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www.elsevier.com/locate/ijpvp

assessment of steam turbine rotor

Jian Ping Jing a,*, Yi Sun a, Song Bo Xia b, Guo Tai Feng b

a

Department of Astronautics and Mechanics, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 344, Harbin, 150001, People's Republic of China

School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 458, Harbin, 150001, People's Republic of China

Abstract

A nonlinear Continuum Damage Mechanics model (CDM) is proposed to assess the low cycle fatigue life of a steam turbine rotor, in which

the effects of mean stress are taken into account and the damage is accumulated nonlinearly. The model is applied to a 200 MW steam turbine

under cold start and sliding parameter stop. The results are compared with those from the linear accumulation theory that is dominant in life

assessment of steam turbine rotors at present. The comparison results show that the nonlinear CDM model describes the accumulation and

development of damage better than the linear accumulation theory. q 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

Keywords: Low cycle fatigue; Damage; Steam turbine rotor

1. Introduction

Being an important part of the steam turbine, the rotor

operates with a high speed and in high temperature, high

pressure environment. Cracks are apt to initiate. Several

serious rotor fracture accidents have been reported since

the 1970s. The accident analyses show that rotor fractures

are mostly caused by low cycle fatigue and plastic bending.

One of the most important causes of low cycle fatigue of

steam turbine rotors is thermal stress. Therefore, it must be

considered in steam turbine fatigue design and life

prediction.

At present, the Linear Damage Accumulation Theory

(LDA) is widely used in the life assessment of steam turbine

rotors. As it contains uniaxial assumptions, the effects of

multiaxial stress are ignored and the damage accumulation

calculation is rather crude. The predicted results are usually

quite different from practice. In the past three decades,

Continuum Damage Mechanics (CDM) has developed

very quickly. It studies the mechanical properties of material with micro-defects and the laws of damage evolution.

CDM may describe the entire failure process from microrupture initiation, visual crack formation to structure failure.

It has been used successfully in many engineering elds

such as creep, fatigue, ductile fracture and composite

failure [13].

* Corresponding author. Tel.: 186-451-2139533.

E-mail address: sunyi@hope.hit.edu.cn (J.P. Jing).

0308-0161/01/$ - see front matter q 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

PII: S 0308-016 1(01)00005-9

eld of a 200 MW steam turbine rotor is investigated. The

nonlinear CDM model is employed to analyze the low cycle

damage of the steam turbine rotor and the results are

compared with those from LDA theory. Finally, the advantages of the nonlinear CDM model are discussed.

2. Theoretical model

2.1. Linear damage accumulation theory

Until recently, the MansonCofn component equations

and the Miner's linear accumulation theory were often

employed in analyzing the low cycle damage and life of

steam turbine rotors. The life prediction is approached by

the MansonCofn component equations

D ee

s0

f 2Nf b ;

2

E

1a

D ep

e 0f 2Nf c :

2

1b

accumulation theory. A structure fails when damage

amounts to 1

n1

n

n

1 2 1 1 n 1:

N1

N2

Nn

60

J.P. Jing et al. / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 78 (2001) 5964

Nomenclature

s 0f

b

c

Nf

Dep

N1

N2

Nn

n

sH

s ij

A, a , r

fatigue strength exponent

fatigue ductility exponent

cycles to failure

plastic strain range

cycles to failure under a load s 1

cycles to failure under a load s 2

cycles to failure under a load s n

poission's ratio

mean stress

component of curchy stress

temperature dependent material constants

under low frequency conditions

D

damage parameter

cyclic stress range

Ds

K0

cyclic strength coefcient

E

Young's modulus

e 0f

fatigue ductility coefcient

N

number of cycles

elastic strain range

Dee

cycles under a load s 1

n1

n2

cycles under a load s 2

nn

cycles under a load s n

RV

triaxial coefcient

s eq

effective stress

component of partial stress

Sij

s kk

component of normal stress

e_ p

plastic strain rate

dij d function

t

time

cyclic stress range at saturation

Ds p

cyclic strain hardening exponent

n0

saturation, then

D12

Ds

:

Ds p

resistivity or other material properties.

