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ADIKAVI NANNAYA UNIVERSITY


RAJAHMUNDRY
B.Sc. III Year Syllabus
Effective for 2013 Admitted Batch only.
Part III Basic Subjects
BIO-CHEMISTRY
Paper-3: Physiology, Clinical Biochemistry and Immunology
Unit-I: Physiology: Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins.
Composition of blood and coagulation of blood. Hemoglobin and transport of gases
in blood (oxygen and CO2).
Heart- structure of the heart, cardiac cycle, cardiac factors controlling blood pressure.
Muscle- kinds of muscles, structure of myofibril, organization of contractile proteins
and mechanism of muscle contraction.
Endocrinology- organization of endocrine system. Classification of hormones.
Outlines of chemistry, physiological role and disorders of hormones of pancreas,
thyroid, parathyroid, gonads, placenta, adrenals, pituitary and hypothalamus.
Introduction of gastrointestinal hormones. Out lines of mechanism of hormonal
action.
Unit-II: Nutrition: Balanced diet. Calorific values of foods and their determination by bomb
calorimeter. BMR and factors affecting it. Specific dynamic action of foods. Energy
requirements and recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for children, adults,
pregnant and lactating women. Sources of complete and incomplete proteins.
Biological value of proteins. Role of essential fatty acids in human nutrition.
Malnutrition- Kwashiorkar, Marasmus and PEM.
Vitamins- sources, structure, biochemical roles, deficiency disorders of water and fat
soluble vitamins. Introduction to neutraceutical and functional foods. Bulk and trace
elements-Ca, Mg, Fe, I, Cu, Mo, Zn, Se and F. Obesity and starvation.
Unit-III: Clinical Biochemistry: Plasma proteins in health and disease. Disorders of blood
coagulation (haemophilia). Types of anemias, haemoglobinopathies - sickle cell
anemia and thalassemias.
Structure and functions of the liver. Liver diseases - jaundice, hepatitis, cirrhosis.
Liver function tests - conjugated and total bilurubin in serum, albumin: globulin ratio,
hippuric acid and bromsulphthalein tests. Serum enzymes in liver diseases- SGPT,
SGOT and alkaline phosphatase.
Kidneys-structure of nephron, urine formation, normal and abnormal constituents of
urine. Biological buffers. Role of kidneys in maintaining acid-base and electrolyte
balance in the body. Renal function tests- creatinine and urea clearance tests, phenol
red test.
Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism- hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, glycosuria,
renal threshold value. Diabetes mellitus-classification, glucose tolerance test (GTT),
diabetic ketoacidosis.

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Disorders of lipid metabolism- plasma lipoproteins, lipoproteinemias, fatty liver,
hyper cholesterolemia, atherosclerosis.
Biochemical tests for the diagnosis of heart diseases- HDL/LDL cholesterol, SGOT,
LDH, CK, C-reactive protein, cardiac troponins.
Unit-IV: Immunology: Organization of immune system. Organs and cells of immune system.
Innate and acquired immunity. Cell mediated and humoral immunity (T- and Bcells). Classification of immunoglobulins, structure of IgG. Epitopes / antigenic
determinants. Concept of haptens & adjuvants. Theories of antibody formation- clonal
selection theory. Monoclonal antibodies.
Antigen-antibody reactions - agglutination, immunoprecipitation, immunodiffusion.
Blood group antigens. Immunodiagnostics - RIA, ELISA. Vaccines and their
classification. Traditional vaccines - live & attenuated, toxoids. Outlines of
hypersensitivity reactions. Introduction to Stem Cells.
Books for Reference:
1. Talwar, G.P. and Srivastava. L.M., Textbook of Biochemistry and Human Biology ,
Prentice Hall of India.
2. Ganong, Review of Medical Physiology, McGraw-Hill.
3. Chatterjee.C.C, Human Physiology , Medical Allied Agency.
4. Swaminathan.M, Essentials of Food and Nutrition, Bangalore Press.
5. Devlin.T.M., Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations, Wiley Liss
6. Chatterjea. M.N. and Shinde.R, Textbook of Medical Biochemistry, Jaypee Brothers
Medical Publishers.
7. Murray, R.K., Granner.D.K. & Rodwell,V.W., Harpers Illustrated Biochemistry,
McGraw-Hill.
8. Kindt.T.J., Goldsby.R.A. and Osborne.B.A., Kuby Immunology, Freeman & Co.
9. Roitt.I.M. and Delves.P.J., Roitts Essential Immunology , Blackwell Science.
Practicals - 3: Physiology, Clinical Biochemistry and Immunology
List of Experiments:
1. Estimation of calcium by titrimetry
2. Estimation of iron
3. Estimation of vitamin C by 2, 6 -dichlorophenol indophenol method.
4. Isolation of total lipids from Copra (Demo with Record)
5. Determination of iodine value of Coconut/ palm oil.
6. Estimation of hemoglobin in blood.
7. Total count - RBC and WBC. Differential count.
8. Determination of blood group and Rh typing.
9. Visualization of antigen antibody reactions (Ouchterlony technique). (Demo with
Record)
10. Urine analysis for albumin, sugars and ketone bodies.
11. Estimation of Serum Creatine
12. Estimation of blood urea.
13. Estimation of serum total cholesterol.
14. Estimation of Serum Bilirubin
15. Determination of SGOT and SGPT activity (Demo with Record)
Books for Reference:
1. Sadasivam, S and Manickyam, A Biochemical Methods, New Age International
Publishers.
2. Plummer, D. T, An Introduction to Practical Biochemistry, Tata McGraw-Hill.
3. (ed) Sawhney, S. K. Randhir Singh, Introductory Practical Biochemistry Narosa
Publications House.

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4. Varley H, Practical Clinical Biochemistry, CBS Publishers.
5. Ranjna Chawla, Practical Clinical Biochemistry , Methods and Interpretations,
Jaypee Brother Medical Publications, New Delhi.
6. Shivande Naik B, Manipal Manual of Clinical Biochemistry, Jaypee Brother Medical
Publications, New Delhi.
7. Jayaraman, J, Laboratory Manual in Biochemistry, Wiley-Eastern
Paper-4: Microbiology and Molecular Biology:
Unit-I: Microbiology: Introduction to brief history of microbiology. Classification of
microorganisms- prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. Isolation and
cultivation of bacteria. Selective media and enriched media. Bacterial growth curve
and kinetics of growth. Batch, continuous and synchronous cultures. Grams stainingGram positive and Gram negative bacteria, motility and sporulation.
Structure and composition of viruses. One-step growth and determination of plaque
forming Units (PFU). Isolation and cultivation of bacterial plaques. Lytic and
lysogenic life cycle of phage. TMV, Retro viruses- HIV. Prions and Mycoplasma.
Preparation and uses of Bio and Vermi compost.
Unit-II: DNA Replication and Transcription: Organization of genome in prokaryotes and
eukaryotes. Experimental evidences to prove nucleic acids as genetic material. Nature
and structure of the gene. DNA replication- models of replication, Meselson-Stahls
experimental proof for semi-conservative model. DNA polymerases I, II and III of
E.coli, helicase, topoisomerases, primase, ligase. Bidirectional replication model.
Okazaki fragments, leading and lagging strands of DNA synthesis. Inhibitors of DNA
replication.
Transcription - RNA synthesis, RNA polymerases of prokaryotes. Promoters,
Initiation- sigma factors and their recognition sites. Elongation- role of core enzyme.
Termination- rho dependent and rho independent. RNA polymerase I, II and III of
eukaryotes.
Transcriptional events in eukaryotic m-RNA synthesis, Inhibitors of RNA synthesis.
Unit-III: Protein Synthesis and Regulation of Gene Expression: Introduction to protein
synthesis- Genetic code, structure of t-RNA, deciphering of genetic code,
Nirenbergs and Khoranas experiments, wobble hypothesis, degeneracy of genetic
code.
Protein synthesis- activation of amino acids (aminoacyl t-RNA synthetases).
Ribosome structure. Initiation, elongation and termination of protein synthesis. Posttranslational modifications- signal hypothesis. Inhibitors of protein synthesis.
Regulation of prokaryotic gene expression- induction and repression. Lac operon,
catabolite repression. Tryptophan operon and attenuation.
Unit-IV: Recombinant DNA technology: Outlines of cloning strategies. DNA sequencingMaxam Gilbert and Sangers methods. Tools of r-DNA technology: EnzymesRestriction endonucleases, ligase, phosphatases, reverse transcriptase, polynucleotide
kinases, terminal transferase nucleases-S1 and RNAase H. Restriction mapping.
Cloning vectors- Plasmids, Ti plasmids, Cosmids, phages, shuttle vectors,
expression vectors. Host- E.coli, Sacchromyces cereviciae, Agrobacterium
tumifaciens.
Construction of c-DNA and genomic libraries. Isolation and sequencing of cloned
genes- colony hybridization, nucleic acid hybridization, using - galactosidases, green
fluorescent proteins (GFP)].
Polymerase chain reaction- principle and applications ( disease diagnosis of Shrimp)
Outlines of blotting techniques-Southern, Northern and Western.

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Applications of gene cloning- production of insulin,production of Bt cotton
Introduction to Bioinformatics- definitions of proteomics and genomics. Gene bank,
NCBI, DDBJ, Swissprot, PDB. Sequence alignments- BLAST and FASTA.
Books for Reference:
1. Alberts, B. Bray, D. Lewis, J. Raff, M. Roberts, K. and Watson, J. D, Molecular
Biology of Cell, Garland Publishing.
2. Dubey, R. C, A Textbook of Biotechnology, S. Chand & Co.
3. Jogdand, Gene Biotechnology, Himalaya Pub. House.
4. Ananthanarayan, R and Jayaram Paniker, C.K., Textbook of Microbiology , Orient
Longman.
5. Tortora, G. J. Funke, B. R. and Case, C. L., Microbiology: An Introduction, PearsonBenjamin-Cummings Co
6. Pelczar Jr,.M.J., Chan.E.C.S. and Krieg.N.R., Microbiology , Tata McGraw-Hill.
7. Attwood T K and Parry-Smith, D. J, Introduction to Bioinformatics, Pearson
Education.
8. Lesk A.M, Introduction to Bioinformatics, Oxford University Press
Practicals - 4: Microbiology and Molecular Biology
List of Experiments:
1. Preparation of culture media and sterilization methods.
2. Isolation of pure cultures:
(i) Streak plate method.
(ii) Serial dilution method.
3. Gram staining.
4. Motility of bacteria by hanging drop method.
5. Bacterial growth curve.
6. Antibiotic sensitivity by paper disc method.
7. Determination of potability of water.
8. Isolation of DNA from onion/liver/coconut endosperm.
9. Isolation of plasmids.
10. Determination of purity of nucleic acids by UV-spectrophotometric method.
(Demo with Record).
11. Estimation of DNA by diphenylamine method.
12. Estimation of RNA by orcinol method.
13. Electrophoresis of nucleic acids and visualization by methylene blue staining.
(Demo with Record).
14. Sequence alignments of insulin/BSA with other proteins using BLAST and
FASTA.
Books for Reference:
1. Gopal Reddy, M ,.Reddy, M.N., Sai Gopal D. V.R.and. Mallaiah, K.V, Laboratory
Experiments in Microbiology, Experiments in Microbiology, Plant Pathology, Tissue
Culture and Mushroom Cultivation, Aneja, K. R - New Age International publishers.
2. Reddy, S. M. and Ram Reddy, S, Microbiology, A Laboratory Manual, Sri
Padmavathi, Pub.
3. Dubey, R. C. and Maheshwari, D. K. Practical Microbiology, S. Chand & Co.
4. Jayaraman J, Laboratory Manual in Biochemistry, Wiley-Eastern.
5. Thiel, Bissen and Lyons , Biotechnology: A laboratory Project in Molecular Biology,
Tata McGraw-Hill.
6. Hans-Peter Schmauder, Methods in Biotechnology, Taylor & Francis.

BIOTECHNOLOGY
Paper- 3: Molecular Biology, Genetic Engineering and Immunology
Unit- I: Gene and Genome organization:
1. Organization of nuclear genome Genes and gene numbers essential and non
essential genes.
2. Kinetic classes of DNA - Single copy sequences, and repeated sequences.
Inverted, tandem and palindromic repeats. Denaturation and renaturation of DNA
- Tm values and Cot curves.
3. Satellite DNA.
4. Organization of eukaryotic genes - Exons, introns, promoters and
Terminators.
5.Gene families and clusters eg. Globin gene.
Unit-II: Gene expression and Gene Regulation:
1. Transcription.
Post-transcriptional modifications (Capping, polyadenylation, splicing ).
2. Genetic code and its features, Wobble Hypothesis,
3. Translation.
4. Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes ( Lac operon in bacteria).
Unit-III: Recombinant DNA Technology:
1. Enzymes used in gene cloning : Restriction endonucleases, Ligases, Phosphatases,
Methylases, Kinases.
2. Cloning vehicles Plasmids, Cosmids, Phage vectors, Shuttle vectors.
3. Baculovirus vector system, Expression vectors - expression cassettes.
4. Construction of genomic and cDNA libraries.
5. Principles involved and uses of Blotting Techniques Southern, Northern
and Western.
6. Principles and Applications of PCR Technology.
7. DNA Finger printing technique and its applications.
Unit-IV: Basics of Immunology:
1. Introduction to immune system Organs and cells of the immune system.
2. Antigens, Haptens physico-chemical characteristics.
3. Structure of different immunoglobulins and their functions Primary and
secondary antibody responses.
4. Antigen - Antibody Reactions.
5. Hypersensitivity Coombs classification, Types of hypersensitivity.
6. Autoimmune diseases.(ex: Rheumatoid arthritis)
Books for Reference:
1. R.W. Old & S.B. Primrose Principles of Gene Manipulation, , Publ: Blackwell.
2. D. Freifelder , Molecular Biology, , Publ: Narosa.
3. P.K. , Gupta Essentials of Biotechnology, .
4. M. Gopal Reddy, M.N. Reddy, D.V.R. Sai Gopal and K.V. Mallaiah. Laboratory
Experiments in Microbiology
5. Kubey, Immunology.

Practicals - 3: Molecular Biology:


1. Isolation of DNA from plant/animal/bacterial cells.
2. Analysis of DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis.
3. Restriction digestion of DNA.
4. Immuno-diffusion test.
5. ELISA Test.
6. Microagglutination using microtiter plates (eg. ABO and Rh blood grouping).
7. WIDAL, VDRL tests.
8. Viability tests of cells/bacteria (Evans blue test or Trypan blue test).
9. Coombs test.
10. Preparation of competent cells of Bacteria.
11. Bacterial transformation and selection of transformants under pressure.
Paper-4: Applications of Biotechnology
Unit- I: Animal Biotechnology:
1. Cell culture media composition, preparation, sterilization, Culture vessels
2. Establishment of cell cultures using explants and cell disaggregation
3. Types of cultures and subculture (monolayer and suspension)
4. Stem cells cultivation and their application.
5. In vitro fertilization and embryo transfer technology ( in humans).
6. Methods of gene transfer Microinjection and viral mediated gene transfer
techniques
7. Production of transgenic animals and molecular pharming.
8. Principles of Ex vivo and In vivo gene therapy.
UnitII: Plant Biotechnology:
1. Composition of media (Murashige - Skoogs ) Preparation of media and methods
of sterilizations.
2. Induction of callus.
3. Meristem culture and production of virus free plants,
4. Clonal propagation of plants on a commercial scale (Somatic embryogenesis and
organogenesis).
5. Production of commercially useful compounds by plant cell culture.
6. Methods of gene transfer techniques (Agrobacterium, Microprojectile
bombardment).
7. Applications of recombinant DNA technology in agriculture.
8. Production of therapeutic proteins from transgenic plants.(any 2 examples)
9. Medicinal plants for common ailments (Domestic remedies).
UnitIII: Industrial Biotechnology:
1. Screening, isolation and preservation of industrial microorganisms
2. Primary and secondary metabolic products of microorganisms.
3. Commercial production of fuels (bioethanol) by microbial
fermentations.
4. Fermentative production of microbial enzymes (amylases, proteases),
and antibiotics (Pencillin).
5. Fermentative production of foods and dairy products(Yogurt,Cheese).
6. Overproduction of targeted proteins (ex; human growth hormones) using
animal cells as bioreactors.
7. Good manufacturing practices, Biosafety issues, Bioethics.
8. Intellectual Property Rights and Patenting issues.

Unit-IV: Environmental Biotechnology:


1. Renewable and non-renewable energy resources.
2. Conventional energy sources and their impact on environment.
3. Non-conventional fuels and their impact on environment (biogas,
bioethanol ).
4. Microbiological analysis of milk, food and water.
5. Microbiological treatment of municipal and industrial effluents.
6. Microbial degradation of pesticides and toxic chemicals.
7. Biopesticides and Biofertilizers (Nitrogen fixing, phosphate
solubilizingmicroorganisms).
8. Microbial ore leaching(Cu/Fe).
9. Bioremediation.
Books for Reference:
1. M.K. Razdan Introduction to Plant Tissue Culture , (Oxford and IBH
Publishing Company, New Delhi)
2. P.K. Gupta Elements of Biotechnology ,
3. A.Kalyan Kumar De, Plant Tissue Culture Biotechnology , U. Satyanarayana
4. M.B. Rao and Manjula Guru ,Biotechnology, IPRs and Biodiversity,(Pearson
Education).
Practicals - 4: Industrial and Environmental Biotechnology
1. Preparation of media, and initiation of callus from any one selected plant
species.
2. Micropropagation of plants (any one).
3. Preparation of synthetic seeds.
4. Production of wine using common yeast.
5. Production of hydrogen or biogas using cow/cattle dung.
6. Isolation of microbes from soil or industrial effluents.
7. Preparation of media and culture of animal cells/tissues.
8. Cell disaggregation and cell counting.
9. Cytotoxicity of the cells using the dye MTT method.
10. Estimation of BOD in water samples.
11. MPN tests.
12. Production of alcohol by fermentation and estimation of alcohol by
colorimetry.
13. Production of biofertilizers (Azolla).
14. Growth curves of bacteria, Measurement of growth in liquid cultures.
15. Quality testing of milk by MBRT.

