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APPARATUS

SOLTEQ Bench Top Cooling Tower Unit (Model: HE152)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Orifice
Water Distributor
Packing Column
Flow Meter
Receiver Tank
Air Blower
Make-up Tank

8. Differential Pressure Transmitter


9. Load Tank
10. Control Panel
PROCEDURE
1. Valves V1 to V6 were checked and ensured to be closed and valve 7 to be partially
opened.
2. The load tank was filled with deionised water. Firstly, the make-up tank was removed and
deionised water was poured through the opening at the top of the load tank. The make-up
tank was replaced onto the load tank and the nuts were lightly tightened. Then, the tank
3.
4.
5.
6.

was filled with deionised water up to the zero mark n the scale.
Deionised water was added to the wet bulb sensor reservoir to the fullest.
All appropriate tubing was connected to the differential pressure sensor.
The appropriate cooling tower packing was installed for the experiment.
Temperature set point of temperature controller was set to Error: Reference source not
found. The 1.0kW water heater was switched on and water was heated up until

approximatelyError: Reference source not found.


7. The pump was switched on and the control valve V1 was slowly opened and the water
flow rate was set to 2.0LPM.
8. The damper was fully opened and the fan was switched on.
9. Blower switch was switched on after the water already went through the cooling tower.
10. The unit was run for 20 minutes to ensure float valve correctly adjusted the level in the
load tank. The makeup tank was refilled as required.
11. The damper and the flow rate were set to be constant.
12. The 1.0kW water heater was switched off to set the power as 0kW.
13. Record all the data required after 10 minutes to ensure the unit stabilized for first trial and
another 10 minutes for second trial.
14. To measure the differential pressure across the orifice, valves V4 and V5 were opened
while valves V3 and V6 were closed.
15. To measure the differential pressure across the column, valves V3 and V6 were opened
while valves V4 and V5 were closed.
16. The water heater then was set to 0.5kW, 1.0kW and 1.5kW.
17. After all the experiments were done, the heaters were switched off and the water was let
to circulate through the cooling tower system for 3-5 minutes until the water cooled
down.
18. The fan was switched off and the fan damper was closed fully.
19. The pump and power supply were switched off.
20. The water was completely drained from the unit.
RESULTS

Column: C
Water Flow Rate: 2LPM
Blower: Fully Opened
Heater (kW)

0.5

1.0

1.5

Air inlet dry bulb

31.8

31.4

31.3

T1 (0 C )
Air inlet wet bulb

26.9

26.7

26.3

T2 (0 C )
Air outlet dry bulb

27.8

28.8

30.5

T3 (0 C )
Air outlet wet bulb

29.0

29.9

31.5

T4 (0 C )
Water inlet temperature T5

31.7

34.3

37.7

(0 C )
Water outlet temperature

27.2

27.8

28.6

T6 (0 C )
Heater Power (W)

420

807

1218

Dp Orifice (Pa)

66

67

68

Dp Column (Pa)

70

83

96

0.5

1.0

1.5

Column: C
Water Flow Rate: 2LPM
Blower: Half Opened
Heater (kW)

Air inlet dry bulb

31.4

31.2

31.3

T1 (0 C )
Air inlet wet bulb

26.9

26.5

26.6

27.5

28.7

30.7

28.3

29.7

31.6

31.1

34.3

38.0

27.1

27.7

28.6

T6 ( C )
Heater Power (W)

425

808

1242

Dp Orifice (Pa)

60

62

64

Dp Column (Pa)

67

72

78

T2 ( C )
Air outlet dry bulb
0

T3 ( C )
Air outlet wet bulb
0

T4 ( C )
Water inlet temperature T5
0

( C)
Water outlet temperature
0

I. Graph of fully opened Blower

D
p
O
rifc
e

D
p
O
r
i
f
c
e
V
s
H
e
a
t
r
(
k
W
)
.6
6
8
5
.6
7
5
.6
5
5
.0 0
.5H
1
1
.
5
2
e
a
tr(k
W
)
D
p
C
o
l
u
m
n
V
s
H
e
a
t
r
(
k
W
)
1
0
8
6
0
4
2
00 0
.5H
1
1
.
5
2
e
a
tr(k
W
)
Graph 1

Based on graph 1, it can be seen that as the power heater increased the pressure difference on

orifice also increased. However, the difference is only by one which can be considered small.
From this graph, the relationship between the heater and pressure difference is directly

D
p
C
o
lu
m
n

proportional to each other.

Graph 2

Based on graph 2, it can be seen that as the power heater increased the pressure difference on
column also increased. The difference is by tenth which is considered as big addition on the value
Dp of column . From this graph, the relationship between the heater and pressure difference is

D
p
O
r
i
f
c
e
V
s
H
e
a
t
r
(
k
W
)
6
5
4
6
3
2
6
1
0
5
9
80 0
.5H
1
1
.
5
2
e
a
tr(k
W
)
directly proportional to each other. Other than that, it also shows that the effect of heater are
greater toward column that the orifice.