The equation of damage evolution of intergranular

fatigue cracking based on thermodynamic principles has

been proposed by Lemaitre and Chaboche [1,4], who took

into account the effects of nonlinear damage accumulation

and multiaxial stress

RV Derp

e_ p

dD

;

dt

Ar 1 1 1 2 Da

!2

2

sH

5

RV 1 1 n 1 31 2 2n

s eq

3

and

s eq

3

S S

2 ij ij

1=2

; Sij s ij 2 s H dij ; s H

1

s

3 kk

a and r are material constants adjusted to t the experimental result. For proportional loading, RV constant. Integrating Eq. (5) during a cycle and neglecting higher order terms

Der11

dD

RV

p

:

Ar 1 1 1 2 Da

dN

D 0 and N Nf ; D 1: Integrating Eq. (6)

Nf

Ar 1 1

De2r11 :

a 1 1RV p

D 1 2 1 2 N=Nf 1=a11 :

1. In every loading block, the load must be symmetric.

2. For any stress level, at the beginning or at the end, each

cycle leads to the same damage.

3. Loading sequence does not affect life prediction

.

2.2. Continuum damage mechanics theory [1,4]

For a nominal stress of s , the damage parameter D is zero

for the material containing no cracks and unity when rupture

takes place. Also s=1 2 D is the `effective' stress, takes

into account the weakness of the material due to the

presence of voids or micro-cracks. From a thermodynamic

point of view, D is an internal variable of an irreversible

damage process. During strain controlled cycling, if Ds is

the cyclic stress range and Ds p is the cyclic stress range at

turbine.

J.P. Jing et al. / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 78 (2001) 5964

61

Notice that in the present CDM model, the damage accumulates nonlinearly and the effects of stress triaxiality are

considered.

3. Elasticplastic analysis of 200 MW steam turbine

rotor

In the control stage and rst compressor stage of the high

pressure rotor of a 200 MW steam turbine, large temperature gradients and thermal stresses usually occur. Therefore,

the life of a turbine is mainly dependent on the damage

evolution in these stages. In the present paper, the transient

temperature eld and the thermal elasticplastic stress eld

under cold start and sliding parameter stop are calculated by

the nite element software adina. The nite element model

is shown in Fig. 1. The cold start and sliding parameter stop

curves are shown in Fig. 2 [5].

In the calculation all related parameters are considered as

functions of time and temperature. The convection coefTable 1

K 0 , n 0 at different temperatures of 30Cr2MoV

the monotonic stressstrain constitutive relation to analyze

the stress and strain of cyclically-softened material would

result in an underestimation of the real damage of the material. Therefore the cyclic stressstrain relation of

30Cr2MoV rotor material [7] is employed in the stress

and strain analysis. The cyclic stressstrain relation is

written as

0

Ds=2 K 0 De p =2n :

The cyclic strain hardening exponents n 0 and the cyclic

strength coefcients K 0 at several temperatures of

30Cr2MoV are shown in Table 1. In the analysis, the centrifugal force of the rotor is also taken into account. The

calculated results reveal that some areas become plastic

and the accumulated plastic strain and triaxial coefcient

of the yielded locations are shown in Table 2. The effective

stress elds at peak strain amplitude under cold start and

sliding parameter stop are shown in Figs. 3 and 4.

