Anda di halaman 1dari 77

1.

Verification of Kirchhoff s Voltage and Kirchhoffs Current Law


AIM: To verify the Kirchhoffs Voltage Law and Kirchhoffs Current Law for a given circuit.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:Sl.

Name of the Component

Specifications

Quantity

Resistors

1.1K, 2.2K & 3.3K

1 each

Bread Board

D.R.P.S.

(0-30) V

Ammeters

(0-200)mA

5
6

Voltmeters
Connecting wires

(0-30)V
Single strand

3
Required

No.

THEORY:KCL: This law states that the algebraic sum of currents meeting at a junction of conductors is zero. In
other words, the sum of currents flowing away from a junction is equal to the sum of currents flowing
towards the junction.
Kirchhoffs current law is nothing more than a restatement of principle of conservation of
charge. Since the amount of charge entering a junction at an instant must be same as the amount of
charge leaving the junction.
KVL: This law states that any time instant the algebraic sum of voltages around a closed circuit or a
loop is zero. That is, for a closed circuit having k elements,

K
Vj=0
j=0
Where Vj represents the voltage drop across the j th element.
V1+V2+V3+.Vk = 0

This statement simply tells us that if we start from a particular junction and go around a closed
circuit so as to come back to the same junction, the net potential drop (or potential rise) is zero,
because we have come back to the point at the same potential.
Kirchhoffs Voltage Law can also be stated as in any closed circuit the algebraic sum of the
products of current and resistance in each of the conductors is equal to the algebraic sum of the emfs
of the batteries
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE FOR KCL:1. Connect the circuit as per the figure shown above.
2. Adjust the input voltage as 10 volts, and switch on the supply.
3. Measure the current flowing through R1, R2, R3 resistors using Ammeters i.e., IT, I1 & I2.
4. Tabulate the readings in the tabular column.
5. Verify that the IT = I1 + I2.
6. Repeat the procedure for different voltage values, and then switch off the supply.
7. Compare the values Practical to Theoretical.
PROCEDURE FOR KVL:1. Connect the circuit as per the figure shown above.
2. Adjust the input voltage as 10 volts, and switch on the supply.
3. Note the reading of ammeter & voltmeters, i.e., I, V1, V2 &V3 from the voltmeters.
4. Tabulate the readings in the tabular column.
5. Verify that the V1 = V2 + V3.
6. Repeat the procedure for different voltage values, and then switch off the supply.
7. Compare the values Practical to Theoretical.
THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS:For KCL:

Req = (R2 R3) + R1


Ieq = V1 / Req

I1 = Ieq * R3/ (R2+R3)


I2 = Ieq * R2/ (R2+R3)
For KVL:
For measuring Voltage V2 across R1

Req = (R1+R2)

Ieq = V / Req
V2 = V * R1 / (R1 + R2) or V1=I*R1
V3 = V * R2 / (R1 + R2) or V2=I*R2

TABULAR COLUMNS:
For KCL:
S.No

V1(volts)

IT(mA)

IT(mA)

I1(mA)

I1(mA)

I2(mA)

I2(mA)

theoretical

practical

theoretical

practical

theoretical

practical

V1(volts)

V1(volts)

V2(volts)

V2(volts)

V3(volts)

V3(volts)

theoretical

Practical

theoretical

practical

theoretical

practical

For KVL:
S.No

I(mA)

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS:
1. Reading must be taken without parallax error.

2. Measuring instruments must be connected properly & should be free from errors.
3. All connections should be free from loose contacts.
4. The direction of currents should be identified correctly.

RESULT:
4

VIVA VOCE QUESTIONS:


1. What is KCL? Define with respect to node.
2. What is KVL? Define with respect to loop.
3. On which principle KCL works?
4. On which principle KVL works?
5. What is equivalent resistance when three resistors are connected in series?
6. What is equivalent resistance when three resistors are connected in parallel?
7. Explain voltage division principle?
8. Explain current division principle?
9. What is equivalent resistance when converted from star to delta network?
10. What is equivalent resistance when converted from delta to star network?

2. SERIES AND PARALLEL RESONANCE


AIM: - To find the resonant frequency, quality factor, and band width of a series and parallel resonant
circuit.
6

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Equipment

Range

Type

Quantity

Signal generator
Decade resistance box
Decade inductance box
Decade capacitance box
Ammeter
Connecting wires

THEORY:
In a series RLC circuit. The current lags behind or leads the applied voltage depending upon the
values of XL and Xc. XL causes the total current to lag behind the applied voltage while Xc causes the
total current to lead the applied voltage. When XL > Xc the circuit is predominantly inductive, and
when XL < Xc the circuit is predominantly capacitive.
In the series RLC circuit resonance may be produced by varying the frequency keeping L and C
constant. Otherwise resonance may be produced by varying either L or C for fixed frequency .Parallel
resonance occurs when XL = Xc. when XL = Xc the two branch currents are equal in magnitude and
180 deg out of phase with each other .Hence two currents cancel each other and net current is zero.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
Series Resonance

Parallel resonance:

PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in fig.1 for series resonant circuit & fig.2 for parallel resonant
circuit.
2. Set the voltage of the signal from function generator to 5V.
3. Vary the frequency of the signal from 100 Hz to 1KHz in steps and note down the
corresponding ammeter readings.
4. Observe that the current first increases & then decreases in case of series resonant circuit & the
value of frequency corresponding to maximum current is equal to resonant frequency.
5. Observe that the current first decreases & then increases in case of parallel resonant circuit &
the value of frequency corresponding to minimum current is equal to resonant frequency.
6. Draw a graph between frequency and current & calculate the values of bandwidth & quality
factor.
TABULAR COLUMN:

S.No.

Series Resonance
Current(mA)
Frequency(Hz)

Parallel Resonance
Current(mA)
Frequency(Hz
)

MODEL GRAPHS:

FORMULAE:
Series Resonance:
Resonant Frequency (fr) = 1/(2LC)
Lower cut off frequency (f1) = fr-R/4L
Upper cut off frequency (f2) = fr+R/4L

Quality factor Qr = rL/R = 1/rRC


Band Width = f2-f1 = R/2L
Parallel Resonance:
Resonant Frequency (fr) = 1/(2LC)
Lower cut off frequency (f1) =fr-1/4RC
1 = (-1/2RC) +((1/2RC)2 + (1/LC))
Upper cut off frequency (f2) = fr+1/4RC
2 = (1/2RC) +((1/2RC)2 + (1/LC))
Quality factor Qr = rCR = fr/B.W
Band Width = f2-f1 = 1/2RC
PRECAUTIONS:
1. Avoid making loose connections.
2. Readings should be taken carefully without parallax error.
3. Avoid series connection of voltmeters and parallel connection ammeters.
RESULT:-

3. DETERMINATION OF TWO PORT


10

NETWORK PARAMETERS
AIM: To determine Z and Y parameters of a given two port Network.
APPARATUS:
Sl.
No.
1

Name of the Component

Specifications

Quantity

Two Port network Parameters

trainer kit
D.R.P.S.

