Specifications
Quantity
Resistors
1 each
Bread Board
D.R.P.S.
(030) V
Ammeters
(0200)mA
5
6
Voltmeters
Connecting wires
(030)V
Single strand
3
Required
No.
THEORY:KCL: This law states that the algebraic sum of currents meeting at a junction of conductors is zero. In
other words, the sum of currents flowing away from a junction is equal to the sum of currents flowing
towards the junction.
Kirchhoffs current law is nothing more than a restatement of principle of conservation of
charge. Since the amount of charge entering a junction at an instant must be same as the amount of
charge leaving the junction.
KVL: This law states that any time instant the algebraic sum of voltages around a closed circuit or a
loop is zero. That is, for a closed circuit having k elements,
K
Vj=0
j=0
Where Vj represents the voltage drop across the j th element.
V1+V2+V3+.Vk = 0
This statement simply tells us that if we start from a particular junction and go around a closed
circuit so as to come back to the same junction, the net potential drop (or potential rise) is zero,
because we have come back to the point at the same potential.
Kirchhoffs Voltage Law can also be stated as in any closed circuit the algebraic sum of the
products of current and resistance in each of the conductors is equal to the algebraic sum of the emfs
of the batteries
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
PROCEDURE FOR KCL:1. Connect the circuit as per the figure shown above.
2. Adjust the input voltage as 10 volts, and switch on the supply.
3. Measure the current flowing through R1, R2, R3 resistors using Ammeters i.e., IT, I1 & I2.
4. Tabulate the readings in the tabular column.
5. Verify that the IT = I1 + I2.
6. Repeat the procedure for different voltage values, and then switch off the supply.
7. Compare the values Practical to Theoretical.
PROCEDURE FOR KVL:1. Connect the circuit as per the figure shown above.
2. Adjust the input voltage as 10 volts, and switch on the supply.
3. Note the reading of ammeter & voltmeters, i.e., I, V1, V2 &V3 from the voltmeters.
4. Tabulate the readings in the tabular column.
5. Verify that the V1 = V2 + V3.
6. Repeat the procedure for different voltage values, and then switch off the supply.
7. Compare the values Practical to Theoretical.
THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS:For KCL:
Req = (R1+R2)
Ieq = V / Req
V2 = V * R1 / (R1 + R2) or V1=I*R1
V3 = V * R2 / (R1 + R2) or V2=I*R2
TABULAR COLUMNS:
For KCL:
S.No
V1(volts)
IT(mA)
IT(mA)
I1(mA)
I1(mA)
I2(mA)
I2(mA)
theoretical
practical
theoretical
practical
theoretical
practical
V1(volts)
V1(volts)
V2(volts)
V2(volts)
V3(volts)
V3(volts)
theoretical
Practical
theoretical
practical
theoretical
practical
For KVL:
S.No
I(mA)
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS:
1. Reading must be taken without parallax error.
2. Measuring instruments must be connected properly & should be free from errors.
3. All connections should be free from loose contacts.
4. The direction of currents should be identified correctly.
RESULT:
4
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Equipment
Range
Type
Quantity
Signal generator
Decade resistance box
Decade inductance box
Decade capacitance box
Ammeter
Connecting wires
THEORY:
In a series RLC circuit. The current lags behind or leads the applied voltage depending upon the
values of XL and Xc. XL causes the total current to lag behind the applied voltage while Xc causes the
total current to lead the applied voltage. When XL > Xc the circuit is predominantly inductive, and
when XL < Xc the circuit is predominantly capacitive.
In the series RLC circuit resonance may be produced by varying the frequency keeping L and C
constant. Otherwise resonance may be produced by varying either L or C for fixed frequency .Parallel
resonance occurs when XL = Xc. when XL = Xc the two branch currents are equal in magnitude and
180 deg out of phase with each other .Hence two currents cancel each other and net current is zero.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
Series Resonance
Parallel resonance:
PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in fig.1 for series resonant circuit & fig.2 for parallel resonant
circuit.
2. Set the voltage of the signal from function generator to 5V.
3. Vary the frequency of the signal from 100 Hz to 1KHz in steps and note down the
corresponding ammeter readings.
4. Observe that the current first increases & then decreases in case of series resonant circuit & the
value of frequency corresponding to maximum current is equal to resonant frequency.
5. Observe that the current first decreases & then increases in case of parallel resonant circuit &
the value of frequency corresponding to minimum current is equal to resonant frequency.
6. Draw a graph between frequency and current & calculate the values of bandwidth & quality
factor.
TABULAR COLUMN:
S.No.
