Anda di halaman 1dari 6

International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 78 (2001) 5964

www.elsevier.com/locate/ijpvp

A continuum damage mechanics model on low cycle fatigue life


assessment of steam turbine rotor
Jian Ping Jing a,*, Yi Sun a, Song Bo Xia b, Guo Tai Feng b
a

Department of Astronautics and Mechanics, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 344, Harbin, 150001, People's Republic of China
School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 458, Harbin, 150001, People's Republic of China

Received 11 August 2000; revised 21 October 2000; accepted 25 October 2000

Abstract
A nonlinear Continuum Damage Mechanics model (CDM) is proposed to assess the low cycle fatigue life of a steam turbine rotor, in which
the effects of mean stress are taken into account and the damage is accumulated nonlinearly. The model is applied to a 200 MW steam turbine
under cold start and sliding parameter stop. The results are compared with those from the linear accumulation theory that is dominant in life
assessment of steam turbine rotors at present. The comparison results show that the nonlinear CDM model describes the accumulation and
development of damage better than the linear accumulation theory. q 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.
Keywords: Low cycle fatigue; Damage; Steam turbine rotor

1. Introduction
Being an important part of the steam turbine, the rotor
operates with a high speed and in high temperature, high
pressure environment. Cracks are apt to initiate. Several
serious rotor fracture accidents have been reported since
the 1970s. The accident analyses show that rotor fractures
are mostly caused by low cycle fatigue and plastic bending.
One of the most important causes of low cycle fatigue of
steam turbine rotors is thermal stress. Therefore, it must be
considered in steam turbine fatigue design and life
prediction.
At present, the Linear Damage Accumulation Theory
(LDA) is widely used in the life assessment of steam turbine
rotors. As it contains uniaxial assumptions, the effects of
multiaxial stress are ignored and the damage accumulation
calculation is rather crude. The predicted results are usually
quite different from practice. In the past three decades,
Continuum Damage Mechanics (CDM) has developed
very quickly. It studies the mechanical properties of material with micro-defects and the laws of damage evolution.
CDM may describe the entire failure process from microrupture initiation, visual crack formation to structure failure.
It has been used successfully in many engineering elds
such as creep, fatigue, ductile fracture and composite
failure [13].
* Corresponding author. Tel.: 186-451-2139533.
E-mail address: sunyi@hope.hit.edu.cn (J.P. Jing).
0308-0161/01/$ - see front matter q 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.
PII: S 0308-016 1(01)00005-9

In this paper, the transient thermal elasticplastic stress


eld of a 200 MW steam turbine rotor is investigated. The
nonlinear CDM model is employed to analyze the low cycle
damage of the steam turbine rotor and the results are
compared with those from LDA theory. Finally, the advantages of the nonlinear CDM model are discussed.
2. Theoretical model
2.1. Linear damage accumulation theory
Until recently, the MansonCofn component equations
and the Miner's linear accumulation theory were often
employed in analyzing the low cycle damage and life of
steam turbine rotors. The life prediction is approached by
the MansonCofn component equations
D ee
s0
f 2Nf b ;
2
E

1a

D ep
e 0f 2Nf c :
2

1b

The damage accumulation is described by Miner's linear


accumulation theory. A structure fails when damage
amounts to 1
n1
n
n
1 2 1 1 n 1:
N1
N2
Nn

60

J.P. Jing et al. / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 78 (2001) 5964

Nomenclature

s 0f
b
c
Nf
Dep
N1
N2
Nn
n
sH
s ij
A, a , r

fatigue strength coefcient


fatigue strength exponent
fatigue ductility exponent
cycles to failure
plastic strain range
cycles to failure under a load s 1
cycles to failure under a load s 2
cycles to failure under a load s n
poission's ratio
mean stress
component of curchy stress
temperature dependent material constants
under low frequency conditions
D
damage parameter
cyclic stress range
Ds
K0
cyclic strength coefcient
E
Young's modulus
e 0f
fatigue ductility coefcient
N
number of cycles
elastic strain range
Dee
cycles under a load s 1
n1
n2
cycles under a load s 2
nn
cycles under a load s n
RV
triaxial coefcient
s eq
effective stress
component of partial stress
Sij
s kk
component of normal stress
e_ p
plastic strain rate
dij d function
t
time
cyclic stress range at saturation
Ds p
cyclic strain hardening exponent
n0

saturation, then
D12

Ds
:
Ds p

Damage may also be related to the variation in density,


resistivity or other material properties.
The equation of damage evolution of intergranular
fatigue cracking based on thermodynamic principles has
been proposed by Lemaitre and Chaboche [1,4], who took
into account the effects of nonlinear damage accumulation
and multiaxial stress
RV Derp
e_ p
dD

