Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

17 tayangan

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Tesla
- CST Whitepaper Reflector Antenna System
- HW1
- Final Preboard Oct2017 Esatseta
- Ultra Wide Band Radio Technology (UWB)(B-TECH SEMINAR REPORT)
- Board Exam REVIEW 'pe kt'e['e'jetre't 'jt rt ej' etjeltdnfg;leqt
- Thesis
- HW2 Solution
- Compact UWB Wearable Antenna With Improved Bandwidth and Low SAR_1
- Appendix C - Index
- 20111103 WiFi Point to Point Overview and Installation Guidline-Rev1.1
- 232-241
- 06327341
- Simulink4Controlnew2008_1page
- Directional Patch Antenna Array Design for Desktop Wireless Inter
- 2014 SWJ Circularly Polarized S Band Dual Frequency Square Patch Antenna Using Glass Microfiber Reinforced PTFE Composite
- BTEL Radio Transmission ATP Form v1.6.xls
- Design of a rectangular Patch antenna
- spectrum.pdf
- Design of Triband Miniature Microstrip Antenna with Modified Resonating Structure using CADFEKO

Anda di halaman 1dari 4

for UWB Antennas

James S. McLean, Heinrich Foltz, and Robert Sutton

2

+∞

Abstract—The time delay pattern for a UWB antenna is ( E ( R, θ , φ , t ) ⋅ a (θ , φ )T (t − τ )) Rdt

considered. Many different definitions of time delay are possible.

(1)

Possibilities include (a) time delay for maximum correlation with ρ (θ , φ ) = max − ∞+ ∞ +∞

a template function, either in terms radiated field or port-to-port τ 2

− ∞ − ∞

2

transfer function, (b) time delays extracted from the linear phase T (t ) dt E ( R , θ , φ , t ) R 2

dt

part of a transfer function, and (c) time delays based on time-

G

domain waveform features. Each of these three general where E ( R,θ , φ , t ) is the radiated electric field and

definitions may be computed by multiple means. The delays can

G

be absolute or differential, that is, taken relative to the respective a (θ , φ ) T ( t ) is the template function.

delay in a reference direction. It is shown that some of

definitions are equal under certain very restrictive conditions.

Example data is given for a broadband (1-18 GHz) double ridged As has been noted previously, there is ambiguity in the

horn antenna. determination of this quantity. First, the template

G

a (θ , φ ) T ( t ) to which the radiated field is correlated is not

Index Terms—antenna measurements, antenna radiation

specified and clearly many different situations calling for

patterns, time delay pattern, ultra-wideband antennas.

different templates can be envisioned. For example, in

describing antennas designed for short pulse reproduction

I. INTRODUCTION applications, it might be useful to use the time derivative of

the input voltage or current as the template. For

S EVERAL radiation pattern descriptors appropriate for UWB

antennas have been published including energy gain,

correlation coefficient, and correlated energy gain [1-9].

communications antennas, on the other hand, a useful template

might be the radiated field in a specified direction, such as the

bore-sight direction. This template gives some idea of how the

Here, we present a somewhat different descriptor, the

antenna will perform with fixed equalization, since fixed

differential time-delay pattern, which is computed using two

equalization can compensate only for one specific pulse

diverse approaches. Under strict conditions the differential

distortion.

delay patterns computed using these two approaches would be

similar. Via Parseval’s Theorem, the correlation may be carried out in

either the time or frequency domain, although truncation of

For a given antenna, the extent to which these two patterns the data will cause the two approaches to produce slightly

differ from one another gives some indication of the departure different results. It is also possible to compute the correlation

of the antenna’s behavior from ideal. The variation in the time from the antenna transfer function as defined in [1,7,11].