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BOTANY
Paper - 3: Taxonomy Medicinal Botany, Plant Genetics, Ecology and Biodiversity
Unit - I: Taxonomy:
1. Introduction: Principles of plant systematics, Types of classification: Artificial,
Natural and Phylogenetical.
2. Systems of classification: Salient features and comparative account of Bentham &
Hooker And Engler & Prantle. An introduction to Angiosperm Phylogeny Group
(APG).
3. Current concepts in Angiosperm Taxonomy: Cytotaxonomy, Chemotaxonomy.
4. Nomenclature: Binomial, ICBN, Vienna code - a brief account. Herbarium: Concept,
techniques and applications.
5. Systematic study and economic importance of plants belong to the following families:
Annonaceae, Malvaceae Rutaceae, Fabaceae Caesalpinaceae, Mimosaceae,
Cucurbitaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Asclepiadaceae, Lamiaceae, Euphorbiaceae,
Orchidaceae and Poaceae.
Unit - II: Medicinal Botany:
1. Plants in primary health care: Common medicinal plants Identification and usage
of A) Ocimum sanctum (tulasi) B) Curcuma longa (Turmeric) C) (Terminalia
chebula (Karaka) D) Azadiracta indica (Vepa) E) Aloe vera (Kalabanda) F)
Tinospora cordifolia (T ippateega).
2. Traditional medicine vs Modern medicine: Study of selected plant examples used in
traditional medicine as resource-active principles, structure, usage and
pharmacological action (A) Withania somnifera (Aswagandha) B) Rauvolfia
serpentina (Sarpagandha) C) Emblica officinalis (Amla) D) Andrographis
paniculata (Nelavemu).
3. Ethnomedicine, Outlines of Ayurveda, Sidda, Unani and Homoeopathic systems of
medicine.
4. Indian Pharmacopoeia. AYUSH, NMPB, CIMAP and CDRI.
Unit - III: Genetics:
1. Mendelism: Laws of inheritance. Genetic interactions - Epistasis, complementary,
supplementary and inhibitory genes.
2. Linkage and crossing over: A brief account, construction of genetic maps - 2
point and 3 point test cross data.
3. Mutations: Chromosomal aberrations - structural and numerical changes; Gene
mutations, transposable elements.
4. Gene Expression: Organisation of gene, transcription, translation, mechanism and
regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes (Lac.and Trp. Operons ).
5. Extra nuclear genome: Mitochondrial and plastid r-DNA, plasmids.
Unit-IV: Ecology and Bio Diversity:
1. Concept and components of Ecosystem. Energy flow, food chains, food webs,
ecological pyramids, biogeochemical cycles - Carbon, Nitrogen.
2. Plants and environment: Ecological factors - Climatic (light and temperature), edaphic
and biotic. Ecological adaptations of plants. Ecological succession (Hydrosere,
Xerosere).
3. Production ecology: Concepts of productivity, GPP, NPP, CR (Community
Respiration) and secondary production, P/R ratio and Ecosystems.
4. Biodiversity: Concepts, Convention on Biodiversity - Earth Summit. Types of
biodiversity. Levels, threats and value of Biodiversity.

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5. Hot spots of IndiaNorth Eastern Himalayas, Western Ghats; Endemism.
Vavilov centres of crop plants.
6. Principles of conservation: IUCN threat-categories, RED data book threatened &
endangered plants of India. Role of organisations in the conservation of
Biodiversity - IUCN, UNEP,WWF, NBPGR, NBD.
Books for Reference:
1. Odum, E. P., Basics of Ecology. Saunders International Students Edition,
Philadelphia, 1983.
2. Jeffrey, C., An Introduction to Plant Taxonomy. Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, London, 1982.
3. Kothari, A., Understanding Biodiversity: Life, Sustainability and Equity: Tracts
for the Times. Orient Longman Ltd., New Delhi, 1997.
4. Lewis, W. H. & M. P. F. Elwin Lewis., Medical Botany: Plants Affecting Mans
Health.
A Wiley Inter science Publication, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1976.
5. O P Agarwal and Varma, Genetics, Evolution and Cell Biology, Himalayan
Publishing House, New Delhi.
6. Snustad, D. P. &M.J. Simmons (2000), Principles of Genetics, John Wiley & Sons,
Inc., USA.
7. Strickberger, M.W. (1990), Genetics (3rd Ed.). Macmillan Publishing Company.
8. Verma, P.S. & V.K. Agarwal (2004), Cell Biology, Genetics, Molecular Biology,
Evolution and Ecology, S. Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi.
9. Verma, P.S. &V.K. Agarwal (2006), Genetics, S. Chand & Company Ltd., New
Delhi.
10. Heywood, V. H. & D. M. Moore (Eds), Current Concepts in Plant Taxonomy,
Academic Press, London, 1984.
11. Rastogi, R. R. & B. N. Mehrotra., Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants, Vol. I &
Vol. II. CSIR, Publication and Information Directorate, New Delhi, 1993.
Practicals - 3: Taxonomy, Medicinal Botany, Plant Genetics, Ecology & Biodiversity
Suggested Laboratory Exercises:
1. Systemactic Study of Locally available plants belonging to the families prescribed in
theory syllabus (minimum one plant from each family).
2. Demonstration of herbarium techniques.
3. Local field visits to study the vegetation and flora.
4. Detailed morphological and anatomical study of medicinally important parts of
locally available plants (a minimum of 10 plants) used in traditional medicine .
5. Field Visits to Identify and collect ethno medicinal plants used by local tribe /
folklore .
6. Preparation and submission of 30 herbarium specimens for evaluation during the
practical examination.
7. Solving genetic problems related to monohybrid, dihybrid ratio and interaction of
genes (minimum six problems in each topic).
8. Construction of linkage maps, two point test cross.
9. Knowledge of ecological instruments: working principles and application of
hygrometer, rain gauze, anemometer, altimeter, light meter, wet and dry bulb
thermometer (with the help of Equipment / diagrams/ photographs).
10. Determination of soil texture (composition of clay, silt and sand etc.) and PH.
11. Study of morphological and anatomical characteristics of plant communities using
locally available plant species. hydrophytes (Eichornia , Hydrilla, Pistia, Nymphaea,

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Vallisneria) xerophytes (Asperagus, opuntia, Euphorbia) & Halophytes (Rizhophora,
Avecenia).
12. Detailed study on flora of a local fresh water or Aquaculture plants.
13. Geographical spotting of Certain endemic and endangered plant species of A.P.
14. Minimum of two field visits to local areas of ecological conservation of biodiversity
importance (Reserved forest, Botanical garden, Zoo park / lake etc) .
Paper-4: Plant Physiology, Tissue Culture, Biotechnology, Horticulture and Seed
Technology.
Unit - I: Plant Physiology:
1. Water Relations: Diffusion, imbibition, osmosis; water, osmotic and pressure
potentials; absorption, transport of water (ascent of sap;) transpiration; Stomatal
structure and mechanism.
2. Enzymes: Nomenclature, characteristics, mechanism and regulation of enzyme action,
enzyme kinetics, factors regulating enzyme action.
3. Photosynthesis: Photosynthetic pigments, absorption and action spectra; Red drop and
Emerson enhancement effect; concept of two photosystems; mechanism of
photosynthetic electron transport and evolution of oxygen; photophosphorylation;
Carbon assimilation pathways: C3, C4 and CAM; photorespiration.
Unit-II: Plant Physiology:
1. Respiration: Aerobic and Anaerobic; Glycolysis, Krebs cycle; electron transport
system, mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation, pentose phosphate pathway.
2. Nitrogen Metabolism: Biological nitrogen fixation, nitrate reduction, ammonia
assimilation, amino acid synthesis and protein synthesis.
3. Phytohormones: Auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ABA and ethylene. Physiology
of flowering and photoperiodism, role of phytochrome in flowering.
Unit - III: Tissue culture and Bio-Technology:
:
1. Tissue culture: Introduction, sterilization procedures, culture media -composition
and preparation;explants.
2. Callus culture; cell and protoplast culture, Somatic hybrids and cybrids.
3. Applications of tissue culture: Production of pathogen free plants and somaclonal
variants, production of stress resistance plants, secondary metabolites and synthetic
seeds.
4. Biotechnology: Introduction, history and scope.
r-DNA technology: Vectors and gene cloning and transgenic plants.
Unit IV: Horticulture and Seed Technology:
1. Horticulture techniques: Introduction, Cultivation of ornamental and vegetable
crops, Bonsai and landscaping .
2. Floriculture: Introduction. Importance of green house, polyhouse, mist chamber,
shade nets; Micro irrigation systems. Floriculture potential and its trade in India
3. Vegetative Propagation of plants: Stem, root and leaf cuttings. Layering and bud
grafting. Role of plant growth regulators in horticulture.
4. Seed: storage, Seed banks, factors affecting seed viability, genetic erosion. Seed
production technology;seed testing and certification.
Books for Reference:
1. Hopkins, W. G., Introduction to Plant Physiology, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New
York, USA, 1995.
2. Jha, T.B. & B. Ghosh, Plant Tissue Culture, Basic and Applied, Universities Press
(India) Private Limited, Hyderabad, 2005.

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3. Pandey, B.P. Botany for Degree Students, Plant physiology, Biochemistry,
Biotechnology, Ecology and Utilization of Plants, S. Chand and Company Ltd.,New
Delhi, 2007.
4. Ramawat, K. G., Plant Biotechnology, S. Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi,
2008.
5. Edmond, J. B., T. L. Senn, F. S. Adrews & R. J. Halfacre, Fundamentals of
Horticulture (4th Ed.), Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 1977.
6. Hartman, H. T. & D. E. Kestler, Plant Propagation: Principles and Practices.
Prentice & Hall of India, New Delhi, 1976.
Practicals 4: Plant Physiology, Tissue Culture, Biotechnology Horticulture and Seed
Technology
1. Determination of Osmotic potential of vacuolar sap by plasmolytic method using
leaves of Rheo/ Tradescantia.
2. Determination of rate of Transpiration using cobalt Chloride method/ Ganongs
Photometer.
3. Determination of stomatal frequency using leaf epidermal peelings / impressions.
4. Determination of catalase activity using potato tubers by titration method.
5. Separation of chloroplast pigments using paper chromatography technique.
6. Estimation of protein by biuret method.
7. Knowledge of instruments and facilities used in plant tissue culture using equipment /
Photographs.
8. Demonstration of micropropagation using explants like axillarybuds and shoot
meristems.
9. Isolation and estimation of DNA.
10. Study of Protocols and photographs/ charts related to plant biotechnology.
Isolation of nuclear and plasmid DNA, separation of DNA by gel ctrophoresis.
11. Study of Biotechnology products: Samples of antibiotics, Vaccines, bio- fertilizers,
Single cell protein, cosmetics, photographs of transgenic plants, multiple shoots and
artifical / synthetic seeds.
12. Study visit to places of horticultural and biotechnological interest- commercial
nurseries/ Botanical gardens, Biotechnology R &D Laboratories/ Industries.
13. Testing of seed viability using 2,3,5, Triphenyl Tetrazolium chloride.
14. Demonstration of seed dressing using Fungicide to control diseases.
15. Demonstration of seed dressing using bio fertilizer (Rhizobium) to enrich nutrient
supply
16. Study on tools / equipment used in horticulture: Rake , hoe, spade, trowel, digger,
pick- axe , shade net, Glass house and mist chamber.
17. Demonstration of vegetative plant propagation.
18. Study on the application of plant growth regulators for rooting of cuttings using
ornamental plants.

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CHEMISTRY
Paper 3: InOrganic, Organic and Physical Chemistry
Unit-I: Inorganic Chemistry-3
1. Coordination Chemistry: IUPAC nomenclature, bonding theories review of
Werners theory and Sidgwicks concept of coordination, Valence bond theory,
geometries of coordination numbers 4-tetrahedral and square planar and 6octahedral and its limitations, crystal filed theory, splitting of d-orbitals in
octahedral, tetrahedral and square-planar complexes low spin and high spin
complexes factors affecting crystal-field splitting energy, merits and demerits of
crystal-field theory. Isomerism in coordination compounds structural isomerism
and stereo isomerism, stereochemistry of complexes with 4 and 6 coordination
numbers.
2. Spectral and magnetic properties of metal complexes: Electronic absorption
spectrum of [Ti(H2O)6]3+ ion. Types of magnetic behavior, spin-only formula,
calculation of magnetic moments, experimental determination of magnetic
susceptibility Gouy method.
3. Reactivity of metal complexes: Labile and inert complexes, ligand substitution
reactions SN1 and SN2, substitution reactions of square planar complexes Trans
effect and applications of trans effect.
4. Stability of metal complexes: Thermodynamic stability and kinetic stability, factors
affecting the stability of metal complexes, chelate effect, determination of
composition of complex by Jobs method and mole ratio method.
5. Hard and soft acids bases (HSAB): Classification, Pearsons concept of hardness
and softness, application of HSAB principles Stability of compounds / complexes,
predicting the feasibility of a reaction.
6. Bioinorganic chemistry: Essential elements, biological significance of Na, K, Mg,
Ca, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and chloride (Cl-). Metalloporphyrins hemoglobin,
structure and function, Chlorophyll, structure and role in photosynthesis.
Unit- II: Organic Chemistry-3
1.Nitrogen compounds: Nitro hydrocarbons: Nomenclature and classification nitro
hydrocarbons structure. Tautomerism of nitroalkanes leading to aci and keto form.
Preparation of Nitroalkanes. Reactivity halogenation, reaction with HONO
(Nitrous acid), Nef reaction and Mannich reaction leading to Michael addition and
reduction.
Amines (Aliphatic and Aromatic): Nomenclature, Classification into 10, 20, 30
Amines and Quarternary ammonium compounds. Preparative methods -1.
Ammonolysis of alkyl halides 2. Gabriel synthesis 3. Hoffmans bromamide
reaction (mechanism).4. Reduction of Amides and Schmidt reaction. Physical
properties and basic character Comparative basic strength of Ammonia, methyl
amine, dimethyl amine, trimethyl amine and aniline comparative basic strength of
aniline, N-methylaniline and N,N-dimethyl aniline (in aqueous and non-aqueous
medium), steric effects and substituent effects. Use of amine salts as phase transfer
catalysts. Chemical properties: a) Alkylation b) Acylation c) Carbylamine reaction
d) Hinsberg separation e) Reaction with Nitrous acid of 10, 20, 30 (Aliphatic and
aromatic amines). Electrophilic substitutions of Aromatic amines Bromination and
Nitration. oxidation of aryl and 30 Amines. Diazotization Cyanides and isocyanides:
Nomenclature (aliphatic and aromatic) structure. Preparation of cyanides from a)
Alkyl halides b) from amides c) from aldoximes. Preparation of isocyanides from

13
Alkyl halides and Amines. Properties of cyanides and isocyanides, a) hydrolysis b)
addition of Grignard reagent iii) reduction iv) oxidation.
2. Heterocyclic Compounds: Introduction and definition: Simple 5 membered ring
compounds with one hetero atom Ex. Furan. Thiophene and pyrrole. Importance of
ring system presence in important natural products like hemoglobin and
chlorophyll. Numbering the ring systems as per Greek letter and Numbers.
Aromatic character 6- electron system (four-electrons from two double bonds and
a pair of non-bonded electrons from the hetero atom). Tendency to undergo
substitution reactions.
Resonance structures: Indicating electron surplus carbons and electron deficient
hetero atom. Explanation of feebly acidic character of pyrrole, electrophillic
substitution at 2 or 5 position, Halogenation, Nitration and Sulphonation under mild
conditions. Reactivity of furan as 1,3-diene, Diels Alder reactions (one example).
Sulphonation of thiophene purification of Benzene obtained from coal tar).
Preparation of furan, Pyrrole and thiophene from 1,4,- dicarbonyl compounds only,
Paul-Knorr synthesis, structure of pyridine, Basicity Aromaticity Comparison
with pyrrole one method of preparation and properties Reactivity towards
Nucleophilic substitution reaction chichibabin reaction.
3. Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides: All discussion to be confined to (+) glucose as
an example of aldo hexoses and (-) fructose as example of ketohexoses. Chemical
properties and structureal elucidation: Evidences for straight chain pentahydroxy
aldehyde structure (Acetylation, reduction to n-hexane, cyanohydrin formation,
reduction of Tollens and Fehlings reagents and oxidation to gluconic and
saccharic acid). Number of optically active isomers possible for the structure,
configuration of glucose based on D-glyceraldehyde as primary standard (no proof
for configuration is required). Evidence for cyclic structure of glucose (some
negative aldehydes tests and mutarotation). Cyclic structure of glucose.
Decomposition of cyclic structure (Pyranose structure, anomeric Carbon and
anomers). Proof for the ring size (methylation, hydrolysis and oxidation reactions).
Different ways of writing pyranose structure (Haworth formula and chair
conformationa formula). Structure of fructose: Evidence of 2 ketohexose
structure (formation of penta acetate, formation of cyanohydrin its hydrolysis and
reduction by HI to give 2-Carboxy-n-hexane). Same osazone formation from
glucose and fructose, Hydrogen bonding in osazones, cyclic structure for fructose
(Furanose structure and Haworth formula).
Interconversion of Monosaccharides: Aldopentose to aldo hexose eg: Arabinose
to D-Glucose, D-Mannose (Kiliani - Fischer method). Epimers, Epimerisation
Lobry de bruyn van Ekenstein rearrangement. Aldohexose to Aldopentose eg: Dglucose to D-arabinose by Rufff degradation. Aldohexose (+) (glucose) to
ketohexose (-) (Fructose) and Ketohexose (fructose) to aldohexose (Glucose).
4. Amino acids and proteins:
Introduction: Definition of Amino acids,
classification of Amino acids into alpha, beta, and gama amino acids. Natural
and essential amino acids definition and examples, classification of alpha
amino acids into acidic, basic and neutral amino acids with examples. Methods
of synthesis: General methods of synthesis of alpha amino acids (specific
examples Glycine, Alanine, valine and leucene) by following methods: a)
from halogenated carboxylic acid b) Malonic ester synthesis c) streckers
synthesis.