;
dt
Ar 1 1 1 2 Da

Where RV is the triaxial coefcient and is expressed as


!2
2
sH
5
RV 1 1 n 1 31 2 2n
s eq
3
and

s eq

3
S S
2 ij ij

1=2

; Sij s ij 2 s H dij ; s H

1
s
3 kk

a and r are material constants adjusted to t the experimental result. For proportional loading, RV constant. Integrating Eq. (5) during a cycle and neglecting higher order terms
Der11
dD
RV
p

:
Ar 1 1 1 2 Da
dN

For cyclic proportional loading, Dep constant. Let N 0;


D 0 and N Nf ; D 1: Integrating Eq. (6)
Nf

Ar 1 1
De2r11 :
a 1 1RV p

The fatigue damage evolution law


D 1 2 1 2 N=Nf 1=a11 :

The LDA theory is based on the following assumptions:


1. In every loading block, the load must be symmetric.
2. For any stress level, at the beginning or at the end, each
cycle leads to the same damage.
3. Loading sequence does not affect life prediction
.
2.2. Continuum damage mechanics theory [1,4]
For a nominal stress of s , the damage parameter D is zero
for the material containing no cracks and unity when rupture
takes place. Also s=1 2 D is the `effective' stress, takes
into account the weakness of the material due to the
presence of voids or micro-cracks. From a thermodynamic
point of view, D is an internal variable of an irreversible
damage process. During strain controlled cycling, if Ds is
the cyclic stress range and Ds p is the cyclic stress range at

Fig. 1. Finite element mesh of high pressure rotor of 200 MW steam


turbine.

J.P. Jing et al. / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 78 (2001) 5964

61

Fig. 2. Cold start and sliding parameter stop operation curves.

Notice that in the present CDM model, the damage accumulates nonlinearly and the effects of stress triaxiality are
considered.
3. Elasticplastic analysis of 200 MW steam turbine
rotor
In the control stage and rst compressor stage of the high
pressure rotor of a 200 MW steam turbine, large temperature gradients and thermal stresses usually occur. Therefore,
the life of a turbine is mainly dependent on the damage
evolution in these stages. In the present paper, the transient
temperature eld and the thermal elasticplastic stress eld
under cold start and sliding parameter stop are calculated by
the nite element software adina. The nite element model
is shown in Fig. 1. The cold start and sliding parameter stop
curves are shown in Fig. 2 [5].
In the calculation all related parameters are considered as
functions of time and temperature. The convection coefTable 1
K 0 , n 0 at different temperatures of 30Cr2MoV

cients from Westinghouse [6] are adopted. Note that using


the monotonic stressstrain constitutive relation to analyze
the stress and strain of cyclically-softened material would
result in an underestimation of the real damage of the material. Therefore the cyclic stressstrain relation of
30Cr2MoV rotor material [7] is employed in the stress
and strain analysis. The cyclic stressstrain relation is
written as
0

Ds=2 K 0 De p =2n :
The cyclic strain hardening exponents n 0 and the cyclic
strength coefcients K 0 at several temperatures of
30Cr2MoV are shown in Table 1. In the analysis, the centrifugal force of the rotor is also taken into account. The
calculated results reveal that some areas become plastic
and the accumulated plastic strain and triaxial coefcient
of the yielded locations are shown in Table 2. The effective
stress elds at peak strain amplitude under cold start and
sliding parameter stop are shown in Figs. 3 and 4.
4. Damage and life analysis and model comparison

Temperature (8C)

K0

n0

25
420
525
538

747.99
712.33
547.02
467.98

0.06532
0.076278
0.062555
0.045861

The MansonCofn strain-life equation of 30Cr2MoV


rotor steel at 258C is given by [8]
Dep =2 1:35202Nf 20:702908 :

In terms of the CDM theory (Section 2) and the test data

Table 2
Strain and triaxial coefcient of yielded points of high pressure rotor under cold start and sliding parameter stop
Yield points