(0-30) V

Ammeters

(0-200)mA

Connecting wires

Single strand

Required

THEORY:
A network containing two pairs of terminals is called as two port network. Normally one pair
of terminals coming together to supply power or to withdraw power or to measure the parameters, are
called as port. To achieve simplicity, the whole network is shown with a single block. A typical two
port network is as shown below in fig (a)

OPEN CIRCUIT IMPEDANCE PARAMETERS (Z-parameters):


Z-parameters can be defined by the following equations
V1 = Z11 I1 + Z12 I2 (1)
11

V2 = Z21 I1 + Z22 I2 (2)


Matrix form:

If port 2-21 is open circuited, i.e. I2 = 0 then Z11 = V1/I1 & Z21 = V2/I1
If port 1-11 is open circuited, i.e. I1 = 0, then Z12 = V1/I2 & Z22 = V2/I2.
Here,
Z11 is the driving point impedance at port 1-11 with 2-21 open circuited. It can
also be called as open circuit input impedance.
Z21 is the transfer impedance at port 1-11 with 2-21 open circuited. It can also be
called as open circuit forward transfer impedance.
Z12 is the transfer impedance at port 2-21 with 1-11 open circuited. It can also be
called as open circuit reverse transfer impedance and
Z22 is the driving point impedance at port 2-21 with 1-11 open circuited. It can also
be called as open circuit output impedance.
Z-parameter representation for a two port network, shown above, will be as shown below in fig(b).

Network is
a) Reciprocal then V1/I2 (where I1 = 0) = V2/I1 (where I2 = 0) i.e. Z12 = Z21
b) Symmetrical then V1/I1 (where I2 = 0) = V2/I2 (where I1 = 0) i.e. Z11 = Z22
SHORT CIRCUIT ADMITTANCE PARAMETERS (Y-parameters):
Y-parameters can be defined by the following equations
I1 = Y11 V1 + Y12 V2 . (1)
12

I2 = Y21 V1 + Y22 V2 . (2)


In matrix form

If port 2-21 is short circuited, i.e. V2 = 0 then Y11 = I1/V1 & Y21 = I2/V1
If port 1-11 is short circuited, i.e. V1 = 0 then Y12 = I1/V2 & Y22 = I2/V2
Here, Y11 is the short circuit driving point admittance at port 1-11 with 2-21 short circuited. It
will also be called as short circuit input admittance.
Y21 is the Transfer admittance at port 1-11 with 2-21 short circuited. It will also be called as
short circuit forward transfer admittance.
Y12 is the Transfer admittance at port 2-21 with 1-11 short circuited. It will also be called as
short circuit reverse transfer admittance and
Y22 is the driving point admittance at port 2-21 with 1-11 short circuited. It can also be called
as short circuit output admittance.
Y-parameter representation for a two port network, shown above, will be as shown below fig(c).

If the network is
a) Reciprocal then I2/V1 (where V2 = 0) = I1/V2 (where V1 = 0) i.e. Y21 = Y12
b) Symmetrical then I1/ V1 (where V2 = 0) = I2/ V2 (where V1 = 0) i.e. Y11 = Y22
CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:

13

For Z-Parameters:

For Y-Parameters:
14

THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS:

PROCEDURE:
15

For Z-Parameters:
1) Connect the circuit as per fig.1
2) Keep the port 2 terminals (C&D) open, then (I2=0).
3) Set desired voltage on V1, between terminals A&B
4) Measure V2 between terminal C&D and I1, Then tabulate V1, V2, I1.
5) Now open the Port1.terminals (A&B), Connect desired voltage to port 2(C&D) terminals, (I1=0) as
shown in fig.2 then measure V2, V1, I2.
For Y-Parameters
1) Connect the circuit as per fig.3, connect desired voltage at port1 (A&B). Then short port2. (C&D)
Note the values of I1, I2, V1.
2) Connect any desired voltage at port2. (C&D) and short port1 (A&B) as shown in fig.4
3) Then note the values of V2, I1 and I2.
TABULATION:
For Z-parameters: When I2=0
S.No
1
2
3
4

V1(V)

I1(mA)

V2(V)

Z11()

Z21()

V1(V)

V2(V)

I2(mA)

Z12()

Z22()

V1(V)

I1(mA)

I2(mA)

Y11()

Y21()

When I1=0
S.No
1
2
3
4

For Y-parameters:
When V2=0
S.No
1

16

2
3
4
When V1= 0
S.No
1
2
3
4

I1(mA)

I2(mA)

V2(V)

Y12()

Y22()

CONCLUSION:

Z11()
theoretical

Z11()
Practica
l

Z12()
theoretical

Z12()
Practica
l

Z22()

Z22()

Z21()

Z21()

theoretical

Practical

theoretical

Practical

Y11()

Y11()

Y12()

Y12()

Y22()

Y22()

Y21()

Y21()

theoretical

Practical

theoretical

Practical

theoretical

Practical

theoretical

Practical

PRECAUTIONS:1. Avoid loose connections.


2. Readings should be taken carefully without parallax error.
3. Get your connected circuit checked by staff member.
RESULT:-

17

VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. What do you mean by a 2-port network?
2. What are impedance, admittance and immittance?
3. What is driving point impedance?
4. What is driving point admittance?
5. What is driving point immittance?
6. Write equations for Z-parameter.
7. Write equations for Y-parameter.
8. What is the relationship between Z- and Y- parameter?
9. What is the condition for reciprocity for a network?
10. What is the condition for symmetry for a network?

4. DETERMINATION OF TWO PORT


NETWORK PARAMETERS
AIM: To determine h and ABCD parameters of a given two port Network.
APPARATUS:

18

S. No.
1

Name of the Component

Specifications

Quantity

Two Port network Parameters

trainer kit
D.R.P.S.

(0-30) V

Ammeters

(0-200)mA

Connecting wires

Single strand

Required

THEORY:
A network containing two pairs of terminals is called as two port network. Normally one pair
of terminals coming together to supply power or to withdraw power or to measure the parameters, are
called as port. To achieve simplicity, the whole network is shown with a single block. A typical two
port network is as shown below in fig (a)

Hybrid Parameters (h-Parameters):


h-parameters can be defined by the following equations
V1 = h11 I1 + h12 V2 . (1)
I2 = h21 I1 + h22 V2 . (2)
In matrix form

If port 2-21 is short circuited, i.e. V2 = 0 then


19

h11 = V1/I1 & h21 = I2/I1


h11 is called input impedance and h21 is called forward current gain.
If port 1-11 is open circuited, i.e., I1=0 then
h12 = V1/V2 & h22 = I2/V2
h22 is called output admittance and h12 is called reverse voltage gain.
h-parameter representation for a two port network, shown above, will be as shown below fig(d).

