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Centrifugal Pump

1. Reason for priming: Without proper lubrication the weir rings come into contact with
each other, get hot and seize; for this reason a centrifugal pump is never started unless
it is filled with liquid. Also C.F pump cannot move air.
2. Pump capacity can be increased by increasing pump speed/RPM or using a larger
3. Head = Pressure/ (sp gravity * 0.433)
4. If theres no NPSH, liquid vaporizes at the eye.
5. NPSH required is the minimum head needed at the suction to get the liquid into the
impeller without vaporizing.
6. NPSH = (Abs suction pressure Vap pressure at pump temp)/ (sp gravity * 0.433)
7. Total head = Discharge head Suction head
8. All C.F pumps come with a set of performance curves. These curves can be used to find
the required NPSH, total head, efficiency and HP for each pump at different capacities.
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9. Pump has max efficiency on certain capacity. Increasing capacity increases P.D and
decreasing capacity causes boundary layer separation in impeller causing part of the
fluid to rotate in volute instead of going into discharge.
10. Suppose the discharge valve is pinched down, capacity decreases while total head
increases. Same effect is seen if level of the tank falls i.e. suction head decreases.
11. When discharge pressure (or total pressure) increases, it opposes the flow, decreasing
the capacity and vice versa.
12. Increasing capacity increases NPSH required.
13. If the liquid being pumped becomes more viscous (for a given total head), the pump
capacity is less.
14. The capacity and head characteristics of a pump dont change if specific gravity changes.
But the HP required does change.
15. To provide better NPSH, the pump is installed vertically and below the level of the
16. Pumps are classified according to impeller design and number of impellers.
17. A multistage pump has more than one impellers mounted on one shaft.
18. A two stage pump has same effect as joining two single stage pumps in series.
19. Pumps are also classified as single suction and double suction pumps.
20. When NPSH available is low, a double suction pump is probably suitable for the
pumping job.
21. Double suction also used for increased capacity
22. Diff btw propeller and impeller pumps: Propeller forces the liquid in axial direction while
impeller forces it in radial direction.
23. The area through which the liquid enters is smaller in impeller pumps; so propeller
pumps may be used for larger capacities.
24. A turbine pumps is the mixture of propeller and impeller pumps (the liquid leaves at
some angle with the suction. This angle is between 0 and 90).
25. Pumps in series: increased head (both pumps having same capacities)
26. Pumps in parallel: increased capacity (both pumps having same discharge head)
27. Vapor pressure is the pressure of the vapors that are trapped in the liquid.
28. V.P is found by measuring the pressure that the liquids vapors exert in a closed
29. At pump suction, dia is kept larger to prevent liquid from vaporizing due to pressure
drop created by friction. Also when dia is greater speed will be less and suction pressure
will be higher. Thus NPSH will be increased.
30. Increase in flow rate => friction increases => suction pressure decreases
31. Pumps useful work = discharge pressure suction pressure
32. Fluid horsepower is the horsepower applied directly to the fluid
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33. Volumetric efficiency = (amt of liquid pumped)/(amt of liquid pumped+internal leakage)

34. The main source of internal leakage is the liquid flowing back between the wear rings
from the discharge into the suction of the pump
35. Three designs for impeller: open, partially open, closed
36. Packing box (figures)

37. Mechanical seal

Mechanical seal with two set of sealing faces

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38. See video of packing box and mechanical seal

39. When a corrosive or erosive liquid is being pumped, the lantern ring lubrication from
another source is used. (packing box)
40. Lubricating fluid is pumped into the packing box under pressure higher than the
pressure inside the casing. This pressure keeps the liquid in the pump from entering the
packing box.
41. Mechanical seal are more widely used than shaft packing because they require less
maintenance and hold leakage to a minimum.
42. A double seal has two set of sealing faces.
43. Bearings (ball bearings) support the shaft and allow it to rotate with very little friction. It
also controls axial and radial movement of the shaft.

44. Since discharge pressure is greater than suction pressure, this creates a thrust on the
impeller. To overcome this thrust and hold the impeller in its proper position a thrust
bearing is used.
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45. Any leakage into the collar flow back into the suction through a hole in the impeller. This
hole equalizes the pressure on left and right side of the impeller (resulting in no thrust).
46. When all pumps are installed in the same direction on the shaft, thrust must be reduced
using a balancing drum.
47. Cavitation is the continual forming and collapsing of liquid vapors and it causes
vibration and erosion (impeller tips particularly and pump casing also). It happens when
NPSH available is zero or less than NPSH required.
48. Improper alignment of pump and prime mover puts a strain on the shaft and may wear
or break the shaft or couplings; it may also cause vibration or rubbing of impeller against
other parts.
49. Wear rings simplify maintenance by protecting casing and the impeller.
50. If the shaft is too long, it may cause radial movement of the shaft resulting in imbalance
of the shaft. Axial movement is the result of thrust. Both these movements must be
controlled for the impeller to remain in position.
51. Over-greasing the bearing causes it to overheat (if oil is used as a lubricant, it also cools
the shaft and bearing).
52. A slinger ring fixed to the shaft and rotating with it, throws oil from the reservoir to the
53. A sleeve bearing has more surface area than ball bearing; supports heavy/large shaft;
controls axial movement.
54. Lubricant must be free of dirt and water because dirt is abrasive and water breaks down
the film between oil and bearing.
55. Pumps performing heavy duty and pumps moving hot liquids may be cooled by water
56. Before startup, cooling and lubricating systems should be checked.
57. A pump which has to handle hot liquid should be warmed before it is started to prevent
unequal expansion of parts. This heating should be gradual by circulating hot liquid
through the pump.
58. Steam tracer lines may be run along side lines to and from the pump to keep liquid
within the proper viscosity range so that it flows freely. These lines should be operating
before the pump is started.
59. At low rates, pump is less likely to lose suction.
60. Pumps are started with suction valve open and discharge valve closed.
61. What are horizontal and vertical C.F pumps and why are vertical pumps self-priming?
62. The suction lines are usually provided with vent valves at high points in the line through
which the vapor may be vented.
63. With the prime mover functioning properly, the pump is ready to start if: all bleeders,
vents and drains are closed; the lubricating and cooling systems are checked; the steam
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tracer lines are turned on; the discharge and suction valves are properly set and the
pump is primed.
64. (Shut down) hazardous vapors or liquids are purged from the pump with steam or
washed with water.
65. Foreign material in the impeller causes the pump to lose capacity. It may also cause
damage or imbalance to the pump (screens/strainers are used in suction lines to block
this material).
66. If balancing drum is worn, pump may lose capacity.
67. Other common causes of reduced capacity are: worn rings allowing liquid to leak from
discharge to suction; inc total head due to inc in discharge P or dec in suction P; prime
mover losing speed; worn balancing system or worn impeller vanes; plugged strainer in
68. If a turbine may not get up to speed or the motor kicks off, it may be overloaded.
69. The violent collapse of vapor bubbles causes a crackling noise in the pump. It is a good
indication of cavitation.
70. Cavitation occurs at impellers (typically on the tip of impeller) and sometimes in the
casing as well.
71. To correct cavitation, inc NPSH available or dec capcity (which dec NPSH required) or inc
diameter of the suction.
72. Since at low/no flow rates, the liquid in C.F pumps gets heated (chances of vaporizing),
and the pump is not recommended to operate below 10% of the rated capacity.
73. C.F pumps are simple in construction and relatively inexpensive.
74. A C.F pump is a constant head pump while a P.D pump is a constant pressure pump. This
means a given C.F pump at specific RPM will provide a constant discharge head even if
the fluid is changed. Similarly a P.D pump will provide same discharge pressure
regardless of the nature of fluid (Mudassir).
75. Understand characteristic curves.
76. 1 ft-lb is the work needed to raise a weight of 1 lb to a height of 1 ft.
77. 1 HP = 550 ft-lb/s