delay with angle may also be useful in determining the When the template is taken as the radiated electric field of the

uncertainty in precision radiolocation applications, and in antenna in a particular reference direction [8], and the

assessing beam scanning performance in circular or other non- normalized correlation pattern is expressed in terms of the

linear arrays. The time delay pattern may also aid antenna frequency domain antenna transfer function:

design by helping to identify and localize radiation G G ∗

2

Re a (ω ) ω 2 H • H 0 e − jωτ dω

∞ 2

mechanisms. − ∞ (2)

ρ (θ , φ ) = max

τ ∞ 2 2 G 2 ∞ 2 2 G 2

−∞

a (ω ) ω H dω a (ω ) ω H 0 dω

−∞

II. COMPUTATION OF TIME DELAY FROM CORRELATION where the reference direction is taken as (θ0,φ0),

H = H (θ , φ , ω )

Correlation from Antenna Transfer Function. The is antenna transfer function,

normalized correlation coefficient is defined in [3] by:

H 0 = H (θ 0 , φ 0 , ω )

is the transfer function in the reference direction, and a(ω) is

the input pulse (incident wave at the antenna input port) in the

James McLean and Robert Sutton are with TDK R&D Corp. frequency domain.

Heinrich Foltz is with the University of Texas-Pan American.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2008 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ULTRA-WIDEBAND (ICUWB2008), VOL. 1

Correlation patterns have been presented in [2,9-11]. Least Squares Approach From a port-to-port measurement

Typically, the value of the correlation coefficient is presented one can easily define a phase function

as a function of angle thus describing how different the Φ(θ , φ , ω ) = arg(S 21 (θ , φ , ω )) (6)

radiated fields of the horn are off axis compared to those on

Once the phase function is properly unwrapped, the linear

axis. What is often not shown is the time delay required to

component can be defined as the slope of simple linear

maximize the correlation. One can plot a pattern

regression. Unlike the correlation case, one can directly use

τ(θ,φ), where τ is the value needed to maximize equation (2) S21 data without worrying about the effect of the probe

as a function of angle. antenna, as long as only the differential time delay pattern is

desired. Since the probe antenna is not rotated it only adds a

Correlation from Port-to-Port Transfer Function. A simpler constant time delay offset that is removed in a differential

but less rigorous approach to defining a time delay is to pattern referenced to the boresight direction.

driectly use S21 data from a port-to-port antenna measurement.

The boresight S21 measurement versus frequency is converted One shortcoming of the least squares approach is that a

to the time domain, either directly as an impulse response, or function that has true time delay, that is no first order

after multiplication by a theoretical frequency domain input. component in the Taylor series, can still have a non-zero

This is used as a time-domain reference waveform f0(t): slope.

function contains, by definition, no linear phase component.

At any given angle θ,φ, off-axis one then calculates For any measured transfer function we can find an associated

minimum phase function using the Bode-Hilbert relation:

2ω ln H (ω ′ ) − ln H (ω )

∞

f (t ) = F −1{S 21 (θ , φ , ω )a (ω )}

Φ m (ω ) =

(4)

π 0

dω ′ . (7)

and then finds the time-delay τ to maximize ω ′2 − ω 2

For many passive, reciprocal antennas the difference in the

f 0 (t − τ ) f (t )dt (5)

phase of the transfer function and the Bode-Hilbert derived

The flaw in this approach is that this data contains information phase is a linear function of frequency:

from both the probe antenna and the antenna under test. For Φ lin (θ , φ , ω ) = ∠H (θ , φ , ω ) − Φ m (θ , φ , ω )

the measurements reported here we used nominally identical (8)

antennas for both transmit and receive. Although this method ≈ τ (θ , φ )ω

is very different in principle from the one previously where Φ m (θ , φ , ω ) is the associated minimum phase

described, the results shown in the last section are remarkably

function. In Figure 1, the non-linear component of the phase

similar.

of the on-axis transfer function of the double-ridged horn

Differential Time Delay Pattern. The time delay associated described in [11] as computed with a least-squares linear

with the correlation computed in the manner described here phase extraction is shown. In the same figure the phase of the

will naturally be zero in the reference direction. More associated minimum phase function as computed with the

generally, when the template function is different from the Bode-Hilbert integral relationships is also presented. It can be

response in the bore-sight direction, the definition of the time seen that the least-squares linear phase extraction

delay can be generalized to a differential delay computed overestimates the linear phase.

