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NIGER DELTA PETROLEUM RESOURCES

ENGINEERING DESIGN OF
12 x 20 KM OGBELE RUMUJI PIPELINE PROJECT
CATHODIC PROTECTION REPORT
OG0108-OGB-SR-C-001
Rev.
No.

Date

30 Oct., 2009

Description
Approved for
Construction

Author

Reviewed
by

Approved
by

V. Ebesunun

I. Mbonu

K. Okanigbe

POINT

POINT ENGINEERING LIMITED


This document is controlled electronically and is uncontrolled when printed.

Approved
by NDPR

Cathodic Protection Report


12 x 20 Km Ogbele Rumuji Pipeline Project

POINT ENGINEERING LIMITED


OG0108-OGB-SR-C-001

TABLE OF CONTENT

1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 PROJECT BACKGROUND
1.2 SCOPE
2.0 CATHODIC PROTECTION REPORT
2.1 GENERAL
2.2 TRANSFORMER/RECTIFIER
2.3 DEEPWELL GROUND BED
2.4 CABLES AND ACCESSORIES
2.5 JUNCTION BOX
2.6 INSPECTION AND TESTING
2.7 CALCULATION
2.8 CURRENT REQUIREMENT FOR THE NEW FLOWLINE
2.9 DEEPWELL GROUND BED SIZING
2.9.1
ANODE REQUIREMENT
2.9.2
GROUNDBED RESISTANCE
2.9.3
QUANTITY OF BACKFILL
3.0 CONCLUSION
4.0 REFERENCES

Cathodic Protection Report

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Cathodic Protection Report


12 x 20 Km Ogbele Rumuji Pipeline Project

POINT ENGINEERING LIMITED


OG0108-OGB-SR-C-001

Abbreviations
AC

Alternating Current

CP

Cathodic Protection

DC

Direct Current

HMW-PE

High Molecular Weight polyethylene

KM (Km)

Kilometer

NDEP

Niger Delta Exploration and Production

NDPR

Niger Delta Petroleum Resources Limited

NLNG

Nigerian Liquefied Natural Gas

PEFS

Process Engineering Flow Scheme

PFS

Process Flow Scheme

POINT

Point Engineering Limited

ROW

Right of Way

SWA

Single Wire Armoured

SOW

Scope of Work

SPDC

Shell Petroleum Development Company

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Cathodic Protection Report


12 x 20 Km Ogbele Rumuji Pipeline Project

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OG0108-OGB-SR-C-001

1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1

PROJECT BACKGROUND
The client, Niger Delta Petroleum Resources (NDPR) Limited desires to deliver Lean
Gas via a 12 x 20km pipeline from its field in Ogbele/Otari/Obumeze Community to
the Nigeria Liquefied Natural Gas (NLNG) Company Pipeline Node (Manifold) at
Rumuji.

1.2

SCOPE
The overall purpose of this report is to evaluate the adequacy of the existing Cathodic
Protection system on the site for the new 20km Ogbele Rumuji pipeline using the
existing rectifier/ transformer.

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Cathodic Protection Report


12 x 20 Km Ogbele Rumuji Pipeline Project

POINT ENGINEERING LIMITED


OG0108-OGB-SR-C-001

2.0 CATHODIC PROTECTION REPORT


2.1

GENERAL
The Cathodic protection system that will operate in 12 x 20 Km Ogbele Rumuji
pipeline project is the existing impressed current type. The existing cathodic
protection system is supplied power from Obele diesel generating sets and supply
230V AC voltage, 26.7A, 50Hz frequency at the input and 50V DC, 50A at the output.
The system has an operating temp of 45 0C, oil cooled case. There are three cable
routes from the transformer/rectifier, the 1c x 70mm2 HMW-PE cable connected to
ground bed Junction Box JB-1. The proposed 1c x 70mm2 HMW-PE cable is
connected from proposed ground bed to Junction Box JB-4 which is in turn hookedup to the existing Rectifier system. There are two existing 1c x 35mm2 HMW-PE
cables, each connected to JB-2 and JB-3 as shown on drawing OG0108-OGB-ED-C001. Protection connections shall be made from JB-3 by 1c x 16 mm2 HMW-PE cable
to the 12 new pipeline as shown on drawing OG0108-OGB-ED-C-001 through the
spare rheostat. The new pipeline will be connected to JB-3 spare rheostat as shown
on drawing OG0108-OGB-ED-C-004.

2.2

TRANSFORMER/RECTIFIER
The existing transformer/rectifier units at the Ogbele flow stations shall be utilized for
the impressed current CP system.
The DC output of the transformer/rectifier is 50V, 50A and input is 230V AC voltage,
50Hz single phase system.