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1. Changing the size of opening of a pipe changes the amount of flow through it.
2. To throttle with a valve is to control the flow rate. In other words, a valve is said to be in
throttling position if it allows some flow but not maximum.
3. So a valve can be in one of three positions: fully opened, fully closed or throttling.
4. Valves body contains flanged ends to join it with the pipe.
5. The part of the valve that is mounted on top of the body to form a tight enclosure is called
6. The bonnet contains a stuffing box which is filled with packing to prevent the leakage
through the valve.
7. For valves with threads on upper end of the steam, hand wheel is solidly connected to the
stem bushing which also has threads. The threads of the stem are engaged by threads of
8. Neither the stem nor the gate can turn.
9. Yoke supports handwheel and bushing.
10. In OS & Y type gate valve, stem can be seen when the valve is open.
11. If the stem is threaded on the gate side, then the gate is also threaded on the inside. The
handwheel is solidly attached with the stem. The part of the stem that passes through the
bonnet has a flange in it which prevents the up/down movement of the stem.
12. In this type of the valve, the stem does not rise. This valve is called non-rising stem (NRS)
13. Another type of gate valve has stem solidly connected to handwheel. The stem has threads
in the middle and bonnet also has threads in the inside. When the valve is opened both the
handwheel and stem rise.
14. For flanged joints, tightening the bolts or replacing the gasket may help.
15. NRS valve is used where theres not much clearance on the overhead.
16. If the gate and seat ring are eroded or worn, complete shutoff is not possible upon closing.
17. The most common design of gate is solid wedge gate. Such a gate is made out of one part.
18. Fluid pressure on one side of gate causes wear on one seat ring more than the other one.
19. Another type of gate is parallel discs and wedges gate. This gate provides tight closing which
still provides tight closing when one side is worn.
20. In some systems, temp changes and pipe expansions can wrap the body of the valve,
causing extreme pressure on the gate. This wrapping can cause the gate to stick. Under
such conditions a parallel disc gate is used.
21. But a solid gate is preferable when the fluid contains solid particles or the valve needs to be
used vertically.
22. So the types of gates are solid wedge gate, solid split gate and parallel disc gate.
23. If possible, gate valve should not be used for throttling, because it erodes.
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24. In gate valve the direction of flow does not change but in globe valve, it does change.
25. So a globe valve will produce higher P.D than a gate valve.
26. In globe valve the seat rings are parallel to the direction of flow.
27. In globe valve theres very little friction during opening or closing as compared to gate
28. In globe valve, the disc is eroded evenly.
29. In angle globe valve, there are less changes in flow direction hence lower P.D.
30. In gate valve gate is guided into place by seating and in globe valve globe is guided by stem.
31. The most common type of disc in globe valve is the plug disc which fits into the seat ring.
32. A plug disc is used for heavy throttling service. Even after some wear occurs, positive
shutoff is still possible.
33. Composition disc is made of a metal and a soft material; seat ring makes contacts with the
soft part. So it can better be used for fluid containing hard particles.
34. A Conventional disc can crush solid particles more easily than plug disc (because plug disc
has largest seat to disc area of contact).
35. The P.D across a plug valve is lesser than that across globe valve.
36. With a worn plug, complete shutoff is not possible.
37. Lubricant besides minimizing the friction, also prevents leakage through the body in plug
38. For faster operation with gate valve, a special type is used with lever instead of handwheel.
Stem is solidly attached with both gate and lever.
39. In swing check valve the disc assembly is held by pivot pin and rests on valve seat.
40. Lift check valve has similar line of flow as globe valve. It must be operated horizontally.
41. Or a special designed lift check valve for vertical operation may be used.
42. The ball valve is also a check valve. They also have two different designs for horizontal and
vertical operation.
43. Both gate and plug valve offer little resistance to flow in fully open position.
44. A motor driven OS & Y valve shuts faster than one driven by hand. They can also be
operated from a distance.
45. In conditions where fire or explosion can occur, electric motors are unsafe to use.
46. Some motors with other sources of power may be preferable under such conditions e.g. air
driven motor.
47. There are times when an overhead valve is inaccessible and an electric or air operator
cannot be installed on it. A sprocket wheel and chain arrangement is used in this case.
48. A valve located in easy reach but requiring much strength can still be operated without a
motor. An operator (gear operator) with system of gears is used.
49. Devices that are attached to valves for operating them are called operators or power
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50. Steam forced under high pressure into the plug can sometimes remove fouling or sludge.
Chemicals may also be used for this purpose. However, dismantling is the best option if
possible because all parts can be inspected and cleaned.
51. Dismantling also needs to be done if the connection of stem and gate is broken. If this isnt
possible drilling a hole and using a jack screw will raise the gate from bottom.
52. But for cases where drilling hole is necessary and leakage must also be prevented a special
arrangement with stuffing box is used.
53. If stem bushing is broken and we dont have enough time to replace, a hoist is used to
temporarily raise the stem.
54. If the valve is opened as far as possible, the stem end and the bonnet bushing make a tight
fit. This is called back seating. Back seating is dangerous and should only be used in severe
55. When packing or repacking a valve, there should be no pressure in it.