Series Resonance
Current(mA)
Frequency(Hz)
Parallel Resonance
Current(mA)
Frequency(Hz
)
MODEL GRAPHS:
FORMULAE:
Series Resonance:
Resonant Frequency (fr) = 1/(2LC)
Lower cut off frequency (f1) = frR/4L
Upper cut off frequency (f2) = fr+R/4L
NETWORK PARAMETERS
AIM: To determine Z and Y parameters of a given two port Network.
APPARATUS:
Sl.
No.
1
Specifications
Quantity
trainer kit
D.R.P.S.
(030) V
Ammeters
(0200)mA
Connecting wires
Single strand
Required
THEORY:
A network containing two pairs of terminals is called as two port network. Normally one pair
of terminals coming together to supply power or to withdraw power or to measure the parameters, are
called as port. To achieve simplicity, the whole network is shown with a single block. A typical two
port network is as shown below in fig (a)
If port 221 is open circuited, i.e. I2 = 0 then Z11 = V1/I1 & Z21 = V2/I1
If port 111 is open circuited, i.e. I1 = 0, then Z12 = V1/I2 & Z22 = V2/I2.
Here,
Z11 is the driving point impedance at port 111 with 221 open circuited. It can
also be called as open circuit input impedance.
Z21 is the transfer impedance at port 111 with 221 open circuited. It can also be
called as open circuit forward transfer impedance.
Z12 is the transfer impedance at port 221 with 111 open circuited. It can also be
called as open circuit reverse transfer impedance and
Z22 is the driving point impedance at port 221 with 111 open circuited. It can also
be called as open circuit output impedance.
Zparameter representation for a two port network, shown above, will be as shown below in fig(b).
Network is
a) Reciprocal then V1/I2 (where I1 = 0) = V2/I1 (where I2 = 0) i.e. Z12 = Z21
b) Symmetrical then V1/I1 (where I2 = 0) = V2/I2 (where I1 = 0) i.e. Z11 = Z22
SHORT CIRCUIT ADMITTANCE PARAMETERS (Yparameters):
Yparameters can be defined by the following equations
I1 = Y11 V1 + Y12 V2 . (1)
12
If port 221 is short circuited, i.e. V2 = 0 then Y11 = I1/V1 & Y21 = I2/V1
If port 111 is short circuited, i.e. V1 = 0 then Y12 = I1/V2 & Y22 = I2/V2
Here, Y11 is the short circuit driving point admittance at port 111 with 221 short circuited. It
will also be called as short circuit input admittance.
Y21 is the Transfer admittance at port 111 with 221 short circuited. It will also be called as
short circuit forward transfer admittance.
Y12 is the Transfer admittance at port 221 with 111 short circuited. It will also be called as
short circuit reverse transfer admittance and
Y22 is the driving point admittance at port 221 with 111 short circuited. It can also be called
as short circuit output admittance.
Yparameter representation for a two port network, shown above, will be as shown below fig(c).
If the network is
a) Reciprocal then I2/V1 (where V2 = 0) = I1/V2 (where V1 = 0) i.e. Y21 = Y12
b) Symmetrical then I1/ V1 (where V2 = 0) = I2/ V2 (where V1 = 0) i.e. Y11 = Y22
CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:
13
For ZParameters:
For YParameters:
14
THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS:
PROCEDURE:
15
For ZParameters:
1) Connect the circuit as per fig.1
2) Keep the port 2 terminals (C&D) open, then (I2=0).
3) Set desired voltage on V1, between terminals A&B
4) Measure V2 between terminal C&D and I1, Then tabulate V1, V2, I1.
5) Now open the Port1.terminals (A&B), Connect desired voltage to port 2(C&D) terminals, (I1=0) as
shown in fig.2 then measure V2, V1, I2.
For YParameters
1) Connect the circuit as per fig.3, connect desired voltage at port1 (A&B). Then short port2. (C&D)
Note the values of I1, I2, V1.
2) Connect any desired voltage at port2. (C&D) and short port1 (A&B) as shown in fig.4
3) Then note the values of V2, I1 and I2.
TABULATION:
For Zparameters: When I2=0
S.No
1
2
3
4
V1(V)
I1(mA)
V2(V)
Z11()
Z21()
V1(V)
V2(V)
I2(mA)
Z12()
Z22()
V1(V)
I1(mA)
I2(mA)
Y11()
Y21()
When I1=0
S.No
1
2
3
4
For Yparameters:
When V2=0
S.No
1
16
2
3
4
When V1= 0
S.No
1
2
3
4
I1(mA)
I2(mA)
V2(V)
Y12()
Y22()
CONCLUSION:
Z11()
theoretical
Z11()
Practica
l
Z12()
theoretical
Z12()
Practica
l
Z22()
Z22()
Z21()
Z21()
theoretical
Practical
theoretical
Practical
Y11()
Y11()
Y12()
Y12()
Y22()
Y22()
Y21()
Y21()
theoretical
Practical
theoretical
Practical
theoretical
Practical
theoretical
Practical
17
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. What do you mean by a 2port network?