Cold Start Dep =2

Cold start RV

Sliding parameter
stop Dep =2

Sliding parameter
stop RV

Front root of control stage impeller


Back root of control stage impeller
Root of rst stage impeller

0.000547
0.00192
0.000607

1.885
1.698
1.465

0.00066
0.00201
0.000683

1.855
1.766
1.507

62

J.P. Jing et al. / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 78 (2001) 5964

Fig. 3. Stress eld of high pressure rotor of 200 MW steam turbine under
cold start.

from reference [7,8], the multiaxial damage evolution equation of 30Cr2MoV rotor steel at 258C is written as
1:4227

Dep
dD
RV

:
0:8522 1 2 D5:7522
dN

10

The life prediction equation follows


Nf

0:8522 21:4227
D ep
:
RV

11

Under uniaxial loading,RV 1; Nf is expressed as


:
Nf 0:8522De21:4227
p

12

The damage evolution follows as


D 1 2 1 2 N=Nf 0:1481 :

13

Fig. 5. Damage evolution for low cycle fatigue of 30Cr2MoV at 258C and
Dep 0:5%:

Fig. 5 shows that the above CDM model ts well the uniaxial low cycle fatigue test data. The experimental damage
parameter D is dened by Eq. (3).
By using of the MansonCofn strain-life equation and
the CDM model of Eqs. (11) and (12), the life predictions of
high pressure rotor of 200 MW steam turbine under cold
start and sliding parameter stop are calculated, respectively.
The results are listed in Table 3 and Table 4. It is shown that
the life predictions of MansonCofn model coincide with
those of an uniaxial CDM model, but are quite different
from the results of a multiaxial CDM model. The inherent
weakness of the MansonCofn equation in not dealing
Table 3
Life predictions of yielded points under cold start
Theory model

Front root of
control stage
impeller

Back root of
control stage
impeller

Root of rst
compressor stage
impeller

MansonCofn
equation
Uniaxial CDM
model
Multiaxial CDM
model

13900

2329

11987

13904

2330

11990

7376

1372

8184

Table 4
Life predictions of yielded points under sliding parameter stop

Fig. 4. Stress eld of high pressure rotor of 200 MW steam turbine under
sliding parameter stop.

Theory model

Front root of
control stage
impeller

Back root of
control stage
impeller

Root of rst
compressor stage
impeller

MansonCofn
equation
Uniaxial CDM
model
Multiaxial CDM
model

10641

2182

10135

10644

2183

10138

5738

1236

6727

J.P. Jing et al. / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 78 (2001) 5964

Fig. 6. Distribution of triaxial coefcient of 200 MW turbine high pressure


rotor under cold start.

well with the multiaxial problem is reected. The triaxial


coefcient is adopted in multiaxial CDM model, and the
effects of stress state are considered. It is therefore expected
that the multiaxial CDM model could predict the life and
damage evolution more accurately [9].
In the life predictions of the multiaxial CDM model,
the triaxial coefcient affects the results greatly. In
Figs. 6 and 7, the triaxial coefcient elds corresponding to the stress elds in Figs. 3 and 4 are plotted. The
results show that the life predictions in turbine rotor
design may change greatly if the effects of multiaxial loading are considered.
In Fig. 8 the damage evolution at the root of control stage
impeller is obtained by applying Miner's linear accumulation law and the uniaxial CDM model (Eq. (13)). The curves
show that the damage evolution from the uniaxial CDM

Fig. 7. Distribution of triaxial coefcient of 200 MW turbine high pressure


rotor under sliding parameter stop.

63

Fig. 8. Comparison of linear damage accumulation and uniaxial nonlinear


damage evolution.

model appears nonlinearly. This coincides with the real


damage evolution process of a rotor material. The linear
accumulation law overestimates the damage evolution
values.
In Fig. 9 the damage evolution from a multiaxial CDM
model is compared with that from an uniaxial CDM model.
The results show that the multiaxial complex stress accelerates the damage accumulation greatly. Therefore, in
damage analysis of a steam turbine rotor, the effects of
multiaxial complex stress must be considered.
The average design life of a steam turbine is usually
30 years. Assuming the frequencies of both cold start and
sliding parameter stop are three times per year, the total
number of cold start and sliding parameter stop are 90
times in 30 years. Finally, the total damages of the dangerous points of a 200 MW steam turbine rotor are obtained by
applying the LDA theory and the multiaxial CDM model.
The results are shown in Table 5.
In both CDM and LDA theory, the structure fails when

Fig. 9. Comparison of multiaxial and uniaxial nonlinear damage evolution.

