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Basics of Networking

CCE 570-891
Winter 2000

Instructor: Rocco Piro

Office: TSH 205
Phone: Ex. 24421

Bridges, Routers and Internetworking

Session 10

Organization usually have more than one type of LAN to
satisfy a number of different applications and needs.
The interconnection and joining of these LANS has come to
be Known as the internetworking

Communication Network: A facility that provides data
transfer services among stations attached to the network.
Internet: A collection of communication networks
interconnected by bridges and/or routers.
Sub-network: Refers to a constituent network of the Internet.
End System: Device attached to one of the sub-network of an
Internet that is used to support end users applications and

Intermediate Systems(IS): a device used to connect two subnetworks and permit communication between end systems attached
to different sub-networks.
Bridge: An IS used to connect two LAN's that use similar LAN
The bridge acts as an address filter. It delivers packets from one
LAN intended for a destination on another LAN and passes them
on. It operates in layer 2 of the OSI model.
Router: A device used to connect two sub-networks that may or
may not be similar.
Routers employ Internet protocols present in each router and in
each end system of the network. It operates in layer 3 of the OSI

Routers versus Bridges

Bridges, in general, take action based upon the MAC addresses, and
do not worry about the Packet Type.
This means that Bridge's operate at Layer 2 of the OSI model.
The Bridge does not modify the contents of the packet. Bridges
usually operate between similar LANs.
Routers, in general, take their action based upon information
contained in the Datagram portion of the packet, which requires
them to be aware of the specific protocols they transport.
Thus Routers operate at Layer 3 of the OSI model.
Routers can modify the contents of the packet, and can work
between two different kinds of networks.

Functions of a Bridge
A bridge is the simplest of internetworking devices. It is
implemented between LAN's of identical protocols and
require minimal processing. Bridges perform the following
functions ( in the simplest terms).
1. Read all frames on LAN A, accept those addressed to LAN B.
2. Using MAC on B re-transmit to B.
3. Do the same for B to A traffic.

Functions of a Bridge
The reasons for using bridges are:
RELIABILITY: Dividing one system into smaller interconnected
systems can increase the chance that any one device will not be part
of a system that is disabled.
PERFORMANCE: In general, performance will degrade as the
number of devices increases.
SECURITY: Keeping specific packets on specific physical media
limits both access and monitoring of traffic by devices that are not
authorized to do so.
GEOGRAPHY: For distantly connected LAN's (i.e. separate
physical buildings).

Functions of a Bridge
Protocol Architecture
Under the 802 architecture, each node on the network is identified
at the MAC (Medium Access Control) level.
At the LLC (Logical Link Control) Level, only the SAP (Service
Access Point) Addresses are used.

Across two Bridged networks, the same MAC and LLC protocols
must be employed.

The Bridge need not have any LLC implemented since it is only
concerned with the MAC addresses.
Bridges do not strip MAC frames they just relay them between

Bridge Connections

Routing with Bridges

In complex arrangements bridge's must also make some
routing decisions.

Routing with Bridges

For a packet that is traveling from host 1 to host 6, the packet is
transmitted on LAN A, all of the nodes and bridges ignore the packet
except for the bridge linking LAN A and LAN B.
This bridge re-transmits the packet onto LAN B, on which all
nodes and devices ignore the packet except for the bridge linking
LAN B and LAN C.
This bridge re-transmits the packet on LAN C where it is received
by host 6 the intended recipient.
For a packet that is traveling between host 2 and host 8, there are two
One option goes through one bridge, and the other goes through
two bridges.
The packet should get directed down the shortest path (in terms of
number of HOPS), unless that path is down or congested.

Routing with Bridges

There are three basic strategies for carrying out routing they
1. Fixed Routing ( 802.3 Ethernet)
2. Transparent Bridging (802.3 Ethernet)
3. Source Routing ( 802.5 Token Ring)

It should be clear that as network complexity increases, the
basic Bridge does not have enough functionality or capability
to achieve all possible Internet Working requirements.
These requirements can be summed up as:
Link networks both Physically and with LC (Link control).
Route and Delivery Data across networks.
Track use of network resources and monitor their Status.
Do the above without requiring any modification of the
nodes on the networks, while hiding all of the differences
between the networks.

Due to differences between networks, routers function taking
the following in account:
Different Addressing Schemes
Different Maximum Packet Sizes (using segmentation)
Different Network Interfaces.
Different Time-Outs
Error Recovery
Status reporting
Routing Techniques
Access Control

Routing Protocol Architecture

Routing depends on the Internet Protocol (IP) of TCP/IP which
operates at the OSI Layer 3.
For two nodes to communicate across a Router, they must
share the same protocol above IP (in layer 4).
The resulting Datagram represents a form of message
encapsulation of the original protocol.