2. What are impedance, admittance and immittance?
3. What is driving point impedance?
4. What is driving point admittance?
5. What is driving point immittance?
6. Write equations for Zparameter.
7. Write equations for Yparameter.
8. What is the relationship between Z and Y parameter?
9. What is the condition for reciprocity for a network?
10. What is the condition for symmetry for a network?
18
S. No.
1
Specifications
Quantity
trainer kit
D.R.P.S.
(030) V
Ammeters
(0200)mA
Connecting wires
Single strand
Required
THEORY:
A network containing two pairs of terminals is called as two port network. Normally one pair
of terminals coming together to supply power or to withdraw power or to measure the parameters, are
called as port. To achieve simplicity, the whole network is shown with a single block. A typical two
port network is as shown below in fig (a)
ABCD Parameters:
ABCD parameters can be defined by the following equations
V1 = A V2 + B (I2) . (1)
I1 = C V2 + D (I2). (2)
ABCD parameters can be written in matrix form as
20
If port 221 is open circuited i.e., I2=0 then A = V1/V2 & C = I1/V2
A is called reverse voltage ratio and C is known as transfer admittance.
If port 221 is short circuited i.e., V2=0 then B = V1/ (I2) & D = I1/ (I2)
B is called transfer impedance and D is called reverse current ratio.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:
For h parameters:
21
THEORETICAL CALCULATINS:
PROCEDURE:
1. To find A and C Parameters (I2 = 0): Connections are made as per the circuit diagram shown in
fig (1). Output terminals are kept Open via a voltmeter. Supply is given to input port. Note the
readings of ammeter as V1 and Voltmeter as V2.
2. To find B and D Parameters (V2 = 0): Connections are made as per the circuit diagram shown in
fig (2). Output terminals are short circuited via an ammeter. Supply is given to input port. Note
the readings of ammeters as I1 and V2.
22
3. To find h11 and h21 (V2 = 0): Connections are made as per the circuit diagram shown in fig (3).
Output terminals are short circuited via an ammeter. Supply is given to input port. Note the
readings of ammeters as I1 and V1.
4. To find h12 and h22 (I1 = 0): Connections are made as per the circuit diagram shown in fig
(4).Input terminals current is zero. Supply is given to input port. Note the readings of ammeters
as I1, V1 and I2.
5. ABCD, Hybrid parameters using formulae and verify them with theoretical values.
TABULAR COLUMNS:
For hparameters: When V2=0
S.No
1
2
3
4
V1(V)
I1(mA)
I2(mA)
h11
h21
V1(V)
V2(V)
I2(mA)
h12
h22
V1(V)
I1(mA)
V2(V)
V1(V)
I1(mA)
I2(mA)
When I1=0
S.No
1
2
3
4
For Transmissionparameters:
When I2=0
S.No
1
2
3
4
When V2=0
S.No
1
2
23
3
4
CONCLUSION:
h11
h11
theoretical
Practical
h12
h12
theoretica
Practica
h22
h22
h21
h21
theoretical
Practical
theoretical
Practical
theoretical
Practical
theoretical
Practical
theoretical
Practical
theoretical
Practical
25
Ammeters
Connecting wires
THEORY: 
26
Specifications
Quantity
(030) V
(050) mA
1
1
(0200)mA
Single strand
1
Required
I.
In a linear network with several independent sources which include equivalent sources due to
initial conditions and linear dependent sources, the overall response in any part of the network is
equal to the sum of the individual responses due to each independent source, considered
separately, with all other independent sources reduced to zero.
Note: 1. the sources which are considered one at a time making all other sources zero, are the
independent sources including sources due to initial conditions only. The dependent sources are
retained as they are in the network.
2. When one independent source is considered & all other independent sources are reduced to zero
means that all the other independent voltage source are replaced with short circuit and all the other
independent current sources are replaced with open circuit. If the sources contain internal impedances,
that sources are replaced by their internal impedances.
II.
The Reciprocity theorem states that the ratio of response to excitation is invariant to an
interchange of the position of the excitation and response in a single source network. However if
the excitation is a voltage source, the response should be a current and vice versa.