ABCD Parameters:
ABCD parameters can be defined by the following equations
V1 = A V2 + B (-I2) . (1)
I1 = C V2 + D (-I2). (2)
ABCD parameters can be written in matrix form as

20

If port 2-21 is open circuited i.e., I2=0 then A = V1/V2 & C = I1/V2
A is called reverse voltage ratio and C is known as transfer admittance.
If port 2-21 is short circuited i.e., V2=0 then B = V1/ (-I2) & D = I1/ (-I2)
B is called transfer impedance and D is called reverse current ratio.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:

For Transpose parameters:

For h parameters:

21

THEORETICAL CALCULATINS:

PROCEDURE:
1. To find A and C Parameters (I2 = 0): Connections are made as per the circuit diagram shown in
fig (1). Output terminals are kept Open via a voltmeter. Supply is given to input port. Note the
readings of ammeter as V1 and Voltmeter as V2.
2. To find B and D Parameters (V2 = 0): Connections are made as per the circuit diagram shown in
fig (2). Output terminals are short circuited via an ammeter. Supply is given to input port. Note
the readings of ammeters as I1 and V2.

22

3. To find h11 and h21 (V2 = 0): Connections are made as per the circuit diagram shown in fig (3).
Output terminals are short circuited via an ammeter. Supply is given to input port. Note the
readings of ammeters as I1 and V1.
4. To find h12 and h22 (I1 = 0): Connections are made as per the circuit diagram shown in fig
(4).Input terminals current is zero. Supply is given to input port. Note the readings of ammeters
as I1, V1 and I2.
5. ABCD, Hybrid parameters using formulae and verify them with theoretical values.
TABULAR COLUMNS:
For h-parameters: When V2=0
S.No
1
2
3
4

V1(V)

I1(mA)

I2(mA)

h11

h21

V1(V)

V2(V)

I2(mA)

h12

h22

V1(V)

I1(mA)

V2(V)

V1(V)

I1(mA)

I2(mA)

When I1=0
S.No
1
2
3
4

For Transmission-parameters:
When I2=0
S.No
1
2
3
4
When V2=0
S.No
1
2

23

3
4
CONCLUSION:
h11

h11

theoretical

Practical

h12

h12

theoretica

Practica

h22

h22

h21

h21

theoretical

Practical

theoretical

Practical

theoretical

Practical

theoretical

Practical

theoretical

Practical

theoretical

Practical

PRECAUTIONS:1. Avoid loose connections.


2. Readings should be taken carefully without parallax error.
3. Get your connected circuit checked by staff member.
RESULT:-

VIVA VOCE QUESTIONS:


1. What do you mean by a 2-port network?
2. What are impedance, admittance and immittance?
3. What is input impedance?
4. What is forward current gain?
24

5. What is output admittance?


6. What is reverse voltage gain
7. Write equations for h-parameter.
8. Write equations for Transmission-parameter.
9. What is the condition for reciprocity for h-parameter network?
10. What is the condition for reciprocity for ABCD parameter network?
11. What is the condition for symmetry for h-parameter network?
12. What is the condition for symmetry for ABCD parameter network?

25

5. VERIFICATION OF SUPERPOSITION AND RECIPROCITY


THEOREMS
AIM: - To verify Superposition and Reciprocity theorems.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S. No.
1

Name of the Component


Super position & Reciprocity

theorems trainer kit


D.R.P.S.

Ammeters

Connecting wires

THEORY: -

26

Specifications

Quantity

(0-30) V
(0-50) mA

1
1

(0-200)mA
Single strand

1
Required

I.

Superposition Theorem Statement:

In a linear network with several independent sources which include equivalent sources due to
initial conditions and linear dependent sources, the overall response in any part of the network is
equal to the sum of the individual responses due to each independent source, considered
separately, with all other independent sources reduced to zero.
Note: 1. the sources which are considered one at a time making all other sources zero, are the
independent sources including sources due to initial conditions only. The dependent sources are
retained as they are in the network.
2. When one independent source is considered & all other independent sources are reduced to zero
means that all the other independent voltage source are replaced with short circuit and all the other
independent current sources are replaced with open circuit. If the sources contain internal impedances,
that sources are replaced by their internal impedances.
II.

Reciprocity Theorem Statement:

The Reciprocity theorem states that the ratio of response to excitation is invariant to an
interchange of the position of the excitation and response in a single source network. However if
the excitation is a voltage source, the response should be a current and vice versa.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS: Superposition Theorem:

27

Reciprocity Theorem

28

PROCEDURE:
Superposition Theorem:
1. Connect V1, V2 as shown in Fig 1-a.
2. For different V1 and V2 values note the D.C. ammeter (0 50 mA) reading as I
3. Replace V2 with a short circuit as shown in Fig 1-b and read the ammeter reading as I1 for
corresponding values of V1
4. Replace V1 with a short circuit as shown in Fig 1-c and connect V2 in the circuit and read
I2 for corresponding values of V2.
5. I = I1 + I2.
6. Verify the practical values by comparing theoretical values.
Reciprocity Theorem:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig 1-d.
2. Apply some voltage Vs
3. Note down the ammeter (0 200 mA) reading as I1
4. Inter change ammeter and voltage source as shown in Fig 1-e. and read the ammeter reading as
I2
5. Repeat the above procedure for different values or Vs and tabulate the values.
29

6. Observe that whether I1 should be equal to I2 or not.


THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS:
Superposition Theorem

Reciprocity Theorem

OBSERVATION TABLES:
(A) Superposition Theorem:
S.No

Input Voltage
V1
V2
(volts)

I1 (mA)

I2 (mA)

I(mA)

I1 (mA)

I2 (mA)

I (mA)

Theoretical

Theoretical

Theoretical

Practical

Practical

Practical

(volts)

30

(B) Reciprocity Theorem


For I1
S.No

VIN V (volts)

I1 (mA)Theoretical

VIN V(volts)

I2 (mA) Theoretical

I1 (mA)Practical

For I2
S.No.

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Connect the circuit elements as per the circuit diagram
2. Avoid loose connections of the circuit elements
3. Take the readings carefully and accurately
4. Do not tamper the circuit elements.
RESULT:

VIVA VOCE QUESTIONS:


1. What is linear element?
31

I2 (mA) Practical

2. What is a bilateral element?


3. What is KCL?
4. What is KVL?
5. What is the difference between a circuit and a network?
6. State Superposition Theorem.
7. State Reciprocity Theorem.
8. What do you mean by equivalent resistance of a network?
9. What is the action performed by a short circuited voltage source in SPT verification?
10. If the network contains an independent current source how would you deactivate it while
verifying the SPT?