between that required for maximization of the correlation in

the reference direction and that required for maximization of The procedure is as follows: measure the magnitude and

the correlation in another direction. phase of the antenna transfer function. From the magnitude,

compute a minimum phase function. Subtract the minimum

III. COMPUTATION OF TIME DELAY USING LINEAR PHASE phase from the measured phase. Assuming the result is a

VARIATION nearly ideal linear function of frequency (as has been the case

in our measurements), the time delay is computed as

A second approach is to find the time delay between two ∠H (θ , φ , ω ) − Φ m (θ , φ , ω )

antennas by examining the linear component of the phase τ (θ , φ ) = (9)

variation with frequency, and equating this to an equivalent

ω

time. As in the case of correlation, there are multiple ways

As in the previous methods, the difference between time

one could define and measure the "linear component." The

delays computed in this manner for an antenna’s response in

first and most straightforward method is based on a least-

the reference direction and its response in some other direction

squares fit, the second approach is based on Hilbert

provides a differential time delay pattern. This differential

transforms.

time delay pattern, like the differential time delay pattern

computed for the maximization of the correlation, will

10

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2008 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ULTRA-WIDEBAND (ICUWB2008), VOL. 1

patterns can easily be compared. When the pulse shape V. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

distortion is minimal, this time delay pattern will be very

similar to that computed by maximizing the correlation, but in In Figures 2 and 3, differential time delays as computed via

other cases it can be quite different. several different approaches from measured transfer function

200 data for the double-ridged horn described in [10] are plotted.

Measurements between two nominally identical horns were

150

made in an anechoic chamber at 1601 frequency points from

100 least squares linear phase extraction 0.01 to 20 GHz. The antenna has a frequency null slightly

Bode-Hilbert linear phase extraction

Phase (degrees)

have reduced accuracy. Below 1 GHz the ridged waveguide

0 cutoff also leads to rapidly decreasing accuracy. Therefore,

-50 truncated data was used in the calculations.

-150 different result. It is thought that the distance extracted using

the minimum phase transfer function is the most accurate, but

-200

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 the variation in the data arrived at using the different

Frequency (GHz) approaches is larger than one would expect. One reason for

Figure 1: Comparison of nonlinear phase computed using this is an unfortunate coincidence involving the truncation of

least squares extraction of linear phase and Bode-Hilbert the frequency domain data at 20 GHz and a very deep

extraction of linear phase. transmission null in the transfer function of the horn at 18.5

GHz making extrapolation of the frequency domain data

difficult.

The minimum phase transfer function involves the removal of

all of the linear phase from the transfer function. In the time Some of the differential time delay observed is simply because

domain, this is equivalent to translating the response such that the antenna is not rotated about its center. As noted in [10], the

it begins exactly at the origin; that is, would begin “center” of many practical antennas is not a uniquely defined

simultaneously with the stimulus function. Of course, in the quantity. The data here was obtained by rotating the antenna

presence of noise, it is occasionally difficult to discern about a convenient point; since the antenna does not exhibit a

precisely when the time domain response begins. Thus, the true static phase center—the phase of the radiated fields varies

linear phase extraction using the minimum phase function with angle and frequency in such a way that phase center

might be useful for providing a more accurate estimate of this defined from the curvature of the equi-phase surfaces would

time. be a function of frequency and both rotation angles. Such

behavior is typical for most broadband antennas.

