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# ECE1002 - Semiconductors Devices and Circuits

## Winter Semester 2015-16

Problem Sheet 1
1. An electron is moving with a velocity of 4 x 105 ms-1. Determine, the electron:a) momentum,
b) de Broglie wavelength in nm units and c) its energy in electron-volt units.
2. Given that in Si, n = 1400 cm2V-1s-1, calculate the electron drift velocity at E = 103 V/cm. Also
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calculate the mn (relaxation time) and the mean free path length. Given mn = 0.26m0.
A Si sample is doped with NA = 5 x 1015 cm-3 and ND = 3 x 1015 cm-3, calculate:
i.
The electron and hole concentrations in the sample
ii.
The resistivity of the sample
iii.
The position of the fermi level of the sample
iv.
Assume the sample has, n = 1440 cm2V-1s-1 and p = 480 cm2V-1s-1
A Si sample is doped with NA = 5 x 1015 cm-3 and ND = 3 x 1015 cm-3, calculate the probability
of electron occupancy at:
i.
At the bottom of the conduction band Ec.
ii.
At the top of the valence band Ev.
iii.
At 0.1 eV above Ec.
A Si sample at T = 300 K is doped with 1015 donors cm-3. Calculate the excess electron and
hole concentration required to increase the sample conductivity by 15 percent. What carrier
generation rate is required to maintain these excess concentrations? Assume n = 1350
cm2V-1s-1 and p = 480 cm2V-1s-1 and n = 10-6 sec
The resistivity of doped Si changes with change in the doping density. Calculate the
maximum resistivity (minimum conductivity)that a doped Si sample can have at T = 300 K.
Clue: write the resistivity (conductivity) as a function of the doping density.
A Si sample has NA = 3 x 1016 cm-3 of boron atoms. Determine the concentration of
phosphorous atoms to be added to the given sample such that the sample becomes n-type
with electron concentration 3 x 1016 cm-3.
Given that for Si, the variation of the intrinsic carrier concentration as function of T can be
fitted with the function,

( ) = 3.88 10

exp

## ni(300K) and ni(450K).

9. A Si sample is doped with ND = 1.6x1015 cm-3 of phosphorous atoms. Estimate the
temperature at which the value of the intrinsic carrier concentration equals the doping
density of the sample.
10. Assuming that the hole and electron mobilities are independent of the doping
concentrations, calculate the maximum possible values of resistivity in Si and GaAS at T =
300K. Compare these values with the intrinsic resistivity of these semiconductors. For GaAs,
ni(T=300K) = 1.79 x 106 cm-3, n = 8500 cm2V-1s-1and p = 400 cm2V-1s-1.
11. The resistivity o of a Ge sample is measured at T = 300K . The sample is then remelted and
doped with 4.4 x 1016 arsenic atoms per cm3. A new crystal is grown that has a resistivity of
0.1 ohm-cm and is n-type. Determine the type and concentration of dopant atoms in the
original sample and value of o . Assume n = 2p = 3000 cm2V-1s-1 where necessary.

12. The hole diffusion coefficient in a Si sample is 12 cm2s-1. Determine the mean free path and
the carrier drift velocity in a field of 200 Vcm-1. Also calculate the energy gained by the
carrier in a mean free path. Assume T=300K.
13. In Si the variation of eletron and hole mobilities as a function of the doping concentratiosn
are given by the formulas:

Plot the above and compare them with the below alternative formulas:

= 92 +

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= 47.7 +

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-x-x-x-