4. Damage and life analysis and model comparison

Temperature (8C)

K0

n0

25

420

525

538

747.99

712.33

547.02

467.98

0.06532

0.076278

0.062555

0.045861

rotor steel at 258C is given by [8]

Dep =2 1:35202Nf 20:702908 :

Table 2

Strain and triaxial coefcient of yielded points of high pressure rotor under cold start and sliding parameter stop

Yield points

Cold start RV

Sliding parameter

stop Dep =2

Sliding parameter

stop RV

Back root of control stage impeller

Root of rst stage impeller

0.000547

0.00192

0.000607

1.885

1.698

1.465

0.00066

0.00201

0.000683

1.855

1.766

1.507

62

J.P. Jing et al. / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 78 (2001) 5964

Fig. 3. Stress eld of high pressure rotor of 200 MW steam turbine under

cold start.

from reference [7,8], the multiaxial damage evolution equation of 30Cr2MoV rotor steel at 258C is written as

1:4227

Dep

dD

RV

:

0:8522 1 2 D5:7522

dN

10

Nf

0:8522 21:4227

D ep

:

RV

11

:

Nf 0:8522De21:4227

p

12

D 1 2 1 2 N=Nf 0:1481 :

13

Fig. 5. Damage evolution for low cycle fatigue of 30Cr2MoV at 258C and

Dep 0:5%:

Fig. 5 shows that the above CDM model ts well the uniaxial low cycle fatigue test data. The experimental damage

parameter D is dened by Eq. (3).

By using of the MansonCofn strain-life equation and

the CDM model of Eqs. (11) and (12), the life predictions of

high pressure rotor of 200 MW steam turbine under cold

start and sliding parameter stop are calculated, respectively.

The results are listed in Table 3 and Table 4. It is shown that

the life predictions of MansonCofn model coincide with

those of an uniaxial CDM model, but are quite different

from the results of a multiaxial CDM model. The inherent

weakness of the MansonCofn equation in not dealing

Table 3

Life predictions of yielded points under cold start

Theory model

Front root of

control stage

impeller

Back root of

control stage

impeller

Root of rst

compressor stage

impeller

MansonCofn

equation

Uniaxial CDM

model

Multiaxial CDM

model

13900

2329

11987

13904

2330

11990

7376

1372

8184

Table 4

Life predictions of yielded points under sliding parameter stop

Fig. 4. Stress eld of high pressure rotor of 200 MW steam turbine under

sliding parameter stop.

Theory model

Front root of

control stage

impeller

Back root of

control stage

impeller

Root of rst

compressor stage

impeller

MansonCofn

equation

Uniaxial CDM

model

Multiaxial CDM

model

10641

2182

10135

10644

2183

10138

5738

1236

6727

J.P. Jing et al. / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 78 (2001) 5964

rotor under cold start.

coefcient is adopted in multiaxial CDM model, and the

effects of stress state are considered. It is therefore expected

that the multiaxial CDM model could predict the life and

damage evolution more accurately [9].

In the life predictions of the multiaxial CDM model,

the triaxial coefcient affects the results greatly. In

Figs. 6 and 7, the triaxial coefcient elds corresponding to the stress elds in Figs. 3 and 4 are plotted. The

results show that the life predictions in turbine rotor

design may change greatly if the effects of multiaxial loading are considered.

In Fig. 8 the damage evolution at the root of control stage

impeller is obtained by applying Miner's linear accumulation law and the uniaxial CDM model (Eq. (13)). The curves

show that the damage evolution from the uniaxial CDM

rotor under sliding parameter stop.

63

damage evolution.

damage evolution process of a rotor material. The linear

accumulation law overestimates the damage evolution

values.

In Fig. 9 the damage evolution from a multiaxial CDM

model is compared with that from an uniaxial CDM model.

The results show that the multiaxial complex stress accelerates the damage accumulation greatly. Therefore, in

damage analysis of a steam turbine rotor, the effects of

multiaxial complex stress must be considered.

The average design life of a steam turbine is usually

30 years. Assuming the frequencies of both cold start and

sliding parameter stop are three times per year, the total

number of cold start and sliding parameter stop are 90

times in 30 years. Finally, the total damages of the dangerous points of a 200 MW steam turbine rotor are obtained by

applying the LDA theory and the multiaxial CDM model.

The results are shown in Table 5.