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Centrifugal Compressor
1. A compressed gas possesses potential energy due to the pressure it exerts.
2. A compressor does work on a gas, decreases its volume or increases its pressure, forcing it to
3. Centrifugal tendency is not actually a force but is the result of tendency of an object to move
in a straight line while being pulled towards the center by centripetal force.
4. If anything being carried along by the rotation of the disc also travels outward from the
center towards the outer rim, it gains velocity.
5. In C.F compressor closed impeller is used i.e. impeller is made of two plates separated by
6. As the impeller pushes the air, the air opposes this push. Thus the pressure of gas is
7. A compressor that uses centrifugal tendency to impart pressure or velocity to the fluid is
called C.F compressor.
8. As the gas leaves the impeller, it is thrust into a passage way called diffuser (S.B). When the
gas enters the diffuser, the impeller is not acting directly on the gas. The diffuser converts
velocity of the gas into its pressure.

9. Gas passes from diffuser into the volute. In volute the conversion of velocity into pressure

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10. A multistage compressor has several impellers connected in series. This can be used for
obtaining higher pressure.
Usually multistage compressor is used when compression ratio is greater than 5 (needs to
be confirmed).
11. In axial compressor (s.b) theres a set of stator blades between each two set of rotor
blades. The rotor blades impart both P and velocity to the fluid. As the gas is thrust into the
stator blades the opening between the blades acts as diffuser, thus decreasing the velocity
of the gas and increasing P. the blades get smaller towards the end of compressor.

12. C.F and axial compressors are dynamic compressors.

In dynamic compressors added velocity is changed into pressure within the compressor.
13. Function of both volute and diffuser is to convert velocity into pressure.
14. Pressure increase = work done by compressor energy losses due to heat & friction
15. Compression ratio (R) = Absolute discharge pressure (P2) / Absolute Suction Pressure (P1)
16. Capacity of a compressor is volumetric flow rate at the suction end and it is measured in
CFM (cubic feet per minute).
17. For maximum efficiency, a dynamic compressor should be operated at less than its capacity
18. For fluids of different densities, for any given RPM of the compressor work done per pound
of gas is the same i.e. power consumed depends upon weight not on volume.
19. At given RPM, the actual CFM moved by compressor is the same but with denser gas there
will be more pounds of gas moved. Work per pounds will be same but since more weight is
moved so more HP is required.
20. The density of gas does not affect head developed but does effect HP required. Discharge
pressure for denser gas at same RPM is greater.
21. As density of gas increased, compression ratio also increases.
22. Brake horsepower (BHP) is the horsepower that is required by the shaft of the compressor.
Havier gas requires more BHP.
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23. When compressor is started, capacity is high. As the system fills, pressure increases in the
sys. If the gas is not being used from the sys at the same rate the compressor is moving it,
the pressure keeps building in the sys and work needed to move unit weight of gas
increases. When the max head needed to maintain flow increases above the max head of
the compressor, flow stops and gas starts moving in reverse direction due to larger
pressure at the discharge.
After some reverse flow, the compressor again starts moving gas into discharge. After
some time the pressure at discharge is again large enough to cause back flow. This rapid
flow of gas back and forth in the compressor is called surging. This rapid reversals of
surging cause severe vibrations in the compressor and piping which can cause damage to
the compressor.
24. It occurs when the compressor is operating above certain total head or below min capacity.
(it is the min capacity at which surging does not take place)
25. Compression is controlled by making permissible changes in pressure, flow and
temperature to keep compressor from surging.
26. Surging also happens in pumps but it is more significant in compressors because they
operate by compressing the fluid, resulting in much larger volume changes. For the same
pressure increase, the ratio of power require by pump to that by compressor is 3:66 (Engr.
Arslan, Engro).
27. Choke:
The speed lines of gas turbine centrifugal compressors typically exhibit choke. This is a
situation where the pressure ratio of a speed line drops rapidly (vertically) with little or no
change in flow. In most cases the reason for this is that close to Mach 1 velocities have
been reached somewhere within the impeller and/or diffuser generating a rapid increase in
losses. Higher pressure ratio turbocharger centrifugal compressors exhibit this same
phenomenon. Real choke phenomena is a function of compressibility as measured by the
local Mach number within an area restriction within the centrifugal pressure stage.
Choking is the stage when mass flow rate of compressor cannot be further increased.
28. 3 basic control objectives with compressors: i) a constant weight flow of gas ii) variable
flow equal to make iii) variable flow equal to demand
29. Steam turbines are variable speed drivers whereas electric motors are usually constant
speed driver. Turbine drivers usually have governors to control their speed or RPM.
30. Comparison
Dynamic Compressor
Positive displacement compressors
Continuous flow
Pulsed flow
Low maintenance due to simple construction High maintenance
High H.P for given compression
Lower H.P for given compression
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(lower efficiency)

(higher efficiency)

31. Dynamic compressor is normally more economic when volume of gas handled is large. It is
better choice when lower first cost and maintenance cost offsets their lower efficiency.
32. Generally axial compressors are used for lower head and higher capacity.
33. Casing: 1. Horizontally split casing 2. Vertically split casing

34. HSC requires more area of sealing. So VSC is used where we need to minimize leakage.
35. HSC provides relative ease to the accessing of internal components.
36. The impeller is prevented from turning onto the shaft by a key.