14
Physical properties: Optical activity of naturally occurring amino acids: Lconfiguration, irrespective of sign rotation, Zwitterion structure salt like character
- solubility, melting points, amphoteric character , definition of isoelectric point.
Chemical properties: General reactions due to amino and carboxyl groups
lactams from gamma and delta amino acids by heating peptide bond (amide
linkage). Structure and nomenclature of peptides and proteins.
Unit-III: Physical Chemistry-III
1. Chemical kinetics: Rate of reaction, factors influencing the rate of a reactionconcentration, temperature, pressure, solvent, light, catalyst. Experimental methods
to determine the rate of reaction. Definition of order and molecularity. Derivation
of rate constants for first, second, third and zero order reactions and examples.
Derivation for time half change. Methods to determine the order of reactions.
Kinetics of complex reactions (first order only): opposing reactions, parallel
reactions, consecutive reactions and chain reactions. Effect of temperature on rate
of reaction, Arrhenius equation, concept of activation energy. Theories of reaction
rates- collision theory-derivation of rate constant for bimolecular reaction. The
transition state theory (elementary treatment).
2. Photochemistry: Difference between thermal and photochemical processes. Laws
of photochemistry-Grothus-Drapers law and Stark-Einsteins law of
photochemical equivalence. Quantum yield. Ferrioxalate actinometry.
Photochemical hydrogen- chlorine, hydrogen-bromine reaction. Jablonski diagram
depicting various processes occurring in the excited state, qualitative description of
fluorescence, phosphorescence, non-radiative processes (internal conversion,
intersystem crossing). Photosensitized reactions- energy transfer processes (simple
example)
3. Thermodynamics: The first law of thermodynamics-statement, definition of
internal energy and enthalpy. Heat capacities and their relationship. Joules lawJoule-Thomson coefficient. Calculation of w, q, dU and dH for the expansion of
perfect gas under isothermal and adiabatic conditions for reversible processes.
State function.
Temperature dependence of enthalpy of formation-Kirchoffs equation.
Second law of thermodynamics. Different Statements of the law. Carnot cycle and
its efficiency. Carnot theorem. Thermodynamic scale of temperature. Concept of
entropy, entropy as a state function, entropy changes in cyclic, reversible, and
irreversible processes and reversible phase change. Calculation of entropy changes
with changes in V & T and P&T. Entropy of mixing inert perfect gases. Entropy
changes in spontaneous and equilibrium processes.
The Gibbs (G) and Hlmholtz (A) energies. A & G as criteria for thermodynamic
equilibrium and spontaneity-advantage over entropy change. Gibbs equations and
the Maxwell relations. Variation of G with P, V and T.
4. Solid state: Symmetry in crystals. Law of constancy of interfacial angles. The law
of rationality of indices. The law of symmetry. Definition of lattice point, space
lattice, Unit cell. Bravis lattices and crystal systems. X-ray diffraction and crystal
structure. Braggs law. Determination of crystal structure by Braggs method and
the powder method. Indexing of planes and structure of NaCl and KCl crystals.
Defects in crystals. Stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric defects. Band theory of
semoconductors. Extrinsic and intrinsic semiconductors, n- and p-type
semiconductors and their applications in photo electrochemical cells.
Practicals - 3: Organic Chemistry
1. Synthesis of Organic Compounds

15
i. Aromatic electrophilic substitution Nitration: Preparation of nitro benzene and pnitro acetanilide, Halogenation: Preparation of p-bromo acetanilide preparation of
2,4,6-tribromo phenol.
ii. Diazotization and coupling: Preparation of pheyl azo -napthol.
iii. Oxidation: Preparation of benzoic acid from benzoyl chloride.
iv. Reduction: Preparation of m-nitro aniline from m-dinitro benzene.
v. Esterfication: Preparation of methyl p-nitro benzoate from p-nitro benzoic acid.
vi. Methylation: Preparation of -napthyl methyl ether Condensation: Preparation of
benzilidine aniline and Benzoyl aniline.
2. Thin layer Chromatography & Column Chromatography:
i. Preparation of the TLC plates. Checking the purity of the compounds by TLC:
Acetylation of salicyclic acid, aniline, Benzoylation of Aniline and Phenol
Determination of Rf values and identification of organic compounds by TLC:
preparation and separation of 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazones of acetione and 2butanone using toluene and light petroleum(40:60)
ii. Separation of ortho & para nitro aniline mixture by column chromatography.
3. Organic Qualitative Analysis:
i. Identification of an organic compound through the functional group analysis,
determination of melting point and preparation of suitable derivatives.
ii. Separation of two component mixtures.
1) Aniline + Naphthalene 2) Benzoic acid + Benzophenone 3) p-Cresol +
Chlorobenzene.
4. Demonstration experiments:
1. Steam distillation experiment: separation of ortho and para nitro phenols 2)
Microwaveassisted Green synthesis, two examples: 1. Hydrolysis of Benzamide 2.
Oxidation of Toluene.
Paper-4: Chemistry and Industry
Unit-I : Physico Chemical Methods of Analysis
1. Separation techniques:
1. Solvent extraction: Principle and process, Batch extraction, continuous
extraction and counter current extraction. Application Determination of Iron
(III)
2. Chromatography: Classification of chromatography methods, principles of
differential migration adsorption phenomenon, Nature of adsorbents, solvent
systems, Rf values, factors effecting Rf values.
a) Paper Chromatography: Principles, Rf values, experimental procedures,
choice of paper and solvent systems, developments of chromatogram
ascending, descending and radial. Two dimensional chromatography,
applications.
b) Thin layer Chromatography (TLC): Advantages. Principles, factors
effecting Rf values. Experimental procedures. Adsorbents and solvents.
Preparation of plates. Development of the chromatogram. Detection of the
spots. Applications.
c) Column Chromatography: Principles, experimental procedures, Stationary
and mobile Phases, Separation technique. Applications.
d).High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC): Principles and
Applications.
e). Gas Liquid Chromatography (GLC): Principles and Applications.
2. Spectrophotometry:

16
General features of absorption spectroscopy, Beer-Lamberts law and its
limitations, transmittance, Absorbance, and molar absorptivity. Single and double
beam spectrophotometers. Application of Beer-Lambert law for quantitative
analysis of
1. Chromium in K2Cr2O7
2. Manganese in manganous sulphate
3. Iron (III) with thiocyanate.
3. Molecular sectorscopy;
a. Electronic spectroscopy: Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with molecules and
types of molecular spectra. Potential energy curves for bonding and antibonding
molecular orbitals. Energy levels of molecules (,, n) . Selection rules for electronic
spectra. Types of electronic transitions in molecules effect of conjugation. Concept of
chromophore.
b. Infra red spectroscopy: Energy levels of simple harmonic oscillator, molecular
vibration spectrum, selection rules. Determination of force constant. Qualitative
relation of force constant to bond energies. Anharmonic motion of real molecules and
energy levels. Modes of vibrations in polyatomic molecules. Characteristic absorption
bands of various functional groups. Finger print region of infrared spectrum.
c. Raman spectroscopy: Concept of polarizavility, selection rules, pure rotational and
pure vibrational Raman spectra of diatomic molecules, selection rules.
d. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR) Principles of nuclear magnetic
resonance, equivalent and non-equivalent protons, position of signals. Chemical shift,
NMR splitting of signals spin-spin coupling, coupling constants. Applications of
NMR with suitable examples ethyl bromide, ethanol, acetaldehyde, and
acetophenone.
e. Mass Spectrometry: Basic principles Molecular ion / parent ion, fragment ions /
daughter ions. Theory formation of parent ions. Representation of mass spectrum.
Identification of parent ion, (M+1), (M+2), base peaks (relative abundance 100%)
Determination of molecular formula Mass spectra of ethylbenzene, acetophenone,
n-butyl amine and 1- proponal.
Unit-II: Drugs, Formulations, Pesticides and Green Chemistry
1. Drugs:
1. Introduction: Drug, disease (definition), Historical evolution, Sources Plant,
Animal synthetic, Biotechnology and human gene therapy
2. Terminology: Pharmacy, Pharmacology, Pharmacophore, Pharmacodynamics,
Pharmacokinetics (ADME, Receptors brief teartment) Metabolites and Anti
metabolites.
3. Nomenclature: Chemical name and Generic name
4. Classification: Classification based on structures and therapeutic activity with
one example each.
5. Synthesis: Synthesis and therapeutic activity of the following drugs, L-Dopa,
Chloroquin, Omeprazole, Paracetamol, Sulphamethoxazole.
6. Drug Development: Pencillin, Separation and isolation, structures of different
pencillins.
7. HIV-AIDS: ImmUnity CD-4 cells, CD-8 cells Retrovirus, replication in
human body. Investigation available, prevention of AIDS. Drugs available
examples with clinical uses: PIS: Indinavir (Crixivan), Nelfinavir (Viracept),
NNRTIS: Efavirenz (Susrtiva), Nevirapine (Viramune) NRTIs: Abacavir
(Ziagen), Lamivudine (Epivir, 3TC) Zidovudine (Retravir, AZT, ZDV)
2. Formulations:

17
1.

Need of conversion of drugs into medicine. Additives and their role (brief
account only)
2.
Different types of formulations
3. Green Chemistry:
Introduction: Definition of green Chemistry, need of green chemistry, basic principles of
green chemistry.
Green synthesis: Evalution of the type of the reaction i) Rearrangements (100% atom
economic), ii) Addition reaction (100% atom economic), Pericyclic reactions (no byproduct).
Selection of solvent:
i) Aqueous phase reactions ii) Reactions in ionic liquids iii) Solid supported
synthesis iv) Solvent free reactions (solid phase reactions)
Green catalysts with examples.
Unit-III: Macromolecules, Materials Science and Catalysis
1.
Macromolecules:
Classification of polymers, definition and mechanisms
of polymerization methods- chain polymerization, step polymerization,
coordination polymerization tacticity. Co-Polymerization. Molecular weight
of polymers-number average and weight average molecular weight, degree of
polymerization, determination of molecular weight of polymers by viscometry
and Osmometry. Preparation and industrial application of polyethylene, PVC,
Teflon, polyacrylonitrile, terelene and Nylon66. Introduction to
biodegradability.
2.
Materials science: Superconductivity, characteristics of superconductors,
Meissner effect, types of superconductors and applications.
Nanomaterials- synthetic techniques, bottom-up-sol-gel method, top-downelectro deposition method. Properties and applications of nano-materials.
Composites-definition, general characteristics, particle reinforce and fiber
reinforce composites and their applications.
3.
Catalysis:
Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, comparision with
examples. Kinetics of specific acid catalyzed reactions, inversion of cane sugar.
Kinetics of specific base catalyzed reactions, base catalyzed conversion of
acetone to diacetone alcohol. Acid and base catalyzed reactions- hydrolysis of
esters, mutarotation of glucose. Catalytic activity at surfaces. Mechanisms of
heterogeneous catalysis. Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. Enzyme
catalysis: Characteristics and classification.
Practicals - 4: Physical Chemistry
1. Chemical kinetics:
i.
Determination of specific reaction rate of the hydrolysis of methyl acetate
catalyzed by hydrogen ion at room temperature.
ii. Determination of rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide.
iii. Determination of overall order of saponification of ethyl acetate.
2. Distribution law:
i. Determination of distribution coefficient of iodine between water and carbon
Tetrachloride.
ii. Determination of molecular status and partition coefficient of benzoic acid in
Toluene and water.
3. Electrochemistry:
i. Determination of concentration of HCl conductometrically using standard
NaOH solution.

18
ii. Determination of concentration of acetic acid conductometrically using standard
NaOH solution.
iii. Determination of dissociation constant (Ka) of acetic acid by conductivity
measurements.
iv. Determination of solubility and solubility product of BaSO4.
v. Determination of redox potentials of Fe2+/Fe3+by potentiometric titration of
ferrous ammonium sulphate vs. potassium dichromate.
4. pH metry:
i. Preparation phosphate buffer solutions.
ii. pH metric titration of weak acid, acetic acid with strong base NaOH and
calculation of dissociation constant.
5. Colorimetry:
i. Verification of Beer-Lambert law for KMnO4 , K2Cr2O7 and determination of
concentration of the given solution.
ii. Verification of Beer-Lambert law for CuSO4 and determination of concentration of
the given solution.
iii. Composition of complex of Cu2+ - EDTA disodium salt.
6. Adsorption:
Adsorption of acetic acid on animal charcoal, verification of Freundlich isotherm.
7. Project Work:
(Project related to local environmental issues may be prefered) Students are
divided into 4 to 5 member groups. Different projects as per the interest of the
students are to be assigned to each group. The Project should reflect the
theoretical and practical techniques that were covered in the course work of
chemistry.
Note: Apart from the experiments (1 to 6) the project work (7) shall also be included in the
University Examination.
Text Book :
1. Kalyani Unified Chemistry for Papers I, II, III, IV
Books for Reference:
Inorganic Chemistry
1.J.D.Lee, Concise Inorganic Chemistry, ELBS Publications
2.A.I.Vogel , Qualitative Inorganic analysis 3.A.I. Vogel, A textbook of qualitative inorganic analysis
4.R.C.Mehrotra and A. Singh, Organometallic Chemistry An introduction
5.A.C.Lockhart, Introduction to inorganic reactions mechanisms
6.McDay and J. Selbin, Theoretical inorganic chemistry, TMGH
7.Gurudeep Raj, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry
8.Gary D Christian, Analytical chemistry , Wiley India
9. W.D.Malik, G..D.Tuli, R.D.Madan, Selected topics in inorganic chemistry, S
Chand &Co
Organic Chemistry
1. R T Morrison and R.N.Boyd, Organic Chemistry
2. Ferguson, Text book of Organic Chemistry
3. I.L.Finar , Problems and their solutions in organic Chemistry, ELBS
4. S.M.Mukherji and S.P.Singh, Reaction mechanisms in Organic Chemistry
5. Peter Sykes, A guide book to mechanisms in Organic Chemistry
6. J.R.Dyer, Organic spectroscopy
7. William Kemp, Organic Spectroscopy
8. Ratna Kumar Kar, Fundamentals of organic synthesis amd retrosynthetic analysis

19
9. V.K.Ahluwalia and Reena Agarwal, Comprehensive practical organic chemistry.
10. Y.R. Sharma, Preparation and quantitative analysis Elementary organic
spectroscopy
11. Gurdeep R. Chatwal, Chemistry & Industry
12. David Krupadanam, Drugs
13. V.K.Ahluwalia, Green Chemistry.
14. B.K.Sharma, Industrial Chemistry
15. Ashutoshkar, Medicinal Chemistry
16. Vogels, Qualitative organic analysis, ELBS
17. AIVogel, Quallitative Organic Analysis.
Physical chemistry
1. Atkins, Julio D. Paula, Physical chemistry
2. P.L.Soni, O.P.Dharmarha and Q.N.Dash, Text book of Physical Chemistry
3. K L Kapoor, Text book of physical chemistry
4. S Glasston, Thermodynamics for Chemists
5. S Glassto, An Introduction to Electrochemistry
6. Gurudeep Raj, Advanced physical chemistry
7. Glasstone and Lewis, Elements of physical chemistry,
8. S Glasstone, Text book of physical chemistry
9. C.N.Banwell and E.M.McCash, Fundamentals of Molecular spectroscopy
10. P.T.Anastas and J.C.Warner, Green Chemistry: Theory and practice
11. Gowriker, Viswanathan and Jayadev Sridhar, Polymer Science
12. Khosla , Senior practical physical chemistry

20

COMPUTER SCIENCE
Paper-3: Database Management Systems
Unit-I: Database Systems Introduction and Fundamentals:
Database Systems: Introducing the database and DBMS, Why the database is
important, Historical Roots: Files and File Systems, Problems with File System Data
Management, Database Systems.
Data Models: The importance of Data models, Data Model Basic Building Blocks,
Business Rules, The evaluation of Data Models, Degree of Data Abstraction.
The Relational Database Model: A logical view of Data, Keys, Integrity Rules,
Relational Set Operators, The Data Dictionary and the system catalog, Relationships
with in the Relational Database, Data Redundancy revisited, Indexes, Codds
relational database rules. (Chapters:1: 1.2 to 1.6,2,3)
Unit-II: Data Modeling and Normalization:
Entity Relationship Model: The ER Model, Developing ER Diagram, Database
Design Challenges: Conflicting Goals.
Advanced Data Modeling: The Extended Entity Relationship Model, Entity
clustering, Entity integrity: Selecting Primary keys, Design Cases: Learning Flexible
Database Design.
Normalization of database tables: Database Tables and Normalization, The need for
Normalization, The Normalization Process, Improving the design, Surrogate Key
Considerations, High level Normal Forms, Normalization and database design,
denormalization. (Chapters: 4,6,5)
Unit-III: Interaction with Databases and Construction of Information System:
Introduction to SQL: Data Definition Commands, Data Manipulation Commands,
Select queries, Advanced Data Definition Commands, Advanced Select queries,
Virtual Tables, Joining Database Tables.
Advanced SQL: Relational Set Operators, SQL Join Operators, Subqueries and
correlated queries, SQL Functions, Oracle Sequences, Updatable Views, and
Procedural SQL.
Database Design: The Information System, The Systems Development Life Cycle,
The Database Life Cycle, Database Design Strategies, Centralized Vs Decentralized
design.
(Chapters: 7,8(8.1 to 8.7),9)
Unit-IV: Transaction Management in DBMS Environment.
Transaction Management and Concurrency Control: What is transaction, Concurrency
control, Concurrency control with locking Methods, Concurrency control with time
stamping methods, concurrency control with optimistic methods, database recovery
management.
Distributed Database Management Systems: The evolution of Distributed Database
Management Systems, DDBMS advantages and Disadvantages, Distribution
Processing and Distribution Databases, Characteristics of Distributed database
management systems, DDBMS Components, Levels of Data and Process distribution,
Distributed database Transparency Features, Distributed Transparency, Transaction
Transparency, Performance Transparency and Query Optimization, Distributed
Database Design, Client Server VS DDBMS.(Chapters: 10, 12)
Text Books:

