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Teach a child WHAT to THINK and you make him

a slave of knowledge;
But, teach a child HOW to THINK and you make
knowledge his slave.

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Module 2: JUDGMENTS AND PROPOSITIONS

Prepared by Mr. Roland Lorenzo M. Ruben


Philosophy section, SSD
De La Salle University - Dasmarias

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OVERVIEW
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

General notions
Divisions of Propositions
Categorical Propositions
Kinds of Categorical Propositions
Basic Standard Forms of Categorical Propositions
Reduction of Proposition to Logical form
Quantity of the Predicate
Hypothetical Propositions

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1. GENERAL NOTIONS
That actual process that transpires in the mind to form a
judgment and a proposition may be outlined as follows:
1st, the mind has ideas or concepts of things;
2nd, these ideas are verbally expressed through the use
of terms;
3rd, the mind sees certain relationships existing
between these ideas or terms;
4th, the mind asserts the relation of affirming, or
denying of these ideas or terms;
5th, we communicate the assertions by means of
language, hence by means of propositions.

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Buddhist
Monks

Those monks are


Buddhists.

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Judgment a mental operation by which the mind affirms or


denies anything whatsoever.
Proposition a declarative sentence which expresses a
relation of affirmation or denial between terms.

A proposition, being a declarative sentence,


expresses either truth or falsity.
Truth is independent of the mind. Truth lies in
the conformity of the judgment to reality.
Thus, a proposition is true if our assertion
coincides with reality and false, if it does not
coincide with reality.

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Trillanes: Scam in Makati bigger than pork theft

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2. DIVISIONS OF PROPOSITIONS
That which is affirmed or denied in a proposition
refers to a relation between two terms. This
relation is of 2 kinds:
1st, a relationship of affirming or denying
something;
2nd, a relation of dependence, opposition or
similarity.
These give rise to 2 fundamental divisions of a
proposition:
1. Categorical propositions
2. Hypothetical propositions
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3. CATEGORICAL PROPOSITIONS
A kind of proposition in which the predicate is either
affirmed or denied of a subject.
It consists of 4 component parts: Quantifier [Q], Subject [S],
Copula [C], Predicate [P].
Quantifier = indicates the degree of universality
(quantity) of the subject. [Universal and Particular]
Subject = the term about which something is either
affirmed or denied.
Copula = that which expresses an affirmation or denial;
linking verb [affirmative or negative].
Predicate = that term which is either affirmed or denied
of the subject.

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QUANTIFIER
All, every, any, no
one, some, few,
most, many, not
all, the, a or an
etc.

SUBJECT
That about
which

COPULA
am, are, is,
am not, are
not, is not

PREDICATE
That which is

The City of Makati is the model for world-class


governance under the Binays.

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4. KINDS OF CATEGORICAL
PROPOSITIONS
Every categorical proposition has the following properties:

Quantity = expresses the number of objects or individuals


to which the proposition is applied. It refers to the extension
of the subject term, its whole extension or only a part of
it. Thus, the quantity or extension of the subject term
determines the quantity of the proposition. [Universal &
Particular]

Quality = establishes the kind of relation asserted


between the predicate and the subject of a proposition. This
relation is either affirmative or negative. It is the copula who
determines whether the predicate is affirmed or denied of
the subject. [Affirmative & Negative]
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a. Quantity
1) Universal proposition one whose
subject is universal. If the subject term is
singular, the proposition is universal.
Indicators: All, every, no one, and the definite
article: the.
Examples:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Every good deed is to be rewarded.


No educated persons are jobless.
All martyrs are not cowards.
PNoy is the president of the Philippines.
The student-leader of DLSU-D is very
scholarly.
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a. Quantity
2) Particular proposition one whose
subject is particular. Indicators: some,
many, not all, most, etc., and the
indefinite article: a or an.
Examples:
1.
2.
3.
4.

An educator is an advocate of radical change.


Many politicians are not honest.
Not every activist is a communist.
Some independent nations are
underdeveloped.
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b. Quality

Examples:
1.
2.
3.
4.

