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FLUIDS

1.

Sol.

A glass tube scaled at both ends is 1m long. It lies horizontally with the middle 10 cm containing Hg. the two
ends of the tube equal in length contain air at 279C and pressure 76 cm of Hg. The temperature at one end is
kept 00C and at the other end it is 1270C. Neglect the change in length of Hg column. Then the change in
length on two sides is
[Old-DPP_A Batch_05-06_8]
(A) 12.3 cm
(B) 10.311 cm
(C) 9.9 cm
(D*) 8.489 cm
(D) Initially l = 45 cm
(2l + 10 = 100 cm)
P1 = P2 P (say)
...........(1)

Applying gas law at end A.


45 AP ( 45 x )AP1

300
273

.........(2)

45 AP
( 45 x )AP2
( 45 x )
45 x
=
From (1),(2) and (3)
=
= 8.49 cm,
300
400
273
400
A thin tube of uniform cross-section is seated at both ends. If lies horizontally. The middle 5 cm containing
Hg and two equal ends contain air at the same pressure P0. When the tube is held at an angle of 600 with the
vertical, the length of the air column above and below the Hg are 46 cm
44.5 cm. Calculate pressure P0 in cm of Hg. Assume temperature of the system constant.
[Old-DPP_A Batch_05-06_9]
(A) 55 cm of Hg
(B) 65 cm of Hg
(C) 70.4 cm of Hg
(D) 75.4 cm of Hg
(D) 2L + 5 = 46 + 5 + 44.5 = L = 45.25 cm

At end B,
2.

Sol.

In case (ii) PA = PB + 5 cos60


or
PA PB = 2.5 cm of Hg
PA (44.5) = PB(46)
or

46

1 PB = 2.5

44.5

or

2.5 44.5
1.5

46
2.5 44.5 46
=

= 75.4 cm of Hg
45.25
1.5
45.25
A mercury barometer roads 75 cm. If tube be inclined by 600 from the vertical, the length of mercury in the
tube will be
[Old-DPP_A Batch_05-06_10]

P0(45.25) = PB 46. Thus

3.

PB =

(A)

75 3
2

(B) 100 cm

P0 = PB

(C) 37.5 cm

(D*) 150 cm

4.

A liquid can easily change its shape but a solid can not because
[ HCV I (Ch.13)_Ob.I_Q.1 ]
(A)
the density of a liquid is smaller than that of a solid
(B*)
the forces between the molecules is stronger in solid than in liquids
(C)
the atoms combine to form bigger molecules in a solid
(D)
the average separation between the molecules is larger in solids.

5.

Consider the equations

6.

F
P = Lim
s 0 S and P1 P2 = gz.
In a elevator accelerating upward
[ HCV I (Ch.13)_Ob.I_Q.2 ]
(A)
both the equations are valid
(B*)
the first is valid but not the second
(C)
the second is valid but not the first
(D)
both are invalid
Three vessels shown in figure have same base area. Equal volumes of a liquid are poured in the three
vessels. The force on the base will be
[ HCV I (Ch.13)_Ob.I_Q.3 ]

(A) maximum in vessel A


(C*) maximum in vessel C

(B) maximum in vessel B


(D) equal in all the vessels.

7.

Equal mass of three liquids are kept in three identical cylindrical vessels A, B and C. The densities are A, B,
C with A < B < C. The force the base will be
[ HCV I (Ch.13)_Ob.I_Q.4 ]
(A) maximum in vessel
(B) maximum in vessel B
(C) maximum in vessel
(D*) equal in all the vessels

8.

The pressure in a liquid at two points in the same horizontal plane are equal. Consider an elevator accelerating
upward and a car accelerating on a horizontal road. The above statement is correct in
[ HCV I (Ch.13)_Ob.I_Q.7 ]
(A) the car only
(B*) the elevator only
(C) both of them
(D) neither of them

9.

Suppose the pressure at the surface of mercury in a barometer tube is P1 and the pressure at the surface of
mercury in the cup is P2.
[ HCV I (Ch.13)_Ob.I_Q.8 ]
(A*) P1 = 0, P2 = atmospheric pressure
(B) P1 = atmospheric pressure, P2 = 0
(C) P1 = P2 = atmospheric pressure
(D) P1 = P2 = 0.

10.

A barometer kept in an elevator reads 76 cm when it is at rest. If the elevator goes up with increasing speed,
the reading will be
[ HCV I (Ch.13)_Ob.I_Q.9 ]
(A) zero
(B) 76 cm
(C*) < 76 cm
(D) > 76 cm

11.

A barometer kept in an elevator accelerating upward reads 76 cm. The air pressure in the elevator is
[ HCV I (Ch.13)_Ob.I_Q.10 ]
(A) 76 cm
(B) < 76 cm
(C*) > 76 cm
(D) zero

12.

To construct a barometer, a tube of length 1 m is filled completely with mercury and is inverted in a mercury
cup. The barometer reading on a particular day is 76 cm. Suppose a 1 m tube is filled with mercury up to 76
cm. It is inverted in a mercury cup. The height of mercury column in the tube over the surface in the cup will
be
[ HCV I (Ch.13)_Ob.I_Q.11 ]
(A) zero
(B) 76 cm
(C) > 76 cm
(D*) < 76 cm
[Q.11/HCV-1/Ch-13/Obj-I]

Sol.
Due to the trapped air P0 > O
Hence by Patm = P0 + egh = 76 cm of Hg
h < 76 cm
Ans. (D)
13.

A 20 N metal block is suspended by a spring balance. A beaker containing some water is placed on a
weighing machine which reads 40 N. The spring balance is now lowered so that the block gets immersed in
the water. The spring balance now reads 16 N. The reading of the weighing machine will be
[ HCV I (Ch.13)_Ob.I_Q.12 ]
(A) 36 N
(B) 60 N
(C*) 44 N
(D) 56 N

14.

A piece of wood is floating in water kept in a bottle. The bottle is connected to an air pump. Neglect the

compressibility of water. When more air is pushed into the bottle from the pump, the piece of wood will float
with
[ HCV I (Ch.13)_Ob.I_Q.13 ]
(A) larger part in the water
(B) lesser part in the water
(C*) same part in the water
(D) it will sink.
15.

A metal cube is placed in an empty vessel. When water is filled in the vessel so that the cube is completely
immersed in the water, the force on the bottom of the vessel in contact with the cube
[ HCV I (Ch.13)_Ob.I_Q.14 ]
(A) will increase
(B) will decrease
(C*) will remain the same
(D) will become zero

16.

A wooden object floats in water kept in a beaker. The object is near a side of the beaker. Let P1, P2, P3 be the
pressures at the three points A, B and C of the bottom as shown in the figure.
[ HCV I (Ch.13)_Ob.I_Q.15 ]

(A*) P1 = P2 = P3

(B) P1 < P2 < P3

(C) P1 > P2 > P3

(D) P2 = P3 P1

17.

A closed cubical box is completely filled with water and is accelerated horizontally towards right with an
acceleration a. The resultant normal force by the water on the top of the box
[ HCV I (Ch.13)_Ob.I_Q.16 ]
(A) passes through the centre of the top
(B) passes through a point to the right of the centre
(C*) passes through a point to the left of the centre
(D) becomes zero

18.

Consider the situation of the previous problem. Let the water push the left wall by a force F1 and the right wall
by a force F2.
[ HCV I (Ch.13)_Ob.I_Q.17 ]
(A) F1 = F2
(B*) F1 > F2
(C) F1 < F2
(D) The information is insufficient to know the relation between F1 and F2

19.

A solid floats in a liquid in a partially dipped position.


[ HCV I (Ch.13)_Ob.II_Q.1 ]
(A*) the solid exerts a force equal to its weight on the liquid
(B*) the liquid exerts a force of buoyancy on the solid which is equal to the weight of the solid
(C*) the weight of the displaced liquid equals the weight of the solid
(D) the weight of the dipped part of the solid is equal to the weight of the displaced liquid

20.