21
1. Peter Rob, Carlos Coronel, Database Systems Design, Implementation and
Management, Seventh Edition, Thomson , 2007.
Books for Reference:
1. Elimasri / Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fifth Edition, Pearson
Addison Wesley , 2007.
2. Raman A Mata Toledo/Panline K Cushman, Database Management Systems,
Schaums Outlibe series, Tata McGraw Hill, 2007.
3. C.J.Date, A.Kannan, S.Swamynathan, An Introduction to Database Systems, Eight
Edition, Pearson Education, 2006.
4. Michel Kifer, Arthur Bernstein, Philip M. Lewis, Prabin K. Pani Graphi, Database
Systems: An application oriented Approach, second edition, pearson education, 2008.
5. Atul Kahate, Introduction to Database Management Systems, Pearson Education ,
2006.
Practicals - 3: DBMS Lab
Lab Cycle
Order Tracking Database:
The Order Tracking Database consists of the following defined six relation schemas.
EMPLOYEES(ENO, ENAME,ZIP,HDATE) PARTS (PNO, PNAME, QOH,PRICE,LEVEL)
(HINT:QOH: QUALITY ON HAND) CUSTOMERS(CNO,CNAME,STREET,ZIP,PHONE)
ORDERS(ONO,CNO,ENO,RECEIVEDATE,SHIPPE DATE) ODETAILS(ONO,PNO,QTY)
ZIPCODES(ZIP,CITY).
Solve the following queries:
1. GET ALL PAIRS OF CUSTOMER NUMBERS FOR CUSTOMERS BASED ON
SAME ZIP CODE.
2. GET PART NUMBERS FOR PARTS THAT HAVE BEEN ORDERED BY AT
LEAST TWO DIFFERENT CUSTOMERS.
3. FOR EACH ODETAIL ROW, GET ONO, PNO, PNAME, QTY AND PRICE
VALUES ALONG WITH THE TOTAL PRICE FOR THE ITEM. (TOTAL
RICE=PRICE*QTY)
4. GET CUSTOMER NAME AND EMPLOYEE PAIRS SUCH THAT THE
CUSTOMER WITH NAME HAS PLACED AN ORDER THROUGH THE
EMPLOYEE.
5. GET CUSTOMER NAMES LIVING IN FORT DODGE OR LIBERAL.
6. GET CNAME VALUES OF CUSTOMERS WHO HAVE ORDERED A PRODUCT
WITH PNO 10506.
7. GET PNAME VALUES OF PARTS WITH THE
LOWEST PRICE.
8. GET CNAME VALUES OF CUSTOMERS WHO HAVE PLACED AT LEAST ONE
ORDER THROUGH THE EMPLOYEE WITH NUMBER 1000.
9. GET THE CITIES IN WHICH CUSTOMERS OR EMPLOYEES ARE LOCATED.
10. GET THE TOTAL SALES IN DOLLARS ON ALL ORDERS.
11. GET PART NAME VALUES THAT COST MORE THAN THE AVERAGE COST
OF ALL PARTS.
12. GET PART NAMES OF PARTS ORDERED BY AT LEAST TWO DIFFERENT
CUSTOMERS.
13. GET FOR EACH PART GET PNO,PNAME AND TOTAL SALES.
14. FOR EACH PART, GET PNO,PNAME, TOTAL SALES, WHOSE TOTAL SALES
EXCEEDS 1000.
15. GET PNO, PART NAMES OF PARTS ORDERED BY AT LEAST TWO
DIFFERENT CUSTOMERS.

22
16. GET NAME VALUES OF CUSTOMERS WHO HAVE ORDERED PARTS FROM
ANY ONE EMPLOYEE BASED IN WICHITA OR LIBERAL.
SHIPMENT DATABASE:
AN ENTERPRISE WISHES TO MAINTAIN THE DETAILS ABOUT HIS SUPPLIERS
AND OTHER CORRESPONDING DETAILS. FOR THAT IT USES THE FOLLOWING
TABLES
TABLE S(SID,SNAME,ADDRESS)
PRIMARY KEY
: SID
TABLE P(PID,PNAME,COLOR)
PRIMARY KEY
: PID
TABLE CAT(SID,PID,COST)
PRIMARY KEY
: SID+PID
REFERENCE KEY : SID REFERENCES S.SID
PID REFERENCES P.PID
Solve the following queries
1. FIND THE PNAMES OF PARTS FOR WHICH THERE IS SOME SUPPLIER.
2. FIND THE SNAMES OF SUPPLIERS WHO SUPPLY EVERY PART.
3. FIND THE SNAMES OF SUPPLIERS WHO SUPPY EVERY RED PART.
4. FIND THE PNAMES OF PARTS SUPLLIED BY LONDON SUPPLIER AND BY
NO ONE ELSE.
5. FIND THE SIDS OF SUPPLIERS WHO CHARGE MORE FOR SOME PART
OTHER THAN THE AVERAGE COST OF THAT PART.
6. USING GROUP BY WITH HAVING CLAUSE GET THE PART NUMBERS FOR
ALL THE PARTS SUPPLIED BY MORE THAN ONE SUPPLIER.
7. GET THE NAMES OF THE SUPPLIERS, WHO DO NOT SUPPLY PART P2.
8. FIND THE SIDS OF SUPPLIERS WHO SUPPLY A RED AND A GREEN PART.
9. FIND THE SIDS OF SUPPLIERS WHO SUPPLY A RED OR A GREEN PART.
10.FIND THE TOTAL AMOUNT HAS TO PAY FOR THAT SUPPLIER BY PART
LOCATED FROM LONDON
Employee Database:
An enterprise wishes to maintain a database to automate its operations. Enterprise divided
into to certain departments and each department consists of employees. The following two
tables describes the automation schemas.
DEPT (DEPTNO, DNAME, LOC) EMP(EMPNO,ENAME,JOB,MGR,HIREDATE, SAL,
COMM,DEPTNO)
1. CREATE A VIEW, WHICH CONTAIN EMPLOYEE NAMES AND THEIR
MANAGER NAMES WORKING IN SALES DEPARTMENT.
2. DETERMINE THE NAMES OF EMPLOYEE, WHO EARN MORE THAN THEIR
MANAGERS.
3. DETERMINE THE NAMES OF EMPLOYEES, WHO TAKE HIGHEST SALARY IN
THEIR DEPARTMENTS.
4. DETERMINE THE EMPLOYEES, WHO LOCATED AT THE SAME PLACE.
5. DETERMINE THE EMPLOYEES, WHOSE TOTAL SALARY IS LIKE THE
MINIMUM SALARY OF ANY DEPARTMENT.
6. UPDATE THE EMPLOYEE SALARY BY 25%, WHOSE EXPERIENCE IS
GREATER THAN 10 YEARS.
7. DELETE THE EMPLOYEES, WHO COMPLETED 32 YEARS OF SERVICE.
8. DETERMINE THE MINIMUM SALARY OF AN EMPLOYEE AND HIS DETAILS,
WHO JOIN ON THE SAME DATE.

23
9. DETERMINE THE COUNT OF EMPLOYEES, WHO ARE TAKING COMMISSION
AND NOT TAKING COMMISSION.
10. DETERMINE THE DEPARTMENT DOES NOT CONTAIN ANY EMPLOYEES.
11. FIND OUT THE DETAILS OF TOP 5 EARNER OF COMPANY.
12.DISPLAY THOSE MANAGERS NAME WHOS SALARY IS MORE THAN
AVERAGE SALARY OF HIS EMPLOYEES.
13. DISPLAY THOSE EMPLOYEES WHO JOINED THE COMPANY BEFORE 15TH
OF THE MONTH?
14. DISPLAY THE MANAGER WHO IS HAVING MAXIMUM NUMBER OF
EMPLOYEES WORKING UNDER HIM?
15. PRINT A LIST OF EMPLOYEES DISPLAYING LESS SALARY IF LESS THAN
1500 IF EXACTLY 1500 DISPLAY AS EXACT SALARYAND IF GREATER
THAN 1500 DISPLAY MORE SALARY?
16. DISPLAY THOSE EMPLOYEES WHOSE FIRST 2 CHARACTERS FROM HIRE
DATE-LAST 2 CHARACTERS OF SALARY?
17. DISPLAY THOSE EMPLOYEES WHOSE 10% OF SALARY IS EQUAL TO THE
YEAR OF JOINING?
18. IN WHICH YEAR DID MOST PEOPLE JOIN THE COMPANY? DISPLAY THE
YEAR AND NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES.
19. DISPLAY THE HALF OF THE ENAMES IN UPPER CASE AND REMAINING
LOWERCASE.
20. DISPLAY ENAME, DNAME EVEN IF THERE NO EMPLOYEES WORKING IN
A PARTICULAR DEPARTMENT(USE OUTER JOIN).
University Database:
University wishes to computerize their operations by using the following relations.
Student (snum:Integer, sname: string, major: string, level: string, age: integer)
Class (name: String, Hour:Integer, room: string, fid: integer)
Enrolled (sum: integer, cname: string)
Faculty (fid: Integer, fname: String, deptid: Integer)
Depart (deptid: Integer, dname: String, loc: integer)
By using above schema definitions, resolve the following queries.
1. FIND THE NAMES OF ALL JUNIORS (LEVEL=JR) WHO ARE ENROLLED IN A
CLASS TAUGHT BY SMITH.
2. FIND THE AGE OF THE OLDEST STUDENT WHO IS EITHER A HISTORY
MAJOR OR IS ENROLLED IN THE COURSE OF SMITH.
3. FIND THE NAMES OF ALL CLASSES THAT EITHER MEET R128 OR HAVE
FIVE OR MORE STUDENTS ENROLLED.
4. FIND THE NAMES OF ALL STUDENTS WHO ARE ENROLLED IN TWO
CLASSES THAT MEET AT THE SAME HOUR.
5. FIND THE NAMES OF FACULTY MEMBERS WHO TEACH IN EVERY ROOM
IN, WHICH SOME CLASS IS TAUGHT.
6. FIND THE NAMES OF FACULTY MEMBERS FOR WHOM THE COMBINED
ENROLLMENT OF THE COURSES THAT THEY TEACH IS LESS THAN FIVE.
7. PRINT THE LEVEL AND AVERAGE AGE OF STUDENTS FOR THAT LEVEL,
FOR EACH LEVEL.
8. PRINT THE LEVEL AND AVERAGE AGE OF THE STUDENT FOR THAT
LEVEL, FOR ALL LEVELS EXCEPT JR.
9. FIND THE NAMES OF STUDENTS WHO ARE ENROLLED IN THE MAXIMUM
NUMBER OF CLASSES.

24
10. FIND THE NAMES OF THE STUDENTS WHO ARE NOT ENROLLED IN ANY
CLASS.
Airline Database
An Airline System would like to keep track their information by using the following
relations.
Flights (flno: integer, from: string, to: string, distance: integer, Price: integer)
Aircraft (aid: integer, aname: string, cruising_range: integer)
Certified (eid: integer, aid: integer)
Employees (eid: integer, ename: string, salary: real)
Note that the employees relation describes pilots and other kinds of employees as well; every
pilot is certified for aircraft and only pilots are certified to fly. Resolve the following queries:
1. FOR EACH PILOT WHO IS CERTIFIED FOR MORE THAN THREE AIRCRAFT,
FIND THE EIDS AND THE MAXIMUM CRUISING RANGE OF THE AIRCRAFT
THAT HE (OR SHE) CERTIFIED FOR.
2. FIND THE NAMES OF PILOTS WHOSE SALARY IS LESS THAN THE PRICE OF
THE CHEAPEST ROUTE FROM LOS ANGELES TO HONOLULU.
3. FIND THE NAME OF THE PILOTS CERTIFIED FROM SOME BOEING
AIRCRAFT.
4. FOR ALL AIRCRAFT WITH CRUISING RANGE OVER 1,000 MILES, FIND THE
NAME OF THE AIRCRAFT AND THE AVERAGE SALARY OF ALL PILOTS
CERTIFIED FOR THIS AIRCRAFT.
5. FIND THE AIDS OF ALL AIRCRAFT THAT CAN BE USED FROM LOS ANGELS
TO CHICAGO.
6. PRINT THE ENAMES OF PILOTS WHO CAN OPERATE PLANES WITH
CRUISING RANGE GREATER THAN 3,000 MILES, BUT ARE NOT CERTIFIED
BY BOEING AIRCRAFT.
7. FIND THE TOTAL AMOUNT PAID TO EMPLOYEES AS SALARIES.
8. FIND THE EIDS OF EMPLOYEES WHO ARE CERTIFIED FOR EXACTLY
THREE AIRCRAFTS.
9. FIND THE EIDS OF EMPLOYEE WHO MAKE SECOND HIGHEST SALARY.
10. FIND THE AIDS OF ALL THAN CAN BE USED ON NON-STOP FLIGHTS FROM
BONN TO CHENNAI.
PL/SQL PROGRAMS:
1. WRITE A PL/SQL PROGRAM TO CHECK THE GIVEN NUMBER IS ARMSTRONG
OR NOT.
2. WRITE A PL/SQL PROGRAM TO CHECK THE GIVEN STRING IS PALINDROME
OR NOT.
3. WRITE A PL/SQL PROGRAM TO SWAP TWO NUMBERS WITHOUT USING
THIRD VARIABLE.

25
4. WRITE A PL/SQL PROGRAM TO GENERATE MULTIPLICATION TABLES FOR
2,4,6.
5. WRITE A PL/SQL PROGRAM TO DISPLAY SUM OF EVEN NUMBERS AND
SUM OF ODD NUMBERS IN THE GIVEN RANGE.
6. WRITE A PL/SQL PROGRAM TO CHECK THE GIVEN NUMBER IS
POLLINNDROME OR NOT.
7. THE HRD MANAGER HAS DECIDED TO RAISE THE EMPLOYEE SALARY BY
15%. WRITE A PL/SQL BLOCK TO ACCEPT THE EMPLOYEE NUMBER AND
UPDATE THE SALARY OF THAT EMPLOYEE. DISPLAY APPROPRIATE
MESSAGE BASED ON THE EXISTENCE OF THE RECORD IN EMP TABLE.
8. WRITE A PL/SQL PROGRAM TO DISPLAY TOP 10 ROWS IN EMP TABLE
BASED ON THEIR JOB AND SALARY.
9. WRITE A PL/SQL PROGRAM TO RAISE THE EMPLOYEE SALARY BY 10%,
FOR DEPARTMENT NUMBER 30 PEOPLE AND ALSO MAINTAIN THE
RAISED DETAILS IN THE RAISE TABLE.
10. WRITE A PROCEDURE TO UPDATE THE SALARY OF EMPLOYEE, WHO
ARE NOT GETTING COMMISSION BY 10%
11. WRITE A PL/SQL PROCEDURE TO PREPARE AN ELECTRICITY BILL BY
USING FOLLOWING TABLE.
TABLE USED: ELECT
NAME
NULL? TYPE
MNO
NOT NULL NUMBER(3)
CNAME
VARCHAR2(20)
CUR_READ
NUMBER(5)
PREV_READ
NUMBER(5)
NO_UNITS
NUMBER(5)
AMOUNT
NUMBER(8,2)
SER_TAX
NUMBER(8,2)
NET_AMT
NUMBER(9,2)
12. WRITE A PL/SQL PROCEDURE TO PREPARE AN TELEPHONE BILL BY USING
FOLLOWING
TABLE. AND PRINT THE MOTHLY BILLS FOR
EACH
CUSTOMER.
TABLE USED : PHONE.
NAME
NULL? TYPE
TEL_NO
NOT NULL NUMBER(6)
CNAME
VARCHAR2(20)
CITY
VARCHAR2(10)
PR_READ
NUMBER(5)
CUR_READ
NUMBER(5)
NET_UNITS
NUMBER(5)
TOT_AMT
NUMBER(8,2)
13. WRITE A PL/SQL PROGRAM TO RAISE THE EMPLOYEE SALARY BY 10%,
WHO ARE COMPLETED THERE 25 YEARS OF SERVICE.
14. WRITE A PL/SQL PROCEDURE TO EVALUATE THE GRADE OF A STUDENT
WITH FOLLOWING CONDITIONS:
i. FOR PASS: ALL MARKS > 40
ii. FOR I CLASS: TOTAL%>59
FOR II CLASS: TOTAL% BETWEEN >40 AND <60
iii. FOR III CLASS: TOTAL% =40
AND ALSO MAINTAIN THE DETAILS IN ABSTRACT TABLE.

26
TABLES USED TABLE STD
SQL> DESC STD
NAME
NULL? TYPE
NO
NOT NULL NUMBER
NAME
VARCHAR2(10)
INTNO
NUMBER
CLASS
NOT NULL VARCHAR2(10)
M1
NUMBER
M2
NUMBER
M3
NUMBER
M4
NUMBER
M5
NUMBER
TABLE ABSTRACTS
SQL> DESC ABSTRACT
NAME
NULL? TYPEDNO
NUMBER
STDNAME
VARCHAR2(10)
CLASS
VARCHAR2(10)
INTNO
NUMBER
TOT
NUMBER
GRADE
VARCHAR2(10)
PERCENT
NUMBER
DAT_ENTER
DATE
15. WRITE A PROCEDURE TO UPDATE THE SALARY OF EMPLOYEE, WHO
BELONGS TO CERTAIN DEPARTMENT WITH A CERTAIN PERCENTAGE
OF RAISE.
Paper-4(a): Web Technologies
Unit-I : HTML Basics
Introduction: HTML, XML, and the World Wide Web.
TML: Basic HTML, The Document body, Text, Hyperlinks, Adding more formatting,
Lists, Tables, Using colors and images, Images.
More HTML: Multimedia objects, Frames, Forms-towards interactivity, The HTML
document Head in detail, XHTML- An evolutionary markup.
Unit-II:Introduction to the Style Sheets and Java Scripts:
Cascading Style Sheets: Introduction, Using styles: Simple examples, Defining your
own styles, Properties and values in styles, Style sheets- A worked example,
Formatting blocks of information, Layers.
An introduction to Java Script: What is dynamic html, Java Script, JavascriptThe
basics, Variables, String manipulation, Mathematical functions, Statements,
Operators, Arrays, Functions.
Unit-III: Objects in Java Script and DHTM:.
Objects in Java Script: Data and objects in java script, Regular expressions, Exception
Handling, Built in objects, Events. Dynamic HTML with Java Script: Data validation,
Opening a new window, Messages and Confirmations, The status bar, Writing to a
different frame, Rollover buttons, Moving images, Multiple pages in a single
download, A text-only menu system, Floating logos.
Unit -IV: ASP and XML.
Active Server Pages and Java: Active Server Pages, Java.
XML: Defining Data for Web applications: Basic XML, Document type definition,
XML schema, Document Object Model, Presenting XML.