Routing Protocol Architecture

Routing Protocol Architecture

When ES 1 wants to send something to ES 2, the IP module of ES
1 constructs a Datagram with the global address of ES 2.
1. This Datagram is then sent.
2. The Datagram gets passed down to LLC and is sent to the router
using MAC level addressing.
3. The packet travels across the LAN to the Router.

Routing Protocol Architecture

4. The router removes the MAC and LLC parts of the packet and
analyses the IP Header.
5. The router sends the datagram to the destination network or
6. The datagram gets encapsulated into a packet to match the
MAC type that corresponds to the destination
7. Segmentation may be needed to achieve step 6.

Routing Protocol Architecture

Routing is accomplished by maintaining tables in each end
system (ES) that gives, for each possible destination, the next
router in the Internet that the datagram should be sent to.
The tables can be both static and dynamic.
When routers go down neighbouring routers send status
reports to other routers on the internet allowing for updates of
these tables so that traffic can be diverted away from a
downed router.

Routing Protocol Architecture

Datagram Lifetime:
By imposing the number of hops ( 1 hop is one passing
through a router) assures that the datagram won't circulate the
internet indefinitely if destinations are not found. This is an
actual field which is part of the datagram.

See TCP/IP datagram Frame (next slide). This field gets

decremeted every time it crosses a router by that router.

When the value of the field reaches zero the datagram is


Routing Protocol Architecture

Routing Protocol Architecture

Segmentation and Reassembly:

To accommodate the different packet sizes allowed on

different networks - the datagram may have to go through a
process of segmentation and reassembly.

Once a packet is segmented by a router it will not get

reassembled until it reaches its destination.

The frames are reassembled by using the following fields in

the datagram:
Data unit identifier
Data length offset
More flag

(See text page 520 for detailed explanation)

Internet Protocol
The most widely used Internet protocol is the TCP/IP protocol suite.
The protocol allows the interconnection of individual networks to
give the appearance of a single unified internet in which all systems
can freely exchange data with each other as if directly connected to
one another.
TCP/IP includes a number of alternative routing protocols that can
be use to communicate with end systems and with other routers to
perform routing functions and to relay user data through the internet.
The routing protocols that are used depend on the size and
complexity of the internet.
Large TCP/IP Internet's are divided into what are called autonomous
systems. Some routing protocols are designed to route traffic within
single autonomous systems, while others are designed to route traffic
between individual autonomous systems.

Autonomous Systems
A TCP/IP internet is made up of one or more autonomous

An autonomous system consists of a set of computer systems

and data links, making up one or more physical networks
(subnetworks), administered by one authority.

Routers are frequently referred to as gateways in TCP/IP

Routers within autonomous systems are called Interior
Gateway using Interior Gateway Protocols (IGP).
Routers that connect one autonomous system to another are
called Exterior Gateways using Exterior Gateway Protocol.

Autonomous Systems

Interior Gateway Protocols

A common IGP used with routers within an autonomous
system is the Open Shortest Path First Protocol (OSPF).
The OSPF protocol, as the name implies, computes a route
that incurs the least cost.
Costs being based on delays, data rates and actual dollar costs
of other factors.

Interior Gateway Protocols

The protocol uses a link state algorithm in which each router
knows the complete topology of the internet in term of
existence of other routers and the links between them.

Each router broadcast information about the routers it is

attached to and the status of the datalinks between them.

A router takes this information and constructs a map of the

relevant internet consisting of a graph with routers as systems
and links as edges.

Routers can then calculate routes based on this graph using

another algorithm known as the least-cost algorithm or
Dijkstra shortest path algorithm ( see page 538 - 539 for
detailed explanation - if interested!).

Interior Gateway Protocols

Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP)

In order for data to flow between two autonomous systems in
large TCP/IP internets, a router in one system must
communicate with a router in the other system. A widely used
and standardized EGP is the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP).
EGP packets are used to perform three basic functions:
Exchange of routing information with another autonomous
Check to see if a router in another autonomous system is
still responding.
Obtaining routing information from another autonomous

Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP)

BGP is based on a system of exchanging messages.These messages
can be summarized as follows:
Open - used to open a neighbour relationship with another
Update - Used exchange information about routes being
Keepalive - Used to acknowledge messages and existing
relationship between routers.
Notification- Used to for exchange of error messages.
Routers are considered to be neighbours if they share the same

Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP)

The functional procedures that are carried out by the BGP are as
Neighbour Acquisition - The process of agreeing to exchange
information with another router in an autonomous system. One
router sends an "open" message to the other router which
responds with a keepalive.
Neighbour Reachability - periodic exchange of "keepalive"
messages for ongoing confirmation of the relationship.
Network Reachability - Each router keeps a database or lookup
tables of subnets and the routes for reaching a particular subnet.
These entries are continually updated by the broadcasting of
"update" messages.