6.MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER THEOREM


AIM: To verify maximum power transfer theorem.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1. Maximum power transfer theorem trainer kit.
2. Ammeter (0-200mA) and volt meter (0-50) V.
3. Connecting wires.

THEORY:
Statement:
DC Circuit:
The maximum power transfer theorem states that maximum power is delivered from a source
resistance to a load resistance when the load resistance is equal to source resistance.
Rs = RL is the condition required for maximum power transfer.
AC Circuit:
The maximum power transfer theorem states that maximum power is delivered from a source
impedance to load impedance when the load impedance is equal to the complex conjugate of the
source impedance.

32

The maximum power transfer theorem states that maximum power is delivered from a source
impedance to load resistance when the load resistance is equal to the magnitude of the source
impedance.

33

The maximum power transferred when Rs =RL is Pmax = V2th / 4RL.


CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

34

PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure 3 (a) and apply a constant source voltage of 5V .
2. Connect the voltmeter and ammeter as shown in figure.
3. By changing the load resistance in steps and note the ammeter and volt meter readings and
calculate power P=VL*IL
4. Plot the graph by taking resistance on X axis and power on Y axis
5. Observe that the maximum power drawn by the load resistor RL should be equal to Rs.
THEORATICAL CALCULATIONS:

EXPECTED GRAPH:

35

OBSERVATIONS:
S.No

VIN V (volts)

Load Resistance RL( )

Load Current IL (mA )

For Rth or Rs
S.No.

Rth or Rs

Rth or Rs

Theoretical

Theoretical

PREACAUTIONS:
1. Connect the circuit elements as per the circuit diagram
2. Avoid loose connections of the circuit elements
3. Take the readings carefully and accurately
4. Do not tamper the circuit elements.
RESULT:

36

Load Power
PL = I2 RLwatts

VIVA VOCE QUESTIONS:


1. State Maximum Power Transfer Theorem.
2. What is power?
3. What is the relationship between power and energy?
4. What is the difference between a DC and a AC voltage source?
5. What is current?
6. What is voltage or potential difference?
7. In what form energy is stored in an inductor and a capacitor?
8. Under what condition the source transfers maximum energy to the load?
9. What do you mean by network analysis?
10. What do you mean by network synthesis?

37

7.VERFICATION OF THEVENINS & NORTONS THEOREMS


38

AIM: To verify Thevenins & Nortons theorems for the given circuit.
APPARATUS:
S.No.
1

Name of the Component


Thevenins & Nortons

theorems trainer kit


D.R.P.S.

Ammeters

Connecting wires

Specifications

Quantity

(0-30) V
(0-50) mA

1
1

(0-200)mA
Single strand

1
Required

THEORY:I) Thevenins Theorem Statement:


Any combination of linear bilateral circuit elements and active sources, regardless of the
connection or complexity, connected to a given load RL, may be replaced by a simple two
terminal network consisting of a single voltage source of Vth volts and single resistance Rth in
series with the voltage source, across the two terminals of the load RL . The Vth is the open circuit
voltage measured at the two terminals of interest, with load resistance RL removed. This voltage
is also called Thevenins equivalent voltage. The Rth is the Thevenins equivalent resistance of the
given network as viewed through the open terminals with RL removed and all the active sources
are replaced by their internal resistances. If the internal resistances are not
known then independent voltage sources are to be replaced by the short circuit while the
independent current sources must be replaced by open circuit.

39

II) Nortons Theorem Statement:


Any combination of linear bilateral circuit elements and active sources, regardless of the
connection or complexity, connected to a given load RL, can be replaced by a simple two terminal
network, consisting of a single current source of IN amperes and a single resistance RN in parallel
with it, across the two terminals of the RL. The IN is the short circuit current flowing through the
short circuited path, replaced instead of RL. It is also called Nortons current. The RN is the
equivalent resistance of the given network as viewed through the load terminals, with R L
removed and all the active sources are replaced by their internal resistances. If the internal
resistances are unknown then the independent voltage sources must be replaced by short circuit

40

while the independent current sources must be replaced by open circuit.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
For Thevenins Circuit:

To Find Vth:

41

To Find Rth:

To find Nortons Current:

To find Nortons Resistance:

42

THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS:

PROCEDURE:
For Thevenins theorem:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Apply the DC voltage 10V from RPS. (i.e., at AB side)
3. Note down the Load current (IL) from Ammeter.
4. Now remove Load Resistor (RL) & connect a Voltmeter between CD, and measure the Voltage (i.e.
Vth)
5. Remove the Supply from AB & short the terminals.
6. Also remove the voltmeter, measure the Resistance at CD with the help of Digital Multi Meter (i.e.,
Rth)

43

7. After getting the Vth & Rth ,Now make a circuit as applying Vth voltage and connecting Rth &
keeping Load resistance (RL) as it is in the original circuit and measure load current ((IL) through (RL)
by connecting a DMM or ammeter in series with (RL).
8. Compare IL, & IL theoretical and observe that the both readings are equal.
9. Repeat the procedure at different voltage levels.
For Nortons Theorem:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Apply the DC voltage 10V from RPS. (i.e., at AB side)
3. Note down the Load current (IL) from Ammeter.
4. Now remove Load Resistor (RL) & connect an ammeter between CD, and measure the current (i.e.,
IN)
5. Remove the Supply from AB & short.
6. Also remove the Ammeter, measure the Resistance at CD with the help of DMM (i.e., RN)
7. After getting the IN & RN ,Now make a circuit as applying IN Current source and connecting RN in
parallel to current source & keeping Load resistance (RL) as it is in the original circuit and measure
load current ((IL) through (RL) by connecting a DMM or ammeter in series with (RL).
8. Compare IL practical & IL theoretical and observe that the both readings are equal
9. In case of Current source not available, give equivalent DC Supply voltage (i.e., IN * RN)

For Vth and IL:


Input Voltage

Vth (volts)

Vth (volts)

IL (mA)

IL (mA)

V (volts)

Theoretical

Practical

Theoretical

Practical

S.No

For Rth & RN:


44

S.No.

Rth & RN

Rth & RN

Theoretical

practically

For IN:
S.No

Input Voltage

IN (amps)

IN (amps)

IL (amps)

IL (amps)

V (volts)

Theoretical

Practical

Theoretical

Practical

PRECAUTIONS:
1 Reading must be taken without parallax error.
2. Measuring instruments must be handled properly.
3. All connections should be free from loose contacts
RESULT:

VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. State Thevenins Theorem.
2. What is the condition for reciprocity for a network?
3. What is an independent voltage source?
4. What is an independent current source?
5. Draw the symbols of all the dependent current and voltage sources.
6. What is Thevenins voltage?
45

7. What is Nortons current?


8. Write Ohms law.
9. Write the expression for the voltage and current through an inductor.
10. Write the expression for the voltage and current through the capacitor.