27
Good Design: Structure, Tables versus Frames, Accessibility, Internationalization,
Exercises.
Text Book:
1. Chris Bates, Web Programming Building Internet Applications, Second Edition,
Wiley, 2007.
Books for Reference:
1. Paul S.Wang Sanda S. Katila, An Introduction to Web Design Plus Programming,
Thomson, 2007.
2. Robert W.Sebesta, Programming the World Wide Web, Third Edition, Pearson
Education, 2007.
3. Thomas A.Powell, The Complete Reference HTML & XHTML, Fourth Edition,
Tata McGraw Hill, 2006.
4. Abders Moller and Michael Schwartzbach, An Introduction to XML and Web
Technologies, Addison Wesley , 2006.
5. Joel Sklar, Principles of Web Design, Thomson, 2007.
6. Raj Kamal, Internet and Web Technologies, Tata McGraw Hill, 2007.
Paper-4(b): GUI Programming
Unit-I: Familiarization about the Visual Basic IDE:
Components:
Getting Starting with Visual Basic 6.0: Introduction to Visual Basic, Visual Basic 6.0
Programming Environment, working with Forms, Developing an Application,
Variables, Data types and Modules, Procedures and Control Structures, Arrays in
Visual Basic
Working with Controls: Introduction, Creating and Using Controls, Working with
Control Arrays.
Menus, Mouse Events and Dialog Boxes: Introduction, Mouse Events, Dialog Boxes.
(Chapters:1,2,3)
Unit-II: Objects, Classes and Add-Ins:
Graphics, MDI and Flex Grid: Introduction, Graphics for application, Multiple
Document Interface(MDI), Using FlexGrid Control.
Object Linking and Embedding: Introduction, OLE Fundamentals, Using OLE
Container Control, Using OLE Automation Objects, OLE Drag and Drop.
Objects and Classes: Introduction to Objects. Working with Objects, Classes and
Class Modules : Working with Add-Ins: Introduction to Add-Ins, Building Add-Ins.
(Chapters: 4, 8, 9, 14)
Unit-III: File System, ODBC and ActiveX features:
File and File system Controls: Introduction, File System Controls, Accessing Files,
Interface with Windows.
ODBC and Data Access Objects: Evolution of Computing Architectures, Data Access
Options.
ODBC using Data Access Objects and Remote Data Objects: Open Database
Connectivity, Remote Data Objects.
Working with ActiveX Data Objects: An overview of ADO and OLEDB, ADO object
Model.
(Chapters: 17,5,6,16)
Unit-IV: Data Environment ActiveX EXE and DLLData Environment and Data Report:
Introduction, Data Environment Designer, Data Report.
All about ActiveX Controls: Introduction, Constituents of ActiveX Control, Exposing
AcrivX Control Properties.

28
ActiveX EXE and ActiveX DLL: Introduction to ActiveX EXE and ActiveX DLL,
Creating and ActiveX EXE Component, Creating an ActiveX DLL Component.
(Chapters: 7,10,11)
Text Book:
1.Content Development Group, Visual Basic 6.0 Programming, Tata McGraw-Hill
Publishing Company Limited, 2007.
Books for Reference:
1. Deitel and Deitel, Visual Basic 2005, Third Edition, Pearson Education, 2007.
2. Noel Jerke, Visual Basic 6, The complete reference, Tata Mcgraw Hill, 2006.
3. Byran S. Gottfried, Visual Basic, Schaums Outlines, Tata Mcgraw Hill, 2004.
Paper-4(c): Operating Systems
Unit-I : OS Fundamentals and Structure of OS.
Introduction: What Operating Systems do Computer system organization
Computer System Architecture Operating Systems structure Operating System
operations : Process management - Memory management, storage management,
Protection and security Distributed systems Computing environments.
System structures Operating System services User Operating System interface
system calls Types of system calls system programs Operating system structure
system Boot. Process concept Process scheduling Operations on processes
Inter process communication Examples of IPC systems Communication in Client
server systems.
Unit-II : Multithreading and Process Synchronization:
Multithreaded programming Multithreading models Thread Libraries Threading
issues Operating System examples. Process Scheduling Basic concepts
Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Multiple process scheduling Thread
scheduling Operating System examples. Process Synchronization The Critical
section problem Peters solution Synchronization Hardware Semaphores
Classic problems of Synchronization Monitors Synchronization examples.
Deadlocks System model Deadlock Characterization Methods for Handling
Deadlocks Deadlock prevention Deadlock Avoidance Deadlock Detection
Recovery from Deadlock.
Unit-III : Memory Management Strategies:
Memory management strategies swapping contiguous Memory allocation
paging structure of the page table Segmentation. Virtual Memory management
Demand paying Page Replacement. File system File concept Access Methods
Directory structure Protection.
Unit-IV : File Systems and I/O Management.
Implementing file systems File system structure File system implementation
Directory implementation Allocation methods Free space management
Efficiency and Performance Recovery. Secondary storage structure overview of
Mass-storage structure-Disk structure - Disk Attachment Disk Scheduling Disk
Management Swap space Management RAID structure. I/O systems overview
I/O hardware Application I/O interface Kernal I/O subsystem Transforming I/O
requests to Hardware Operations.
Text Book:
1. Abraham Silberschatz, Peter Baer Galvin, Greg Gagne, Operating System Principles,
Seventh Edition, Wiley India Edition , 2007 Chapters (1 to 13, 19, 21)

29
Books for Reference:
1. William Stallings, Operating Systems Internals and Design Principles, Fifth Edition,
Pearson Education, 2007.
2. Andrew S Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems, 2nd Edition Pearson Education.
3. Archer Harris J, Operating Systems, Schaum outline series, Tata McGraw Hill, 2006.
4. Davis and Rajkumar, Operating Systems A Systematic view, Sixth Edition, Pearson
Education, 2007.
5. Bhatt, Introduction to Operating Systems, Concepts and Practice, 2nd Edition, PHI,
2008.
Paper-4(d): PHP, MySQL and Apache
Unit-1 : PHP Basics:
The Building blocks of PHP: Variables, Data Types, Operators and Expressions,
Constants. Flow Control Functions in PHP: Switching Flow, Loops, Code Blocks and
Browser Output. Working with Functions: What is function?, Calling functions,
Defining Functions, Returning the values from User-Defined Functions, Variable
Scope, Saving state between Function calls with the static statement, more about
arguments.
Working with Arrays: What are Arrays?, Creating Arrays, Some Array-Related
Functions.
(Chapters: 5,6,7,8)
Unit-II: Working with Objects and Forms:
Working with Objects: Creating Objects, Object Instance Working with Strings, Dates
and Time: Formatting strings with PHP, Investigating Strings with PHP, Manipulating
Strings with PHP, Using Date and Time Functions in PHP.
Working with Forms: Creating Forms, Accessing Form Input with User defined
Arrays, Combining HTML and PHP code on a single Page, Using Hidden Fields to
save state, Redirecting the user, Sending Mail on Form Submission, Working with
File Uploads.
(Chapters: 9,10,11)
Unit-III: Introduction to Cookies, Working with Files, Directories and Images:
Working with Cookies and User Sessions: Introducing Cookies, Setting a Cookie with
PHP, Session Function Overview, Starting a Session, Working with session variables,
passing session IDs in the Query String, Destroying Sessions and Unsetting Variables,
Using Sessions in an Environment with Registered Users.
Working with Files and Directories: Including Files with inclue(), Validating Files,
Creating and Deleting Files, Opening a File for Writing, Reading or Appending,
Reading from Files, Writing or Appending to a File, Working with Directories, Open
Pipes to and from Process Using popen(), Running Commands with exec(), Running
Commands with system() or passthru().
Working with Images: Understanding the Image-Creation Process, Necessary
Modifications to PHP, Drawing a New Image, Getting Fancy with Pie Charts,
Modifying Existing Images, Image Creation from User Input. (Chapters:12,13,14)
Unit-IV: Introduction to MySQL and Interfacing with Databases through PHP
Understanding the database design process: The Importance of Good Database
Design, Types of Table Relationships, Understanding Normalization.
Learning basic SQL Commands: Learning the MySQL Data types, Learning the Table
Creation Syntax, Using Insert Command, Using SELECT Command, Using WHERE
in your Queries, Selecting from Multiple Tables, Using the UPDATE command to
modify records, Using RELACE Command, Using the DELETE Command,

30
Frequently used string functions in MySQL, Using Date and Time Functions in
MySQL.
Using Transaction and stored procedures in MySQL: What is Transaction?, What are
Stored Procedures?
Interacting with MySQL using PHP: MySQL Versus MySQLi Functions, Connecting
to MySQL with PHP, Working with MySQL Data
Creating an Online Address Book: Planning and Creating Database Tables, Creating
Menu, Creating Record Addition Mechanism, Viewing Records, Creating the Record
Deletion Mechanism, Adding Sub-entities to a Record. (Chapters: 15,16,17,18,20)
Text Book:
1. Julie C. Meloni, PHP MySQL and Apache, SAMS Teach yourself, Pearson Education,
2007.
Book for Reference:
1. Xue Bai Michael Ekedahl, The web warrior guide to Web Programming, Thomson,
2006.
Paper-4:Lab
Project Work

31
ECONOMICS
Paper -3: Indian Economy
Unit-I: Concepts Of Development: Meaning of Economic growth and development
Measures of Economic Development GNP, PCL, PQLI and HDI, Factors
influencing Economic development Sustainable development Balanced and
unbalanced growth Choice of Techniques Labour intensive and capital intensive
methods.
Unit-II: Structure of the Indian Economy: Basic features of Indian Economy- Role of natural
resources in economic development- Basic demographic features Occupational
distribution Population Explosion, National income in India Trends and
Composition Poverty, Inequalities and unemployment Causes and consequences
Current Five Year Plan Objectives, Mobilization and Allocation of Resources
New Economic Reforms Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization in India
Inclusive Growth.
Unit-III: Indian Agriculture: Nature and importance, Trends in agricultural Production and
Productivity: factors determining productivity. Rural Credit Micro Finance and Self
Help Groups (SHGs) Agricultural price policy, Crop insurance, Agricultural
Infrastructure and food security. (1) Agricultural Marketing in India, (2) Impact of
Land reforms in India, (3) Provision of Agricultural credit to the tenants.
Unit-IV: Indian Industry and Services: Structure and Growth of Indian Industry-Industrial
policies of 1956 and 1991, Growth and problems of Small Scale Industry. Foreign
Exchange Management Act (FEMA): Disinvestment Policy in India Foreign Direct
Investment Growing importance of Service Sector in India Banking, Insurance,
Information Technology, Education and Health
Unit-V: Andhra Pradesh State Economy: GSDP Sectoral Contribution and Trends; Human
Resources Population Trends, Regional differences Demographic Dividend,
Agricultural Sector Land use and Cropping pattern - Impact of land reforms in A.P.
- Income and employment in Agricultural sector. Industrial Sector Small Scale
industries, Investment and employment in industrial sector, SEZs; Service Sector
Growth of income and employment in the service sector, Information, Technology
(IT).
Note: In this paper, instead of internal test, a field study, or project work or
assignment for 20 marks is recommended.
Books for Reference:
1. Ruddar Dutta and KPM Sundaram, Indian Economy, S Chand & Co, 2008.
2. Reserve Bank of India, Handbook of Statistics on Indian Economy (Latest).
3. R S Rao, V Hanumantha Rao & N Venu Gopal (Ed.), Fifty Years of Andhra Pradesh
(1956-2006),
4. Centre for Documentation, Research and Communications, Hyderabad, 2007.
5. Telugu Academy Publications.
6. Dr. N Koti Reddy, Dictionary of Economics, Samatha Publications, 2011.
Paper 4(a): Public Finance and International Economics
Unit-I: Public Finance and Taxation: Meaning and scope of public finance: Distinction
between public and private finance. Principle of Maximum Social Advantage Public
goods vs Private goods Sources of Public Revenue (a) Taxes (b) Administrative
Revenues (c) Commercial Revenues (d) Gifts and grants (e) Deficit Finance
Concept of fiscal deficit Canons of taxation (Adam Smith & Modern) Impact,
shifting and Incidence of Taxation, Effects of taxation - The concept of Value added

32
Tax (VAT). Taxes direct and indirect taxes - merits and demerits, Methods of
taxation Progressive, proportional, regressive, and degressive.
Unit-II: Public Expenditure And Public Dept. : Meaning and Classification of public
expenditure Reasons for the growth of public expenditure Wagners law Peacock
and Wiseman hypothesis Public Debt Classification of Public debt Methods of
debt redemption Causes and effects of the growth of Indias Public Debt.
Unit-III: Theories Of International Trade: Inter regional and International Trade
Importance of International Trade Inter industry trade Intra industry trade Theories of International Trade Theory of absolute advantage Theory of
Comparative costs and Hecksher-Ohllin theory. Terms of Trade Gross Barter and
Net Bartter and Income terms of trade.
Unit-IV: Protection And Balance of Payments: Tariffs Meaning and Definition of Tariffs
Types of Tariffs Tariffs and their effects Concept of Optimum Tariff Balance of
Payments Disequilibrium in Balance of Payments Measures to correct
Disequilibrium Depreciation.
Unit-V: Foreign Trade in India: Recent trends in the composition of Indias foreign trade
Recent EXIM policy changing role of IMF, IBRD WTO Impact of India
Concept of outsourcing.
Books for Reference:
1. B P Tyagi, Public Finance, Jai Prakash Nath, 2004.
2. B O Soderston, International Economics, Macmillan, 1995.
3. C P Kindle Berger, International Economics.
4. Telugu Academy Publications.
5. Dr. N Koti Reddy, Dictionary of Economics, Samatha Publications, 2011.
Paper-4(b): Quantitative Techniques
Unit-I: Matrix Algebra: Matrices Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and equality of
Matrices Minors, Co-factors of a matrix Determinants Properties Inverse of a
matrix Solution of simultaneous equations by matrix Inverse method and
Cramers rule Depiction of inter industry relationship by matrices.
Unit-II: Calculus: Definition of a function Differentiation of a Function: Maxima and
Minima, Elasticities, Equilibrium of a consumer and a firm, Inter relationships among
total, marginal and average cost and revenues: Constrained optimization problem:
Integration of a function, Consumer and producer surplus.
Unit-III: Central Tendency and Dispersion: Definition and Importance of Statistics - Primary
and Secondary Data Graphic and diagramatic representation of data, Techniques of
data collection, Sampling and Census Methods. Measures of Central Tendency
Mean, Median, Mode, Geometric mean and Harmonic Mean. Measures of
Dispersion, Range, Quartile Deviation, Mean Deviation, Standard Deviation,
Coefficient of Variation, concept of Skewness.
Unit- IV: Correlation And Regression: Simple Correlation, Coefficient of Correlation: Karl
Pearson and Spearman, Regression analysis Estimation of regression line in a
bivariate distribution Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) Method Interpretation of
regression coefficients Demand forecasting.
Unit-V: Time Series and Index Numbers: Time series analysisConcept and Components
Determination of Trend, Simple and Compound Growth Rates Index numbers:
concept, price relative, quantity relative, value relative, Laspeyers Paasches and
Fishers Ideal Index - Time Reversal Test and Factor Reversal Test Constructing
Wholesale Price Index and Consumer Price Index.

33
Books for Reference:
1. A C Chiang, Fundamental Methods of Mathematical Economics, Mc Graw Hill,
1984.
2. Yamane Taro, Mathematics for Economics, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi,
1988,2/e.
3. S P Gupta & V K Kapoor, Fundamentals of Mathematical Statistics, S Chand & Co.,
2005.
4. Stephen Bernstein & Ruth Bernstein, Theory & Problems of Elements of Statistics,
Schaums Outlines Series, Tata Mc Graw Hill, 2005.
5. E Dowling, Mathematical Economics, Schaums Outline Series, 2007.