IV. TIME DELAY FROM WAVEFORM FEATURES

The effective “center” of a UWB antenna has been the subject

Differential time delays can also be found from various of some discussion. In [6], a center is defined through

features on time domain waveforms, which can in turn be extrapolation of the far field amplitude decay. In [10,12], an

found from either the antenna transfer function or directly effective center is determined from the phase variation of the

from S21 data. One possible choice is the time to the first far fields with distance. Specifically, a least-squares approach

significant peak. However, this neglects the rise time and thus is employed with measured transfer function data In [13], this

the zero just prior to the first peak in the impulse response concept was carried further using Hilbert transform

could be considered to provide a better estimate of the techniques.

beginning of the time response. In the results shown here, the

S21 data on-axis and off-axis were converted to directly to

time-domain waveforms (a port-to-port impulse response). VI. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

The time to the desired feature on-axis is taken as the

The differential time delay pattern complements the

reference. Unfortunately, as can be seen in [10], the impulse

maximized correlation pattern and thus is part of the complete

response is difficult to work with due to artifacts from

description of a UWB antenna. It can be computed using

truncation and noise. Thus, the first peak and the zero just

several approaches including the time required to maximize

prior to the first peak in the step response are also considered

correlation and also from the linear phase component

as indicators of the start of the time response.

associated with the antenna transfer function. The Bode-

Hilbert integral relationships appear to be the most useful tool

for separating the transfer function phase into linear and

nonlinear components. However, when working directly with

time domain data, locating the beginning of the time domain

11

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2008 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ULTRA-WIDEBAND (ICUWB2008), VOL. 1

In the hypothetical case in which the antenna does not This work was supported in part by the TDK R&D Corp., the

distort a pulse, but rather the pattern consists of linear phase or Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, NSF MRI Grant

delay, the two time delays (that derived from the time delay 0421352, and Army Research Office Grant W911NF-06-1-

required to maximize the correlation and that computed from 0420.

the linear phase component) will be exactly the same. This is

the case when an antenna that exhibits a frequency REFERENCES

independent phase center and exhibits low distortion is rotated

about a point other than the phase center. [1] E. G. Farr and C. E. Baum, “Extending the Definitions of Antenna Gain

Finally, the use of the Bode-Hilbert integral relationships to and Radiation Pattern into the Time Domain,” Sensor and Simulation

Notes, Note SSN 350, Nov. 1992.

separate the transfer function phase into linear and nonlinear [2] D. Lamensdorf and L. Susman, “Baseband-Pulse-Antenna Techniques,”

components shows that the correlation pattern and hence the IEEE Antennas and Prop. Magazine, vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 20-30, 1994.

correlated gain can be computed from magnitude data only. [3] E. G. Farr and C. E. Baum, “Time Domain Characterization of

Antennas with TEM Feeds,” Sensor and Simulation Notes, Note 426,

October 1998.

[4] A. Sibille, “A framework for analysis of antenna effects in UWB

communications,” 2005 IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, vol. 1,

0

pp. 48-52.

[5] A. Shlivinski, E. Heyman, and R. Kastner, “Antenna characterization in

-0.02 the time domain,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. 45, no. 7, pp.

1140-1149, July 1997, see also correction in IEEE Trans. Antennas

-0.04

differential time delay (nanoseconds)

-0.06 [6] B. Scheers, M. Acheroy, A. Vander Vorst, “Time Domain simulation

and charactisation of TEM horns using a normalized impulse response,”

-0.08

IEE Proc. Microwaves, Antennas and Prop., vol. 147, No. 6, pp. 463-

-0.1 468, Dec. 2000.

Least-squares linear phase extraction: s21 [7] W. Sörgel, F. Pivit, and W. Wiesbeck, “Comparison of Frequency

-0.12 First peak of impulse resp.: s21 Domain and Time Domain Measurement Procedures for Ultra Wideband

Zero prior to first peak of impulse resp.: s21

-0.14 First peak of step resp.: s21 Antennas,” in Proc. 25th Annual Meeting and Symposium of the

Zero prior to first peak of step resp.: s21 Antenna Measurement Techniques Association (AMTA ’03), pp. 72–76,

-0.16 Bode-Hilbert linear phase extraction: s21 Irvine, Calif, USA, October 2003.