37. In multistage, each impeller discharges into a diffuser formed by proper positioning of
adjacent diaphragms.
38. Guide vanes lead the gas coming from diffuser and return end to the eye of next impeller
(multistage compressor).
39. Compressor capacity can be changed by adjusting guide vanes (changing angle of vanes).
40. Labyrinth seal consists of teeth or rings made of soft steel
41. Interlocking labyrinth seal is type of L.S which is more efficient in preventing leakage
42. Labyrinth seals do not prevent all leakage. So these are used where small leakage is
permissible. A port is used where a toxic fluid is being handled.
43. Restrictive-ring shaft seal have carbon rings with garter spring to prevent leakage. Rings
cups keep the rings in position.
44. (Mechanical) contact shaft seals: When a moving part touches stationary seal part, the seal
is called a contact seal. Friction is reduced by a lubricant which also removes the heat
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produced as a result of friction. These seals have stationary and moving seats which are
separated by a carbon ring.
45. Beside reducing friction and removing heat, the oil itself helps to seal.
46. A head tank is used with the seal to control the pressure of the oil.
47. Bearings permit the shaft to rotate freely but they prevent axial or radial motion.
48. Journal bearing prevents radial motion
49. Imbalance of pressures on both sides of the impeller cause a thrust on the impeller towards
the suction side. In low pressure compressor this thrust can be controlled by thrust bearings
but when the thrust is too great, this is done by balancing drums.
50. Electric motors max speed is 3600 RPM, so they can be coupled to the shaft to operate a
low speed C.F compressor. To achieve high speeds with motor, step up gears have to be
used. Natural gas and diesel engines if used to run turbines, also have the same problem.

Choke/Stone wall point

Choking is the condition which occurs in the compressor in which it operates at very high mass
flow rate and flow through the compressor cant be further increased as Mach number at some
part of the compressor reach to unity i.e. to sonic velocity and the flow is said to be choked. In
compressor maximum volume flow rate is limited by cross-section at the inlet. This condition
can be seen in the right side of the Figure 5. in which constant speed lines descends steeply. The
point on constant speed line at which choking occurs is known as choke point or stone wall

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78. Refer to fig shown below. Initially the compressor operates at 100% rated capacity and

rated head. If the gas is not being used at the same rate as the compressor is delivering it,
the pressure on the discharge of increases and the capacity of the compressor decreases.
This continues until the discharge head increases to 105% of rated head. This is surge point.

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Flow Instruments (not complete yet)

1. Pressure is the measurement of amount of energy stored in a substance e.g. B.P is increased by
increasing P thus the liquid is capable of absorbing more heat.
2. Positive displacement measure flow directly. In impeller (typical P.D) meter each rotation of
lobes indicates a set volume of liquid has pass through. A counter is attached to the shaft which
measure the no. of rotations and indicates the flow per unit time.
3. These can be damaged by abrasive fluids.
4. If smooth and even flow must be maintained, you would not use P.D meter without a surge
drum to smooth out pulses.
5. This is a turbine meter

6. A counter is attached to the shaft for measuring rpm. Sometimes a small generator is attached
with this shaft and flow is measured in terms of electricity generated.
7. Although each rotation of turbine allows a set amount of liquid to pass through, the flow is
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8. Vortex meter (shown below) works on the same principle as impeller and turbine meters.

9. (Some other types not mentioned here like nutating disk, rotating vane, reciprocating piston,
peristaltic and diaphragm meters. See Mam Qandeels lectures).
10. Disadvantages of these direct meters are:
a. Can be used only with clean liquids
b. Friction or slippage between the liquid and the parts can cause inaccurate reading
c. If the fluid becomes thicker, the rpm of meter may decrease even if the F.R (flow rate) is
d. Density and temperature changes also cause inaccurate readings
11. Differential pressure flow meter

(mercury manometer can also be used for pressure measurement)

12. Orifice meter has following advantages:
a. Simple in construction
b. Low cost
c. Take very little space
d. Easily inserted in a line/pipe
13. Disadvantages:
a. Higher pressure drop or energy loss
b. If the fluid contained solid particles, they tend to accumulate before orifice plate and
increase pressure drop
14. Flow nozzle is preferred for fluids containing dirt.

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15. For the same pressure drop, it allows larger F.R as compared to orifice plate. Hence it is used for
measurement of higher F.Rs.
16. As compared to Orifice plate, flow nozzle is more efficient, more costly and are difficult to
17. If pressure drop is to be kept to minimum, venture meter is used because almost all the
pressure is recovered in it.
18. The Dahl Tube is a less commonly used flow meter (shown below). Consists of a pipe elbow with
two taps.

19. Works on the principle that centrifugal force is greater on the outside of a curve than on the
inside of the curve.
20. Higher the difference between readings of outer and inner pressure taps, higher will be the flow
21. This is very much like an ordinary pipe elbow except that is has very smooth bores and pressure
taps. So it is not always necessary to make major changes in the pipe to insert this kind of flow

Heat Exchangers
1. Conduction: the process of heat transfer when two substances are in physical contact with
each other (both of them dont necessarily be solids e.g. when air touches a hot plate, it is
heated by conduction).
2. Heat is transferred from heat source to air by conduction and from hot air to cold air by
3. Also in the static layer with the wall of the tube, heat is transferred by conduction.

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4. In laminar flow heat is transferred to the molecules that come in contact with the static
layer by conduction, but in turbulent flow, this H.T is both by cond and conv.
5. The thickness of the static film depends upon turbulence. Greater the turbulence, less
thickly will be the static layer and better the H.T.
6. In counter flow, the temp diff is more constant than temp diff in parallel flow.