The weight of an empty balloon on a spring balance is W 1. The weight becomes W 2 when the balloon is filled
with air. Let the weight of the air itself be w. Neglect the thickness of the balloon when it is filled with air. Also
neglect the difference in the densities of air inside and outside the balloon.
[ HCV I (Ch.13)_Ob.II_Q.2 ]
(A*) W 2 = W 1
(B) W 2 = W 1 + w
(C*) W 2 < W 1 + w
(D) W 2 > W 1

21.

A solid is completely immersed in a liquid. The force exerted by the liquid on the solid will
[ HCV I (Ch.13)_Ob.II_Q.3 ]
(A) increase if it is pushed deeper inside the liquid (B) change if its orientation is changed
(C*) decrease if it is taken partially out of the liquid (D*) be in the vertically upward direction

22.

A closed vessel is half filled with water. There is a hole near the top of the vessel and air is pumped out from
this hole
[ HCV I (Ch.13)_Ob.II_Q.4 ]
(A) the water level will rise up in the vessel
(B*) the pressure at the surface of the water will decrease
(C*) the force by the water on the bottom of the vessel will decrease
(D) the density of the liquid will decrease

23.

The surface of water in a water tank on the top of a house is 4 m above the top level. Find the pressure of
water at the tap when the tap is closed. It is necessary to specify that the tap is closed? Take g = 10 m/s2.
[ HCV I (Ch.23)_Ex._Q.30 ]
3.
40000 N/m2, Yes

24.

The heights of mercury surfaces in the two arms of the manometer shown in figure are 2 cm and 8 cm.
Atmospheric pressure = 1.01 105 N/m2. Find (a) the pressure of the gas in the cylinder and (b) the pressure
of mercury at the bottom of the U-tube.
[ HCV I (Ch.13)_Ex._Q.2 ]

4.
25.

26.

Sol.

(a) 1.09 105 N/m2

(b) 1.12 105 N/m2

The area of cross-section of the wider tube shown in figure is 900 cm2. If the boy standing on the piston
weighs 45 kg, find the difference in the levels of water in the two tubes.
[ HCV I (Ch.13)_Ex._Q.3 ]

5.
50 cm
Find the force exerted by the water on a 2 m2 plane surface of a large stone placed at the bottom of a sea 500
m deep. Does the force depend on the orientation of the surface? [ HCV I (Ch.13)_Ex._Q.7 ]
[Q.7/HCV-1/CH-13/Exercise]
[2]
P = 1000 10 500 = 5 106
F = PA = (5 106) (2) = 107 N.
No the force on stone is independent of its orientation.
Ans.
107 N, No

27.

An ornanment weighing 36 g in air, weighs only 34 g in water. Assuming that some copper is mixed with gold
to prepare the ornament, find the amount of copper in it. Specific gravity of gold is 19.3 and that the copper
is 8.9.
[ HCV I (Ch.13)_Ex._Q.9 ]
7.
2.2 g

28.

Refer to the previous problem. Suppose, the goldsmith argues that he has not mixed copper or any other
material with gold, rather some cavities might have been left inside the ornament. Calculate the volume of the
cavities left that will allow the weights given in that problem.
[ HCV I (Ch.13)_Ex._Q.10 ]
3
8.
0.112 cm

29.

Water flows through a tube shown in figure. The areas of cross-section at A and B are 1 cm2 and 0.5 cm2
respectively. The height difference between A and B is 5 cm. If the speed of water at A is 10 cm/s find (a) the
speed at B and (b) the difference in pressures at A and B.
[ HCV I (Ch.13)_Ex._Q.31 ]

9.
30.

(b) 485 N/m2

Water flows through a horizontal tube as shown in figure. If the difference of heights of water column in the
vertical tubes is 2 cm, and the areas of cross-section at A and B are 4 cm2 and 2 cm2 respectively, find the
rate of flows of water across any section.
[ HCV I (Ch.13)_Ex._Q.32 ]

10.
31.

(a) 20 cm/s,

146 cc/s,

A mercury barometer roads 75 cm. If tube be inclined by 600 from the vertical, the length of mercury in the

tube will be

[ S-05-06/XI(A,B,N1)/DPP-76/Q.10 ]

75 3
(B) 100 cm
(C) 37.5 cm
(D*) 150 cm
2
An ice cube is floating in water contained in a beaker. When the ice melts, what will happen to the level of
water in the beaker ?
[ S-05-06/XI(A,B,N1)/DPP-76/Q.11 ]
(A) it will fall
(B) it will rise
(C*) it will remain same
(D) first it will fall and then rise to the same level as before.
(A)

32.

33.

A steel ball is floating in a trough of mercury. if we fill the empty part of the through with water, what will
happen to the steel ball ?
[ S-05-06/XI(A,B,N1)/DPP-76/Q.12 ]
(A) it will move down
(B) it will execute vertical oscillations
(C) it will continue in its position
(D*) it will move up

34.

A wooden block is floating in a trough of water. If the trough falls freely, the upward thrust on the wooden block
will be
[ S-05-06/XI(A,B,N1)/DPP-76/Q.13 ]
(A) equal to the weight of the block in air
(B) same as before
(C*) zero
(D) more than earlier

35.

By what fraction an ice cube will lost in sea water of density 1.2 gcm3. Density of ice = 0.9 gcm3
[ S-05-06/XI(A,B,N1)/DPP-76/Q.14 ]
(A) 1/4
(B*) 3/4
(C) 0.9
(D) 2/3

36.

A body of mass 0.5 kg is attached to a thread and it just floats in a liquid. The tension in the thread is
[ S-05-06/XI(A,B,N1)/DPP-76/Q.16 ]
(A) less than 0.5 kg wt (B) 0.5 kg wt
(C) more than 0.5 kg wt (D*) zero

37.

A hose can deliver 0.5 m3 of water per minute from a hole of water that hits the wall drops down vertically, the
force on the wall is
[ S-05-06/XI(A,B,N1)/DPP-76/Q.17 ]
(A) 98 N
(B) 196 N
(C*) 220 N
(D) 284 N

38.

Two holes are made in the side of the tank such that the jets of water flowing out of them meet at the same
point on a surface at the level of the bottom, If one hole is at the height h above the bottom, then what will be
distance of the other hole from the top ?
[ S-05-06/XI(A,B,N1)/DPP-76/Q.18 ]
(A) h/4
(B) h/3
(C) h/2
(D*) h

39.

Two circular metal plates of radius 1m and 2m are placed horizontally in a liquid at rest at the same same
depth. The ratio of thrusts on them is
[ S-05-06/XI(A,B,N1)/DPP-76/Q.19 ]
(A) 4 : 1
(B) 1 : 2
(C) 1 : 1
(D*) 1 : 4

40.

A U-tube is partially filled with water. OH which does not mix with water is poured into one side until water
rises by 25 cm on the other side. If the density of oil be 0.8, the oil level will stand higher then the water level
by
[ S-05-06/XI(A,B,N1)/DPP-76/Q.21 ]
(A) 31.25 cm
(B) 20 cm
(C*) 12.50 cm
(D) 6.25 cm

41.

A tank is filled with water and an orifice is made in the wall so that the range x of water rushing out is
maximum. If H is the height of water above the orifice in the tank, then
[ S-05-06/XI(A,B,N1)/DPP-76/Q.15 ]
(A) 3x = H
(B) 2x = H
(C) 4x = H
(D*) x = 2H

42.

As a bubble comes from the bottom of a lake to the top its radius should
[ S-05-06/XI(A,B,N1)/DPP-76/Q.22 ]
(A) zero
(B*) increase
(C) decrease
(D) remain constant

43.

An inverted (bell) lying at the bottom of a lake 47.6 m deep has 50 cm3 of air trapped in it. The bell is brought
to the surface of the lake. The volume of the trapped air will be (atmospheric pressure = 70 cm of Hg and
density of Hg = 13.6 gm cm3.
[ S-05-06/XI(A,B,N1)/DPP-76/Q.23 ]
3
3
(A) 22 cm
(B) 250 cm
(C*) 200 cm3
(D) 350 cm3

44.