46

8.Magnetization Characteristics of a D.C. Shunt Generator


AIM: To draw the O.C.C. and to find the critical resistance (Rc) of a dc shunt generator.
NAME PLATE DETAILS:
Motor

Generator

Power

HP

Power

KW

Armature voltage

volts

Armature voltage

volts

Armature current

amps

Armature current

amps

47

Field voltage

volts

Field voltage

volts

Field current

amps

Field current

amps

Speed

rpm

Speed

rpm

APPARATUS:

S.No.

Name

Range

DC Voltmeter

(0-300)V

DC Ammeter

(0-2)A

Tacho Meter

(0-2000)rpm

Rheostats

Type
3 digital panel
mount
3 digital panel
mount

360 Ohms/1.7
amps

Quantity
01
01

digital

01

02

THEORY:
Magnetization Curve:
The graph between the field current and generated voltage in armature when
load is not connected is called the magnetization characteristic of the machine. This is same as B-H
curve of the material used for the pole construction. In a d.c. generator, for any given speed, the
induced emf in the armature is directly proportional to the flux per pole.
Eg =

ZN
60

Where is the flux per pole in webers,


Z is the no. of conductors in the armature,
N is the speed of the shaft in rpm.
P is the no. of poles and
A is the no. of parallel paths.
48

P
A

A = 2 (wave) and A = P (lap)


Open circuit characteristics:
The armature is driven at a constant speed and the field current is increased gradually from
zero to its rated value. The terminal voltage (V L) at no-load condition is measured at different I f values.
The graph VL ~ If is called open-circuit characteristic. VL differs from Eg due to (a) Armature reaction
voltage drop in the armature circuit. I a is very small at no-load condition so these effects are negligible.
Hence VL = Eg at no-load condition. Thus, the open circuit characteristic is same as magnetization
curve.
Critical Field Resistance (RC):
Critical Field Resistance is defined as the maximum field circuit resistance at which the
shunt generator would just excite at any given speed. At this value the generator will just excites. If
the field circuit resistance is increased beyond this value, the generator will fail to excite. It is the
initial slope value of the O.C.C. curve in the linear region (AB) passing through the origin. If the field
circuit resistance (Rf) is increased to RC, the machine fail to excite and no e.m.f. is induced in the
generator. For exiting the generator Rf < RC.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

49

PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in the fig.
2. Set the motor field rheostat in minimum resistance position and generator field rheostat in
maximum position.
3. Switch on the supply and start the motor with the help of the starter. Adjust the speed of the
motor generator set to the rated speed by controlling the motor field resistance. The set speed is
to be maintained constant throughout the experiment with the help of motor field rheostat.
4. Note down the voltmeter reading at zero field current (l f). Increase the field current l f uniformly
in steps by changing the generator field rheostat upto rated voltage of generator, simultaneously
note down the field current (lf) and terminal voltage (E) across the generator armature
terminals.
5. Continue the experiment till saturation of the field is reached.
6. Draw the graph between generated voltage(E) Vs field current(I f), and draw a tangent to
magnetization curve from origin, it will touch the curve at a point which is taken as critical
resistance

50

OBSERVATION TABLE:
S.No.

If (amps)

MODEL GRAPH:

As shown in the Graph:


OA: is the voltage induced due to residual magnetism.
B: Linear region such that Eg If
C: saturation region

51

Eg (volts )

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Loose Connections should be avoided.
2. Circuit connections should not be make while power is ON
3. Readings of the meters must be taken without parallax error.
RESULT:

VIVA VOCE QUESTIONS:


1. Why the speed maintained constant during the experiment?
2. What is residual magnetism?
3. Define critical resistance?
4. Define critical speed?
5. How do you determine critical resistance with the help of O.C.C.?
6. Explain magnetization curve?
7. How do you determine critical speed graphically?
8. What is residual voltage?
9. How does the speed of a prime mover affect the generator characteristics?
10. How you classify the parts of a D.C generator?

52

9.SWINBURNES TEST

53

AIM: To pre-determine the efficiency of a D.C. shunt machine considering it as a generator and as a
motor by performing Swinburnes test.
NAME PLATEDETAILS:
D.C. Shunt Motor
Power

KW

Speed

rpm

Armature voltage

volts

Field voltage

volts

Armature current

amps

Field current

amps

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No.

Name

Range

DC Voltmeter

(0-300)V

DC Ammeter

(0-2)A

DC Ammeter

(0-20)A

4
5

Tacho Meter
Rheostats

Type
3 digit panel
mounted
3 digit panel
mounted
3 digit panel
mounted

Quantity.
02
01
01

(0-2000)rpm

Digital

01

360 Ohms/1.7 amps

02

THEORY:
This is an indirect test and is applicable only to shunt or compound machine where the field
flux is held fairly constant. The machine is run on no-load. The input current, armature current and the
54

supply voltage are measured while the motor runs at rated speed. The armature and field resistance are
determined with the help of ammeter and volt meter methods.
Losses in a DC machine:
The losses in a D.C. machine can be divided as (1) Constant losses (2) Variable losses, which
change with the load.
Constant losses:
Mechanical Losses: Friction and Windage losses are called mechanical losses. They depend upon the
speed. A dc shunt machine is basically a constant speed machine while working as a generator or
motor. Hence, the mechanical losses are constant.
Iron Losses: For a dc shunt machine, the field current hence the flux per pole is constant (Neglecting
the armature reaction which reduces the net flux in the air gap). Hence, hysteresis and eddy
current losses (which are also called as iron losses) remain constant.
Field Copper Losses: Under normal operating conditions, the field current of a D.C. shunt machine is
remains constant. Thus, power received by the field circuit (which is consumed as field copper losses)
is constant.
Constant losses in a dc shunt machine=Mechanical losses + Iron losses + Field Cu. Losses.
Variable Losses: The power lost in the armature circuit of a dc machine increases with the increase in
load. Thus, the armature copper losses are called as variable losses.
Armature Copper loss

= Ia2 Ra Watts

Where Ia is the current in the armature.