27
Reciprocity Theorem
28
PROCEDURE:
Superposition Theorem:
1. Connect V1, V2 as shown in Fig 1a.
2. For different V1 and V2 values note the D.C. ammeter (0 50 mA) reading as I
3. Replace V2 with a short circuit as shown in Fig 1b and read the ammeter reading as I1 for
corresponding values of V1
4. Replace V1 with a short circuit as shown in Fig 1c and connect V2 in the circuit and read
I2 for corresponding values of V2.
5. I = I1 + I2.
6. Verify the practical values by comparing theoretical values.
Reciprocity Theorem:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig 1d.
2. Apply some voltage Vs
3. Note down the ammeter (0 200 mA) reading as I1
4. Inter change ammeter and voltage source as shown in Fig 1e. and read the ammeter reading as
I2
5. Repeat the above procedure for different values or Vs and tabulate the values.
29
Reciprocity Theorem
OBSERVATION TABLES:
(A) Superposition Theorem:
S.No
Input Voltage
V1
V2
(volts)
I1 (mA)
I2 (mA)
I(mA)
I1 (mA)
I2 (mA)
I (mA)
Theoretical
Theoretical
Theoretical
Practical
Practical
Practical
(volts)
30
VIN V (volts)
I1 (mA)Theoretical
VIN V(volts)
I2 (mA) Theoretical
I1 (mA)Practical
For I2
S.No.
PRECAUTIONS:
1. Connect the circuit elements as per the circuit diagram
2. Avoid loose connections of the circuit elements
3. Take the readings carefully and accurately
4. Do not tamper the circuit elements.
RESULT:
I2 (mA) Practical
THEORY:
Statement:
DC Circuit:
The maximum power transfer theorem states that maximum power is delivered from a source
resistance to a load resistance when the load resistance is equal to source resistance.
Rs = RL is the condition required for maximum power transfer.
AC Circuit:
The maximum power transfer theorem states that maximum power is delivered from a source
impedance to load impedance when the load impedance is equal to the complex conjugate of the
source impedance.
32
The maximum power transfer theorem states that maximum power is delivered from a source
impedance to load resistance when the load resistance is equal to the magnitude of the source
impedance.
33
34
PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure 3 (a) and apply a constant source voltage of 5V .
2. Connect the voltmeter and ammeter as shown in figure.
3. By changing the load resistance in steps and note the ammeter and volt meter readings and
calculate power P=VL*IL
4. Plot the graph by taking resistance on X axis and power on Y axis
5. Observe that the maximum power drawn by the load resistor RL should be equal to Rs.
THEORATICAL CALCULATIONS:
EXPECTED GRAPH:
35
OBSERVATIONS:
S.No
VIN V (volts)
For Rth or Rs
S.No.
Rth or Rs
Rth or Rs
Theoretical
Theoretical
PREACAUTIONS:
1. Connect the circuit elements as per the circuit diagram
2. Avoid loose connections of the circuit elements
3. Take the readings carefully and accurately
4. Do not tamper the circuit elements.
RESULT:
36
Load Power
PL = I2 RLwatts
37
AIM: To verify Thevenins & Nortons theorems for the given circuit.
APPARATUS:
S.No.
1
Ammeters
Connecting wires
Specifications
Quantity
(030) V
(050) mA
1
1
(0200)mA
Single strand
1
Required
39
40
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
For Thevenins Circuit:
To Find Vth:
41
To Find Rth:
42
THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS:
PROCEDURE:
For Thevenins theorem:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Apply the DC voltage 10V from RPS. (i.e., at AB side)
3. Note down the Load current (IL) from Ammeter.
4. Now remove Load Resistor (RL) & connect a Voltmeter between CD, and measure the Voltage (i.e.
Vth)
5. Remove the Supply from AB & short the terminals.
6. Also remove the voltmeter, measure the Resistance at CD with the help of Digital Multi Meter (i.e.,
Rth)
43
7. After getting the Vth & Rth ,Now make a circuit as applying Vth voltage and connecting Rth &
keeping Load resistance (RL) as it is in the original circuit and measure load current ((IL) through (RL)
by connecting a DMM or ammeter in series with (RL).
8. Compare IL, & IL theoretical and observe that the both readings are equal.
9. Repeat the procedure at different voltage levels.
For Nortons Theorem:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Apply the DC voltage 10V from RPS. (i.e., at AB side)
3. Note down the Load current (IL) from Ammeter.
4. Now remove Load Resistor (RL) & connect an ammeter between CD, and measure the current (i.e.,
IN)
5. Remove the Supply from AB & short.
6. Also remove the Ammeter, measure the Resistance at CD with the help of DMM (i.e., RN)
7. After getting the IN & RN ,Now make a circuit as applying IN Current source and connecting RN in
parallel to current source & keeping Load resistance (RL) as it is in the original circuit and measure
load current ((IL) through (RL) by connecting a DMM or ammeter in series with (RL).