A piston of cross-sectional area 100 cm2 is used in hydraulic press of exert a force 107 dynes on the water.

The cross-sectional area of the other pison which supports an object having a mass 2000 kg is
[ S-05-06/XI(A,B,N1)/DPP-76/Q.25 ]
10
2
2
4
2
(A) 210 cm
(B) 100 cm
(C*) 210 cm
(D) 109 cm2
45.

A fisherman hooks an old log of wood of weight 12 N and volume 1000 cm3. He pulls the log half way out of
water. The tension in the string at this instant is
[ S-05-06/XI(A,B,N1)/DPP-76/Q.26 ]
(A*) 7 N
(B) 8 N
(C) 10 N
(D) 12 N

46.

An iceberg is floating partially immersed in sea water. If the density of sea water is 1.03 g cm3 and that of ice
is 0.92 g cm3. The fraction of the total volume of iceberg above the level of sea water is
[ S-05-06/XI(A,B,N1)/DPP-76/Q.27 ]
(A) 89%
(B) 34%
(C*) 11%
(D) 8%

47.

A beaker containing water weights 100 g. It is placed on the pan of a balance and a piece of metal weighing
70 g and having volume of 10 cm3 is placed inside the water in the beaker. The weight of the beaker and the
metal would be
[ S-05-06/XI(A,B,N1)/DPP-76/Q.28 ]
(A) 30 g
(B) 100 g
(C) 160 g
(D*) 170 g

48.

A weightless rubber balloon has 100 g of water in it. Its weight in water will be
[ S-05-06/XI(A,B,N1)/DPP-76/Q.29 ]
(A*) zero
(B) 50 g
(C) 100 g
(D) 200 g

49.

A boat 3m long and 2m wide is floating in a lake. When a man climbs over it, it sinks 1 cm further into water.
The mass of the man is
[ S-05-06/XI(A,B,N1)/DPP-76/Q.30 ]
(A*) 60 kg
(B) 64 kg
(C) 70 kg
(D) 72 kg

50.

A vessel contains oil (density 0.8 gcm3) over mercury (density 13.6 gcm3). A homogeneous sphere floats
with half in oil. The density of the material of the sphere in gcm3 is[ S-05-06/XI(A,B,N1)/DPP-76/Q.31 ]
(A) 12.8
(B*) 7.2
(C) 6.4
(D) 3.3

51.

The centre of buoyancy of a floating object is


[Made AKS 2006 A,B,N]
(A) at the centre of gravity of the object.
[M.Bank_Fluid_47]
(B) at the centre of gravity of the submerged part of the object.
(C) at the centre of gravity of the remaining part outside the fluid of the object.
(D*) at the centre of gravity of the fluid displaced by the submerged part of the object.
Figure shows the points described in the question.

Sol.

C.G. of submerged part of the object will be at the centre of buoyancy if the object is uniform,
Otherwise shifts from this point. From figure (D) is correct.
52.

Water coming out of the mouth of a tap and falling vertically in streamline flow forms a tapering column, i.e.
the area of cross-section of the liquid column decreases as it moves down. Which of the following is the most
accurate explanation for this?
MCQ_1.3_46

(A) as the water moves down, its speed increases and hence its pressure decreases. It is
then compressed by the atmosphere
(B) f alling water tries to reach a terminal v elocity and hence reduces the area of crosssection to balance upward and downward forces
(C*) the mass of water flowing past any cross-section must remain constant. Also, water is
almost incompressible. Hence, the rate of volume flow must remain constant. As this is
equal to velocity area, the area decreases as velocity increases

(D) the surface tension causes the exposed surface area of the liquid to decrease continuously.
53.

A cylindrical drum, open at the top, contains 30 litres of water. It drains out through a small opening at the
bottom. 10 litres of water comes out in time t1, the next 10 litres in further time t2 and the last 10 litres in
further time t3. Then:
MCQ_1.3_48
(A) t1 = t2 = t3
(B) t1 > t2 > t3
(C*) t1 < t2 < t3
(D) t2 > t1 = t3

54.

There are two identical small holes on the opposite sides of a tank containing a liquid. The tank is open at the
top. The difference in height between the two holds is h. As the liquid comes out of the two holes, the tank will
experience a net horizontal force proportional to:
MCQ_1.3_49

(A)

(B*) h

(C) h3/2

(D) h2

55.

A light cylindrical tube T of length and radius r containing air is inverted in water (density d1). One end of the
tube is open and the other is closed. A block B of density d2 (>d1) is kept on the tube as shown in the figure.
The tube stays in equilibrium in the position shown. Find
the volume of B. The density of the air is negligible as
compared with the density of water. What is the pressure
of the air in the tube assuming that the
atmospheric pressure is P0.
[Made RKV 2005]

Sol.

The free body diagram of block + tube inclusive of water is as shown below
Since the block + tube system shown in figure is in equilibrium

Net weight of system = buoyant force


2
d2Vg + r2
d g = (V + r2) d1g
3 1
r 2
d1
r 2 d1
where V is the volume of block B
(d2 d1) V =
or
V=
d2 d1 3
3
The pressure of the air trapped inside the tube is same as pressure at point A in the water as shown in figure.

P = P0 + h d1g
3

Ans.

Pa = P0 + d1g h
3

56.

A piano wire weighing 6.00 g and having a length of 90.0 cm emits a fundamental frequency corresponding to
the Middle C (v = 261.63 Hz). Find the tension in the wire.
HCV_15_Ex._37
Ans.
1480 N

57.

A sonometer wire having a length of 1.50 m between the bridges vibrates in its second harmonic in resonance with
a tuning fork of frequency 256 Hz. What is the speed of the transverse wave on the wire ? HCV_15_Ex._38
Ans.
384 m/s

58.

The length of the wire shown in figure between the pulleys is 1.5 m and its
mass is 12.0 g. Find the frequency of vibration with which the wire vibrates
in two loops leaving the middle point of the wire between the
pulleys at rest.
HCV_15_Ex._39
Ans.
70 Hz

59.

A water tank stands on the roof of a building as shown. Then the value of h for which the distance covered by
the water 'x' is greatest is
M.Bank_Fluids_58

(A) 0.5 m
Sol.

Vefflux =

(B) 0.67 m

(C*) 1 m

(D) none of these

2gh

time of fall t =

( 4 h)2
g

x = Veffloy t = 2 h( 4 h)
the roots of x are (0,4) and the maximum of x is at h = 2.
The permitted value of h is 0 to 1 clearly h = 1 will give the
maximum value of x is this interval.
Aliter : If the column of water itself were from ground upto a height of 4m, h = 2m would give the maximum
range x. Farther the hole is from this midpoint, lower the range. Here the nearest point possible to this
midpoint is the base of the container. Hence h = 1m.
60.

A bent tube is lowered into a water stream as shown in . The velocity of the stream relative to the tube is
equal to v = 2.5 m/s. The closed upper end of the tube located at the height h0 = 12 cm has a small orifice.
To what height h will the water jet spurt?
Irodov_1.320

[Ans : h = 1/2v2g h0 = 20 cm]


61.

A container of a large uniform cross-sectional area A resting on a horizontal surface holds two immiscible,
non-viscous and incompressible liquids of densities ' d ' and ' 2 d ' each of height (1/2)H as shown. The

smaller density liquid is open to atmosphere. A homogeneous solid cylinder of length L 1 H cross-

sectional area (1/5) A is immersed such that it floats with its axis vertical to the liquid-liquid interface with
length (1/4) L in denser liquid. If D is the density of the solid cylinder then :
[ Made 2004 ] [M.Bank_Fluids_1.5]

(A) D =

3d
2

(B) D =

d
2

(C) D =

2d
3

(D*) D =

5d
4

62.

A body of density is dropped from rest from a height 'h' (from the surface of water) into a lake of density of
water ( >). Neglecting all dissipative effects, the acceleration of body while it is in the lake is:
[ Made 2004] [M.Bank_Fluids_1.3]


(C) g
upwards


(D) g
downwards

(A*) g
1 upwards

63.