SAMPLE CALCULATIONS:
Armature copper losses= Ia2 Ra Watts
Filed copper losses=Ish2Rsh Watts
Armature input=Va Ia
Mechanical losses + iron losses = Armature input Armature copper losses.
Total constant losses= (Mechanical losses + iron losses) + field copper losses
Efficiency of a motor:
Let us assume that the current drawn by the armature = Ia
Machine operates as a motor line current IL = Ia + Ish
55

Input to the motor = input to the armature + input to the field=V IL


Total losses = Total constant losses + armature copper losses
Output = Input Total losses
Output
Efficiency m =

x 100
Input

Efficiency of a generator:
Let us assume that the current delivered by the armature = Ia
When the machine operates as a generator load current IL = Ia-Ish
Output Power =V IL
Total losses = Total constant losses + armature copper losses
Input = Output + Total losses
Output
Efficiency g =

x 100
Input

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE:

56

1. Make the connections as shown in figure.


2. Set the motor field rheostat in minimum resistance position and armature rheostat in
maximum resistance position.
3. Start the motor with the help of starter slowly and bring it to rated speed by adjusting armature
rheostat first then field rheostat.
4. Take the no load readings of speed, field current, armature current, field voltage and
armature voltage.
5. Set the rheostats to initial position and stop the machine.
6. Measure the armature resistance & field resistance at Armature and Shunt field winding
respectively with the help of ammeter voltmeter method.
OBSERVATIONS:
At no-load (self excited dc motor):
Speed (N)

Armature voltage (Va)

Field voltage (Vsh)

Armature current (Ia)

Field current (Ish)

Armature resistance (Ra)

Field resistance (Rsh)

57

CALCULATIONS:
As a motor:
S. No.

IL(A)

Power Input

Copper Losses

Total Losses

Power Output

Efficiency

VIL (Watts)

Ia2 Ra (Watts)

(Watts)

(Watts)

(%)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

As a Generator:

S. No.

IL(A)

Power Output

Copper Losses

Total Losses

Power Input

Efficiency

VIL(Watts)

Ia2 Ra (Watts)

(Watts)

(Watts)

(%)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

CONCLUSION:

The power required to conduct the test is very less as compared to the direct loading test.
58

Constant losses are calculated from this method are used to compute the efficiency of dc
machine as a generator and as a motor without actually loading it.

Hence, this is an economic method.

MODEL GRAPH:
Draw the graph between efficiency and Output Power of the machine as a motor and as a
generator on the same graph sheet.

RESULT:
VIVA VOCE QUESTIONS :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

What are the advantages of SWINBURNS test?


Why SWINBURNS test cannot perform on series machines? Explain.
How do you obtain accurate measurements in this experiment?
Comment on the accuracy of SWINBURN'S test over other methods?
Why the SWINBURNS test is called as indirect test?
What will happen in a motor if armature coil is opened?
Why output is not equal to input?
What is the Flemings left hand rule? How the direction of torque is determined?
Why the magnetic losses calculated by SWINBURNS test is differant from the actual

value?
10. What is the meant by indirect testing?

10.Brake test on a DC Shunt Motor


AIM: To obtain the performance characteristics of a DC Shunt motor by a load test.

59

1) Output Vs Speed
2) Output Vs Torque
3) Output Vs Induced emf
4) Output Vs Efficiency
NAME PLATE DETAILS:
D.C. Shunt Motor:
Power

KW

Armature voltage =

volts

Armature current =

amps

Field voltage

volts

Field current

amps

Speed

rpm

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No.

Name

Range

Type
3 digit panel

DC Voltmeter

(0-300)V

DC Ammeter

(0-20)A

3
4

Tacho Meter
Rheostats

(0-2000)rpm
360 Ohms/1.7 amps

mounted
3 digit panel
mounted
Digital
-

Quantity
01
01
01
01

THEORY:
A dc shunt motor rotates due to the torque developed in the armature when the armature and
field terminals are connected to the dc supply. The direction of rotation can be explained with the
help of Flemings left hand principle.
A counter emf or back emf (Eb) is induced in the armature conductors while the armature (rotor)
rotating in the magnetic field. The direction of the induced emf can be explained with the help of
Flemings right hand principle and Lenzs law. The induced emf is also called as back emf Eb.
The equation of the motor is V= Eb + Ia Ra Where Eb =

60

ZN
60

P
A

Ia =

V Eb
Ra

The value of Eb is zero while starting the motor. Hence the voltage across the armature has to be
increase gradually.
The power developed in the rotor (armature) = Eb Ia = T * Where =
In a dc motor T Ia where

2 N
60

= Flux produced by the shunt field per pole


Ia = Armature current

The torque developed in the motor is opposed by the torques due to


(a) Friction and windage
(b) Eddy currents and hysteresis and
(c) Mechanical load connected at the shaft.
The motor runs at a stable speed when the developed torque and resisting torques balance each
other. Let a small load be increased, and then the resisting torque increases and motor speed falls.
The back emf reduces due to the fall in the speed. Hence, the armature current increases
(Ia =

V Eb
)
Ra

If is assumed constant, (i.e. neglecting the armature reaction) the torque developed by the motor
increases and a new stable speed is reached at which the developed torque equals the resisting
torque.
This is a direct method of testing a dc machine. It is a simple method of measuring motor
output, speed and efficiency etc., at different load conditions a rope is would round the pulley and its
two ends are attached to two spring balances S1 and S2. The tensions provided by the spring balances S1
and S2 are T1 and T2 the tensions of the rope can be adjusted with the help of swivels. The force acting
tangentially on the pulley is equal to the difference between the readings of the two spring balances in
kg- force.
FORMULAE:
The induced voltage Eb =V-Ia Ra and
Eb= KN, Thus, K=Eb /N
V= applied voltage,
Ia =armature current,
61

Ra =armature resistance.
Total power input to the motor Pin =Field circuit power + Armature power= VfIf + Va Ia
If R is the radius of the pulley, then torque at the pulley is given by
Tshaft = 9.81* (T1~T2 )*R = 1.5* (T1~T2) N-m
=

2 N
is the angular velocity of the pulley, in rad/sec.
60

Radius of pulley R = ..
Motor output power Pout =Tshaft * = 1.5* (T1~T2)*
% Efficiency

2 N
60

Pout
X 100
Pin

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the circuit as shown fig.
2. Keep the field regulator Rsh at minimum resistance value.
3. Check that the belt on the pulley is free so that there is no load on the pulley.
62

4. Start the motor slowly using the starter.


5. Adjust the field current by adjusting rheostat so that the motor runs at its rated speed.
6. Apply load on the pulley gradually in steps by tightening the belt around it.
7. Take the readings of the ammeter, voltmeter, two spring balances reading and the speed at every
step of increase in load.
8. Cool the pulley throughout the loading period by pouring water into it.
9. Continue the experiment till full load of the motor is reached.
10. Stop the Machine.
OBSERVATION TABLE:
OBSERVATION AND SAMPLE CALCULATIONS
Armature voltage ( Va )
Field voltage ( Vf )
Field current ( If )
No load speed ( N )
Armature Resistance ( Ra )
Armature Current
( Ia )
S.N
o

Ia(amp)