8. Compare IL practical & IL theoretical and observe that the both readings are equal
9. In case of Current source not available, give equivalent DC Supply voltage (i.e., IN * RN)
Vth (volts)
Vth (volts)
IL (mA)
IL (mA)
V (volts)
Theoretical
Practical
Theoretical
Practical
S.No
S.No.
Rth & RN
Rth & RN
Theoretical
practically
For IN:
S.No
Input Voltage
IN (amps)
IN (amps)
IL (amps)
IL (amps)
V (volts)
Theoretical
Practical
Theoretical
Practical
PRECAUTIONS:
1 Reading must be taken without parallax error.
2. Measuring instruments must be handled properly.
3. All connections should be free from loose contacts
RESULT:
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. State Thevenins Theorem.
2. What is the condition for reciprocity for a network?
3. What is an independent voltage source?
4. What is an independent current source?
5. Draw the symbols of all the dependent current and voltage sources.
6. What is Thevenins voltage?
45
46
Generator
Power
HP
Power
KW
Armature voltage
volts
Armature voltage
volts
Armature current
amps
Armature current
amps
47
Field voltage
volts
Field voltage
volts
Field current
amps
Field current
amps
Speed
rpm
Speed
rpm
APPARATUS:
S.No.
Name
Range
DC Voltmeter
(0300)V
DC Ammeter
(02)A
Tacho Meter
(02000)rpm
Rheostats
Type
3 digital panel
mount
3 digital panel
mount
360 Ohms/1.7
amps
Quantity
01
01
digital
01
02
THEORY:
Magnetization Curve:
The graph between the field current and generated voltage in armature when
load is not connected is called the magnetization characteristic of the machine. This is same as BH
curve of the material used for the pole construction. In a d.c. generator, for any given speed, the
induced emf in the armature is directly proportional to the flux per pole.
Eg =
ZN
60
P
A
49
PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in the fig.
2. Set the motor field rheostat in minimum resistance position and generator field rheostat in
maximum position.
3. Switch on the supply and start the motor with the help of the starter. Adjust the speed of the
motor generator set to the rated speed by controlling the motor field resistance. The set speed is
to be maintained constant throughout the experiment with the help of motor field rheostat.
4. Note down the voltmeter reading at zero field current (l f). Increase the field current l f uniformly
in steps by changing the generator field rheostat upto rated voltage of generator, simultaneously
note down the field current (lf) and terminal voltage (E) across the generator armature
terminals.
5. Continue the experiment till saturation of the field is reached.
6. Draw the graph between generated voltage(E) Vs field current(I f), and draw a tangent to
magnetization curve from origin, it will touch the curve at a point which is taken as critical
resistance
50
OBSERVATION TABLE:
S.No.
If (amps)
MODEL GRAPH:
51
Eg (volts )
PRECAUTIONS:
1. Loose Connections should be avoided.
2. Circuit connections should not be make while power is ON
3. Readings of the meters must be taken without parallax error.
RESULT:
52
9.SWINBURNES TEST
53
AIM: To predetermine the efficiency of a D.C. shunt machine considering it as a generator and as a
motor by performing Swinburnes test.
NAME PLATEDETAILS:
D.C. Shunt Motor
Power
KW
Speed
rpm
Armature voltage
volts
Field voltage
volts
Armature current
amps
Field current
amps
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No.
Name
Range
DC Voltmeter
(0300)V
DC Ammeter
(02)A
DC Ammeter
(020)A
4
5
Tacho Meter
Rheostats
Type
3 digit panel
mounted
3 digit panel
mounted
3 digit panel
mounted
Quantity.
02
01
01
(02000)rpm
Digital
01
02
THEORY:
This is an indirect test and is applicable only to shunt or compound machine where the field
flux is held fairly constant. The machine is run on noload. The input current, armature current and the
54
supply voltage are measured while the motor runs at rated speed. The armature and field resistance are
determined with the help of ammeter and volt meter methods.
Losses in a DC machine:
The losses in a D.C. machine can be divided as (1) Constant losses (2) Variable losses, which
change with the load.
Constant losses:
Mechanical Losses: Friction and Windage losses are called mechanical losses. They depend upon the
speed. A dc shunt machine is basically a constant speed machine while working as a generator or
motor. Hence, the mechanical losses are constant.