2.3

DEEPWELL GROUND BED


This section provides a guideline for design of impressed current ground bed. For this
project, one vertical deep well ground bed is proposed to boost the performance of
the existing cathodic protection system in order to accommodate the new 12 x 20 Km
pipeline. However, this proposition is to maintain the initial design of two ground beds
for the system for which one of the ground beds was not in use presently. The ground
bed shall be installed as shown on drawing OG0108-OGB-ED-C-003. During the
ground bed installation, the following should be taken into consideration:

The ground bed should be sited at least 100m from all buried metallic
structures within the area of influence surrounding the ground bed. This is to
prevent the metallic structures from picking up current from the ground bed and
create a stray current interference problem that will require corrective measures
when using the site.

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Cathodic Protection Report


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POINT ENGINEERING LIMITED


OG0108-OGB-SR-C-001

The current source should be taken from the existing rectifier-powered


impressed current on the site.

The ground bed site should be reasonably accessible for construction and
maintenance purposes.

The ground bed must be free from further building construction (new
pipelines, highway development, or other similar work) that will make the site
untenable in the near future.

2.4

CABLES AND ACCESSORIES

Cables shall be single core multi-stranded copper conductors, HMW-PE


insulated, SWA, and over sheathed, with the color indicated on construction
drawings.

The cable cross-sections and routes are shown on the drawings OG0108OGB-ED-C-003.

The cable laying should be done with optimum care to avoid kink.

The cable should be laid to ensure that their allowable bending radius is
not exceeded.

Test point cables connection to the pipelines shall be by thermite welding


according to Standard Construction Specification (S17 of Shell Dep. 30.10.73.10Gen. Nov 2003 pg 79).

Electrical connections between anode and leads and header cable are
critical part of impressed current ground bed construction. Anode leads must be
connected to the header cable by a method that will have permanently low
resistance.

The connection, once made, must be insulated so that it will be waterproof


to present current leakage and cable corrosion.

2.5

JUNCTION BOX

The proposed Junction box (JB-4) shall be designed to provide electrical


continuity, voltage regulation via rheostats and potential balancing for the cathodic
protection system as shown on the drawing OG0108-OGB-ED-C-003.

JB-4 shall be installed such that offer ease of maintenance, and also
provide with special looking system.

The installed junction box shall be complete with resistors and current
shunts.

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2.6

POINT ENGINEERING LIMITED


OG0108-OGB-SR-C-001

INSPECTION AND TESTING


After complete installation of the cathodic protection system, it is necessary to carry
out tests to ensure and confirm satisfactory installation and operation of all parts of
the system.

2.7

CALCULATION
The soil data used below for the analysis are based on the Final Report on Subsoil
Investigation for the proposed NDPR Gas Plant dated July 2007
Length of existing pipe line

7.5 Km

Diameter of existing pipe

6 (15.24 cm)

Length of new flow line

20 Km

Total length of distribution (l)

27.5 Km

Diameter of new pipe (d)

12 (30.5 cm)

Total diameter of pipe (D)

18 (45.74 cm)

Average soil resistivity

1500 cm

Corrosion Coating Thickness (tc)

3 mm

Average leakage conductance (G)

2.14 x 10-3s/m2 in 1000 cm

Average potential shift to remote earth

-0.250V

Total surface area of the installation pipe (A)

dl ( = 3.142)

3.142 x 45.74/100 x 27.5

39.522m

Estimated leakage conductance of new pipe in 100 cm (g)


=

GxA

2.14 x 10-3 x 39.522

0.0846 siemens

Resistance to remote earth

1/conductance

1/0.0846

11.824

Estimated resistance to remote earth in 1500 cm soil


=

11.824 x 1.5

17.736

Estimated current to shift pipe potential to remote earth -0.250V


I

Cathodic Protection Report

=
=

E/R
0.250/17.736

0.0141A

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Cathodic Protection Report


12 x 20 Km Ogbele Rumuji Pipeline Project

2.8

POINT ENGINEERING LIMITED


OG0108-OGB-SR-C-001

CURRENT REQUIREMENT FOR THE NEW FLOWLINE


Pipeline surface Area

=
=
=

(D + 2tc)L
(12 x 25.4 + 2(10)) x 20
2.0423 x 104 m2

The minimum design current density for PE coating for up to 30 - year life is
0.01mA/m2. Using a design current density, J = 0.5mA/m2,
Protection Current,
Ip

2.9

(A x J) / 1000

0.5 x 2.0423 x 10 / 1000

10.212 A

DEEPWELL GROUND BED SIZING


In the following section, ground bed sizing calculations are detailed. Note that the
sizing is based on Dwights formula. In addition, due to the unavailability of soil
resistivity data, the ground bed resistance calculation is based on assumed value of
1500 ohm.cm, which is reasonable at the great depth considered in this design.