34
ELECTRONICS
Paper-3: Digital Electronics and Microprocessor
Unit-I: Introduction to number systems, Logic gates OR, AND, NOT, X-OR, NAND, NOR
gates - Truth tables Positive and negative logic Logic families and their
characteristics TTL and CMOS.Universal building blocks NAND and NOR gates.
Unit-II: Laws of Boolean algebra De Morgans Theorems, Boolean identities
Simplification of Boolean expressions Karnaugh Maps Sum of products (SOP)
and Product of sums (POS).
Unit-III: Combinational and Sequential circuits: Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer Half
adder and Full adder circuits. Flip flops RS, D, JK and JK Master-Slave (working
and truth tables) .
Unit-IV: Registers and counters:-Shift register, Ripple counter and Decade counter working, truth tables and timing diagrams.
Unit-V: Introduction to Microprocessor: Intel 8085 Microprocessor, functional block
diagram of 8085 and function of each block, Register organization.
Unit-VI: Pin configuration of 8085 and pin details. Timing diagrams. Instruction cycle,
machine cycle, fetch and execute cycles. Instruction set of 8085, Instruction and
data formats- classification of instructions , Addressing modes.
Unit-VII: Assembly language programming examples of 8 and 16 bit addition, subtraction,
multiplication and division, finding the largest and smallest in a data array,
arranging data in ascending and descending order.
Unit-VIII: Interfacing peripherals and applications: Programmable peripheral interface
(8255) - D/A and A/D converters and their interfacing to the Microprocessor.
Stepper motor control- seven segment LED.
(Note: Solving related problems in all the Units)
Books for Reference:
1. Malvino & Leach, Digital Principles and Applications,TMH
2. R.P Jain, Modern Digital Electronics,TMH
3. Anand Kumar, Fundamentals of Digital Circuits, PHI
4. Ramesh S. Goanker, Microprocessor Architecture and Programming, Penram
5. B.Ram, Microprocessors 8085, Dhanpat Roy Pub.
6. Unified Elctronics, Volume III
Practicals - 3: Digital Electronics and Microprocessor Lab
A) Digital Experiments
1. Verification of truth tables of OR, AND, NOT, NAND, NOR, EX-OR gates (By
using 7400-series)
2. Construction of gates using NAND, NOR gates.
3. Construction of Half and Full adders and verifying their truth tables.
4. Operation and verifying truth tables of flip- flops- RS, D, and JK using ICs.
5. Operation and verifying truth tables of Master-Slave JK Filp-Flop
6. Construction of Decade counters (7490).
7. Simulation experiments using appropriate electronic circuit simulation.
a) 4-bit parallel adder using combinational circuits.
b) Decade counter using JK flip flops.
c) Up/Down counter using JK flip flop.
d) Up/Down counter using 7493.
B) Microprocessor (Software)
1. Binary addition & subtraction. (8-bit )
2. Binary addition & subtraction. (16-bit)

35
3. Multiplication
4. Division.
5. Picking up largest number.
6. Picking up smallest number.
7. Arranging ascending order.
8. Arranging descending order.
9. Decimal addition (DAA) .
C) Microprocessor (Hardware)
1. Interfacing R-2R Ladder network (DAC) (4 bits) to generate waveforms.
2. Interfacing a stepper motor and rotating it clockwise/anti clockwise through a known
angle.
3. Interfacing a seven segment display.
4. Interfacing ADC for temperature measurement.
Note: Student has to perform the following experiments:
(i) In Section (A) any four experiments among experiment numbers 1to 6
(ii) Experiment Number 7 (a, b, c and d) is compulsory
(iii)All experiments in section (B)
(iv) Any two experiments in section (C).
Students are encouraged to do a small project work during third year
Paper4: Embedded Systems and Applications
Unit-I: The 8051 Microcontroller-Introduction to microcontrollers and embedded systems,
Block diagram of 8051. Architecture of 8051, Pin diagram, Port organization.
Unit -II: Register and memory organization, Flag bits and PSW Register, Register banks
and Stack Data types and directives.
Unit -III: Addressing modes and accessing memory using various addressing modes.
Instruction set: Arithmetic, Logical, Single Bit, Jump, Loop and Call Instructions
and their usage. Time Delay Generation and Calculation.
Unit -IV: Programming examples: Addition, multiplication, subtraction, division, arranging a
given set of numbers in ascending / descending order, picking the smallest / largest
number among a given set of numbers.
Unit-V: I/O Programming, I/O Bit manipulation Programming, Interrupts in 8051, initializing
8051 interrupts, interrupts priority in 8051.
Unit -VI: Programming of 8051 Timer/Counters and programming in assembly.
Unit -VII: Interfacing of - PPI 8255, DAC, ADC. Basics of Serial communication,8051 serial
communication programming.
Unit -VIII: Real Time Applications of Embedded Systems: interfacing and working of LCD,
Stepper Motor, keyboard and LED.
(Note: Solving related problems in all the Units)
Books for Reference:
1. Muhammad Ali Mazidi and Janice Gillispie Mazidi, The 8051 Microcontrollers and
Embedded Systems, Pearson Education Asia, 4th Reprint, 2002.
2. Ajay V. Deshmukh, Microcontrollers Theory and applications, Tata McGraw-Hill
3. Myke Predko, Programming and Customizing the 8051 Microcontroller, TMH, 2003
4. Howard Boyet and Ron Katz, The 8051 Microcontroller - Programming, interfacing
and applications, (MII) Microprocessors Training Inc.
5. Unified electronics Volume IV
Practicals 4 : Embedded Systems and Applications Lab
Microcontroller Experiments using 8051 kit
1. Multiplication of two numbers using MUL command (later using counter method for
repeated addition )

36
2. Division of two numbers using DIV command (later using counter method for repeated
subtraction )
3. Pick the smallest number among a given set of numbers
4. Pick the largest number among a given set of numbers
5. Arrange n numbers in ascending order
6. Arrange n numbers in descending order
7. Block transfer of data
8. Code conversion from Hexa to BCD.
9. Generate a specified time delay
10. Interface a ADC and a temperature sensor to measure temperature
11. Interface a DAC & Generate a stair case wave form with step duration and no. of
steps as variables
12. Flash a LED connected at a specified out put port terminal
13. Interface a stepper motor and rotate it clock wise or anti clock wise through given
angle steps
14. Using Keil software write a program to pick the smallest among a given set of numbers
15. Using Keil software write a program to pick the largest among a given set of numbers
16. Using Keil software write a program to arrange a given set of numbers in ascending
order
17. Using Keil software write a program to arrange a given set of numbers in descending
order
18. Using Keil software write a program to generate a rectangular wave form at a specified
port terminal
Note: Student has to perform the following experiments
1) 8 Experiments among experiment numbers 1 to 11
2) Experiment Numbers from 12 to16 are compulsory
Students are encouraged to do a small project work during third year

37

FORESTRY
Paper-3: Forest Utilization and Protection
1. Wood Technology: Logging and extraction techniques; Transport and Storage;
Physical and Mechnical properties of wood; defects and abnormalities, composite and
other wood products, saw milling; wood seasoning and preserving.
2. Forest Industries: Paper and Pulp, other cellulose based industries, plywood, veneer,
match industry, rubber, furniture; sports goods and pencils.
3. Minor forest products: (A) Vegetable products: Gums, Resins, Turpentine, Oilseeds,
Drugs, Spices, Edible products and poisons; Bamboo products;
(B) Animal products: Lac, Honey and Wax, Silk, Horns, Bones and Ivory.
4. Energy plantations: Energy plantations and their prospects and feasibility: Eucalyptus
plantations; fuel wood farms.
5. Forest protection: Climatic and biotic factors effecting forests; methods of plant
conservation; methods of wild life conservation; Endangered species; Methods of soil
conservation, Methods of water conservation.
6. Forest laws:
Necessity, general principles, Indian forest Act 1927; Forest
conservation Act 1980; Wild life protection Act 1972, Environmental protection Act
1986, Biological diversity Act 2000.
Practicals - 3: Forest Utilization and Protection
1. Microscopic study of the structure of wood and identification of major wood species
on the basis of internal structure .
2. Study of instruments in wood testing.
3. Visit to composite woodyards, wood seasoning, preservation of wood and cellulose
and paper branches.
4. Taxonomic identification of paper yielding plants.
5. Cellulose isolation and estimation.
6. Study of wood cutting and furniture making instruments.
7. Identification and description of vegetable and animal forest products.
8. Identification and study of fuel wood plants.
9. Description of endangered species in India.
10. Classification and description of local wild life.
11. Visit to Mangrove vegetation forest industries, sanctuaries, National parks and
Zoological parks.
Books for Reference:
1. Brown H.P, Wood Technology, Mc Graw hill Book Company
2. Krishna Murthy .T, Minor forest products of India
3. Mathur A.N, Economics of Energy Plantations, Himanshu Publications
4. Robert L, Edmonds, James K. Agee, Robert I.Gare, Forest Health & Protection.
5. Lawrence C.Christy, Charles E. Dileva, Jonathan M. Lindsay, Forest Law &
Sustainable Development.
Paper-4: Modern Trends in Forest Management
1. Forest Management: The scope of forest management, objectives, Principles and
Techniques of Forest Management; National and state Forest Policies; Legislation;
Reservation and Rights: Sustained yield concept, its limitations and modifications;
normal forests, rotation, conversion and felling cycle, regeneration period,
exploitation period.

38
2. Forest Surveying: Different methods of surveying, chain, Prismatic, Compass,
Paintable and topographic survey area calculation, maps and map reading. Aerial
survey and Remote sensing Techniques.
3. Environmental Pollution: Effect of sulphur dioxide, Ozone and oxides of Nitrogen on
plants; Role of forests in protecting from environmental pollution; Forest Recreation.
4. Sericulture: Life cycle of silkworms: Silk worm rearing techniques; feeding rearing
of early and late age silk worms - Moulting and harvesting; Cocoon marketing and
Silk reeling technologies; Cultivation of Mulberry plants and their pest and disease
control.
5. Wild life Management: Wild life in India: Wild life farming: Balance of nature:
measures of wild life conservation.
6. Plant Tissue culture and Biotechnology: Applications of plant tissue techniques such
as Micropropagation, Rapid propagation, Mass propagation, Virus elimination and
disease resistance breeding: the process of DNA recombinant technique: conservation
of plant genetic resources.
Practicals - 4: Modern Trends in Forest Management
1. Study of forest management techniques.
2. Estimation of sulphur dioxide, Ozone and oxides of Nitrogen.
3. Study of the effect of air pollutants on the morphology of plants.
4. Study of leaf symptoms as effected by SO2 and Ozone.
5. Study of different stages in the life cycle of silkworm.
6. Feeding and maintenance of silk worms.
7. Equipment used in Forest Surveying.
8. Lettering, construction of diagonal and vernier scales.
9. Forest survey and plotting.
10. Map reading.
11. Techniques of wild life management.
12. Isolation of explants, single cells and their culture.
Books for Reference:
1. Peter Bettinger, Kelvin Boston, Jacek Siry, Donald L. Grebnes, Forest Management
and Planning
2. Ram Prakash, Forest Surveying
3. Robert L. Wilson, Elementary Forest Surveying and Mapping
4. Jeffrey Pierce. J, Ruth F. Weiner, AArne vesilind. P, Environmental pollution and
control (IV Edition)
5. Tribhuwan singh, Principles and Techniques of Silkworm seed production
6. Dubey. R.C, A text book of Biotechnology, S.Chand and company Ltd. NewDelhi.

39
GEOGRAPHY
Paper 3: Regional Geography of India
Unit-I Physical Setting: Locational aspects and advantages Major physical divisions
Drainage system -Climate Mechanism of Indian monsoons Natural vegetation
Soil types.
Unit-II: Population Growth, distribution, Sex-ratio, Age-structure, problems
and policies, Literacy rate Work-force Migration Settlement Patterns Rural and
Urban Growth Urbanization.
Unit -III: Economic Settings - Resources - Land, Water, Energy (Coal and Petroleum; Hydel,
Thermal, Atomic and wind), Minerals (Iron ore, )
Agriculture - Types (subsistence and commercial; intensive and extensive and
plantation), Irrigation, and Green revolution, Industry Iron and Steel,
Cotton textiles, and Oil refineries- Transport Road ways, Railways, Water ways,
Airways Growth and distribution.
Unit-IV: Andhra Pradesh - Physical aspects Relief, Drainage, Climate, Vegetation and Soils
Resource base Fuel and mineral wealth -Population Growth and distribution,
Ruraland Urban population, Urbanization Irrigation development, Major irrigation
projects, Cropping pattern, Production.
Text Books:
1. Sharma and Coutino, Economics and Commercial Geography of India, Vikas
Publication, New Delhi, 1980.
2. Spate,O.H.K.and Learmonth, A.T.A, India and Pakisthan, B.I. Publications,Madras,
1972.
3. Prithvish Nag and Sengupta,S. Geography of India, Concept, New Delhi, 1999.
4. Alam, M.S. Planning Atlas of Andhra Pradesh, Govt. of India and Andhra Pradesh,
Hyderabad, 1974.
5. Telugu Acadamy book, Hyderabad.
Books for Reference:
1. Singh,R.L. and Dutt,P.K.Elements of Regional Geography, Students Friends,
Allahabad, 1968.
2. Singh,R.L. Regional Geography of India, NGSI, BHU, Varanasi, 1976.
3. Mamoria,C.B., Economic and Commercial Geography of India, Shiva Lal Agarwala,
Agra, 1995.
4. Andhra Pradesh Year Book-1981, Data News Features, Hyderabad.
Practicals-3: Regional Geography of India
Projections:
Constructions and Uses
Conical Projections: One Standard Parallel, Two Standard Parallel, Bonnes
Cylindrical Projections: Equal area, Equal distant,
Zenithal Projections (Polar cases only): Zenithal Equidistant and Equal Area
Field Survey:
i) Chain Survey: Triangulation Method Closed Traverse & Open Traverse.
ii) Prismatic Compass Survey: Open and Closed Travers Intersection method.
iii) Plane Table Survey: Intersection method.
iv) Educational Tour -Village , Urban Study: Socio-economic and Physiographic
study Observations, Measurements, Interviews, data collection.
Text Books:
1. Monkhouse,F.J. and Wilkinson M.R. Maps and Diagrams, Methuen,
London,
1968.

40
2. Misra,R.P. and Ramesh.A, Fundamentals of Cartography, Concept, New
Delhi,
1989.
3. Robinson,A.H. Elements of Cartography, John Willey, New York, 1995.
Books for Reference:
1. Gopal Singh, Map work and Practical Geography, Vikas Publishing, New Delhi,
1996.
2. Negi , B.S, Practical Geography, Kedarnath and Ramnath, Meerut, 1998.
Paper -4: Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
Unit-I: Remote Sensing: Basics of Remote Sensing: Definition, History, Advantages - Aerial
Photography and Satellite Remote Sensing. Components of Remote Sensing System:
Energy Source, Energy-Atmosphere Interaction, Energy-Matter Interaction,
Platforms, Sensors, Data handling system, Data Users - Energy Interaction with
Atmosphere and Surface Materials Interaction of Electromagnetic Radiation with
Atmosphere and with Earth Surface Materials.
Unit-II: Remote Sensing: Platforms and Sensors and Products - Remote Sensing Platforms:
Aircrafts and Satellites - Orbital Characteristics of Sun-synchronous Earth Resource
Satellites and Geostationary - Communication Special Purpose Satellites - Remote
Sensing Sensors: Types of Sensors: Active and Passive Framing Systems (Cameras)
Scanning Systems - Cameras: Single Lens, Multiple Lens, Strip and Digital Films
and Filters - Scanners: Cross-track Vs. Along-track. Remote Sensing in India:
Development and Growth Satellites
Unit-III: Geographic Information Systems (GIS): GIS: Definition Contributing Disciplines
Functions Data Capture/Input, Data Storage, Data Retrieval, Data Analysis, Data
Output Components of Geographic Information Systems: Hardware Components,
Software Components, Brain-ware Components and Organizational set up Methods
of Data input (Keyboard Entry, Digitizing, Scanning) GPS and Its Application.
Unit-IV: Geographic Information Systems: Data Base Management System: Definitions and
Functions - Data Analysis and Modeling: - Reclassification, Buffering (Point, Line,
Area, Doughnut), Overlay Analysis - Modeling Surfaces (DTMs) Remote Sensing
and GIS: Integration.
Text Books:
1. Anji Reddy, M, A Text Book of Remote Sensing and Geographical Information
Systems, B.S. Publications, Hyderabad, 2006.
2. Clarke, Keith C. Getting Started with Geographic Information Systems, Prentice Hall,
New Jersey, 1999.
3. Lo Albert, C.P., and Yeung, K.W, Concepts and Techniques of Geographical
Information Systems, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 2003.
Books for Reference:
1. Campbell, James B, Introduction to Remote Sensing, The Guilford Press, NewYork,
1987.
2. Curran, P, Principles of Remote Sensing, Longman, London, 1985.
3. Kang-Tsung Chang, Geographic Information Systems, Tata Mc Graw Hill, New
Delhi, 2003.
4. Lillisand, T.M. and R.W Kiefer, Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation, John
Wiley and Sons, New York, 1997.
5. Star J, and J. Estes, Geographic Information Systems: An Introduction, Prentice Hall,
New Jersy, 1994.
6. Michael F. Goodchild and Karen K. Kemp, Introduction to GIS, National Centre for
Geographic Information and Analysis, University of California, Santa Barbara, 1990.

41
Practicals-4: Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
Unit I: GIS:
1. Scale of Measurement: Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, Ratio
2. Data Mode: Spatial Data (Location: Point, line, polygon; attributes; time),
Creating Vector Data, Creating Raster Data, Raster Data Values, Special
Relations (point-point, point-line, point-area, line-line, line-area, area-area)
3. Data Input: Manual, Digitizing, Scanning
Unit II: Remote Sensing:
1. Air Photographs and Satellite Imageries: Describing the Marginal Information
2. Air Photo Interpretation: Using Stereoscope, Stereoscopic Vision Test, Flightline
Marking, Land use Mapping, Relief and Drainage Mapping
Text Books:
1. Anji Reddy, M: A Text Book of Remote Sensing and Geographical Information
Systems, B.S. Publications, Hyderabad, 2006.
2. Curran, P, Principles of remote Sensing, Longman, London, 1985.
3. DeMers, Michel, N, Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems. John Wiley
and Sons, New York 1997.
4. Lillisand, T.M. and R.W Kiefer, Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation, John
Wiley and Sons, New York, 1997.
5. Telugu Acadamy Book, Hyderabad, 2013.
Books for Reference:
1. Campbell, James,B, Introduction to Remote Sensing, The Guilford Press, NewYork,
1987.
2. Clarke, Keith C. Getting Started with Geographic Information Systems, Prentice
Hall, New Jersey, 1999.
3. Kang-Tsung Chang, Geographic Information Systems, Tata Mc Graw Hill, New
Delhi, 2003.
4. Michael F. Goodchild and Karen K. Kemp, Introduction to GIS, National Centre for
Geographic Information and Analysis, University of California, Santa
Barbara, 1990.

42
GEOLOGY
Paper-3: Palaeontology, Indian and Economic Geology
Palaeontology:
Unit-I: Definition of palaeontology and fossil conditions of preservation, modes of
preservation, uses of fossils. Study of taxanomy, classification, morphology,
geological and geographical distribution of the following invertebrate fossils. Phylum
Mollusca.
Unit-II: Phylum Echinodermata
Phylum Brachiopoda
Phylum Arthropoda
Study of the following fossils:
Monograptus, calceola, cidaris, micraster, spirifer, productus, terebratula, turritella,
pecten, gryphea, nautilus, belmnites, calymene, paradoxides, gangamopteris,
ptyllophyllum.
Indian Geology:
Unit-III: Definition of Stratigraphy, stratigraphic principles, standard geologic time
scale,principles of correlation.
Dharwars, Puranas (Cuddapah and Vindhyan Supergroups, Kurnool Group)
Physiographic sub divisions of India with their stratigraphic and structural
characteristics, brief study of type areas, distribution in India, lithology, fossil
content and economic importance of the following geological groups of India.