64

J.P. Jing et al. / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 78 (2001) 5964

Table 5
Total damages at 30 years of yielded points under cold start and sliding
parameter stop
Theory model

Front root of
control stage
impeller

Back root of
control stage
impeller

Root of rst
compressor
stage impeller

LDA theory
Uniaxial CDM
model
Multiaxial CDM
model

0.0149
0.0045

0.0799
0.0245

0.0164
0.0049

0.0084

0.0437

0.0073

damage amounts to 1, i.e. D 1: While Fig. 9 shows that


the life of the back root of the control stage impeller under
multiaxial load has nearly been exhausted when the damage
is near 0.26, so that D 0:26 is suggested. Therefore,
although the estimated damage from the multiaxial CDM
model is 4.37% (shown in Table 4), at this time 16.81% of
the life has been used. It is obviously more reasonable than
the result from LDA theory of 7.99%. The difference of the
results from the uniaxial CDM model and the multiaxial
CDM model shown in Table 4 illustrates that the multiaxial
complex stress affects material damage greatly. It is also
suggested that although the LDA theory may overestimate
the damage evolution, it is not always a conservative estimation in life prediction. This should be important in practical rotor design.
The above analyses show that, compared with the LDA
theory, the nonlinear CDM model can not only describes the
damage accumulation more precisely but also takes into
account the effects of multiaxial complex stress. Therefore,
both the life prediction and the damage accumulation seem
to be in better agreement with the practical case.
5. Conclusions
In this paper, a nonlinear CDM model is employed to
predict the low cycle fatigue damage and life of a
200 MW stream turbine high pressure rotor, and the results
are compared with those from a LDA theory. The conclusions drawn from the study can be summarized as follows:
1. Since the LDA theory used a uniaxial assumption, the
effects of multiaxial complex stress are not considered.

The life is over evaluated.


2. The Miner's LDA law has overestimated the damage of
the material. The nonlinear CDM model can describe the
damage accumulation more accurately.
3. Multiaxial complex stress makes the life shorter and
accelerates damage accumulation. Therefore, in the
fatigue analysis of a steam turbine rotor, the effects of
multiaxial complex stress must be considered.
4. The nonlinear CDM model can not only describe damage
accumulation correctly but can also take into account the
effects of multiaxial complex stress. Therefore, it leads to
results in better agreement with the practical values than
those of LDA theory.

Acknowledgements
The present work is supported by the National Key Basic
Research Special Fund (No. G1998020321) the Natural
Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province, and the
Fund of the Excellent Youth of Harbin Institute of
Technology.
References
[1] Lemaitre J. A continuum damage mechanics model for ductile fracture.
J Engng Mater Technol, Trans ASME 1985;107(1):839.
[2] Assimina A, Pelegri AA. Evolution of interlayer and intralayer cracks
under compressive fatigue in composites. Trans ASME, J Engng Mater
Technol 1999;121(4):4305.
[3] Lacy TE. On representation of damage evolution in continuum damage
mechanics. Int J Damage Mech 1997;6(1):6295.
[4] Chaboche JL, Lesne PM. A nonlinear continuous fatigue damage
model. Fatigue Fract Engng Mater Struct 1988;11(1):117.
[5] ChaoYang Power Plant. Operations of 200 MW steam turbine. Peking,
China: Waterpower and Electricity Power Publishing Company, 1990.
[6] Zhang Baoheng. Life management and load-peak adjustment running
of large capacity fossil power generator. Peking, China: Waterpower
and Electric Power Publishing Company, 1988. p. 1927 (In Chinese).
[7] Sun Jinsong, Li Changbao. Investigation on low-cycle performance of
30Cr2MoV rotor steel under high temperature. Turbine Technol
1998;40(4):24850 (in Chinese).
[8] Liu Yan, Sun Jinsong. Investigation on strain fatigue performance of
30Cr2MoV rotor steel under constant temperature and its damage
evolution rule. Turbine Technol 1998;40(2):11720 (in Chinese).
[9] Madelaine C. Simple and efcient multiaxial fatigue damage model for
engineering applications of macro-crack initiation. Trans ASME,
J Engng Mater Tech 1993;115(4):3739.