All politicians are rich people.


Drug addiction is a vice.
Mr. Ruben is our teacher in logic.
I am the greatest!

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b. Quality

Examples:
1. True laws are not unjust.
2. Some students are not active.
3. Andres Bonifacio is not a Caviteo.

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NOTE:

It is the copula that determines the quality of a


proposition. While there are propositions whose
subject or predicate, or both are negative, their
quality will still be determined by their copula.
Example:
1. The love of the Lord is unconditional.
2. An unfaithful wife is scorned.
3. That she is not the murderer is uncertain.

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5. BASIC STANDARD FORMS OF CATEGORICAL


PROPOSITIONS
Combining these 2 properties of quantity and
quality, the categorical propositions are designated as
follows:
QUANTITY

(extension of the subject)

UNIVERSAL

PARTICULAR

NEGATIVE

AFFIRMATIVE
QUALITY
(copula)

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QUANTITY

Universal/
Singular

Particular

QUALITY
AFFIRMATIVE
NEGATIVE
(+)
(-)

(All S are P)

(No S are P)

(Some S are P)

(Some S are not P)

BASIC STANDARD FORMS or BASIC TYPES

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1. All political candidates are people who wants to serve the


country.
2. Some jeepney drivers are not honest.
3. Few teachers are chosen as outstanding.
4. No citizen is above the law.
5. The Catholic Church is an institution that is against artificial
methods of contraception.
6. Manny Pacquiao is the new WBC champion.
7. Not all citizens are registered voters. (Some citizens are not registered
voters)
8. Most Filipinos are great singers.
9. I am a Filipino.

examples
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6. Reduction of Proposition to Logical form


The reduction of a proposition into its logical form
consists of rewording or changing a proposition not in
its logical form into a proposition which clearly
contains the four elements; namely, the quantifier (Q),
the subject term (S), the copula (C), and the predicate
term (Pr).

Mothers generally love their children.

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Pointers on how to reduce propositions to


logical form
1. Once given a proposition, determine mentally whether a
proposition is either A, E, I, or O.
2. The logical subject is that about which something is either
affirmed or denied. One must ask oneself, what is that about
which something is either affirmed or denied?
3. The copula serves to connect the subject and the predicate.
It is always the present tense indicative mood of to be with
or without a negative modifier and it must always follow the
subject term in number and in person.

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Pointers on how to reduce propositions to


logical form
4. The logical predicate is that which is either affirmed or
denied of a subject. Bear in mind that anything that comes
after the subject is the predicate.
1) When the main verb implies an act performed habitually, the main
verb may be used as a predicate noun.
2) The main verb may also be used as a predicate adjective which
modifies the immediate class to which the subject belongs.
3) Sometimes the complete predicate term may be expressed as a
relative clause by using some conjunctive words the one, or that
who, or any appropriate word and its plural form.

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Mothers generally love their children.


1.
2.
3.
4.

I-proposition = some S are P


Some mothers (S)
Some mothers (S) are (C) .
1) Some mothers (S) are (C) lovers of
their children (Pr). [predicate noun]
2) Some mothers are loving parents of
their children. [predicate adjective]
3) Some mothers are the ones who love
their children. [relative clause]
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Non-logical form Categorical propositions


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Birds fly.
Indonesians like spicy foods.
Scorpions have poison.
If you work, then youll eat.
Black ants do not bite.
Only non-students are allowed to join the
contest.
7. Whosoever gives food to the hungry will enter
the Kingdom of God.

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Logical form categorical propositions


1. All birds are creatures that fly.
2. All Indonesians are people who like spicy
foods.
3. All scorpions are creatures that have poison.
4. All those persons who work are those persons
who will eat.
5. All black ants are insects that do not bite.
6. All persons who are allowed to join the contest
are the non-students.
7. All people who give food for the hungry are
persons who will enter the kingdom of God.

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7. Quantity of the Predicate

A & I propositions, both affirmative,


have particular predicate terms.
E & O propositions, both negative,
have universal predicate terms.