In the above problem, the maximum depth the body sinks before returning is: [ Made 2004] [M.Bank_Fluids_1.4]
(A*)

64.

Sol.

(B) g
1 downwards

(B)

(C) h

(D) h

A cylindrical vessel filled with water is released on a fixed inclined surface of angle as shown in figure. The
friction coefficient of surface with vessel is ( < tan ). Then the constant angle made by the surface of water
with the incline will be: (Neglect the viscosity of liquid)
[ Made 2004] [7, Fluid] [M.Bank_Fluid_1.7]

(A*) tan1
(B) tan1
(C) + tan1
(D) cot1
figure shows forces acting on a 'particle' on the surface, with respect to vessel.

(mg sin & mg cos are pseudo forces).


tan =
= tan1 .
is angle between normal to the inclined surface and the resultant force. The same angle will be formed
between the surface of water & the inclined surface.
{ free surface is to the resultant force acting on it.}
65.

The velocity of the liquid coming out of a small hole of a large vessel containing two different liquids of
densities 2and as shown in figureis
[M.Bank(07-08)_Fluid_1.33]

(A) 6gh
Sol.

(B*) 2 gh

(D) gh

(B)
Pressure at (1) :
P1 = Patm + g (2h)
Applying Bernoulli's theorum between points (1) and (2)
[Patm + 2 g h] + g(2h) +
= Patm + (2 ) g (0) +

66.

(C) 2 2gh

v = 2 gh

1
(2 ) (0)2
2

1
(2 ) v 2
2

Ans.

For a fluid which is flowing steadily, the level in the vertical tubes is best represented by
[Made RA 2006]
[M_Bank(07-08)_Fluids_1.36]

(A*)

(B)

(C)

(D)

Sol.

(A) From continuity equation, velocity at cross-section (1) is more than that at cross-section (2).
Hence ; P1 < P2
Hence (A)

67.

A cylindrical wooden float whose base area S and the height H drifts on the water surface. Density of
wood d and density of water is . What minimum work must be performed to take the float out of the
water?
[POM_Module_17_Ex.1]
[4]
[M_Bank(07-08)_Fluids_1.37]
Applying Newtons law vertical direction

Sol.

mg = F B

dSH g = wSh g

Now when force F is applied, for minimum work a = 0


F mg + Sxg = 0
F = mg Sxg
W=

h=

dH

(for a = 0, F is minimum)

Fdx

(mg Sxg)dx
= mg dx Sg xdx
=

Sg
Sgh 2
Sgh 2
Sgh 2
W = mgh
= (Sh) gh
=
=
2
2
2
2

68.

A non uniform cylinder of mass m, length and radius r is having its cetnre of mass at a distance /4
from the centre and lying on the axis of the cylinder. The cylinder is kept in a liquid of uniform density
The moment of inertia of the rod about the centre of mass is . The angular acceleration of point A
relative to point B just after the rod is released from the position shown in figure is
[M_Bank(07-08)_Fluids_1.34]

g 2r 2
g 2r 2
(B*)

4
(B)
Torque about CM :

Fb .
=
4
(A)

Sol.

2 2
dH

= Sgd H Ans.

(C)

g 2r 2
2

(D)

3g 2r 2
4

a=

1
( r2) () () (g).
4
I

r 2 2g
=
4I
'' will be same for all points.
Hence (B).
69.

A tube in vertical plane is shown in figure. It is filled with a liquid of density and its end B is closedThen the
force exerted by the fluid on the tube at end B will be : [Neglect atmospheric pressure and assume the
radius of the tube to be negligible in comparison to ]

[ Made 2004]

Sol.

70.

[M.Bank_Fluids_1.12]

(A) 0
(B*) g A0
(C) 2g A0
(D) 4g A0
Pressure exerted by fluid at closed end B is
P = g

force exerted by fluid at closed end B is


F = PA = g A0
Three containers of same base area, same height are filled with three different liquids of same mass as
shown in the figure. If F 1, F 2, F 3 are the force exerted by the liquid on the base of the container in case
I, II and II respectively, then we have the relation: [Made 2004]
[M.Bank_Fluids_1.19]

(A) F 1 = F 2 = F 3

(B) F 1 > F 2 > F 3

(C) F 3 > F 2 > F 1

(D*) F 2 < F 3 < F 1

71.

A light cylindrical tube T of length and radius r containing air is inverted in water (density d1). One end of
the tube is open and the other is closed. A block B of density d2 (>d1) is kept on the tube as shown in the
figure. The tube stays in equilibrium in the position shown. Find the volume of B. The density of the air is
negligible as compared with the density of water. What is the pressure of the air in the tube assuming that
the atmospheric pressure is P0. [Made RKV 2005]
[24, Fluid]
[M.Bank_Fluids_1.24]

Sol.

The free body diagram of block + tube inclusive of water is as shown below

Since the block + tube system shown in figure is in equilibrium

Net weight of system = buoyant force


d2Vg + r2

2
d g = (V + r2) d1g
3 1

where V is the volume of block B

(d2 d1) V =

r 2 d1
3

or

d1
r 2
V = d d
3
2
1

The pressure of the air trapped inside the tube is same as pressure at point A in the water as shown in figure.

P = P0 + h d1g
3

Pa = P0 + d1g h =
3

In the figure shown water is filled in a symmetrical container. Four pistons of equal area A are used at the four
opening to keep the water in equilibrium. Now an additional force F is applied at each piston. The increase in
the pressure at the centre of the container due to this addition is
[M.Bank_Fluids_1.25]

Ans.
72.

[Made 2005, RKV, BKM, AS]

(A*)
Sol.

F
A

(B)

2F
A

(C)

4F
A

[BM_Fluids_45]
The four piston are initially in equilibrium. As additional force F is applied to each piston, the pressure in fluid
at each point must be increased by

F
so that each piston retains state of equilibrium.
A

Thus the increment in pressure at each point is P =


73.

(D) 0

F
(by Pascals law)
A

A U-tube of base length filled with same volume of two liquids of densities and 2 is moving with an
acceleration a on the horizontal plane. If the height difference between the two surfaces (open to
atmosphere) becomes zero, then the height h is given by :
[M.Bank_Fluids_1.32]

(A)

2g

(B*)

3a

2g

a
(C)
g

(D)

2a

3g

Sol.

(B) For the given situation, liquid of density 2 should be behind that of .
From right limb :
PA = Patm + gh
PB = PA + a

= Patm + gh + a
2
2

3
= Patm + gh + a
2
2
But from left limb :
PC = Patm + (2) gh
From (1) and (2) :

PC = PB + (2) a

Patm + gh +
74.

3
a = Patm + 2 gh
2

.... (1)
.... (2)

h =

3a

2g

Ans.

A narrow tube completely filled with a liquid is lying on a series of cylinders as shown in figure. Assuming
no sliding between any surfaces, the value of acceleration of the cylinders for which liquid will not come
out of the tube from anywhere is given by[Made RA_2006_GRSTX] [M.Bank_Fluids_1.43]

gH
gH
gH
2gH
(B)
(C)
(D)
2L
2L
L
L
(A) No sliding pure rolling
Therefore, acceleration of the tube = 2a (since COM of cylinders are moving at 'a')

(A*)
Sol.

PA = Patm + (2a) L
Also ; PA = Patm + g H

75.

gH
a = 2L

Ans.

A small uniform tube is bent into a circular tube of radius R and kept in the vertical plane. Equal volumes of
two liquids of densities and (> ) fill half of the tube as shown. is the angle which the radius passing
through the interface makes with the vertical.
[Made 2004]
[M.Bank_Fluids_1.23]

(A*) = tan1
Sol.

(From horizontal limb)


(From vertical limb)

(B) = tan1

(C) = tan1

(D) = tan1

(A)
Pressure at 'A' from both side must balance. Figure is selfexplanatory.

O
Rsin
Rcos

(/2

/2
h2

A
h2g = h1g
sin (45 + ) = R [cos sin]
[cos + sin] = [cos sin]
tan =

76.

