular beds . Empirics, corture, would not lead to complete elimi- relations are generally useful for the

nation of the fractional void volume particular purpose for which tl..ey are

upon transformation to these fundamen- made, but may not shard light for a

tat variables.

different purpose. For the sake of

The theoretical significances of the clarity in the application and use of the

constants let and lea have been omitted data obtained in packed columns, it

in the foregoing treatment The former-* seemed desirable to develop expressions

of these constants is discussed by Car- (Equation (12)) in a comprehensiv e

form applicable to all typos of flow . I n

man and Lea and Nurse (15) in connection with the Kozeny equation. As

doing so the theoretical developments,

a result of comparison of various sysas well as the empirical approaches,

tems involving different fractional void' have been considered and the following

volumes, Lea and Nurse (16) concluded

conclusions have been drawn :

that a(=let/72) was not a constant but

1. Total energy loss in fixed beds can

]III I Wild

a

-'

her

4

3

CrN

ot1 ai t o

dla

4

3

rs or ALe/Sd (1Sd)

The actual average velocity of the fluid

in the bed is obtained from the ratio

of the superficial fluid velocity to th e

fractional voids,

a to f1/.

. :952

2 3 4 6

3 4 6 e 100

4 6 s1000 2 3 4

NR.

I-E

r1 . a a e.n pe

.h.adv. s4a at pnwr4 dm0 in fund beds, Data dd rfe.e k or. ..pbno d .

(15t

) This sep. at plus 4 idntnol with dear at sink. . a.ra atw is den rwu.rdt .9 sit aq ..t:o . (146) ,

pogo 93

Source: http://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/nnhp0209

sacred at average pressure

a coefficient of viscous energy

tern, in Equation (11 )

A = coefficient of kinetic energy

tern, is Equation (I1 )

= fractional void volume in bed

p am absolute viscosity of fluid

p = density of flui d

= average shear stress, defined

by Equation (lSc )

i

,

*"Y .

a ...Yt

E. J ., and Sington . E. P. E, Trans .

Faraday Sat. . 46, 270 (1950) .

NYS la, Ns l

l"t

ra Nr111s .1

Literature Cited

;7. ii

a ,o

too

a 4 a Io00

Na,

I-7

peg. 9. Coupwls.a at w eSa, .w*Uk1 npr.mnta$ .ns rrta, ew/fs . (12).

be treated as the sum of viscous and

kinetic energy losses.

2. Viscous energy losses per unit

length are expressed by the first term

of Equation (12) :

ISO 0(1-e)s ssU

es per

and the kinetic energy losses by the

second term :

.

3 . For any set of data the relative

losses can be obtained from either

Equation (13) or (14) .

4 . A new form of friction factor, f,

representing the ratio of pressure drop

to the viscous energy term has been

given (Equation I3c) and should have

advantages over the conventional type

of friction (actor .

5. A linear equation .too been shown

to represent the conventional type of

friction factor, vie ., the ratio of pressure drop to energy term representing

kinetic losses (Equation 146) .

"

Acknowledgment

Tlae author acknowledges the encouragement and advice of H . H .

Lowry and J . C. Elgin, and the assistance rendered by Curtis W. Dewalt.

Jr., in preparing this manuscript.

Notatfofl

n oo'd = coefficients in Equations (1),

k (4), and (7), respectively

A = cross-sectional area of the

empty column

and (8), respectively

Ds a effective diameter of particles

as defined by Equation

(ISa )

.

=

friction

factor, which repro

)'

.

sends the ratio of pressure

loss to viscous energy loss

and which is linear with

mass flow rate, defined by

Equation (13a )

friction factor . identical with

the dimensionless group of

Blake, defined by Equation

(1k)

gravitational constan t

9.

G m mass-flow rate of fluid.

G=,v U

At n coefficient of the viscous ear

ergy term in Equation

(12) ; k, = 15 0

kg - coefficient of the kinetic energy term in Equation

(12) ; k2 - U S

L = height of bed

Nt,, = Reynolds number,

Na, = D,G/p: .

P s pressure loss, force units

ra = hydraulic radius of packed

bed, defined by Equation

(lSd )

S = surface of sagida per unit vol .

time of the bed

St = total surface area of the

solids in the bed

S, = specific surface, surface of

solids per unit volume of

Solid s

is actual velocity of fluid in the

bed

U superficial fluid velocity based

on empty column croon section

Sages. . 14, 415 (1922) .

3. Burke, S. P ., and Plummer, W. B., l,sd.

Env . Chen,., 20. 1196 (1928) .

4. Carman. P. C, Trans. last. Chsa, .

Engrs. (London), IS, 150 (1937).

5. Chilton, T. H,, and Colbum . A. P .,

lad . Exp. Chem ., 23, 913 (1931) .

6. Donal, J Wuurkrds a. Watsen,'irt,,

225 (1919) .

7. Ergun, S., and Orning, A. A. Ind,

Eng . Chew., 41, 1179 (1549) .

8 . Ergun. S, Anal. Chem., 23, 151

(19$1) .

9. Ergun. S .. "Determfnatioa of Gm` metric Surface Area of Crushed

Porous Solids." Not yet published.

Naar Works Assoc., 2$, 1551

(1933) .

It . Fowler, J. L, and Hertel. IC L, J. Ap

Nied,Phy, ., It . 496 (1940) .

307 (1929)

. Hatch, L. P., .13 J. Applied Vrrha,iee, 7 ,

109 (1940) .

14 . Koseny, J ., Sit_l.cr. Abed. Wise.

It'irn,^ blase.-nausea. Alan, 136

(AM. ]Ice), 271 (1927).

Clem . Ind ., 58, 277 (1939) .

less. Chem . Loge . (London), 25,

Supplement, pp . 47 (1947) .

17 . Lewis, W. IC . Gilliland, E. R ., and

Bauer, W . C.. led. Esp. Chen,., 41,

1104 (1949) .

Eng. Prop-,; 43, 549, 633, 713

(1947) .

19 . Lindquist, E., "?tvmier Ganges des

Grander Barrages." Vol. V, pp. 8199, Stockholm (1933) .

20 . Marcum, A . R ., Trans. lest. Chum .

Engr,. (London), 24, 311 (1946) .

21 . Morse, R. D, lad. R.O. Chew., 41 .

1117 (1949) .

22. Oman . A. O, and Watson K . 3d . .

NaN. Pcaraleum New, 36, R79$

(1944) .

21 Reynolds. O, "Papers on Mechanical

and Physical Subject., ." Cambridge -_

University Press (1900) ,

Extraction .' McGraw-Hilt Book

Ca, New York N. Y. (1937) .

25. Stanton, T. E, and Pannell . J . R

9 Tr (ans.

)oy. So

.. (Leaden), A214 ,

19

R1914 .

26. Traxlee. R. N., and Baum. L A . K.

Physic, 7, 9 (1936) .

27. Wilhelm, R. H, and Kwauk, al ..

Chew. Exp. Progress, 44. 201

(1948) .

.,r. : r

.orp,

T

nh rR

that ;

9tJ~~

cc; -3

3nd1

to

ara.i

the

,nsc:

main

tar;

p.

Palo 94

February, 1957

Source: http://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/nnhp0209

V:

Source: http://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/nnhp0209

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