In both CDM and LDA theory, the structure fails when

64

J.P. Jing et al. / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 78 (2001) 5964

Table 5

Total damages at 30 years of yielded points under cold start and sliding

parameter stop

Theory model

Front root of

control stage

impeller

Back root of

control stage

impeller

Root of rst

compressor

stage impeller

LDA theory

Uniaxial CDM

model

Multiaxial CDM

model

0.0149

0.0045

0.0799

0.0245

0.0164

0.0049

0.0084

0.0437

0.0073

the life of the back root of the control stage impeller under

multiaxial load has nearly been exhausted when the damage

is near 0.26, so that D 0:26 is suggested. Therefore,

although the estimated damage from the multiaxial CDM

model is 4.37% (shown in Table 4), at this time 16.81% of

the life has been used. It is obviously more reasonable than

the result from LDA theory of 7.99%. The difference of the

results from the uniaxial CDM model and the multiaxial

CDM model shown in Table 4 illustrates that the multiaxial

complex stress affects material damage greatly. It is also

suggested that although the LDA theory may overestimate

the damage evolution, it is not always a conservative estimation in life prediction. This should be important in practical rotor design.

The above analyses show that, compared with the LDA

theory, the nonlinear CDM model can not only describes the

damage accumulation more precisely but also takes into

account the effects of multiaxial complex stress. Therefore,

both the life prediction and the damage accumulation seem

to be in better agreement with the practical case.

5. Conclusions

In this paper, a nonlinear CDM model is employed to

predict the low cycle fatigue damage and life of a

200 MW stream turbine high pressure rotor, and the results

are compared with those from a LDA theory. The conclusions drawn from the study can be summarized as follows:

1. Since the LDA theory used a uniaxial assumption, the

effects of multiaxial complex stress are not considered.

2. The Miner's LDA law has overestimated the damage of

the material. The nonlinear CDM model can describe the

damage accumulation more accurately.

3. Multiaxial complex stress makes the life shorter and

accelerates damage accumulation. Therefore, in the

fatigue analysis of a steam turbine rotor, the effects of

multiaxial complex stress must be considered.

4. The nonlinear CDM model can not only describe damage

accumulation correctly but can also take into account the

effects of multiaxial complex stress. Therefore, it leads to

results in better agreement with the practical values than

those of LDA theory.

Acknowledgements

The present work is supported by the National Key Basic

Research Special Fund (No. G1998020321) the Natural

Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province, and the

Fund of the Excellent Youth of Harbin Institute of

Technology.

References

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J Engng Mater Technol, Trans ASME 1985;107(1):839.

[2] Assimina A, Pelegri AA. Evolution of interlayer and intralayer cracks

under compressive fatigue in composites. Trans ASME, J Engng Mater

Technol 1999;121(4):4305.

[3] Lacy TE. On representation of damage evolution in continuum damage

mechanics. Int J Damage Mech 1997;6(1):6295.

[4] Chaboche JL, Lesne PM. A nonlinear continuous fatigue damage

model. Fatigue Fract Engng Mater Struct 1988;11(1):117.

[5] ChaoYang Power Plant. Operations of 200 MW steam turbine. Peking,

China: Waterpower and Electricity Power Publishing Company, 1990.

[6] Zhang Baoheng. Life management and load-peak adjustment running

of large capacity fossil power generator. Peking, China: Waterpower

and Electric Power Publishing Company, 1988. p. 1927 (In Chinese).

[7] Sun Jinsong, Li Changbao. Investigation on low-cycle performance of

30Cr2MoV rotor steel under high temperature. Turbine Technol

1998;40(4):24850 (in Chinese).

[8] Liu Yan, Sun Jinsong. Investigation on strain fatigue performance of

30Cr2MoV rotor steel under constant temperature and its damage

evolution rule. Turbine Technol 1998;40(2):11720 (in Chinese).

[9] Madelaine C. Simple and efcient multiaxial fatigue damage model for

engineering applications of macro-crack initiation. Trans ASME,

J Engng Mater Tech 1993;115(4):3739.

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