A cube (density 0.5 gm/cc) of side 10 cm is floating in water kept in a cylindrical beaker of base area 1500
cm2. When a mass m is kept on wooden block the level of water rises in the beaker by 2mm. Find the mass
m.
[Made-2006, P1-P6,PKS]
[4] [M.Bank_Fluids_1.29]

Sol.

Let the cube dips further by y cm and water level rises by 2 mm.

Then equating the volumes (/// volume = \\\ volume in figure) volume of water raised
= volume of extra depth of wood

100 y = (1500 100)

y = 2.8 cm

Extra upthrust

2
2
= 1400
= 280
10
10

water (2.8 + 0.2) 100 g = mg


m = 300 gm.
77.

Sol.

78.

m = 300 gm.

....Ans.

A block is partially immersed in a liquid and the vessel is accelerating upwards with an acceleration
a. The block is observed by two observers O 1 and O 2 , one at rest and the other accelerating with an
acceleration a upward. The total buoyant force on the block is :
[M.Bank_Fluids_1.35]

(A*) same for O 1 and O 2


(B) greater for O 1 than O 2
(C) greater for O 2 than O 1
(D) data is not sufficient
Buoyant force = Fb = Vsub . . g
where, Vsub , and g all are same w.r.t. O 1 and O 2.
Hence (A)
A large open tank has two small holes in its vertical wall as shown in figure. One is a square hole of side 'L'
at a depth '4y' from the top and the other is a circular hole of radius 'R' at a depth y from the top. When the
tank is completely filled with water, the quantities of water flowing out per second from both holes are the
same. Then, 'R' is equal to:
[ Made 2004 ] [BM_Fluids_25] [M.Bank(07-08)_Fulids_1.6]

(A)
Sol.

(B) 2L

(C*)

2
.L

(D)

L
2

Let v 1 and v 2 be the velocity of efflux from square and circular hole respectively. S1 and S2 be cross-section
areas of square and circular holes.

v1 =

8gy

and

v2 =

2g( y )

The volume of water coming out of square and circular hole per second is
Q1 = v 1S1 =

R=

8gy L2

; Q2 = v 2S2 =

2gy R2

Q1 = Q2

2 .L

Comprehension # (4 - 8)
(Read the following passage and answer the questions numbered 1 to 5. They have only one
correct option)Heat Transfer By Radiation
[M_Bank_Fluid_3.1]
The figure shows the commonly observed decrease in diameter of a water stream as it falls from a tap.
The tap has internal diameter D0 and is connected to a large tank of water. The surface of the water is
at a height b above the end of the tap.
By considering the dynamics of a thin cylinder of water in the stream answer the following: (Ignore
any resistance to the flow and any effects of surface tension, given w = density of water)

79.

Sol.

Equation for the flow rate, i.e. the mass of water flowing through a given point in the stream per unit
time, as function of the water speed v will be
(A*) v w D2 / 4
(B) v w D2 / 4 D02 /4)
2
(C) v w D / 2
(D) v w D02 / 4
(A)
As, dm = W v dt

dm
= AW v
dt

dm
D2
= VW
dt
4
where D is the diameter of stream.

80.

Which of the following equation expresses the fact that the flow rate at the tap is the same as at the
stream point with diameter D and velocity v (i.e. D in terms of D 0 and v will be) :
(A) D =

D0 v 0
v

(B) D =

D 0 v 02
v

D0v
(C) D = v
0

(D*) D = D0

v0
v

Sol.

(D) V1A1 = V2A2

81.

2
v
v D2
v 0D0
=

D = D0 0 .
v
4
4
The equation for the water speed v as a function of the distance x below the tap will be :

(A) v =

2gb

(B*) v = [2g (b + x)] 1/2

(C) v =

2gx

(D) v = [2g (b x)] 1/2

Sol.

v=

2gh 2g(b x ) .

82.

Equation for the stream diameter D in terms of x and D 0 will be :


(A*) D = D0 (b/b + x)1/4
(B) D = D0 (b/b + x)1/2
(C) D = D0 (b/b + x)
(D) D = D0 (b/b + x)2

Sol.

(A) Applying continuity equation at points with diameter D 0 & D :


=

83.

Sol.

84.

.D 0 2
2gb .
=
4

b
D = D0

b x

D 2
2g(b x )

1/ 4

A student observes after setting up this experiment that for a tap with D 0 = 1 cm at x = 0.3 m the
stream diameter D = 0.9 cm. The heights b of the water above the tap in this case will be :
(A) 5.7 cm
(B*) 57 cm
(C) 27 cm
(D) 2.7 cm
(B) Solving the preceding formula for the tank height h gives :
h = x(D/D0)4/(1 (D/D0)4) = x D4 / (D04 D4)
substituting the given parameter values gives
h = (0.3 ) (0.0094) / (0.014 0.0094) = 0.57 m
So the height of the water above the tap is 0.57 m or 57 cm.
A portion of a tube is shown in the figure. Fluid is flowing from cross-section area A 1 to A2. The two
cross-sections are at distance ' l ' from each other. The velocity of the fluid at section A 2 is

g
. If the
2

pressures at A1 & A2 are same, then the angle made by the tube with the horizontal will be :

[M.Bank_Fluids_1.21]

(A) 37

85.

(B*) sin1

3
4

(C) 53

(D) none of these

The cubical container ABCDEFGH which is completely filled with an ideal (nonviscous and
incompressible) fluid, moves in a gravity free space with a acceleration of
[M.Bank_Fluids_1.42]

a = a0 (i j k )
where a0 is a positive constant. Then the only point in the container where pressure can be zero is

[Made VSS 2006, GRSTX]

(A*) H
Sol.

a = a0 ( i j + k )

(B) C

(C) E

(D) F

As there is no gravity; the pressure difference will be only due to the acceleration.
All points other than point 'B', are acted upon by a pseudo force.
Hence, at point 'H' pressure developed is zero.
86.

A fixed cylindrical tank having large cross-section area is filled with two liquids of densities and 2
and in equal volumes as shown in the figure. A small hole of area of crosssection ' a ' is made at height
h/2 from the bottom. Calculate :
[M.Bank_Fluids_1.16]

(i)
(ii)

Sol.

[Made 2003]

2
a ]
3
A cylindrical vessel filled with water is released on a fixed inclined surface of angle as shown in figure. The
friction coefficient of surface with vessel is ( < tan ). Then the constant angle made by the surface of water
with the incline will be: (Neglect the viscosity of liquid)
[ Made 2004] [7, Fluid] [M.Bank_Fluid_1.7]

[Ans.
87.

Velocity of efflux initially.


The area of cross-section of stream of liquid just before it hits the ground.
(i) v =

2gh ,

(ii)

(A*) tan1
(B) tan1
(C) + tan1
(D) cot1
figure shows forces acting on a 'particle' on the surface, with respect to vessel.

(mg sin & mg cos are pseudo forces).


tan =
= tan1 .
is angle between normal to the inclined surface and the resultant force. The same angle will be formed
between the surface of water & the inclined surface.
{ free surface is to the resultant force acting on it.}
88.

A water tank stands on the roof of a building as shown. Then the value of h for which the distance covered by
the water 'x' is greatest is
M.Bank_Fluids_58
[S-(06-07)_XIII (GRSTU)_DPP-72_4]

(A) 0.5 m
Sol.

Vefflux =

(B) 0.67 m

2gh

time of fall t =

( 4 h)2
g

(C*) 1 m

(D) none of these

x = Veffloy t = 2 h( 4 h)
the roots of x are (0,4) and the maximum of x is at h = 2.
The permitted value of h is 0 to 1 clearly h = 1 will give the
maximum value of x is this interval.
Aliter : If the column of water itself were from ground upto a height of 4m, h = 2m would give the maximum
range x. Farther the hole is from this midpoint, lower the range. Here the nearest point possible to this
midpoint is the base of the container. Hence h = 1m.
89.