Parallel flow

Counter flow

7. Counter flow permits cooling of hot fluid below the max T of cold fluid.
8. When tubes are arranged in parallel rows, vertically and horizontally the pitch is called inline pitch.
9. Triangular pitch provides higher heat transfer rate but at the cost of higher pressure drop.
10. Baffles support the weight of tubes. In addition to this, baffles break up the laminar flow,
decreasing the layer of insulating fluid (static layer).
11. Baffles
a. Segmental
i. Horizontal
ii. Vertical
b. Segmental and Strip
c. Disk and doughnut
d. Orifice
e. Longitudinal
f. Impingement
12. Impingement baffle/plate is sometimes placed at inlet flow areas to the shell side which
effectively reduces the erosion of tubes. Besides reducing erosion, this baffle ensures that
the fluid contacts all the tubes by spreading it.
13. Effective length/area of the tubes is one which is available for H.T.
14. Effective tube surface = sq. ft external surface per ft length x net effective tube length x
number of tubes.
15. For h.ex types see heat exchangers chapter of R. K. Shah* and D. R Sekulics book.
16. Using multiple tubes (SnT) instead of one (Double pipe) increases the area of heat transfer
and multiple passes increase the effective time that a unit volume spends in the exchanger.
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17. There is one channel head baffle and no floating head baffle in 2 tube passes while 2
channel head baffles and one floating head baffle in 4 passes of tubes.

18. Increasing the no. of passes requires increasing the no. of baffles.
19. In fixed tubesheet, the tubesheet is welded to the shell. So the tube bundle cannot be
removed. Because of the difficulties of cleaning and inspecting this type of exchangers, they
are used where shell side fouling is limited. Cleaning is done chemically.
Expansion joint on the shell side allows the shell to expand/contract when the tube bundle
20. U-tube exchanger has only one tubesheet; since tubes are fastened to only one tubesheet,
tubes are free to expand. So this type can be used where temp diff is quite high.
21. In pull through exchanger whole of the tube bundle can be removed for inspection and
cleaning and tubes are free to expand, but the clearance between tube bundle and shell
reduce the efficiency of exchanger.

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22. In split backing ring type the clearance is lessened but the tubes, tubesheet and floating
head cannot be removed as a unit. In order to remove the tube bundle, the floating head
cover, shell cover and split ring must be removed first. Due to smaller clearance it is more
efficient than pull through exchanger. On the other hand, more parts make this type more
expensive and harder to dissemble.

23. A size of 23-192 of SnT H.ex indicates that shell dia is 23 in. while tubes are 192 in. long.
24. An example of complete designation is size 23-192 and AES type.
25. Baffles create turbulence, minimize static layer thickness and increase the time that shell
side fluid passes in the exchanger and provide support to tubes.
26. A mixture of hydrocarbons and air is dangerous because of potential explosion. Therefore
before adding a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon to an exchanger, inert gas or steam is used
to purge air or liquid from the exchanger.
27. If the tube bundle and shell is made of different materials, they respond differently to
temperature changes and may cause stress in the system which might result in loosening or
ruptures of tubes and tubesheet. Sudden temperature changes may also result in thermal
stress. So during startup, cold fluid is introduced first then hot fluid is gradually added to
bring the exchanger to operating temperature. During shut down, reverse is done.
28. Sudden depressurizing of light hydrocarbons causes them to evaporate, which in turn
causes cooling. This may freeze the water present in the tubes, so this should also be
29. Very high or low temperatures causes the scale to precipitate out as solids in the exchanger
(fouling). So, T should be kept within the selected range.
30. A chemical process plant is just like a human body; when a single part is disturbed the
whole system suffers.

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31. Fouling is a general term which describes the various kinds of deposits on the parts of an
exchanger. It increases the resistance to the H.T and pressure drop inside the exchanger. It
restricts flow as well. In other words, a general drop in efficiency occurs.
Scaling is deposition of dissolved solids on a surface.
32. Sedimentation is a type of fouling. Corrosion products are another source of fouling
products. Other types of fouling are algae growth, coking, salt deposits and chemical
reaction. Regardless of the type of fouling, deposits reduce H.T.
33. Velocity affects the fouling rate. Lower velocity, higher fouling rate i.e. up to a point
increasing velocity/flow decreases fouling rate.
34. Antifoulants prevent formation of deposits and inhibitors prevent chemical rxns which
might cause deposits to build up. Dispersants prevent the coagulation of materials that are
suspended in the fluids.
35. The drawing shows a water jet used for hydroblasting, a commonly used cleaning method.

36. For chemical cleaning, it is not necessary to dismantle the exchanger while for mechanical
cleaning partial or full dismantling is necessary. Steam jets are also sometimes used for
heavy hydrocarbon deposits. Heat generated by steam softens the deposits and its pressure
washes them away. For hydroblasting at least the bonnet covers should be removed to
expose the tubesheets. For most difficult cleaning where chemical or hydroblasting cleaning
cannot be used, mechanical cleaning is employed.
37. If the two fluids are different in nature (e.g. oil and water) leakage can be tested just by
looking at the lower pressure fluid sample. Otherwise chemical tests are taken. If it is still
not confirmed then hydrostatic test is carried out (it is an off-line testing method).
38. In hydrostatic test either shell or tube side of the fluid is drained, and the other side is filled
with high pressure water.
39. For testing leaks, the pressure of fluid is normally 1.5 time the operating pressure.
40. See all the exhibits in the last 10 pages of API.

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41. In kettle reboiler hot liquid is pumped into it so it is a forced circulation reboiler. The dome
in the reboiler serves in accumulating the vapors and weir helps in keeping all the tubes
fully submerged in the liquid which in turn increases the efficiency of reboiler.
42. A thermosyphon reboiler is similar to kettle reboiler that both serve to break down a liquid
into vapor and liquid components. However liquid and vapor streams are completely
separated only in kettle type reboiler.
43. In thermosyphon reboiler circulation takes place due to density differences and no pump is
44. Condenser pressure may increase due to fouling in it or due to non-condensable gases
present in it, air present in the cooling water system. Air causes vapor binding which
reduces the heat transfer. To prevent vapor binding a vent is provided in the water line to
eliminate vapors. Vapors or air also results in loss in heat transfer area and hence the
efficiency of the exchanger.