Iron Losses: For a dc shunt machine, the field current hence the flux per pole is constant (Neglecting
the armature reaction which reduces the net flux in the air gap). Hence, hysteresis and eddy
current losses (which are also called as iron losses) remain constant.
Field Copper Losses: Under normal operating conditions, the field current of a D.C. shunt machine is
remains constant. Thus, power received by the field circuit (which is consumed as field copper losses)
is constant.
Constant losses in a dc shunt machine=Mechanical losses + Iron losses + Field Cu. Losses.
Variable Losses: The power lost in the armature circuit of a dc machine increases with the increase in
load. Thus, the armature copper losses are called as variable losses.
Armature Copper loss
= Ia2 Ra Watts
x 100
Input
Efficiency of a generator:
Let us assume that the current delivered by the armature = Ia
When the machine operates as a generator load current IL = IaIsh
Output Power =V IL
Total losses = Total constant losses + armature copper losses
Input = Output + Total losses
Output
Efficiency g =
x 100
Input
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
PROCEDURE:
56
57
CALCULATIONS:
As a motor:
S. No.
IL(A)
Power Input
Copper Losses
Total Losses
Power Output
Efficiency
VIL (Watts)
Ia2 Ra (Watts)
(Watts)
(Watts)
(%)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
As a Generator:
S. No.
IL(A)
Power Output
Copper Losses
Total Losses
Power Input
Efficiency
VIL(Watts)
Ia2 Ra (Watts)
(Watts)
(Watts)
(%)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
CONCLUSION:
The power required to conduct the test is very less as compared to the direct loading test.
58
Constant losses are calculated from this method are used to compute the efficiency of dc
machine as a generator and as a motor without actually loading it.
MODEL GRAPH:
Draw the graph between efficiency and Output Power of the machine as a motor and as a
generator on the same graph sheet.
RESULT:
VIVA VOCE QUESTIONS :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
value?
10. What is the meant by indirect testing?
59
1) Output Vs Speed
2) Output Vs Torque
3) Output Vs Induced emf
4) Output Vs Efficiency
NAME PLATE DETAILS:
D.C. Shunt Motor:
Power
KW
Armature voltage =
volts
Armature current =
amps
Field voltage
volts
Field current
amps
Speed
rpm
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No.
Name
Range
Type
3 digit panel
DC Voltmeter
(0300)V
DC Ammeter
(020)A
3
4
Tacho Meter
Rheostats
(02000)rpm
360 Ohms/1.7 amps
mounted
3 digit panel
mounted
Digital

Quantity
01
01
01
01
THEORY:
A dc shunt motor rotates due to the torque developed in the armature when the armature and
field terminals are connected to the dc supply. The direction of rotation can be explained with the
help of Flemings left hand principle.
A counter emf or back emf (Eb) is induced in the armature conductors while the armature (rotor)
rotating in the magnetic field. The direction of the induced emf can be explained with the help of
Flemings right hand principle and Lenzs law. The induced emf is also called as back emf Eb.
The equation of the motor is V= Eb + Ia Ra Where Eb =
60
ZN
60
P
A
Ia =
V Eb
Ra
The value of Eb is zero while starting the motor. Hence the voltage across the armature has to be
increase gradually.
The power developed in the rotor (armature) = Eb Ia = T * Where =
In a dc motor T Ia where
2 N
60
V Eb
)
Ra
If is assumed constant, (i.e. neglecting the armature reaction) the torque developed by the motor
increases and a new stable speed is reached at which the developed torque equals the resisting
torque.
This is a direct method of testing a dc machine. It is a simple method of measuring motor
output, speed and efficiency etc., at different load conditions a rope is would round the pulley and its
two ends are attached to two spring balances S1 and S2. The tensions provided by the spring balances S1
and S2 are T1 and T2 the tensions of the rope can be adjusted with the help of swivels. The force acting
tangentially on the pulley is equal to the difference between the readings of the two spring balances in
kg force.
FORMULAE:
The induced voltage Eb =VIa Ra and
Eb= KN, Thus, K=Eb /N
V= applied voltage,
Ia =armature current,
61
Ra =armature resistance.
Total power input to the motor Pin =Field circuit power + Armature power= VfIf + Va Ia
If R is the radius of the pulley, then torque at the pulley is given by
Tshaft = 9.81* (T1~T2 )*R = 1.5* (T1~T2) Nm
=
2 N
is the angular velocity of the pulley, in rad/sec.
60
Radius of pulley R = ..
Motor output power Pout =Tshaft * = 1.5* (T1~T2)*
% Efficiency
2 N
60
Pout
X 100
Pin
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the circuit as shown fig.