Unit-IV: Triassic of Spiti, Jurassic of Kutch, Cretaceous of Trichy,


Unit-V: Deccan traps and their age, Siwaliks with vertebrate fossils and Gondwanas.
Economic Geology:
Unit-VI: Definition of Economic Geology, mineral resources and their peculiarities.
ore, gangue, tenor, syngenetic deposits, epigenetic and exogenetic deposits.
Classification of mineral deposits Batemans Classification modified by
Jenson. Process of formation of mineral deposits magmatic concentration, contact
metasomatism, hydrothermal cavity fillings and replacement.
Unit-VII: Sedimentation, residual and mechanical (placer) concentration, oxidation
and supergene enrichment, metamorphism.
Study of important ores, their chemical composition, physical properties, mode of
occurrence, distribution in India and uses of the following metals
Gold, Copper, Lead, Zinc, Aluminium.
Unit-VIII: Iron, manganese, chromium, uranium and thorium (radio active metals).
Chemical composition, physical properties, mode of occurrence and distribution in
india of the minerals of the following industries.
Refractories, Abrassives, Steel, Cement, Ceramic industries.
Coal and Petroleum their origin, occurrence and distribution in India. Major mineral
resources of Andhra Pradesh Asbestos, Barytes, Coal, Mica, Clays, Limestones,
Bauxite, Petroleum, Manganese.
Mineral resources of Godavari Districts.
Text Books:
Palaeontology:
1. Dr. M.Subba Rao, Purajeeva Sastramu, Telugu Akademi.
2. Henry Woods, Palaeontology Invertebrate, C.B.S.Publications
3. Dr.M.S.Anantha Raman, An Introduction to Paleontology, Vishal Publications.
4. E.N.K.Clarkson, George Allen, Invertebrate Paleontology and Evolution,Unwin Pub.
5. U.Lehmann and G.Hillmer, Fossil invertebrates, Cambridge University Press.

43
Books for Reference:
1. R.C.Moore, C.G.Lalickar, A.G.Fischer, Invertebrate Fossils, Mc Graw Hill
2. A.N.Devis , S.J.Stubblefield, An Introduction to Palaeontology, Thomas Murby &
Co.
3. Shrock & Twenhofel, Principles of Invertebrate Palaeontology, Mc Graw Hill
4. D.M.Roup and S.N.Stanley, Principles of Palaeontology, W.H.Freeman & Co.
5. H.H.Swinnerton, Outlines of Palaeontology, E.Arnold & Co.
6. R.M.Black, The elements of Palaeontology, Cambridge University Press.
Stratigraphy And Indian Geology:
Text Books:
1. Dr.B.B.Vijayam , Bharatadesa Bhuvignana Sastramu , Telugu Akademi.
2. M.S.Krishnan, Geology of India and Burma, C.B.S.Publications, 2006
3. Ravindra Kumar, Fundamentals of Historical Geology , Stratigraphy of India, New
Age International, 2010
Book for Reference:
1. V.J.Gupta, Indian Stratigraphy Volumes, H.P.C. Delhi.
2. R.Vaidyanadhan & M. Ramakrishnan, Geology of India Vol I & II , Geol. Soc.Ind.,
Bangalore, 2010
Economic Geology:
1. Dr.T.V.S.R. Kshirasagar and Dr.J.Nageswara Rao, Ardhika Bhuvignana Sastramu,
Telugu Akadami
2. A.M.Bateman and M.L.Jenson , Economic Mineral Deposits, John Wiley and Sons.
3. Umeshwar Prasad, Economic Mineral Deposits, C.B. S Publ.
4. Gokhale and Rao, Ore deposits of India, Thomas Press.
Books forReference:
1. S.Krishna Swamy, Indias Mineral Resources, Oxford and I.B.H.
2. N.L.Sharma and K.S.V.Ram, An Introduction to Indias Economic Minerals
Dhanbad Pub.
3. N.V.B.S.Dutt, Geology and Mineral Resources of A.P.
Practicals - 3: Palaeontology, Indian Geology and Economic Geology
1. Drawing and description of invertebrate and plant fossils as per the list mentioned in the
theory syllabus.
2. Megascopic study, mode of occurrence, distribution in India and uses of the following
Economic Minerals.
Haematite, Magnetite, pyrite, pyrolusite, psilomelane, chalcopyrite,, malachite, azurite,
bauxite, chromite, galena, sphalerite, magnesite, gypsum, asbestos, steatite, graphite,
monazite, ilmenite, zircon, fluorite, baryte, corrundum, topaz, calcite, kaolinite, kyanite,
sillimanite, garnet, mica.
3. Study of toposheets and field work in the neighbouring areas.
Paper-4: Hydrogeology & Geoexploration
Unit-I: Introduction: Definition of hydrology and hydrogeology
Scope and application of hydrogeology.
Hydrologic Cycle: Concept of Hydrologic Cycle Precipitation, evaporation,
transpiration, runoff, infiltration, subsurface movement of water, discharge of
groundwater.
Unit-II:Groundwater: Origin, occurrence and vertical distribution of groundwater,
zones of aeration and saturation, water table, springs, recharge and discharge areas,
utilisation of groundwater.

44
Aquifers: Aquifers and types of aquifers, properties of aquifers, water bearing
properties of rocks Igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic, Retention of water in
rocks.
Unit-III: Yield of water from rocks: Specific Yield and specific retention,
Darcys law, groundwater provinces of India with special reference to Andhra
Pradesh (Godavari districts).
Unit-IV: Groundwater Investigation: Scope of investigations
Methods of groundwater exploration,
A brief account of geologic, hydrological and geo-botanical methods.
Unit-V: Geophysical Exploration: Basic principles of geophysical exploration for
groundwater and mineral exploration surface methods- more detail in electrical
resistivity investigations.
Unit-VI: Quality of Groundwater: Quality of groundwater, physical, chemical and
bacteriological characteristics of water quality. Suitability of water for drinking,
irrigation and industrial purpose.
Unit-VII: Pollution of Groundwater: Pollution in relation to water use in domestic,
industrial and agricultural sources and causes. Saline water intrusion.
Unit-VIII: Fundamentals of Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems
(GIS).
Mining impacts on the environment Health hazards Mineral Resources
depletion
Text Books:
1. C.W.Fetter, Applied Hydrogeology, C. B.S Publications
2. D.K.Todd, Ground Water Hydrology, John Wiley & Sons.
3. S.N.Davis & R.J.M.DeWiest. Hydrogeology, John Wiley & Sons
4. Mineral Exploration, Telugu Academy.
5. Environmental Geology, Telugu Academy.
6. Basudeb Bhatta, Remote Sensing and GIS 2nd Edition
7. K.S. Valdiya, Environmental Geology,
Books for Reference:
1. G.Mahajan, Evaluation and Development of Ground Water, Asish Publishing House.
2. H.M.Raghunath, Ground Water, Wiley Eastern Ltd.
3. Michael Price, Introducing Ground Water , George Allen & Unwin.
4. K.R.Karanth, Ground Water Assessment, Development and Management , Tata
McGraw Hill
5. Anil K. Jamwal, Remote Sensing and GIS
Practicals - 4: Groundwater Exploration and advanced aspects of Geology
1. Measurement of porosity and permeability of rocks.
2. Electrical resistivity methods for groundwater exploration.
3. Water analysis.
4. Estimation of conductivity and pH.
5. Field training attachment to state Groundwater Board or any other organisation
dealing with groundwater training in field methods of electrical resistivity methods.
Lab-equipment:
a. Resistivity meter.
b. Chemical Laboratory for water analysis.
c. pH meter.
d. Electrical conductivity meter.

45
HUMAN GENETICS
Paper-3: Human Population Genetics
Unit-I:
1. Measures of central tendency - mean, median and mode
2. Measures of dispersion - range, mean deviation, variance and standard deviation
3. Probability - Law of addition and Law of multiplication
Unit-II:
4. Fundamental factors of population Genetics - mating patterns, Mendelian
Population, mutation, selection, migration and genetic drift
5. Consequences of random mating - Hardy - Weinberg law, Considering 2 alleles at a
locus and multiple alleles - Gene, genotype and phenotype frequencies with
examples of Autosomal di-allelic and multiple allelic characters
Unit-III:
6. Introduction to Genetic Counselling - Scope of Genetic Counselling
7. Pedigree analysis and Identification of mode of inheritance.
8. Importance of mutation, genetic heterogeneity, pleiotropism, phenocopy, penetrance
and expressivity
Unit-IV:
9. Identification of Genetic defects
Prenatal methods- amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling, alpha fetoproteinPostnatal methods- Clinical observation, Biochemical studies, Cytogenetic studies,
Serological studies and Molecular studies.
10.The process of counselling - educating the counselee, presenting the risks and
options and guidance.
Books for Reference:
1.P.S.S.Sundara Rao and Richard.S. Prentice Hall of India An Introduction to
Biostatistics, 1996.
2. Cavalli - Sforja, r.J, and Bodmar, W.P, Genetics of Human Populations.
3. Furhman and Vogel.F, Genetic Counselling
4. Thompson and Thompson, Genetics in Medicine
5. S.Barua , Human Genetics and Anthropological perspective. Classique Books.
2002.
Practicals-3: Human Biochemical Genetics.
1. Slide test for sickle cell Haemoglobin
2. Hb typing on Paper electrophoresis.
3. BCB dye test for G6PD enzyme deficiency
4. Hb estimation by Haemoglobinometer
5. Starch - Agarose gel electrophoresis for Hb and G6PD systems
6. Single chemical screening tests and paper chromatography for screening aminoacidurias.
Books for Reference:
1. Sharma. A,Talukder,G.and Mukherjee.S.K Laboratory procedures in Human
Genetics, Vol. II : Biochemical Methodology-1976, The Nucleus. Calcutta.
2. Goswami. H.K, Practical Cytology, Applied Genetics and Biostatistics.
Paper- 4: Human Biochemical and Cytogenetics
Unit-I:
1. The concept of Genetic Polymorphism
2. Blood Groups: ABO, MN and Rh systems, ABH saliva secretion
3. Hemoglobin

46
4. Serum Proteins Haptoglobin
Unit-II:
5. Inborn errors of metabolism : Albinism, Phenylketoneuria and Alkaptonuria.
6. Pharmacogenetics:glucose-6-phosphatedehydrogenase deficiency,
Pseudocholinesterase deficiency
Unit-III:
6. General Introduction History of Human Cytogenetics.
7. Human somatic chromosomes - Nomenclature : Standardization in Human
Cytogenetics - Denver Report (1960), London Report (1953), Chicago Report
(1966), Paris Report (1971)
8. Morphological variability of Human chromosomes.
Unit-IV:
9. Heterochromatin and genetic inactivation : Lyons hypothesis
10. Chromosomal abnormalities in Man - Numerical aberrations Classical
syndromes
Down syndrome, Edward syndrome,
11. Patau syndrome, Turner syndrome, Klienfelter syndrome)
Structural aberrations- Cri-du- chat syndrome, Wolf-Hirsch horn syndrome
Books for Reference: Human Biochemical Genetics
1. Harris H, The Principels of Human Biochemical Genetics.
2. Thompson and Thompson, Genetics and Medicine.
3. Boorman, Dodd and Linnooin, Blood Group serology.
Books for Reference: Human Cytogenetics
1. Mc Kusick, V.A. Human Genetics.
2. Curt Stern, Principles of Human Genetics.
3. Hamerton. I.J.J, Human Cytogenetics. Vol.I (General Cytogenetics)
4. S. Barua, Human Genetics and Anthropological perspective s. Classique Books
2002.
5. J.J.Yunis, Human Chromosomes
Practicals-4: Human Cytogenetics.
1. Analysis of Interphase Nuclei - Buccal smear and blood smear
2. Preparation of Karyotypes of normal male and female other autosomal and sex
chromosomal abnormalities,
3. Metaphase drawing
Books for Reference:
1. Sharma.A.and Talukder G, Laboratory procedures in Human Genetics. (Vol.I)
Chromosome methodology, 1976, The Nucleus. Calcutta
2. Goswami. H.K, Practical Cytology, Applied Genetics and Biostatistics.

47
MATHEMATICS
Paper 3: Linear Algebra And Vector Calculus:
Unit-I: Part A - Linear Algebra:
1. Vector Space- Definition, subspaces, Algebra subspaces, Linear combination of
Vectors, Basis and Dimension, Linear Sum of Subspaces, Quotient spaces.
2. Linear Transformations- Definition, Range Space and Null Space, Algebra of
Linear Transformations, Linear Transformations-matrices
(Chapter-1 & 2: section 1.1 to 1.7 and 2.1 to 2.4 from the reference book)
(Two 15 marks questions and two 5 marks questions are to be set from this portion)
Unit-II
1 . Characteristic values and Characteristic Vectors- Characteristic Values and
Characteristic Vectors, Cayley- Hamilton Theorem(for matrices).
2. Inner Product spaces- Definitions and examples, Orthogonality and
Orthonormality, Gram-Schmidt Orthogonalisation.
(Chapter 3 & 4: Section 3.2 to 3.3 and 4.1 to 4.3 from the prescribed book)
(One 15 mark question and two 5 marks questions are to be set from this portion)
Unit-III: Multiple Integrals:
1. Line Integral- Definitions- plane curve, closed curve, simple curve, Jordan
curve, length of a polygon inscribed in a curve, rectifiable curve, length of a
curve, arc of a curve, functions of bounded variation, line integral- properties and
evaluation of line integrals(only problems)
2. Double Integral- Evaluation of double integrals, change of order of integration.
Surface Areas- Definition and evaluation of surface integrals.
(Chapter 5, 6 & 7: Sections 5.1 (5.1.1 to 5.1.12) & 5.2, 6.2.2 to 6.3 & 7.2.4 to
7.2.6 from the prescribed book)
(Two 5 marks questions to be set from this portion)
Unit-IV: Vector Calculus
1. Vector differentiation-Ordinary Derivatives of Vector valued functions, continuity
and Differentiation, Gradient Divergence and Curl.
2. Vector Integration Ordinary integrals of Vector Valued Functions, Greens
Theorem in a plane, Divergence Theorem of Gauss, Stokes theorem and
applications,
(Chapters 8 &9: Section 8.1 to 9.4 form the prescribed book)
(One 15 mark question and two 5 marks questions to be set from this portion)
Text Book:
1. Dr. B. Leela Lakshmi Kumari, Prof. G.Chakradhara rao, Prof.U.Ram Mohan Rao,
Prof. N.Bhaskar Reddy, Third year Mathematics Linear Algebra and Vector
Calculus, Telugu Academy, Hyd.
Books for Reference:
1. J.N.Sharma& A.R. Vasista, Linear Algebra , Krishna PrakashamMandir, Meerut
2. SanthiNarayana & P.K.Mittal, A course of Mathematical Analysis
3. Murray & R.Spiegel, Vector Analysis, Schaum series publishing company
Paper-4(a): Numerical Analysis
Unit-I: Errors in Numerical computations : Numbers and their Accuracy, Errors and their
Computation, Absolute, Relative and percentage errors, A general error formula,
Error in a series approximation.
Solution of Algebraic and Transcendental Equations: The bisection method, The
iteration method, The method of false position, Newton-Raphson method,
Generalized Newton-Raphson method, Mullers method.

48
(One 15 marks question and two 5marks questions are to be set from this portion)
Unit -II: Interpolation :Errors in polynomial interpolation, Forward differences, Backward
differences, Central Differences, Symbolic relations, Detection of errors by use of
D.Tables, Differences of a polynomial, Newtons formulae for interpolation
formulae, Gausss central difference formula, Stirlings central difference formula,
Interpolation with unevenly spaced points, Lagranges formula, Error in
Lagranges formula, Derivation of governing equations, End conditions, Divided
differences and their properties, Newtons general interpolation.
(One 15 marks question and two 5 marks questions are to be set from this portion)
Unit-III: Curve Fitting: Least-Squares curve fitting procedures, fitting a straight line,
nonlinear curve fitting, Curve fitting by a sum of exponentials
Numerical Differentiation and Numerical Integration: Numerical differentiation,
Errors in numerical differentiation, Maximum and minimum values of a tabulated
function, Numerical integration, Trapezoidal rule, Simpsons 1/3 rule, Simpsons
3/8 rule, Booles and Weddles rule.
(One 15 marks question and two 5 marks question are to be set from this portion)
Unit-IV: Linear systems of equations, Solution of linear systems Direct methods, Matrix
inversion method, Gaussian elimination method, Method of factorization, Illconditioned linear systems. Iterative methods: Jacobis method, Gauss-siedal
method.
Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations : Introduction, Solution by
Taylors Series, Picards method of successive approximations, Eulers method,
Modified Eulers method, Runge Kutta methods, Predictor Corrector methods,
Milnes method.
(One 15 marks question and two 5 marks questions are to be set from this portion)
Text Book:
1. S.S. Sastry, Scope as in Introductory Methods of Numerical Analysis, Prentice
HallIndia (4th Edition.), Chapter - 1 (1. 2, 1. 4, 1, 1.5, 1.6); Chapter - 2 (2.2 2.7);
Chapter - 3 (3.2, 3.3, 3.7.2, 3.9.1, 3.9.2, 3.10.1, 3.10.2); Chapter - 4. (4.2); Chapter.5(5.2 5.4.5); Chapter - 6 ( 6.3.2, 6.3.4, 6.3.7, 6.4); Chapter - 7 (7.2-7.5; 7.6.2).
Books for Reference:
1. G.Sankar Rao, Numerical Analysis, New Age International Publishers, New
Hyderabad.
2. H.C. Saxena, Finite Differences and Numerical Analysis, S. Chand & Company,
New Delhi
Paper 4 (b): Discrete Mathematics
Unit-I: Sets and Operations of sets, Relations and functions, Some methods of proof and
problem solving strategies, Fundamentals of logic, Logical inferences, Methods of
proof of an implication, First order logic and other methods of proof, Rules of
inference for quantified prepositions, Mathematical induction.
(One 15 marks question and two 5 marks question are to be set from this portion)
Unit-II: Recurrence Relations: Generating functions of sequences, Calculating coefficients of
generating functions; Recurrence relations; solving recurrence relations by
substitution and generating functions; the method of characteristic roots; Solutions of
in-homogenous linear recurrence relations.
(One 15 marks question and two 5 marks question are to be set from this portion)
Unit-III: Graph Theory: Basic concepts, Isomorphisms and subgraphs, Trees and their
properties, Spanning trees, Directed trees, Binary trees, Planar graphs, Eulers
formula, Multi graphs and Euler circuits, Hamiltonian graphs, Chromatic numbers.
Four color problem.