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proposition

Subject

Predicate

A = All S are p

E = No S are P

I = Some s are p

O = Some s are not P

Rule No. 1: If the proposition is affirmative, the quantity of the


predicate is particular (except, if the predicate singular,
essential definition and characteristic property).

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proposition

Subject

Predicate

A = All S are p

E = No S are P

I = Some s are p

O = Some s are not P

Rule No. 2: If the proposition is negative, the quantity of the


predicate is universal.

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8. Hypothetical Propositions
Hypothetical proposition a compound or
complex proposition between the parts of which there
exists a relation of dependence, opposition or
similarity.
The categorical proposition uses a copula to signify the
union of predicate and subject.
The hypothetical proposition uses a non-verbal copula.
Other examples are if then, either or, cannot
be and at the same time, etc.

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Examples:
1. If the light is green, then you may cross the intersection.

2. Either you sink or you swim.


3. A person cannot sneeze and breathe at the
same time.
Three kinds:
1. Conditional
2. Disjunctive
3. Conjunctive
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1. Conditional
It is a compound proposition in which one
member asserts something as true on
condition that the other member is
true.
In a conditional, the component proposition
which follows after the if clause is called
the antecedent and the component
proposition which follows the then clause
is the consequent.

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1. Conditional
A conditional proposition asserts that its
antecedent implies its consequent, so that
if the antecedent is true , then the consequent
is true. In similar manner, if the consequent is
false, then the antecedent must be false.

The truth of conditional hypothetical


propositions does not depend on the truth of
the statements taken by themselves or
individually. The truth depends on the
relation between the statements.

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1. Conditional

1. If an animal is incapable of thinking, then an animal is


not a man.
2. If he has cancer, then he is seriously ill.
3. If over-dosage of medicine is dangerous, then it must be
avoided.

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2. Disjunctive
It is a compound or complex proposition which does not
categorically affirm either one of its members, but asserts
that at least one of them is true, allowing for the
possibility that others may be true.
Unlike a conjunctive, a disjunctive proposition contains two
or more members (disjuncts) which are joined together by
either. or..
For a proposition to be a proper disjunction, all
the possible alternatives must be present or
expressed; then the truth of one is

established by eliminating all the


others.

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2. Disjunctive
Logical form: Either ..., or
(disjunct)
(disjunct)
1. Either he committed suicide or he was killed by
somebody.
2. Either the patient is operated on or he will die.
3. I will go to Ozamiz either by plane, by boat or by land
travel.

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3. Conjunctive
It is a compound proposition which expresses that two
alternative assumptions are not or cannot be true
simultaneously.
The two elements exclude one another, so that they
cannot be true together and they cannot be false together.
The component parts (conjuncts) are joined by the
conjunctive particle cannot be both. and .
For a proposition to be a valid conjunctive, it is necessary
that the elements are really irreconcilable at the same
time.

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3. Conjunctive
Logical form: cannot be.. and .. at the same time.
(conjunct)

(conjunct)

1. A student cannot be diligent and non-diligent at the


same time.
2. You cannot be a loyal soldier and seditious at the same
time.
3. It is obvious that a person cannot be a Negro and a
Caucasian at the same time.

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My parents sought for nothing less, died for nothing less,


than democracy and peace.
Our foremost duty is to lift the nation from poverty through
honest and effective governance.
There can be no reconciliation without justice.

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1. Through association of ideas, our mind asserts


whether one idea is affirmed or denied of another.
This process is called judgment.
2. When we try to communicate this to others, we
express it by means of a proposition.
3. 2 kinds: Categorical and Hypothetical
4. Categorical = quantifier, subject, copula and
predicate
5. 2 properties: Quantity and Quality

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6. The combination of quantity and quality of


proposition gives rise to 4 types of propositions:
A, E, I, O
7. Quantity of predicate:
affirmative propositions particular
negative propositions universal

8. Hypothetical = conditional, disjunctive and


conjunctive

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Module 2: JUDGMENTS AND PROPOSITIONS

Next topic: INFERENCE

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