N(rpm)

=
=
=
=
=
=
S1
(kg)

Sample Calculations
Power Input
VaIa + IfVf
Shaft Torque
=
9.81 X (S1 - S2) r
=
Output = Tsh X
Pout

2 N
60

ohms
amps
S2
(kg
)

Input
( Pin)
watts

Shaft
Torque
(N-m)

=
63

(N-m)

Shaft
Output
(watts)

E
(volts)

K
Vs/r


=
Eb = V- Ia Ra =
Eb
K =

Model Graphs:
Armature Current ~ Speed characteristics:
The armature current Ia increases with increase in the load at the shaft. Hence Ia Ra drop
increases and counter emf (Eb) decreases.
Eb = V-IaRa where Ra is armature resistance and Eb N, if is constant in the shunt motor by
neglecting the armature reaction; the speed falls as Eb falls. In a dc motor Ra is very small, hence Ia
Ra is a small value and fall in Eb with increase in load is small. Thus, the speed falls slightly as Ia
increases.
Armature current ~ Torque characteristics:
If is constant, developed torque increases with increase in Ia T= K Ia
In actual condition, slightly falls withy increase in Ia due to the effect of armature reaction.
Torque ~ Speed:
With increase in load, Ia and Ta increases since the shunt field is constant. The fall in speed
is very small as the Ia Ra drop is very small compared to V. In a dc shunt motor N

Eb

Output ~ Efficiency
The graph between Output ~ Efficiency indicates that max torque occurs when armature copper
losses is equal to the constant losses.

64

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Loose connections are to be avoided.
2. Dont touch the Circuit connections while power is on.
3. Take the meter Readings without parallax error.
4. Cool the pulley while the experiment is performed.
5. While measuring the radius of the pulley effective radius must be considered.
RESULT:
VIVA VOCE QUESTIONS:
1. Why the speed falls as load increases for a DC shunt motor?
2. What are the applications of DC shunt motors?
3. When is the efficiency of the motor maximum?
4. What will happen when DC shunt motor is started with load?
5. Give the expressions for various torques in DC motors.
6. What is the effect on speed if part of the field winding is shorted?
7. Where actually the mechanical energy available?
8. What do you mean by the armature drop?
9. Does the yoke carry the same flux as is the flux per pole?
10. How the D.O.R of a DC motor can changed?

11.O.C. Test and S.C. Test on a Single Phase Transformer


AIM: To predetermine the efficiency and voltage regulation of a single
draw the equivalent circuit of transformer.
NAME PLATE DETAILS:
Power

KVA

L.V Side Voltage

Volts

H.V Side Voltage

Volts

L.V Side current

Amps

H.V Side current

Amps

Frequency

Hz

65

Phase Transformer and to

APPARATUS:

Quantit

S.No.

Components

Type

Specifications

Transformer

2 KVA

1 No.

A.C. Ammeter

Single Phase
3 digit panel

0 20 A

1 No.

A.C.Voltmeter

(0500)V

1 No.

(0200)V
3KW,

each

150/300/600V

1 No.

6.

mounted
3 digit panel
mounted

L.P.F

Dynamometer

Wattmeter

Type

U.P.F

Dynamometer

Wattmeter

Type

Auto
Transformer

Single Phase

2.5A/5A
3KW,
150/300/600V
5A/10A
2 KVA, 10 Amps,
230 Volts

1 No.

1 No.

THEORY:
A Transformer is a static device which transfers the electrical energy from one circuit to another
circuit with changes in voltages and current but without any change in the power and frequency. The
transformer works on the principle of electromagnetic induction between two windings placed on a
common magnetic circuit. The two windings are electrically insulated from each other and also from
the core.
The losses in transformer are magnetic (iron) losses and copper (ohmic) losses. These can be
determined by performing (a) open circuit test and (b) short circuit test. From the above tests, the
efficiency and voltage regulation of a given transformer can be predetermined at any given load. The
power consumed during these tests is very small compared to that in a load test.
LV side parameters are denoted by suffix 1 and HV side parameters by suffix 2

Open circuit Test:

66

In the open circuit test, HV side is usually kept open and supply given to the LV side, as shown
in the figure 1(a) when rated voltage is applied to the LV side, the ammeter reads the no-load current I 0
is 2 to 5% of full load current. Hence the copper losses at no-load are negligible. W0 represents the
iron or core losses. Iron losses are the sum of hysteresis and eddy current losses.
W0 = V0I0 Cos 0
COS 0

W0
,
V0 I 0

I = I0 Sin 0,
IW = I0 Cos0,
R01 and X01 is resistance and leakage reactance referred to LV side.
R0= VLV / Iw , X0 = VLV / I
The same parameters, referred to HV side, will become
R02=k2R01 and X02= k2 X01;
Where k = turns ratio = No. of turns of HV winding / No. of turns of LV winding

Short Circuit Test:


This test is performed to determine the equivalent resistance and leakage reactance of the
transformer and copper losses at full-load condition.
In this test, usually LV side is shorted and meters are connected on HV side. A variable low
voltage is applied to the HV winding with the help of an auto-transformer. This voltage is varied till
the rated current flows in the HV side and LV side. The voltage applied is 5 to 10 percentage of rated
voltage, while the rated current flows in the windings. The wattmeter indicated the full load copper
losses and core losses at Vsc. But the core losses at this low voltage are negligible as compared to the
iron losses at the rate voltage.
Hence, Wsc = Full load copper losses
= I22 R2eq= I21 R1eq
= I22R02= I21R01
Z02 = Vsc / Isc and
X02 = (Z202 R202)
67

Req2 and Xeq2 are referred to HV side.


The same parameters, referred to LV side, will be
R01= (1 / k2) R02 and
X01 = (1 / k2) X02
CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:

PROCEDURE:
(a) O.C. Test :
68

1. Connect the circuit diagram as shown in the figure.1(a)


2. Gradually increase the voltage by using the auto-transformer till the voltmeter reads the
rated voltage ( 115V) of Primary side.
3. Record the voltmeter, ammeter and L.P.F. wattmeter readings.
4. The Voltmeter indicates the no-load Voltage, Ammeter indicates the no-load current and
Wattmeter indicates the iron losses
5. After noting the values slowly decrease the auto-transformer till the Voltmeter comes to
zero position, and Switch off the Supply.
(b) S.C. Test :
1. Connect the circuit diagram as shown in the figure1 (b).
2. Gradually increase the auto-transformer till the ammeter reads the rated current
(8.6Amps) of the transformer on HV side.
3

Record the voltmeter, ammeter and U.P.F. wattmeter readings. The ammeter indicates
Full load Current, Voltmeter indicates S.C Voltage and wattmeter indicates copper
losses of the transformer at full load condition

After noting the values slowly decrease the auto-transformer till the Ammeter comes to
zero position and Switch off the supply.