A light cylindrical tube T of length and radius r containing air is inverted in water (density d1). One end of
the tube is open and the other is closed. A block B of density d2 (>d1) is kept on the tube as shown in the
figure. The tube stays in equilibrium in the position shown. Find the volume of B. The density of the air is
negligible as compared with the density of water. What is the pressure of the air in the tube assuming that
the atmospheric pressure is P0. [Made RKV 2005] [24, Fluid] [S-(06-07)_XIII (GRSTU)_DPP-68_11]

Sol.

The free body diagram of block + tube inclusive of water is as shown below

Since the block + tube system shown in figure is in equilibrium

Net weight of system = buoyant force


d2Vg + r2

2
d g = (V + r2) d1g
3 1

d1
r 2 d1
r 2
or
V = d d
3
3
2
1
The pressure of the air trapped inside the tube is same as pressure at point A in the water as shown in figure.

where V is the volume of block B

90.

Sol.

P = P0 + h d1g
3

(d2 d1) V =

Ans.

Pa = P0 + d1g h
3

A block is partially immersed in a liquid and the vessel is accelerating upwards with an acceleration
a. The block is observed by two observers O 1 and O 2 , one at rest and the other accelerating with an
acceleration a upward. The total buoyant force on the block is :
[M.Bank_Fluids_1.35]

(A*) same for O 1 and O 2


(B) greater for O 1 than O 2
(C) greater for O 2 than O 1
(D) data is not sufficient
Buoyant force = Fb = Vsub . . g
where, Vsub , and g all are same w.r.t. O 1 and O 2.
Hence (A)

91.

Sol.

A cube (density 0.5 gm/cc) of side 10 cm is floating in water kept in a cylindrical beaker of base area 1500
cm2. When a mass m is kept on wooden block the level of water rises in the beaker by 2mm. Find the mass
m.
[Made-2006, P1-P6,PKS]
[4] [M.Bank_Fluids_1.29]
Let the cube dips further by y cm and water level rises by 2 mm.

Then equating the volumes (/// volume = \\\ volume in figure) volume of water raised
= volume of extra depth of wood
2
2
= 1400
= 280
10
10

100 y = (1500 100)

y = 2.8 cm
Extra upthrust
water (2.8 + 0.2) 100 g = mg

m = 300 gm.

m = 300 gm. .... Ans.


Comprehension # (3 - 7)
(Read the following passage and answer the questions numbered 1 to 5. They have only one
correct option)Heat Transfer By Radiation
[M_Bank_Fluid_3.1]
The figure shows the commonly observed decrease in diameter of a water stream as it falls from a tap.
The tap has internal diameter D0 and is connected to a large tank of water. The surface of the water is
at a height b above the end of the tap.
By considering the dynamics of a thin cylinder of water in the stream answer the following: (Ignore
any resistance to the flow and any effects of surface tension, given w = density of water)

92.

Sol.

Equation for the flow rate, i.e. the mass of water flowing through a given point in the stream per unit
time, as function of the water speed v will be
(A*) v w D2 / 4
(B) v w D2 / 4 D02 /4)
2
(C) v w D / 2
(D) v w D02 / 4
(A)
As, dm = A W v dt

dm
= AW v
dt

dm
D2
= VW
dt
4
where D is the diameter of stream.

93.

Which of the following equation expresses the fact that the flow rate at the tap is the same as at the
stream point with diameter D and velocity v (i.e. D in terms of D 0 and v will be) :
D0 v 0
v
(D) V1A1 = V2A2

(A) D =
Sol.

v 0D0
4

94.

(B) D =

v D2
4

D 0 v 02
v

(C) D =

D0v
v0

D = D0

v0
.
v

(D*) D = D0

v0
v

The equation for the water speed v as a function of the distance x below the tap will be :

(A) v =

(B*) v = [2g (b + x)] 1/2

2gb

(C) v =

2gx

Sol.

v=

95.

Equation for the stream diameter D in terms of x and D 0 will be :


(A*) D = D0 (b/b + x)1/4
(B) D = D0 (b/b + x)1/2
(C) D = D0 (b/b + x)
(D) D = D0 (b/b + x)2

Sol.

(A) Applying continuity equation at points with diameter D 0 & D :


=

96.

Sol.

(D) v = [2g (b x)] 1/2

2gh 2g(b x ) .

.D 0 2
2gb .
=
4

b
D = D0

b x

D 2
2g(b x )

1/ 4

A student observes after setting up this experiment that for a tap with D 0 = 1 cm at x = 0.3 m the
stream diameter D = 0.9 cm. The heights b of the water above the tap in this case will be :
(A) 5.7 cm
(B*) 57 cm
(C) 27 cm
(D) 2.7 cm
(B) Solving the preceding formula for the tank height h gives :
h = x(D/D0)4/(1 (D/D0)4) = x D4 / (D04 D4)
substituting the given parameter values gives
h = (0.3 ) (0.0094) / (0.014 0.0094) = 0.57 m
So the height of the water above the tap is 0.57 m or 57 cm.

97.

Sol.

An incompressible liquid flows through a horizontal tube as shown in the figure. Then the velocity ' v ' of the
fluid is :
modified_Fluid_39]

(A) 3.0 m/s


(B) 1.5 m/s
from equation of continuity,
(A 3) = (A 1.5) + (1.5 A V)

(C*) 1.0 m/s

(D) 2.25 m/s

V = 1 m/s2

READ THE SOLVED EXAMPLE AND SOLVE THE UNSOLVED PROBLEM.


Example :
Water is filled in a flask upto a height of 20 cm. The bottom of the flask is circular with radius 10 cm. If the
atmospheric pressure is 1.01 105 Pa, find the force exerted by the water on the bottom. Take g = 10 m/s2
and density of water = 1000 kg/m3.
HCV_Ch-13_Sol.Ex._1 [Fluids]
Sol.

The pressure at the surface of the water is equal to the atmospheric pressure P0. The pressure at the bottom
is
P = P0 + hg
= 1.01 105 Pa + (0.20 m) (1000 kg/m3) (10 m/s2)
= 1.01 105 Pa + 0.02 105 Pa
= 1.03 105 Pa.
The area of the bottom
= r2 = 3.14 (0.1 m)2
= 0.0314 m2.
The force on the bottom is, therefore,
F = P r2
5
= (1.03 10 Pa) (0.0314 m2) = 3230 N.

98.

Water is fully filled in a closed rectangular tank of size 3 m 2m 1m. (a) Find the total force exerted by the
water on the bottom surface of the tank. (b) Consider a vertical side of area 2 m 1 m. Take a horizontal strip
of width x metre in this side, stiutated at a depth of x metre from the surface of water. Find the force by the
water on this strip. (c) Find the torque of the force calculated in part (b) about the bottom edge of this side.
(d) Find the total force by the water on this side. (e) Find the total torque by the water on the side about the
bottom edge. Neglect the atmospheric pressure and take g = 10 m/s2.
HCV_Ch-13_Ex._8
Ans. (a) 60000 N,
(b) 20000 x N (c) 20000 (1 x)x N-m (d) 10000 N, (e) 10000/3N-m

READ THE SOLVED EXAMPLE AND SOLVE THE UNSOLVED PROBLEM.


Example :
A beaker of circular cross-section of radius 4 cm is filled with mercury upto a height of 10 cm. Find the force
exerted by the mercury on the bottom of the beaker. The atmospheric pressure = 105 N/m2. Density of
mercury = 13600 kg/m3 . Take g = 10 m/s2.
HCV_Ch-13_WOE_1
Sol.
The pressure at the surface = atmospheric pressure
= 105 N/m2.
The pressure at the bottom = 105 N/m2 + hg
= 105 N/m2 + hg
kg m

= 105 N/m2 + (0.1 m) 13600 3 10 2


m s

5
2
2
= 10 N/m + 13600 N/m
= 1.136 105 N/m2.
The force exerted by the mercury on the bottom
= (1.136 105 N/m2) (3.14 0.04 m 0.04 m)
= 571 N.

99.

A glass full of water has a bottom of area 20 cm2, top of area 20 cm2, height 20 cm and volume half a litre.