2.9.1 ANODE REQUIREMENT


Anode Type

Mixed Metal Oxide

Anode Dimensions

100 cm x 2.5 cm

Net Weight

0.36 kg

Nominal Consumption Rate

0.0027kg/Ayr

Maximum Output per Anode


(at 1mA/cm2 Current Density)

8.0 A

Utilisation Factor

70%

Required Lifetime

25 years

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12 x 20 Km Ogbele Rumuji Pipeline Project

Required Number of Anodes n

POINT ENGINEERING LIMITED


OG0108-OGB-SR-C-001

= Current Required for Protection

Current output/anode x Utilisation factor


=

Say
Anodes Group Weight

20 x 0.36

100 x 100
8 x 70
=
=

17.857
20 Anodes.

7.2 kg

Anodes consumption at maximum ground bed current output for the entire 25 years is
=

25 x 100 x 0.0027

=
6.75 kg
This is less than the anodes group weight and hence meets the anodes requirements
for the specified life of the pipelines.
The resistance to earth of the ground bed must allow the maximum predicted current
demand to be met at 80% or less of the voltage capacity of the DC source. This
minus the 2 V back voltage of the coke backfill divided by the current output from the
rectifier gives a maximum circuit resistance, Rmax, of
Rmax

Idc

100

Vdc x 80% - 2

50 x 0.8 2

= 0.38.

Where Vdc and I dc are the DC output ratings of voltage and current respectively of
the transformer rectifier.
2.9.2

GROUNDBED RESISTANCE

For a single anode placed vertically in soil, its resistance to the backfill medium (in
this case of 5 ohm resistance) is

8L

Ra
ln
1
2 L d

Where,
Ra= anode resistance in ohm

= medium resistivity in ohm.cm

L= anode length in cm
d= anode diameter in cm
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Cathodic Protection Report


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POINT ENGINEERING LIMITED


OG0108-OGB-SR-C-001

8 100

5
ln
1
2 100 2.5

0.038

For an anode surrounded by coke backfill column of 600 cm length and 20 cm


diameter, the resistance of the backfill column to earth becomes

8 600

5
ln
1
2 600 20

0.006

Hence anode internal resistance is


0.038 0.006 0.032
Resistance of one anode installation in backfill of the given dimensions and soil of
1500 ohm.cm resistivity becomes

8 600

1500
ln
1 0.032 1.815
2 600 20

The combined resistance of the anodes and hence the anode ground bed resistance,
Rgb, taking into consideration the mutual interference is obtained from
Rgb

ln 0.66 n
n
nS

Where n = number of anodes


S

= anode spacing (500cm)

= single anode resistance


Rgb

1.221
1500

ln 0.66 20
20
20 500

0.184

Hence the ground bed configuration will be 20 no. anodes surrounded by


carbonaceous backfill material in a 200mm casing with anodes at 0.5 m spacing, the
total active length of the ground bed will be
(0.5+1) x 20 = 30 m
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OG0108-OGB-SR-C-001

Giving a total deep well ground bed depth of 20 + 30 = 50 m

2.9.3 QUANTITY OF BACKFILL


The maximum volume occupied by the backfill in the well bore is taken, for ease of
calculation, to be the volume of the active length of the well bore neglecting the
volume occupied by anodes, cables etc.This volume is calculated from
Vb

D 2 L 3
m
4

Where L = length of active section


D

diameter of bore hole

Using the ground bed active section length of 30m and well bore of 20cm internal
diameter; the backfill volume is obtained from
Vb

30 0.2 2
m3
4

Vb

0.943 m3

Therefore volume of backfill will be Vb

0.943 m3

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OG0108-OGB-SR-C-001

3.0 CONCLUSION
The existing rectifier/transformer on site has an output of 50V, 50A DC. From the
calculation above, the required protection current to supply the pipelines for the next
30 years is 10.212A, when added to the existing current gives 13.212A which is far
below the output current of the existing rectifier/transformer. The existing
rectifier/transformer is able to supply the required current to the new flowline.
Therefore the existing rectifier/transformer should be used as source of the impressed
current.

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POINT ENGINEERING LIMITED


OG0108-OGB-SR-C-001

4.0 REFERENCES
1. Cathodic Protection system sizing report for zinc anodes of gas transmission
system (Ndele-Bonny pipeline) T-10.131.212-A
2. Cathodic protection system installation detail for deep well ground bed T10.131.100-8
3. Cathodic protection EPT 08-T-02 November 1992 Draft
4. Control of pipeline corrosion by A.W. Peabody (second edition) edited by Ronald
L. Bianchetti
5. Standard Construction Specification (S17 of SPDC).

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