Cooling Towers

1. In Jet tower air current is produced by Jet Effect. Jet nozzles are placed at the top of the
tower. When water comes out of nozzles, it pushes surrounding air downwards by Jet
effect. This air is drawn out of tower from the bottom, through side eliminators (louvers).

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2. A refinery uses 25 barrels of water for every barrel of crude processed; 80-90% of this water
is used as coolant.
3. COC
4. See videos
5. Rate of evap depends upon the surface area; cooling towers provide hot water with large
surface to air contact.
6. Spray ponds; in this system, hot cooling water is sprayed over the pond surface.

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7. Modified spray ponds contain fence to prevent water loss due to drift and to prevent
nearby property damage. In spray type, rate of evap depends upon the wind.
8. Wet cooling towers use direct contact evaporation for HT while in Dry cooling towers heat is
transferred through a surface that separates air and water, as in a H.Ex.
9. Cooling towers are able to lower the water temperatures more than devices that use only
air to reject heat, like the radiator in a car, and are therefore more cost-effective and energy
efficient. In other words, cooling towers can lower water temp below dry bulb temp which
is the lowest achievable temp in air cooled H.Ex
10. Atmospheric cooling tower:

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11. In atmospheric CTs some of the wind entering the tower is carried upward; but most of the
wind passes straight through the tower. Louvers prevent the drift of water vapors.
12. For cooling water by 10 oF, water loss due to evaporation is 1 percent.
13. Drift loss is about 0.2% of water flow.
14. For best operation results, atms. cooling towers are placed so that the prevailing wind blows
through the shortest distance and with highest possible velocity.
15. Is cross flow more efficient in CTs or counter flow?
16. In natural draft cooling tower hot air rises due to lower density and cold air enters from the
bottom to replace it. Because of its design, NDCT does not depend as much on the wind
direction as atmospheric CT. Louvers or baffles can also be installed at the bottom to control
the amount of air flowing in the tower, hence controlling the extent of cooling.

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17. Mechanical draft cooling towers

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18. Multi-Cell CT: Large CTs are usually constructed in cells or sections which can be operated
independently. If lower cooling capacity is required, one or more cells is shut down.
Similarly an individual cell can be shut down for cleaning purposes.
19. If the air is saturated with water there will be no cooling due to evaporation but there will
still be some cooling due to conduction, convection and radiation.
20. Drift, evaporation, leaks and blowdown cause some water loss which is compensated by
makeup water.
21. Abs. humidity tells us how much moister is there in a given amount of air but it does not tell
how much more water it can contain.
22. Humidity expressed as the percentage of max humidity at a given temp is relative humidity.
23. Relative humidity is the most imp factor affecting the performance of CT.
24. This combination of thermometer and wick is a hygrometer.

25. When wet bulb and dry bulb are the same, it means the air is 100% saturated; greater the
difference btw these two temperatures the lower the relative humidity of air and greater is
its potential to cool water.
26. This sling psychrometer is used to measure relative humidity

27. The lowest achievable temp of water by evaporation is the wet bulb temperature.
28. In winter, if the temperature of air is so low that it can make water freez inside the CT, the
rate of air going into the tower can be controlled by:
a. Shutting off one or more fans
b. Changing the pitch or direction of rotation of fan blades
c. Changing the speed of fan motors
d. Or direction of rotation of blades can be reversed to melt down the ice formed
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29. Hygrometers and psychrometers are instruments used in determining the relative humidity
of air.
30. Why natural draft does not need drift eliminators?
31. Specific heat is the number of BTUs required to raise the temp of 1 lb of any substance by 1
oF. For water this takes 1 BTU.
32. Water has a high specific heat that makes it a good coolant. Most importantly, it is
abundantly available.
33. Ca and Mg carbonates are less soluble in hot water, so when water passes through an
exchanger they become suspended solids and cause scaling. These suspended solids also
cause wear in narrow spaces resulting in erosion.
34. Its not the water that causes corrosion, erosion and fouling; its the dissolved and
suspended solids and gases.
35. 1 grain per gallon (gr./gal) = 17 ppm
36. Sedimentation basin is large tank which slows down the liquids velocity enough for the
suspended solids to settle down. This process in also called clarification.
37. Mechanical clarifiers take up less space than sedimentation basins. Water and coagulant
chemical (may be Al compounds like Aluminum sulphate, sodium aluminate or iron
compounds like ferrous sulphate and ferric chloride) enter from different inlets. The design
of clarifier enables thorough mixing or water and coagulant. The rotating scraper forces the
flocs to exit through the outlet in the bottom.

38. The hardness does not itself create corrosion in the sys, but the deposits/scales create a
condition favorable to corrosion by other impurities.

39. There are 3 methods widely used for conditioning water against scaling:

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a. Soften water by making soluble compounds insoluble so that they can be

removed by sedimentation or filtration. Different assemblies are shown below

(Steam speeds up softening reaction)

This zeolite exchanger makes possible the

exchange of ions to soften water. Usually
it has Na ions attached to it. These ions go
into water to replace Mg and Ca ions.

b. Sulphuric acid can also be used to prevent scaling. It helps in keeping scale
forming compounds dissolved in water, this retards the scaling rate. But
sulphuric acid is corrosive in nature.
c. Control scale formation by continuous blowdown.
40. Corrosion can be prevented by 3 ways:
a. By using corrosion resistant materials for parts which come in contact with
water. But this is expensive to use entirely such materials.
b. By conditioning water chemically so that it will not attach metal.
c. By treating water so that it forms a thin protective film on the metal surface.
41. Corrosion where air is involved is called dry corrosion and where water is involved it is
called wet corrosion.
42. What is cathodic prevention?
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43. In natural draft, concrete is used for the tower shell with a height of up to 200 m. These
cooling towers are mostly only for large heat duties because large concrete structures are
44. In mechanical draft, many towers are constructed so that they can be grouped together to
achieve the desired capacity. Thus, many cooling towers are assemblies of two or more
individual cooling towers or cells. The number of cells they have, e.g., a eight-cell tower,
often refers to such towers.
45. Range is the difference between water inlet T and water outlet T. Approach is the difference
btw water outlet T and wet bulb T.
Hot Water Temperature (In)

In other words, effectiveness tells us what

fraction of max possible cooling has been
achieved by cooling tower.