HCV_Ch-13_Ex._4

(a)
find the force exerted by the water on the bottom.
(b)
Considering the equilibrium of the water, find the resultant force exerted by the sides of the glass on
the water. Atmospheric pressure = 1.0 105 N/m2. Density of water 1000 kg/m3 and g = 10 m/s2. Take all
numbers to be exact.
Ans.

(a) 204 N

(b) 1 N upward

READ THE SOLVED EXAMPLE AND SOLVE THE UNSOLVED PROBLEM.


Example :
The liquid shown in figure in the two arms are mercury (specific gravity = 13.6) and water. If the difference of
heights of the mercury columns is 2 cm, find the height h of the water column.
HCV_Ch-13_WOE_3

h
2cm
A

Sol.

Suppose the atmospheric pressure = P0

kg
Pressure at A = P0 + h 100 3
m

g.

kg
Pressure at B = P0 + (0.02 m) 13600 3
m

g.

These pressures are equal as A and B are at the same horizontal level. Thus,
h = (0.02 m) 13.6
= 0.27 m = 27 cm.
100.

The heights of mercury surfaces in the two arms of the manometer shown in figure are 2 cm and 8 cm.
Atmospheric pressure = 1.01 105 N/m2. Find (a) the pressure of the gas in the cylinder and (b) the pressure
of mercury at the bottom of the U-tube. (Specific gravity of mercury = 13.6)

Gas
HCV_Ch-13_Ex_2

Ans.

(a) 1.09 105 N/m2

(b) 1.12 105 N/m2

READ THE SOLVED EXAMPLE AND SOLVE THE UNSOLVED PROBLEM.


Example :
A 700 g solid cube having an edge of length 10 cm floats in water. How much volume of the cube is outside
the water ? Density of water = 1000 kg/m3.
HCV_Ch-13_Sol.Ex._2
Sol.
The weight of the cube is balanced by the buoyant force. The buoyant force is equal to the weight of the water
displaced. If a volume V of the cube is inside the water, the weight of the displaced water = Vg, where is
the density of water. Thus,
Vg = (0.7 kg) g
V=

0.7 kg
0.7 kg
=
= 7 104 m3 = 700 cm3.

1000 kg / m3

The total volume of the cube = (10 cm)3 = 1000 cm3.


The volume outside the water is
1000 cm3 700 cm3 = 300 cm3.
101.

A cubical block of ice floating in water has to support a metal piece weighing 0.5 kg. What can be the
minimum edge of the block so that it does not sink in water? Specific gravity of ice = 0.9.
HCV_Ch-13_Ex._13

Ans.
102.

17 cm

A cubical box is to be constructed with iron sheets 1 mm in thickness. What can be the minimum value of
the external edge so that the cube does not sink in water? Density of iron = 8000 kg/m3 and density of water
= 1000 kg/m3.
HCV_Ch-13_Ex_15
Ans.
4.8 cm

READ THE SOLVED EXAMPLE AND SOLVE THE UNSOLVED PROBLEM.


Example :
Ex.
The area of cross-section of the two arms of a hydraulic press are 1 cm2 and 10 cm2 respectively (figure). A
force of 5 N is applied on the water in the thinner arm. What force should be applied on the water in the
thicker arms so that the water may remain in equilibrium ?
HCV_Ch-13_WOE_5

Sol.

In equilibrium, the pressures at the two surfaces should be equal as they lie in the same horizontal level. If
the atmospheric pressure is P and a force F is applied to maintain the equilibrium, the pressures are
This givens F = 50 N.

103.

The area of cross-section of the wider tube shown in figure is 900 cm2. If the boy standing on the light piston
weighs 45 kg, find the difference in the levels of water in the two tubes.

Ans.
104.

Sol.

50 cm

A beaker of circular cross-section of radius 4 cm is filled with mercury upto a height of 10 cm. Find the force
exerted by the mercury on the bottom of the beaker. The atmospheric pressure = 105 N/m2. Density of
mercury = 13600 kg/m3 . Take g = 10 m/s2.
HCV_Ch-13_WOE_1
The pressure at the surface = atmospheric pressure
= 105 N/m2.
The pressure at the bottom = 105 N/m2 + hg
= 105 N/m2 + hg
= 105 N/m2 + (0.1 m)
= 105 N/m2 + 13600 N/m2
= 1.136 105 N/m2.
The force exerted by the mercury on the bottom
= (1.136 105 N/m2) (3.14 0.04 m 0.04 m)
= 571 N.

105.

A cubical block of wood weighing 200 g has a lead piece fastened underneath. Find the mass of the lead
piece which will just allow the block to float in water. Specific gravity of wood is 0.8 and that of lead is 11.3.
HCV_Ch-13_Ex._16

Ans.

54.8 g

106.

A cubical metal block of edge 12 cm floats in mercury with one fifth of the height insde the mercury. Water is
poured till the surface of the block is just immersed in it. Find the height of the water column to be poured.
Specific gravity of mercury = 13.6.
HCV_Ch-13_Ex_18
Ans.
10.4 cm

107.

A hollow spherical body of inner and outer radii 6 cm and 8 cm respectively floats half submerged in water.
Find the density of the material of the sphere. (dwater = 1000 kg/m3)
HCV_Ch-13_Ex_19
Ans.
865 kg/m3

108.

A body of density is dropped from rest from a height 'h' (from the surface of water) into a lake of density of
water ( >). Neglecting all dissipative effects, the acceleration of body while it is in the lake is:
[ Made 2004] M.Bank_Fluids_1.3


(C) g
upwards

(A*) g
1 upwards

109.


(D) g
downwards

(B) g
1 downwards

A tube in vertical plane is shown in figure. It is filled with a liquid of density and its end B is closedThen the
force exerted by the fluid on the tube at end B will be : [Neglect atmospheric pressure and assume the
radius of the tube to be negligible in comparison to ]

[ Made 2004] [BM_Fluids_1.12]

[M.Bank_Fluids_1.12]
(B*) g A0
(D) Cannot be determined

(A) 0
(C) 2g A0
Sol.

Pressure exerted by fluid at closed end B is


P = g

force exerted by fluid at closed end B is


F = PA = g A0

110.

A block of silver of mass 4 kg hanging from a string is immersed in a liquid of relative density 0.72. If relative
density of silver is 10, then tension in the string will be:[ take g = 10 m/s2 ]
[ Made 2004] [M.Bank_Fluid_11]
(A*) 37.12 N
(B) 42 N
(C) 73 N
(D) 21 N

Sol.

Let S, L be the density of silver and liquid. Also m and V be the mass and volume of silver block.

Tension in string = mg bouyant force


T = SVg L Vg = (S L) Vg
Also

m
V = s

3
S s
mg = (10 0.72) 10 4 10
T =
s
10 10 3

= 37.12 N.
111.

Sol.

A cylindrical vessel filled with water is released on an inclined surface of angle as shown in figure. The
friction coefficient of surface with vessel is ( < tan ). Then the constant angle made by the surface of water
with the incline will be:
[ Made 2004] [7, Fluid]

(A*) tan1
(B) tan1
(C) + tan1
(D) cot1
figure shows forces acting on a 'particle' on the surface, with respect to vessel.

(mg sin & mg cos are pseudo forces).


tan =
= tan1 .
is angle between normal to the inclined surface and the resultant force. The same angle will be formed
between the surface of water & the inclined surface.
{ free surface is to the resultant force acting on it.}
112.

A light cylindrical tube T of length and radius r containing air is inverted in water (density d1). One end of
the tube is open and the other is closed. A block B of density d2 (>d1) is kept on the tube as shown in the
figure. The tube stays in equilibrium in the position shown. Find the volume of B. The density of the air is
negligible as compared with the density of water. What is the pressure of the air in the tube assuming that
the atmospheric pressure is P0. [Made RKV 2005]
[24, Fluid]

Sol.