OBSERVATIONS:
O.C. Test:
VO(Volts)

IO

(Amps)

WO (Watts)

S.C. Test:
VSC (Volts)

ISC (Amps)

WSC (Watts)

69

(a) Calculation of Equivalent circuit parameters:


Let the transformer be the step-up transformer
Primary is L. V. side.(V1) , Secondary is H. V. side (V2)
(i) Parameters calculation from OC test
Wo
Vo I o

cos 0 =

I w1 I w / K (referred to secondary)

Iw = I0 cos 0 (referred to primary)


R0

V1
Iw

R01 R0

(referred to primary)

I 1 I / K

I = I0 sin 0 (referred to primary)


X0

K=

V1
I

K 2 (referred to secondary)

X 01 X 0

(referred to primary)

(referred to secondary)
K 2 (referred to secondary)

V2
V1

(ii) Parameters calculation from SC test

R02

WSC
I sc

Z 02

X 01 X 02 / K 2

VSC
I SC

X 02

R01 R02 / K 2

Z 01 Z 02 / K 2

(b) Calculations to find efficiency:


For x fraction of full load
Cupper losses = Wsc * (x) 2 watts
For full load
Cupper losses = Wsc * (1/2)2 watts
Where Wsc = full load copper losses
Constant losses = W0 watts
Output = KVA * cos

[cos is power factor may be assumed]


70

Z 02 R02

Input = output + Cu. Loss + constant loss


Output

% efficiency Input x 100


(a) Calculation of Regulation at full load:
I2 = Load (KVA) X 1000 / V2

% Re gulation

I 2 R02 cos I 2 X 02 sin


x 100
V2

+ for lagging power factors

-for leading power factors

MODEL GRAPHS:
Efficiency Vs Output Power

Regulation Vs Power factor

71

PRECAUTIONS:
1 Avoid loose connections.
2 Dont touch the circuit connections while power is on.
6. Take the meter readings without parallax error.
7. Care should be taken while performing the test i.e
(i)

H.V winding should be open circuited

(ii)

L.V winding should be short circuited

8. For S.C test 2 to 5 % of normal voltage is enough to allow rated currents in the windings.
9. Voltage is to be varied gradually till rated current flows.
10. Ensure that the setting of the variac is at zero output voltage during starting
Result:

Viva voce questions :


1. Which losses are called magnetic losses?
2. Write equations for hysteresis and eddy-current losses.
3. Why O.C test will conduct on LV side?
4. Why S.C test will conduct on HV side?
5. Why transformer fails to operate on D.C supply?
6. Explain why low power factor meter is used in O.C test.
7. Why the iron losses are neglected when S.C test on a Transformer.
8. Draw the phasor diagram for a S.C. test on a transformer.
9. How do you reduce the hysteresis and eddy-current losses?
10. Under what condition the regulation of a transformer becomes zero.
11. Define voltage regulation with equation for lagging and leading loads?
12. Generally what is the efficiency percentage of a transformer?
13. What is the condition for maximum efficiency?

72

12.Load Test on a Single Phase Transformer


AIM: To determine the efficiency and voltage regulation of a single Phase Transformer by direct
applying of different loads on secondary side of transformer.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No.

Equipments

1
2
3
4

Transformer
A.C. Ammeter
A.C.Voltmeter
L.P.F
Wattmeter

U.P.F Wattmeter

Type & Specifications


1- ,2 KVA
Digital (0 20) A
Digital (0500)V
Dynamometer Type,
3KW, 150/300/600V
2.5A/5A
Dynamometer Type,
3KW, 150/300/600V
73

Quantity
1 No.
1 No.
2 Nos
1 No.

1 No.

6.

Auto Transformer

5A/10A
1-,10 Amps,230 Volts

1 No.

NAME PLATE DETAILS:


Power

KVA

L.V Side Voltage

Volts

H.V Side Voltage

Volts

L.V Side current

Amps

H.V Side current

Amps

Frequency

Hz

THEORY:
A Transformer is a static device which transfers the electrical energy from one circuit to
another circuit with changes in voltages and current but without any change in the frequency. The
transformer works on the principle of electromagnetic induction between two windings placed on a
common magnetic circuit. The two windings are electrically insulated from each other and also
from the core.
Various measurements are made by connecting different loads directly on the transformer
and to determine the efficiency and regulation of transformer at different load conditions. Usually,
this test is performed for low power rating transformer since load is directly applied, approximating
no assumptions are needed accuracy of the results is limited only by the accuracy of the
measurements.
When the secondary is loaded the secondary current I2 is setup. The magnitude and phase of I2
with respect to V2 is determined by the characteristics of the load. The secondary current sets up its
own mmf and hence its own flux 2 which is in opposition to main primary flux which is due to I0
the secondary ampere turns N2*I2 are known as demagnetizing ampere turns .The opposing secondary
flux I2 weakens the primary flux momentary. Hence primary back Emf E1 tends to be reduced. For a
movement V1 gain the upper hand over E1 and hence causes more current to flow in primary.
74

Let the additional primary current be I21 .It is known as load component of primary current. This
current is anti phase with I21 the additional primary mmf N1*I2 sets up its own flux 21 which is in
opposite to 2 and is equal to its magnitude. Hence the two cancel each other out. So the magnetic
effects of secondary current I2 are immediately neutralized by the additional primary current I21.Hence
whatever the load conditions be, the net flux passing through core is approximately the same as noload.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

75

PROCEDURE:
1) Connect the circuit diagram such that the supply on LV side and load on HV side as shown the
figure.
2) Gradually increase the voltage using auto-transformer till the voltmeter reads the rated voltage
230V, on LV side and also record the voltage on HV side.
3) Maintain the voltage V1 to be constant for all loads.
4) Switch on the load switches one by one record the ammeter, voltmeter and wattmeters
readings.

( the load current should not exceed the rated current, 4.8 A)

5) After noting the values, gradually decrease the load and set the Auto-Transformer zero voltage
position and Switch off the supply.

Observations for Load Test; Lamp load (purely resistive)


V1 = 230 V (Constant)
S.N

Primary
V1 (V)

I1 (A)

Secondary
W1(KW)

% Efficiency = Output power

V2(V)

I2(A)

X 100

Input power
76

%
W2(KW)

% Reg.

% Regulation = (E0 V) X 100


V
MODEL GRAPHS:
Efficiency Vs Output Power

Regulation Vs Power factor

PRECAUTIONS:
1 Avoid loose connections.
2 Dont touch the circuit connections while power is on.
3 Take the meter readings without parallax error.
4 Voltage is to be varied gradually till rated current flows.
5 Ensure that the setting of the variac is at zero output voltage during starting

RESULT:

77