2. Keep the field regulator Rsh at minimum resistance value.
3. Check that the belt on the pulley is free so that there is no load on the pulley.
62
Ia(amp)
N(rpm)
=
=
=
=
=
=
S1
(kg)
Sample Calculations
Power Input
VaIa + IfVf
Shaft Torque
=
9.81 X (S1  S2) r
=
Output = Tsh X
Pout
2 N
60
ohms
amps
S2
(kg
)
Input
( Pin)
watts
Shaft
Torque
(Nm)
=
63
(Nm)
Shaft
Output
(watts)
E
(volts)
K
Vs/r
=
Eb = V Ia Ra =
Eb
K =
Model Graphs:
Armature Current ~ Speed characteristics:
The armature current Ia increases with increase in the load at the shaft. Hence Ia Ra drop
increases and counter emf (Eb) decreases.
Eb = VIaRa where Ra is armature resistance and Eb N, if is constant in the shunt motor by
neglecting the armature reaction; the speed falls as Eb falls. In a dc motor Ra is very small, hence Ia
Ra is a small value and fall in Eb with increase in load is small. Thus, the speed falls slightly as Ia
increases.
Armature current ~ Torque characteristics:
If is constant, developed torque increases with increase in Ia T= K Ia
In actual condition, slightly falls withy increase in Ia due to the effect of armature reaction.
Torque ~ Speed:
With increase in load, Ia and Ta increases since the shunt field is constant. The fall in speed
is very small as the Ia Ra drop is very small compared to V. In a dc shunt motor N
Eb
Output ~ Efficiency
The graph between Output ~ Efficiency indicates that max torque occurs when armature copper
losses is equal to the constant losses.
64
PRECAUTIONS:
1. Loose connections are to be avoided.
2. Dont touch the Circuit connections while power is on.
3. Take the meter Readings without parallax error.
4. Cool the pulley while the experiment is performed.
5. While measuring the radius of the pulley effective radius must be considered.
RESULT:
VIVA VOCE QUESTIONS:
1. Why the speed falls as load increases for a DC shunt motor?
2. What are the applications of DC shunt motors?
3. When is the efficiency of the motor maximum?
4. What will happen when DC shunt motor is started with load?
5. Give the expressions for various torques in DC motors.
6. What is the effect on speed if part of the field winding is shorted?
7. Where actually the mechanical energy available?
8. What do you mean by the armature drop?
9. Does the yoke carry the same flux as is the flux per pole?
10. How the D.O.R of a DC motor can changed?
KVA
Volts
Volts
Amps
Amps
Frequency
Hz
65
APPARATUS:
Quantit
S.No.
Components
Type
Specifications
Transformer
2 KVA
1 No.
A.C. Ammeter
Single Phase
3 digit panel
0 20 A
1 No.
A.C.Voltmeter
(0500)V
1 No.
(0200)V
3KW,
each
150/300/600V
1 No.
6.
mounted
3 digit panel
mounted
L.P.F
Dynamometer
Wattmeter
Type
U.P.F
Dynamometer
Wattmeter
Type
Auto
Transformer
Single Phase
2.5A/5A
3KW,
150/300/600V
5A/10A
2 KVA, 10 Amps,
230 Volts
1 No.
1 No.
THEORY:
A Transformer is a static device which transfers the electrical energy from one circuit to another
circuit with changes in voltages and current but without any change in the power and frequency. The
transformer works on the principle of electromagnetic induction between two windings placed on a
common magnetic circuit. The two windings are electrically insulated from each other and also from
the core.
The losses in transformer are magnetic (iron) losses and copper (ohmic) losses. These can be
determined by performing (a) open circuit test and (b) short circuit test. From the above tests, the
efficiency and voltage regulation of a given transformer can be predetermined at any given load. The
power consumed during these tests is very small compared to that in a load test.
LV side parameters are denoted by suffix 1 and HV side parameters by suffix 2
66
In the open circuit test, HV side is usually kept open and supply given to the LV side, as shown
in the figure 1(a) when rated voltage is applied to the LV side, the ammeter reads the noload current I 0
is 2 to 5% of full load current. Hence the copper losses at noload are negligible. W0 represents the
iron or core losses. Iron losses are the sum of hysteresis and eddy current losses.
W0 = V0I0 Cos 0
COS 0
W0
,
V0 I 0
I = I0 Sin 0,
IW = I0 Cos0,
R01 and X01 is resistance and leakage reactance referred to LV side.