D
p
O
rifc
e

II. Graph of half opened Blower

Graph 3
Based on graph 3, it can be seen that as the power heater increased the pressure difference on
orifice also increased. The difference between Dp is by two which is bigger than the Dp of orifice
from graph 1. From this graph, the relationship between the heater and pressure difference is
directly proportional to each other. It also shows that the opening of blower also affecting the
increase in Dp of orifice.

D
p
C
o
lu
m
n

D
p
C
o
l
u
m
n
V
s
H
e
a
t
r
(
k
W
)
8
0
7
5
0
6
5
00
.5H
1
1
.
5
2
e
a
tr(k
W
)
Graph 4
Based on graph 4, it can be seen that as the power heater increased the pressure difference on
column also increased. The difference between Dp is by five which is smaller than the Dp of
column from graph 2. From this graph, the relationship between the heater and pressure
difference is directly proportional to each other. It also shows that the opening of blower also
affecting the increase in Dp of column. Other than that, it also shows that the effect of heater are
greater toward column that the orifice.

CALCULATION
Sample calculation
Blower Damper
Water Flow rate = 2LPM
Heating Load = 0.5
Blower fully opened = 100%
Range of cooling tower;

Range = Water inlet temperature, T5 - Water outlet temperature, T6


= 31.7 0 C - 27.2 0 C
= 4.5 0 C
Approach of cooling tower;
Approach = Water outlet temperature, T6 - Air inlet wet bulb, T2
= 27.2 0 C - 26.9 0 C
= 0.3 0 C
Efficiency of cooling tower;

range
range approach

4.5
4.5 0.3

100%

100%

= 93.75%
Total cooling load;
Cooling load = heater power (W) + heating load (kW)
= 420 W + ( 0.5 kW )

1000W
1kW

= 920 W
Air mass flow rate per unit area;
(kg/s) =
From psychometric chart ( Felder &
Rousseau, 2005, p. 385);
Air inlet wet bulb, T2 @ Twb = 26.9 0C

V m3 / s

A m 2 V m3 / kg

Interpolation:
Twb (0C)

V (m3/kg)

20.00

0.85

26.9

30.06

0.90

26.9 20.0
V 0.85

30.06 20.0 0.90 0.85

V = 0.884 m3/kg
=

2.0

L 1min 1m 3
min 60s 1000 L

0.0225m 2 0.884m 3 / kg

= 1.684 10-3 kg/m2s


Water mass flow rate per unit area;
(kg of water/m2s) =

m kg , of , air / m 2 s

h kg , water / kg , air

From psychometric chart ( Felder & Rousseau, 2005, p. 385);


Air inlet wet bulb, T2 @ Twb = 26.9 0C
Interpolation:

Twb (0C)

h (kg water/kg air)

20.00

0.0286

26.9

30.06

0.0148

26.9 20.0
h 0.0286

30.06 20.0 0.0148 0.0286

h = 0.01913 kg water/kg air


=

1.684 10 3 kg , air / m 2 s
0.01913kg , water / kg , air

= 0.0880 kg/m2s
Water mass flow rate to air mass flow rate ratio;
r=

m kg , of , water / m 2 s

m kg , 0of.0880
, air / m 2 s
1.684 10 3

r=
r = 52.26

* for the other value, just repeat the same calculation as in the previous sample calculation by
using the value obtained from the experiment.

Power (kW)

Air flow = 100% (blower fully opened)


0.5
1.0

1.5

Range (0C)

4.5

6.5

9.1

Approach of cooling

0.3

1.1

2.3

tower ( C)

Efficiency of cooling

93.75

85.53

79.82

920

1807

2718

1.684 10-3

1.678 10-3

1.681 10-3

0.0880

0.0865

0.0842

52.26

51.52

50.12

tower,
Total cooling load
(W)
Air mass flow rate
per unit area
(kg/m2s)
Water mass flow rate
per unit area
(kg/m2s)
Water mass flow rate
to air mass flow rate
ratio, r

Power (kW)

Air flow = 50% (blower half opened)


0.5
1.0

1.5

Range (0C)

6.6

9.4

Approach of cooling

0.2

1.2

95.24

91.67

82.46

925

1808

2742

1.684 10-3

1.679 10-3

1.678 10-3

tower ( C)
Efficiency of cooling
tower,
Total cooling load
(W)
Air mass flow rate
per unit area
(kg/m2s)

Water mass flow rate

0.0880

0.0853

0.0858

52.26

50.80

51.16

per unit area


(kg/m2s)
Water mass flow rate
to air mass flow rate
ratio, r

Psychometric chart