Max. correlation of impulse resp.: s21

Max. correlation of step resp.: s21 [8] J. S. McLean, H. Foltz, and R. Sutton, “Pattern Descriptors for UWB

-0.18

Max. correlation of cosine pulse: H Antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagat., vol. 53, no. 1, pp.

Max. correlation of sine pulse: H 553-559, Jan. 2005.

-0.2

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 [9] P. Miskovsky, J.M. Gonzalez-Arbesu, J. Romeu, “Application of UWB

Angle off of bore sight in E-plane (degrees) antenna Descriptors to Lossy Dipole Performance Assessment,” In Proc.

IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium 2006,

Figure 2: Differential time delay plotted as a function of pp. 175-178, 9-14 July 2006.

the angle off of bore sight in the E-plane. [10] J. S. McLean, R. Sutton, A. Medina, H. Foltz, J. Li, “The Experimental

Characterization of UWB Antennas,” IEEE Antennas and Prop.

Magazine, vol. 49, No. 6, pp. 20-30, Dec. 2007.

0.4 [11] J. S. McLean, A. Medina, R. Sutton, H. D. Foltz, Junfei Li,

“Measurements of UWB Antenna Pattern Descriptors, ” presented at the

0.2 2006 AMTA Europe Symposium, Munich, May 4, 2006.

[12] J. S. McLean, A. Medina, R. Sutton, H. D. Foltz, J. Li, “Complex

0 Antenna Transfer Function Measurements with Emphasis on High

Time delay (nanoseconds)

-0.2 Austin, TX, Oct., 16, 2006.

[13] H. Foltz, J. McLean, A. Medina, J. Li, and R. Sutton, “UWB Antenna

-0.4 Least squares linear phase extraction: s21 Transfer Functions Using Minimum Phase Functions,” in Proc. 2007

First peak of impulse resp.: s21 IEEE Int. Antennas and Propagation Symposium, Honolulu, June 2007,

Zero prior to first peak of impulse resp.: s21

-0.6 First peak of step resp. s21 pp. 1413-1416.

Zero prior to first peak of step resp.: s21 [14] H. W. Bode, Network Analysis and Feedback Amplifier Design, D. Van

-0.8 Bode-Hilbert linear phase extraction: s21 Nostrand, New York, 1945.

Max. correlation of impulse resp.: s21

Max correlation of step resp. s21

-1 Max. correlation of cosine pulse: H

Max. correlation of sine pulse: H

-1.2

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Angle off of bore sight: H-plane (degrees)

the angle off of bore sight in the H-plane.

12

- TeslaDiunggah olehmichele.siciliano4467
- CST Whitepaper Reflector Antenna SystemDiunggah olehManoj Kumar
- HW1Diunggah olehAnshu Singh
- Final Preboard Oct2017 EsatsetaDiunggah olehjj012586
- Ultra Wide Band Radio Technology (UWB)(B-TECH SEMINAR REPORT)Diunggah olehv2brother
- Board Exam REVIEW 'pe kt'e['e'jetre't 'jt rt ej' etjeltdnfg;leqtDiunggah olehGMyuan
- ThesisDiunggah olehIlanchezhian Kaliaperumal
- HW2 SolutionDiunggah olehopelbro
- Compact UWB Wearable Antenna With Improved Bandwidth and Low SAR_1Diunggah olehWaddah Abdo
- Appendix C - IndexDiunggah olehvka_prince
- 20111103 WiFi Point to Point Overview and Installation Guidline-Rev1.1Diunggah olehLyman Mubukani
- 232-241Diunggah olehcapri_53
- 06327341Diunggah olehPECMURUGAN
- Simulink4Controlnew2008_1pageDiunggah olehBambang Hidayat Noegroho
- Directional Patch Antenna Array Design for Desktop Wireless InterDiunggah olehwearole
- 2014 SWJ Circularly Polarized S Band Dual Frequency Square Patch Antenna Using Glass Microfiber Reinforced PTFE CompositeDiunggah olehMd.Samsuzzaman Sobuz
- BTEL Radio Transmission ATP Form v1.6.xlsDiunggah olehsupriadi suhari
- Design of a rectangular Patch antennaDiunggah olehInternational Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
- spectrum.pdfDiunggah olehJuanIgnacio
- Design of Triband Miniature Microstrip Antenna with Modified Resonating Structure using CADFEKODiunggah olehIJSRP ORG
- A 3.1–10.6 GHz Ultra-Wideband Low Noise.pdfDiunggah olehAbhay Yadav
- Underground Mine CommunicationsDiunggah olehDimas Torres Preciado
- booktext_00Diunggah olehAlagu Murugesan
- ijma04252013Diunggah olehSudesh
- 10.12022507.pdfDiunggah olehiccwcs
- LKJ Wednesday Night SpecialDiunggah olehAnonymous YDF1ID15zJ
- Mallesh AntennaDiunggah olehJainuddin Sh
- Build a Radio Telescope at HomeDiunggah olehAnonymous YDF1ID15zJ
- A TRIPLE RECTANGULAR-SLOTTED MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA FOR WLAN & WIMAX APPLICATIONSDiunggah olehjantjournal
- 10 1512724870_08-12-2017.pdfDiunggah olehAnonymous lPvvgiQjR

