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# MECH 311 Chapter 03 Notes

This chapter deals with 1D steady heat transfer problems. Note these assumptions unless specified otherwise

## 1. Cartesian coordinates (No heat generation)

Heat diffusion Eqn.
Temp distribution
2

() = (2 1 ) + 1
=
0

1 2
=
=

## Analysis procedure for heat diffusion equation

Thermal resistance network (Valid only for 1D steady and no heat generation
Conduction in 1D Cartesian
Nodes -> surfaces -> temperatures

1 2

=
=
=

## Heat transfer is similar to current

Conduction in Cylinder
ln(1 2 )
In series: = 1 + 2 + +
=
2
In parallel: 1/ = 1/1 + 1/2 + + 1/

## Contact resistance: Gap is filled by the fluid (air) with

a low conductivity material. Even though the
thickness may be small; one may observe large
temperature variation between touching surfaces.
This is represented by tabulated values of contact
resistance. ( Lookup values from tables)

Conduction in Sphere
1
1
1
=
( )
4 1 2
Convection
1
=

1
=

2
= (2 +
)( + )

## Alternative analysis for 1D, steady and no heat generation cases:

Energy balance
Temp distribution

= = () ()
()() = 1 ()

()

= = () ()

()
=

()

## 2. Cylindrical coordinates (No heat generation)

Heat diffusion Eqn.
Temp distribution
1

(1 2 )

( ) = 0
() =
ln ( ) + 2

ln(1 2 )
2

Heat distribution
2
( 2 )
=
ln(2 1 ) 1

## 3. Spherical coordinates (No heat generation)

Heat diffusion Eqn.
Temp distribution
1

1 1
( 2 ) = 0
() = 1 (1 2 ) [
]
2

1 1 2

Heat distribution
4
( 1 )
=
11 12 2

## 4. Cartesian coordinates (With uniform heat generation)

Heat diffusion Eqn.
Temp distribution
2

() = 2 + 1 + 2
+
=0
2
2

Heat flux

() = + 1

## Coefficients, 1 and 2 , are found through boundary conditions

If exposed to same temperature on both sides, i.e. ( = ) = ( = ) = ; maximum
temperature appears at the mid-plane. This is equivalent to insulated BC at x=0.
When boundary conditions are convective (same on both sides); then apply energy balance to the
overall system to find = ( )

## 5. Cylindrical coordinates (With uniform heat generation)

Heat diffusion Eqn.
Temp distribution

1

() = 2 + 1 ln() + 2
( ) + = 0
4

Notes
1 =0; if complete cylinder
For hallow cylinder;
conditions should be applied
at 1

6. Extended surfaces
a) Generalized Fin Equation:

()
( ()
) ()(() ) = 0

b) Uniform cross-section:
2
2 = 0
2

where

() = 1 + 2
c) Boundary conditions:
Base
( = 0) = =

Tip
> 4.6 is considered long

A) Long
C) Convection
D) Temp. specified

d) Fin resistance:

=
e) Effectiveness vs efficiency

=
=
=

Suggested > 2
Increase largely at first then slows down

f)

Overall efficiency: =

=1

## = 2.3 yields maximum

= + 2 or as defined in figures
Use table 3.4

(1 )