Effectiveness = Range/(Range+Approch)

(In) to the Tower

(Out) from the Tower


Cold Water Temperature (Out)

Wet Bulb Temperature (Ambient)

46. Cycles of concentration is the ratio of dissolved solids in circulating water to dissolved solids
in makeup water.
Blow down = evaporation loss / (cycles of concentration 1)
47. WBT is the lowest temperature to which water can be cooled by evaporation, by air of
certain DBT.

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Steam Turbine
1. A steam turbine changes thermal energy into mechanical energy.
2. Fig shows an Impulse Turbine, called so because the turbine uses the impulse of steam on
the bucket to turn the rotor.

3. Speed of the shaft depends upon the load on the shaft and the amount of steam flowing
into the steam chest.
4. Pressure of steam can be reduced in single or multiple stages to rotate turbine(s).

Single stage turbine

Multi-stage turbine

5. One large nozzle or a row of smaller nozzles can be used for injecting steam onto the wheel.
6. Steam expanding from stage to stage increases in vol. To provide for the larger vol in the
later stages, the buckets are longer.
7. The purpose of nozzle is to:
a. Allow steam to flow from steam chest
b. Direct steam jet at the buckets
c. Convert steam pressure to velocity
8. The row of nozzles directs steam on the first row of buckets.

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After passing through the buckets, steam flows in opposite direction to the direction of its
entrance. A row of stationary buckets (mounted on the casing) is used to direct this steam
on the second row of buckets, i.e. between two rows of moving buckets, theres a row of
stationary buckets.

9. In an impulse turbine, all the steam expands through a stationary nozzle. All turbines
described so far are impulse turbines.
A Reaction Turbine has a large portion of expansion occurring in the buckets or blading of
the wheel.

Reaction turbines, although sometimes more efficient than impulse turbines, require more
stages than impulse turbines. They are seldom used as pump or compressor drivers in plant.
10. Turbine A is a non-condensing while B
is a condensing turbine. Condensing
turbine utilizes the energy of steam
more efficiently by reducing the
pressure in a condenser. Condensing
turbines are usually multi stage. From
the same amount of steam at the
same inlet pressure, condensing
turbine produces more mechanical

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11. If steam of pressure and temperature above that of exhaust steam is needed at some part
of the process, the steam extracted from a stage, called Extraction; and if steam of T and P
corresponding to an intermediate stage is available at some part of the plant, this can be
fed or induced into that stage to utilize this steam, this process is called Induction.

12. A governor valve is used to control the amount of steam allowed into the turbine and the
amount of mechanical work produced. If the turbine starts to speed up or slow down, its
speed must be brought back to normal. Governor corrects for changes in speed.
13. Governors are of three types:
a. Direct acting flyball governor (exhibit 1)

b. Hydraulic governor (exhibit 2)

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c. Oil relay governor (exhibit 3)

14. Most narrow governors do not maintain zero regulation, but keep the drift in speed as low
as 4%.
15. Speed drift = rated speed x percentage of regulation
16. Speed at no load = rated speed + speed drift
17. As the governor cannot accurately overcome the change, the turbine is continually speeding
up or slowing down a little; this is called hunting, as the governor hunts for the correct
18. In contrast to narrow governor, a broad governor does not open/close unless there is a
large change in speed. A broad governor does not tend to hunt. It has range of operating
speed as broad as 10%.
19. Hydraulic Governor
a. Oil pump is directly attached to the shaft.
b. Most of the oil passes through leak off.
c. Pressure created by oil pump causes the diaphragm to open/close the valve.
d. Temperature affects the viscosity and hence the governor setting. So they are
usually broad governor.
e. If the hydraulic sys fails while the turbine is running, the turbine over speeds.
f. A high speed turbine works best with hydraulic governor.
20. Oil-Relay Governor
a. It combines the features of flyball and hydraulic governors
b. Flyball moves the pilot valve that controls the oil inlet and outlet and hence the
oil pressure which allows the spring to compress or expand.
c. More powerful than flyball governor.
d. It is a narrow governor and does not tend to hunt. So it is best in maintaining a
narrow range of speed.
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e. In some turbines, an electric generator attached to the shaft controls the pilot
valve, instead of flyball.
21. The governor regulates the turbine under normal conditions, but if load is suddenly
removed from a fully loaded turbine, it may overspeed until it flies apart. A trip pin is used
to shut the steam off in emergency.

22. Large trip valves use oil under pressure to open

them and hold them open. When the turbine
overspeeds, the trip pin is ejected which triggers a
latch as in exhibit 4. This latch opens the oil dump
As with the direct acting trip, the mechanism must
be reset after the turbine has slowed down. These
pins are set to act at 10 to 15% over the max
turbine speed.
On one type of small turbine, the rotor is equipped
with a brake rim that is activated when the turbine
overspeeds (like brake of a car).

23. Some turbines have PSVs installed to relieve excessive pressure. A sentinel valve may also
be used if the pressure is too high; this valve warns of high pressure by whistling.
24. The diaphragm separates two stages and has nozzles in it. But the steam also passes
through the spacing btw diaphragm and shaft; this steam does not pass through nozzles and
is said to have leaked, so this doesnt do useful work
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25. The leak off from the seal is used as low P steam. An ejector can be used to draw this steam.