- Weighing Balance Service ManualDiunggah olehrestor3d
- ec037Diunggah olehtepepark
- Circuit Theory of Linear Noisy Networks Haus and AdlerDiunggah olehyaseenzaidi5117
- Implementation of LQR Mapped Sensory Fuzzed Fuzzy Logic Controller on Inverted Pendulum SystemDiunggah olehijsret
- E317.8691Diunggah olehDaniel Lvqve Garcia
- 5_1c-Control Valve CharacteristicDiunggah olehSolehah Omar
- Capacitive Sensor Operation and OptimizationDiunggah olehcorneliusflavius7132
- InTech-Analytical Method ValidationDiunggah olehIordache Sorin
- MLX91205 DatasheetDiunggah olehadsfadfadsf
- 02 01 ODEs Slides PresentationDiunggah olehXavimVXS
- Lecture 1Diunggah olehBrij Mohan Singh
- Piston Variable 0-10vDiunggah olehBrayan Peralta
- Standard Guide for Evaluating, Selecting and Specifying Balances and Standard Masses for Use in Soil, Rock, And Construction Materials TestingDiunggah olehWillard Apeng
- Um 66Diunggah olehNikhil Jain
- OCW SKN3022 Instrumentation Ch 3Diunggah olehramajax
- Articulo 3Diunggah olehAndres Felipe Saldarriaga Becerra
- ModelingDiunggah olehtatodc7
- Readings_in_Mathematical_Psychology_v1_1000003886.pdfDiunggah olehjurebie
- Polynomial RegressionDiunggah olehNgabirano B. Julius
- Datasheet 30 INCH D 4VDiunggah olehJoseba Rodriguez
- Control Valve CharacteristicsDiunggah olehPaul Daher
- Prediction of Energy Performance of Residential Buildings a Genetic Programming ApproachDiunggah olehFateme Naseri
- Formulation lp 3423Diunggah olehmazin903
- Vibro SeisDiunggah olehprouserdesigner77
- Cat WireSENSOR EnDiunggah olehAlessandroAleotti
- Manual 42Diunggah olehJean Mörbius
- 5. Sensors Selection CriteriaDiunggah olehMurali Siddarth
- calibDiunggah olehZhanXiang Lee
- Baumer Catalog-Induktiv CT en 1302 11102284Diunggah olehgauharaftab
- Applications in Ch4Diunggah olehkalite123

## Lebih dari sekadar dokumen.

Temukan segala yang ditawarkan Scribd, termasuk buku dan buku audio dari penerbit-penerbit terkemuka.

Batalkan kapan saja.