The free body diagram of block + tube inclusive of water is as shown below

Since the block + tube system shown in figure is in equilibrium

Net weight of system = buoyant force


d2Vg + r2

2
d g = (V + r2) d1g
3 1

d1
r 2 d1
r 2
or
V = d d
3
3
2
1
The pressure of the air trapped inside the tube is same as pressure at point A in the water as shown in figure.

where V is the volume of block B

P = P0 + h d1g
3

113.

(d2 d1) V =

Ans.

Pa = P0 + d1g h
3

A large open tank has two small holes in the wall. One is a square hole of side 'L' at a depth '4y' from the top
and the other is a circular hole of radius 'R' at a depth y from the top. When the tank is completely filled with
water, the quantities of water flowing out per second from both holes are the same. Then, 'R' is equal to:
[Q.6/DPP-42/P1-P6]
[ Made 2004 ]
M.Bank_Fluids_6
L

(A)
Sol.

(B) 2L

(C*)

2
.L

(D)

L
2

Let v 1 and v 2 be the velocity of efflux from square and circular hole respectively. S1 and S2 be cross-section
areas of square and circular holes.
v1 =

8gy

and

v2 =

2g( y )

The volume of water coming out of square and circular hole per second is
Q1 = v 1S1 =

114.

R=

8gy L2

; Q2 = v 2S2 =

2gy R2

Q1 = Q2

2 .L

The velocity of the liquid coming out of a small hole of a vessel containing two different liquids of
densities 2and as shown in figureis
M.Bank_Fluids_33

(A) 6gh
Sol.

(B*) 2 gh

(C) 2 2gh

(D) gh

Pressure at (1) :
P1 = Patm + g (2h)
Applying Bernoulli's theorum between points (1) and (2)
[Patm + 2 g h] + g(2h) +
= Patm + (2 ) g (0) +

1
(2 ) (0)2
2

1
(2 ) v 2
2

v = 2 gh

Ans.

115.

Fountains usually seen in gardens are generated by a wide pipe with an enclosure at one end having many
small holes. Consider one such fountain which is produced by a pipe of internal diameter 2 cm in which water
flows at a rate 3ms1. The enclosure has 100 holes each of diameter 0.05 cm. The velocity of water coming
out of the holes is (in ms1)
M.Bank_Fluids_74
(A) 0.48
(B) 96
(C) 24
(D*) 48

116.

There is a small hole in the bottom of a fixed container containing a liquid upto height h. The top of the liquid
as well as the hole at the bottom are exposed to atmosphere. As the liquid comes out of the hole. (Area of
the hole is a and that of the top surface is A) : M.Bank_Fluids_51 [Made 2006, RKV, GRSTX]
(A) the top surface of the liquid accelerates with acceleration = g
(B) the top surface of the liquid accelerates with acceleration = g
(C) the top surface of the liquid retards with retardation = g

(D*) the top surface of the liquid retards with retardation =

a2
A2

a
A

ga 2
A2

2gh

Sol.

The velocity of fluid at the hole is :

V2 =

1 (a 2 / A 2 )

Using continuity equation at the two cross-sections (1) and (2) :


V1 A = V2 a

V1 =

a
V
A 2

acceleration (of top surface) = V1


a2
dV2
a1 = 2 V2
= 2
A
dh
A
a2

117.

a
d a

V2
V2
A dh A

a1 =

2 h

ga2
A2

A water tank stands on the roof of a building as shown. Then the value of h for which the distance covered by
the water 'x' is greatest is
M.Bank_Fluids_58

(A) 0.5 m
Sol.

2 gh 2 g.

dV1
dh

Vefflux =

(B) 0.67 m

2gh

time of fall t =

( 4 h)2
g

(C*) 1 m

(D) none of these

x = Veffloy t = 2 h( 4 h)
the roots of x are (0,4) and the maximum of x is at h = 2.
The permitted value of h is 0 to 1 clearly h = 1 will give the
maximum value of x is this interval.
Aliter : If the column of water itself were from ground upto a height of 4m, h = 2m would give the maximum
range x. Farther the hole is from this midpoint, lower the range. Here the nearest point possible to this
midpoint is the base of the container. Hence h = 1m.
118.

Fountains usually seen in gardens are generated by a wide pipe with an enclosure at one end having many
small holes. Consider one such fountain which is produced by a pipe of internal diameter 2 cm in which water
flows at a rate 3ms1. The enclosure has 100 holes each of diameter 0.05 cm. The velocity of water coming
out of the holes is (in ms1)
[ 74_Fluids ]
(A) 0.48
(B) 96
(C) 24
(D*) 48

119.

Two very large open tanks A & F both contain the same liquid. A horizontal pipe BCD, having a small
constriction at C, leads out of the bottom of tank A, and a vertical pipe E containing air opens into the
constriction at C and dips into the liquid in tank F. Assume streamline flow and no viscosity. If the cross
section area at C is one-half that at D, and if D is at distance h1 below the level of the liquid in A, to what
height h2 will liquid rise in pipe E? Express your answer in terms of h 1.
[Neglect changes in atmospheric pressure with elevation. In the containers there is atmosphere above
the water surface and D is also open to atmosphere.]
M.Bank_Fluid_70
[Q.12/P1-P6/DPP-43] [Q.4/RK_Topic/Fluid]

[4]

Sol.

Apply Bernollis equation b/w point P & D


1
1
Vp 2 = Patm + g(o) + v D2
2
2
[Assume zero level D]

Patm + gh1 +

Vp 0 Area of cross section is very large


VD =

2gh1

Since area at C is half than area at D


so according to continuity equation
V CA C = V DA D
Now

VC = 2VD = 2 2gh1

for point P & C according to bernollis equation.


Pp + gh1 +

1
Vp2
2

= PC + g(0) +

1
.VC2
2

Vp 0

Patm + gh1 = PC +

Patm = PC + 3gh1

for point E

1
.(2 2gh1 )2
2

.........(i)

PE = PC + gh2 = Patm

.........(ii)

from (i) & (ii)


3gh1 = gh2
h 2 = 3h 1

Ans.

120.

A fixed container of height ' H ' with large cross-sectional area ' A ' is completely filled with water. Two
small orifice of cross-sectional area ' a ' are made, one at the bottom and the other on the vertical side
of the container at a distance H/2 from the top of the container. Find the time taken by the water level
to reach a height of H/2 from the bottom of the container.
[ Made 2003]
[Q.20/RK_BM/Fluid]
M.Bank_Fluids._1

Sol.

v1 =

2 g ( h H / 2)

2g h

v2 =

By continuity equation

dh
= a (v + v )
1
2
dt

dh
= a
dt

or

121.

Sol.

2 g (h H / 2) 2 g h

H/2

a 2g H

dh

h h H/2

dt

t=

2A
3a

2 1

H
g

Ans.

A container of cross-section area ' S ' and height ' h ' is filled with mercury up to the brim. Then the container
is sealed airtight and a hole of small cross section area ' S/n ' (where n is a positive constant) is punched in
its bottom. Find out the time interval upto which the mercury will come out from the bottom hole.
[Take the atmospheric pressure to be equal to h0 height of mercury column: h > h0 ]
[ Made 2004]
M.Bank_Fluids_15
Let the velocity of efflux of mercury coming out of hole be at an instant mercury level in container is y. At
same instant the speed of top surface of fluids v.
from equation of continuity

S
v = Sv
n

....(1)

S
<< S

>> v
n
applying Bernolis therram between A and B

1 2
1
ev = Patm +
e2
2
2
v << higher powers of v can
be neglected and Patm = h0eg

Yeg +

2g( Y h0 )

.........(2)

Hence mercury flows out of both till y = h0.


from equation (1)

v=

dy
1
1
=
=
dt
h
h

dy

2g( Y h0 )

1
2gY h0 = h dt

or

integrating between limits


h0

at

122.

=0

y=n

and t = T, Y = h0 ;

dy
2g ( Y h 0 )

1
n

dt ;

2
t = n g (h h 0 )

W ater flows through a frictionless duct with a cross-section varying as shown in figure. Pressure
p at points along the axis is represented by:
M.Bank_Fluid_67

(A*)

(B)

(C)

(D)