26. In non-condensing turbine the exhaust steam P is more than the atmospheric air P while the
P of exhaust is less than air P in condensing steam.
(Note: I have read this API till the start of Packing boxes topic).

Types of Pumps

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Positive Displacement Pumps

1. Pump is a machine that applies energy to the fluid.
2. These pumps are called so because they displace a certain (constant) volume of fluid during
its revolution.
3. The volume of liquid that a pump displaces in one revolution, if there is no leakage or loss, is
called the pumps displacement.
4. For the same size of pumps, lobe pump has larger displacement (volume displaced in one
revolution) than gear pump.

5. If the pump displaces the liquid only in the forward stroke, the pump is single acting; and if
it displaces during both forward and back stroke, it is double acting. Double acting pump
has two displacements per revolution.

6. Reciprocating pumps are classified by the number of cylinders; simplex means one, duplex
means two, triplex means three and multiplex means more than one. The displacement in
each multiplex is the displacement in each cylinder times the number of cylinders.
7. Because it operates with back and forth movement, a reciprocating pump has a pulsating
discharge. Rotary pumps have a rather smooth flow.
8. Pump capacity is mostly measured in GPM (vol/time).
9. The theoretical capacity of a pump is number of RPM times the displacement of the pump.
10. The ratio of actual capacity to theoretical capacity is called the volumetric efficiency.

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11. Wear between moving parts increases leakage/slippage which causes volumetric efficiency
to decrease thus decrease in capacity. Thus P.D pumps require periodic maintenance to
maintain operation at max capacity or max efficiency.

12.The following chart shows relationship between volumetric efficiency and capacity in a
rotary pump.

13. Well operated and properly maintained P.D pumps have volumetric efficiencies between
70-85 %.
14. Some conversions

15. Specific gravity is liquid density divided by density of water at 60 oF.

16. Pressure caused by liquid height and density is called static pressure.
17. 1 foot head of water causes static pressure of 0.433 psi.
18. Pressure = specific gravity x 0.433 x head
19. The pressure at the bottom of a tank is the sum of static head plus vapor pressure head.
20. P.D pumps are pressure pumps; they are rated by the maximum pressure they can apply to
displace the liquid.
21. Since P = F/A, for the same total force, pressure applied by a pump increases as the area
used to displace liquid decreases. That is why plunger pumps give larger pressures than
piston pumps for the same force applied.
22. 1 HP is the amount of energy needed to lift 33,000 lb to 1 foot in 1 minute.

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23. Mechanical efficiency is the percentage of HP received that is actually applied to pumping
the liquid (some power is lost in overcoming friction).
24. Mechanical gauges do not show the pressure of atmosphere.
25. Atmospheric pressure can lift a column of 34 feet if theres prefect vacuum above. In other
words, pressure caused by 34 feet of water is 14.7 PSI.

26. Because of hydraulic losses, the practical limit for a suction lift system is 22 feet (less than
34 feet). Higher suction lifts are possible if the liquid being pumped has lower density than
27. Another way is to cope with this problem is to install the pump underground, submerged in
28. Centrifugal pumps are head pumps i.e. at constant speed, they develop certain total head in
feet. If density changes, head remains constant but pressure changes.
Positive displacement pumps are pressure pumps i.e. with constant power supply, they
develop certain maximum discharge pressure in PSI. If density changes, pressure remains
constant but head changes.
29. Regardless of the liquid being pumped, C.F and P.D pumps develop same total head and
maximum discharge pressure respectively.
30. For pressure increases above 15,000 PSI, positive displacement pumps are mostly used.
31. Positive displacement pumps are called self-priming because they can displace air and need
not to be primed, but most manufacturers recommend priming to reduce weir.

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32. Practical limits for suction lifts:

33. Because they create stronger vacuums, P.D pumps can operate with lower suction
pressures or higher suction lifts.
34. C.F pumps are low in cost, simple in construction and cheaper to maintain. But they cannot
deliver measured volume of liquid.
35. C.F pumps are less suitable for abrasive and highly viscous liquids.
36. Reciprocating pumps are of most use at low RPM and high total heads. They need to be well
maintained for high volumetric efficiencies and they can operate against high discharge
pressure; have higher initial cost than rotary pumps.
37. Reciprocating pumps have two check valves called suction valve and discharge valve.
38. Following drawing shows double acting piston pump. During the forward stroke, liquid
enters from the crank end of the cylinder and leaves from its head end, and reverse
happens in back stroke.

39. A plunger pump displaces only part of the liquid in the cylinder. A plunger pump shown
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40. The piston is fitted with rings to reduce leakage between the piston and the walls of the
cylinder. The cylinders of most piston pumps are fitted with replaceable liners. If a liner
becomes worn, it can be replaced.
41. Plunger pumps dont require lining. They are often used for high pressure service; also for
liquids that might cause a piston to stick or score a liner.
42. Following are two types of double acting plunger pumps. Due to its construction, B type
does not need piston rod packing.

43. Piston and plungers are usually made with cast iron or cast steel, but they may be made of
stone ware, hard rubber or stainless steel.
The material used is dependent upon the nature of the liquid being pumped.
44. For sludgy or corrosive liquids, a diaphragm pump may be used.

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45. The diaphragm is bolted to the flange on the cylinder. If it is damaged, it can be replaced.
46. On the backstroke, the diaphragm pump maintains some pressure on the suction valve; so
the liquid is less likely to vaporize. Thus, diaphragm pumps are used where low NPSH is
47. For maximum efficiency, piston pumps are used for pumping liquids that have lubricating
qualities and that are free of solid particles.
48. The drawing shows the power end of a reciprocating pump

49. Following is a direct acting steam pump. It is represented by three numbers e.g. 12x10x18;
the first number gives the diameter of steam piston, 2nd number gives the diameter of liquid
piston and the 3rd number gives the length of stroke. (all in inches).

50. The ratio of the two piston areas is piston ratio. Suppose this is 2 to 1. This means for every
1 PSI at power/steam piston, the liquid piston will develop 2 PSI.

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