R0= VLV / Iw , X0 = VLV / I
The same parameters, referred to HV side, will become
R02=k2R01 and X02= k2 X01;
Where k = turns ratio = No. of turns of HV winding / No. of turns of LV winding
PROCEDURE:
(a) O.C. Test :
68
Record the voltmeter, ammeter and U.P.F. wattmeter readings. The ammeter indicates
Full load Current, Voltmeter indicates S.C Voltage and wattmeter indicates copper
losses of the transformer at full load condition
After noting the values slowly decrease the autotransformer till the Ammeter comes to
zero position and Switch off the supply.
OBSERVATIONS:
O.C. Test:
VO(Volts)
IO
(Amps)
WO (Watts)
S.C. Test:
VSC (Volts)
ISC (Amps)
WSC (Watts)
69
cos 0 =
I w1 I w / K (referred to secondary)
V1
Iw
R01 R0
(referred to primary)
I 1 I / K
K=
V1
I
K 2 (referred to secondary)
X 01 X 0
(referred to primary)
(referred to secondary)
K 2 (referred to secondary)
V2
V1
R02
WSC
I sc
Z 02
X 01 X 02 / K 2
VSC
I SC
X 02
R01 R02 / K 2
Z 01 Z 02 / K 2
Z 02 R02
% Re gulation
MODEL GRAPHS:
Efficiency Vs Output Power
71
PRECAUTIONS:
1 Avoid loose connections.
2 Dont touch the circuit connections while power is on.
6. Take the meter readings without parallax error.
7. Care should be taken while performing the test i.e
(i)
(ii)
8. For S.C test 2 to 5 % of normal voltage is enough to allow rated currents in the windings.
9. Voltage is to be varied gradually till rated current flows.
10. Ensure that the setting of the variac is at zero output voltage during starting
Result:
72
S.No.
Equipments
1
2
3
4
Transformer
A.C. Ammeter
A.C.Voltmeter
L.P.F
Wattmeter
U.P.F Wattmeter
Quantity
1 No.
1 No.
2 Nos
1 No.
1 No.
6.
Auto Transformer
5A/10A
1,10 Amps,230 Volts
1 No.
KVA
Volts
Volts
Amps
Amps
Frequency
Hz
THEORY:
A Transformer is a static device which transfers the electrical energy from one circuit to
another circuit with changes in voltages and current but without any change in the frequency. The
transformer works on the principle of electromagnetic induction between two windings placed on a
common magnetic circuit. The two windings are electrically insulated from each other and also
from the core.
Various measurements are made by connecting different loads directly on the transformer
and to determine the efficiency and regulation of transformer at different load conditions. Usually,
this test is performed for low power rating transformer since load is directly applied, approximating
no assumptions are needed accuracy of the results is limited only by the accuracy of the
measurements.
When the secondary is loaded the secondary current I2 is setup. The magnitude and phase of I2
with respect to V2 is determined by the characteristics of the load. The secondary current sets up its
own mmf and hence its own flux 2 which is in opposition to main primary flux which is due to I0
the secondary ampere turns N2*I2 are known as demagnetizing ampere turns .The opposing secondary
flux I2 weakens the primary flux momentary. Hence primary back Emf E1 tends to be reduced. For a
movement V1 gain the upper hand over E1 and hence causes more current to flow in primary.
74
Let the additional primary current be I21 .It is known as load component of primary current. This
current is anti phase with I21 the additional primary mmf N1*I2 sets up its own flux 21 which is in
opposite to 2 and is equal to its magnitude. Hence the two cancel each other out. So the magnetic
effects of secondary current I2 are immediately neutralized by the additional primary current I21.Hence
whatever the load conditions be, the net flux passing through core is approximately the same as noload.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
75
PROCEDURE:
1) Connect the circuit diagram such that the supply on LV side and load on HV side as shown the
figure.
2) Gradually increase the voltage using autotransformer till the voltmeter reads the rated voltage
230V, on LV side and also record the voltage on HV side.
3) Maintain the voltage V1 to be constant for all loads.
4) Switch on the load switches one by one record the ammeter, voltmeter and wattmeters
readings.
( the load current should not exceed the rated current, 4.8 A)
5) After noting the values, gradually decrease the load and set the AutoTransformer zero voltage
position and Switch off the supply.
Primary
V1 (V)
I1 (A)
Secondary
W1(KW)
V2(V)
I2(A)
X 100
Input power
76
%
W2(KW)
% Reg.
PRECAUTIONS:
1 Avoid loose connections.
2 Dont touch the circuit connections while power is on.
3 Take the meter readings without parallax error.
4 Voltage is to be varied gradually till rated current flows.
5 Ensure that the setting of the variac is at zero output voltage during starting
RESULT:
77