49
(One 15 marks question and two 5 marks question are to be set from this portion)
Unit-IV: Boolean Algebra: Relations, Properties of special binary relations, Equivalence
relations, Ordering relations, Lattices and enumerations, Boolean algebra, Boolean
functions, Switching mechanism, Minimization of Boolean functions.
(One 15 marks question and two 5 marks question are to be set from this portion)
Text book:
1. Joe L. Mott, Abraham Kandel, Theodore P.Baker, Scope as in Discrete
Mathematics for computer Scientists and Mathematicians, Prentice-Hall of India
(Second edition) Chapters 1, 3, 4, 5, 6.
Books for Reference:
1. Bernard Kolman, Robert C. Busby, Sharon Ross, Discrete Mathematical Structures,
Prentice- Hall of India
2. Kenneth H.Rosen, Discrete Mathematics and its Applications, Tata McGraw- Hill.

50
MICROBIOLOGY
Paper-3: Immunology And Medical Microbiology
Unit-I: History of Immunology and Immune System
Chapter-1: Development of immunology. Types of immunity innate and
acquired; active and passive; humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Primary and
secondary organs of immune system thymus, bursa fabricus, bone marrow,
spleen and lymph nodes.
Chapter-2: Cells of immune system- Identiification and function of B and T
lymphocytes, null cells, monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, basophils and
eosinophils, Dendritic cells.
Unit-II:Basics of Immunology
Chapter-1: Antigens types, chemical nature, antigenic determinants, haptens.
Factors affecting antigenicity. Antibodies basic structure, types, properties and
functions of immunoglobulins.
Chapter-2:Types of antigen-antibody reactions agglutination, blood groups,
precipitation, neutralization, complement fixation. Labeled antibody based
techniques ELISA, RIA and Immunofluroscence. Monoclonal antibodies
production and applications. Hypersensitivity Types I,II,III,IV. AutoimmUnity
and its significance.
Unit-III: Clinical Microbiology
Chapter-1: Normal flora of human body. Definition of infection, non-specific
defense mechanisms, mechanical barriers, antagonism of indigenous flora. Antibacterial substances lysozyme, complement, properdin, antiviral substances,
phagocytosis.
Chapter-2: General principles of diagnostic microbiology- Collection, transport
and processing of clinical samples. General methods of laboratory diagnosis
cultural, biochemical , serological and molecular methods. Tests for antimicrobial
susceptibility. Antiviral agents interferon and base analogues.

Unit-IV: Microorganisms and Diseases


Chapter-1: Elements of chemotherapy therapeutic drugs. Drug resistance.
Mode of action of penicillin and sulpha drugs, and their clinical use. Vaccines
Conventional, and Recombinant.
Chapter-2:General account of the following diseases causal organisms,
pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention and control of:
Air-borne diseases
- Tuberculosis, Influenza
Food and water-borne diseases - Cholera, Typhoid, Hepatitis- A Poliomyelitis,
Amoebiasis
Insect-borne diseases
- Malaria, Filariasis, Dengue fever
Contact diseases
- Syphilis, Gonorrhoea
Zoonotic diseases
- Rabies, Anthrax
Blood-borne diseases
- Serum hepatitis, AIDS
General account of Hospital Acquired Infections -nosocomial infections.
Bio hazardous Wastes.
Books for Reference:
1. Tizard, I.R., Immunology: An Introduction, WB Saunders, Philadelphia, USA, 1995.
2. Riott, I.M., Essentials of Immunology, ELBS and Black Well Scientific Publishers,
England, 1998.
3. Goldsby, Kindt, T.J. and Osborne, B.A., Kuby Immunology, 6th Edition,
W.H.Freeman and Company, New York, 2004.

51
4.

Chakraborty, B., A Text Book of Microbiology, New Central Book Agency (P)
Ltd, Calcutta, India, 1998.
5. Ananthanarayana, R. and Panicker, C.K.S., Text Book of Microbiology, 6th
Edition, Oriental Longman Publications, USA, 2000.
6. Singh, R.P., Immunology and Medical Microbiology, Kalyani Publishers, New
Delhi, 2007.
Practicals 3: Immunology And Medical Microbiology
1. Total Count R.B.C.
2. Total Count W.B.C.,
3. Estimation of blood haemoglobin.
4. Determination of blood groups and Rh typing.
5. Antigen-antibody interactions in Widal test,
6. Antigen-antibody interactions in VDRL test,
7. Precipitation Ouchterlony double diffusion test.
8. Antibiotic sensitivity testing disc diffusion method.
9. Normal Flora of Human Body-Mouth and skin.
10. Staining of mycobacteria (stained/permanent slides).
11. Isolation and identification of medically important bacteria (E. coli /, Klebsiella,)
by cultural, microscopic and biochemical tests.
12. Isolation and identification of medically important bacteria (Staphylococcus and
Streptococcus) by cultural, microscopic and biochemical tests
13. Parasites Malarial parasite, Entamoeba (study of permanent slides).
14. Tests for disinfectant (Phenol coefficient).
Books for Reference:
1. Talwar, G.P. and Gupta, S.K., A Hand Book of Practical and Clinical
Immunology, CBS Publications, New Delhi, 1992.
2. Baren, E.J., Bailey and Scotts Diagnostic Microbiology, 9th Edition, Mosby
Publishers, 1994.
3. Dubey, R.C. and Maheswari, D.K., Practical Microbiology, S. Chand & Co.,
New Delhi, 2002.
4. Dey, N.C.,Dey, T.K., Dey, M. and Sinha, D., Practical Microbiology,
Protozoology, and Parasitology, New Central Book Agency (P) Ltd. Calcutta,
1998.
5. Mukherjee, K.L., Medical Laboratory Technology. Vol II. Tata Mc GrawHill
Publishing Co. Ltd., New Delhi, 1996.
Paper-4: Applied Microbiology
Unit-I: Agricultural Microbiology
Chapter-1: Physical and chemical characteristics of soil. Rhizosphere and
phyllosphere. Plant growth-promoting microorganisms -mycorrhizae, rhizobia,
Azospirillum, Azotobacter, cyanobacteria, Frankia and phosphate-solubilizing
microorganisms. Outlines of biological nitrogen fixation (symbiotic, nonsymbiotic). Biofertilizers production & application.
Chapter-2: Symptoms of plant diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, and viruses.
Plant diseases caused by fungi (groundnut rust), bacteria (angular leaf spot of
cotton) and viruses (tomato leaf curl). Principles of plant disease control.
Biological control of plant diseases. Biopesticides Bacillus thuringiensis,
Nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV), Trichoderma.
Unit-II: Environmental Microbiology
Chapter-1: Microorganisms of environment (soil, water and air).
Role of microorganisms in nutrient cycling (carbon, nitrogen, sulphur).

52
Microbial interactions mutualism, commensalism, antagonism, competition,
parasitism, predation.
Chapter-2: Sanitation of potable water. E. coli and Streptococcus faecalis as
indicators of water pollution.
Sewage treatment (primary, secondary and tertiary).
Outlines of biodegradation of environmental pollutants pesticides. Solid waste
disposal sanitary land fills, composting. Microbiology of air and air sampling
methods.
Unit-III: Food Microbiology
Chapter-1: Microorganisms of food spoilage and their sources. Spoilage of
different food materials - fruits, vegetables, meat, fish. Canned foods. Food
intoxication (botulism and staph poisioning), food-borne diseases (salmonellosis
and shigellosis) and their detection. General account of food preservation.
Chapter-2: Microbiological production of fermented foods bread, heese,
yogurt.Biochemical activities of microbes in milk. Microorganisms as food
SCP, Mushrooms (white button and paddy straw) Concept of probiotics.
Unit-IV: Industrial Microbiology
Chapter-1: Microorganisms of industrial importance yeasts, moulds, bacteria,
actinomycetes.Screening and isolation of industrially-important microorganisms.
Outlines of strain improvement. Types of fermentation aerobic, anaerobic,
batch, continuous, submerged, surface, solid state.
Chapter-2: Design of a stirred tank reactor fermentor. Fermentation media.
Industrial Production of Alcohols (Ethyl Alcohol), Beverages (Beer), Enzymes
(Amylases), Antibiotics (Penicillin), Amino Acids (Glutamic Acid), Organic
Acids (Citric Acid), Vitamins (B12), Biofuels (Biogas - Methane)
Books for Reference:
1. Doyle, M.P., Beuchat, L.R. and Montville, T.J., Food Microbiology: Fundamentals
and Frontiers, ASM Press, Washington D.C., USA, 1997.
2. Frazier, W.C. and Westhoff, D.C., Food Microbiology, Mc Graw-Hill, New York,
1988.
3. Banwart, G.J., Basic Food Microbiology, CBS Publishers and Distributors, New
Delhi, 1987.
4. Patel, A.H., Industrial Microbiology, Mac Milan India Ltd., Hyderabad, 1984.
5. Cassida, L.E., Industrial Microbilogy, Wiley Eastern Ltd. & New Age
International Ltd., New Delhi, 1968.
6. Reed, G. (Ed.), Prescott & Dunns Industrial Microbiology, 4th Edition, CBS
Publishers & Distributors, New Delhi, 1987.
7. Singh, R.P., Applied Microbiology, Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi, 2007.
Practicals - 4: Applied Microbiology
1. Isolation and enumeration of major groups of microorganisms from rhizosphere
and nonrhizosphere.
2. Isolation and enumeration of major groups of microorganisms from
Phyllosphere.
3. Study of root nodules and isolation of Rhizobium from legume root nodules.
4. Isolation of Azospirillum / Azotobacter.
5. Staining and observation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi.
6. Observation of plant diseases of local importance Rusts, smuts, powdery
mildews, tikka disease of groundnut, citrus canker, bhendi yellow vein mosaic,
tomato leaf curl, little leaf of brinjal.

53
7. Isolation of antagonistic microorganisms by crowded plate technique.
8. Isolation of microorganisms of air by Petri plate exposure method.
9. Determination of biological oxygen demand (BOD) of polluted water.
10. Microbial testing of water by coliform test (multiple tube fermentation method).
11. Determination of microbiological quality of milk MBRT.
12. Observation of different spoiled foods.
13. Isolation of fungi and bacteria from spoiled fruits and vegetables.
14. Isolation of amylase-producing organisms.
Books for Reference:
1. Gopal Reddy, M., Reddy, M.N., Saigopal, DVR and Mallaiah, K.V., Laboratory
Experiments in Microbiology, 2nd edition. Himalaya Publishing House, Mumbai,
2007.
2. Reddy, S.M. and Reddy, S.R., Microbiology Practical Manual, 3rd Edition, Sri
Padmavathi Publications, Hyderabad, 1998.
3. Aneja, K.R., Experiments in Microbiology, Plant pathology, Tissue culture and
Mushroom Production Technology, 3rd Edition, New Age International (P) Ltd.,
New Delhi, 2001.
4. Dubey, R.C. and Maheswari, D.K., Practical Microbiology, S. Chand & Co., New
Delhi, 2002.
5. Kannan, N., Hand Book of Laboratory Culture Medias, Reagents, Stains and Buffers.
Panima Publishing Co., New Delhi, 2003.

54
PHYSICS
Paper-3: Electricity, Magnetism and Electronics
Unit-I: Electrostatics:
Gauss law and its applications-Uniformly charged sphere, charged cylindrical
conductor. Deduction of Coulmbs law from Gauss law. Electric potential Potential
due to a charged spherical conductor, Electric field strength from the electric dipole.
Lightening conductor
Unit-II: Dielectrics and Capacitance:
An atomic view of dielectrics, potential energy of a dipole in an electric field.
Polarization and charge density, Gausss law for dielectric medium Relation between
D,E and P - Dielectric constant, susceptibility and relation between them. Boundary
conditions at the dielectric surface.
Capacitance of concentric spheres and cylindrical condenser, capacitance of parallel
plate condenser with and without dielectric. Electric energy stored in a charged
condenser force between plates of condenser, construction and working of attracted
disc electrometer, Measurement of potential difference.
Unit-III: Magnetostatics, Moving charge in electric and magnetic field:
Magnetic induction (B), Intensity of Magnetization(I) and field (H) permeability
and susceptibility Hysteresis loop. Soft and hard magnetic materials.
Hall effect, cyclotron, synchrocyclotron force on a current carrying conductor placed
in a magnetic field, force and torque on a current loop, Biot Savarts law and
calculation of B due to long straight wire, a circular current loop and solenoid.
Unit-IV: Electromagnetic induction:
Faradays law Lenzs law expression for induced emf time varying magnetic
fields Betatron Ballistic galvanometer theory damping correction self and
mutual inductance, coefficient of coupling, calculation of self inductance of a long
solenoid energy stored in magnetic field transformer Construction, working,
energy losses and efficiency.
Unit-V: Varying and alternating currents:
Growth and decay of currents in LR, CR and LCR circuits Critical damping.
Alternating current relation between current and voltage in pure R,C and L-vector
diagrams Power in ac circuits - LCR series and parallel resonant circuit Q-factor.
Unit-VI: Maxwells equations and electromagnetic waves:
A review of basic laws of electricity and magnetism displacement current
Maxwells equations in differential form Maxwells wave equation, plane
electromagnetic waves Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves, Poynting
theorem, production of electromagnetic waves (Hertz experiment)
Unit-VII: Basic Electronics:
P-N junction diode, Zener diode characteristics and its application as voltage
regulator. Half wave and full wave rectifiers,efficiency, ripple factor (quantitative)
p n p and n p n transistors, CB,CE and CC configurations transistor hybrid
parameters. Transistor as an amplifier.
Unit-VIII: Digital Principles:
Binary number system, converting Binary to Decimal and vice versa. Binary addition
and subtraction (1s and 2s complement methods). Hexadecimal number system.
Conversion from Binary to Hexadecimal vice versa and Decimal to Hexadecimal
vice versa.
Logic gates: OR,AND,NOT gates, truth tables, realization of these gates using
discrete components. NAND, NOR as universal gates, Exclusive OR gate,

55
De Morgans Laws statement and proof, Half and Full adders.
Note: Problems should be solved from every chapter.
Textbooks:
1. R. Murugeshan and Kiruthiga Siva Prasath , Modern Physics (for semi conductor &
Digital Principles) S. Chand & Co.
2. Halliday/Resnick/Walker , Fundamentals of Physics, Wiley India Edition 2007.
3. Edward M Purcell , Berkeley Physics Course Vol. II , Electricity and Magnetism
The McGraw-Hill Companies.
4. D.N. Vasudeva , Electricity and Magnetism , S. Chand & Co.
5. Brijlal and Subramanyam , Electricity and Magnetism, Ratan Prakashan Mandir.
6. A.P. Malvino and D.P. Leach, Digital Principles and Applications, McGraw Hill
Education.
Books for Reference:
1. D.C. Tayal , Electricity and Electronics , Himalaya Publishing House.
2. C.J.Smith, Electricity and Magnetism, Edward Arnold Ltd.
3. K K Tewari, Electricity, Magnetism with Electronics , S..Chand & Co.
4. Telugu Akademy , Third year Physics
5. V.K. Mehta, Principles of Electronics, S. Chand & Co
Practicals - 3: Electricity, Magnetism and Electronics
1. Carey Fosters Bridge comparison of resistances.
2. Internal resistance of a cell by potentiometer.
3. Figure of merit of a moving coil galvanometer.
4. Voltage sensitivity of a moving coil galvanometer.
5. RC circuit (Frequency response)
6. LR circuit (Frequency response)
7. LCR circuit series/parallel resonance, Q-factor
8. Power factor of an A.C. circuit
9. Determination of ac-frequency-sonometer.
10. Design and construction of multimeter.
11. Construction of a model D.C. power supply.
12. Characteristics of a Junction diode
13. Characteristics of Transistor
14. Characteristics of Zener diode
15. Verification of Kirchoffs laws.
* One has to complete a minimum of 10 experiments

56

Paper 4: Modern Physics


Unit-I: Atomic Spectra:
Introduction Drawbacks of Bohrs atomic model - Sommerfelds elliptical orbits
relativistic correction (no derivation). Vector atom model and quantum numbers
associated with it. Stern & Gerlach experiment. L-S and j-j coupling schemes.
Spectral terms, selection rules, intensity rules. Zeeman Effect, Paschen-Back Effect
and Stark Effect (basic idea).
Unit-II: Molecular Spectroscopy:
Types of molecular spectra, pure rotational energies and spectrum of diatomic
molecule, determination of internuclear distance. Vibrational energies and spectrum
of diatomic molecule. Raman effect, Classical theory of Raman effect. Properties of
Raman effect. Experimental arrangement for Raman effect and its applications.
Unit-III: Quantum Mechanics:
Comptons effect (quantitative) experimental verification.
Matter Waves: de Broglies hypothesis wavelength of matter waves, properties of
matter waves. Phase and group velocities. Davisson and Germer experiment.
Double slit experiment. Standing de Brogile waves of electron in Bohr orbits.
Uncertainty Principle: Heisenbergs uncertainty principle for position and momentum
(x and px), Energy and time (E and t). Gamma ray microscope. Position of electron
in a Bohr orbit. Complementary principle of Bohr.
Unit-IV: Schrodinger Wave Equation:
Schrodinger time independent and time dependent wave equations. Wave function
properties Significance. Basic postulates of quantum mechanics. Operators, eigen
functions and eigen values, expectation values. Application of Schrodinger wave
equation to particle in one dimensional box.
Unit-V: Nuclear Physics:
Nuclear Structure: Basic properties of nucleus size, charge, mass, spin, magnetic
dipole moment and electric quadrupole moment. Binding energy of nucleus, deuteron
binding energy, nuclear forces. Nuclear models Liquid drop model, shell model.
Alpha and Beta Decays: Range of alpha particles, Geiger Nuttal law. Gammows
theory of alpha decay. Geiger Nuttal law from Gammows theory. Beta spectrum
neutrino hypothesis,
Unit-VI: Nuclear Reactions:
Types of nuclear reactions, channels, Compound nucleus, direct reactions (concepts).
Nuclear Detectors GM counter, proportional counter, scintillation counter, Wilson
cloud chamber and solid state detector
Unit-VII: Solid State Physics:
Crystal Structure: Crystalline nature of matter. Cystal lattice, Unit Cell, Elements of
symmetry. Crystal systems, Bravais lattices. Miller indices. Simple crystal
structures (NaCl and diamond)
Lattice energy of ionic crystals determination of Medelung constant for NaCl
crystal. Born Haber cycle.
X-ray Diffraction: Diffraction of X rays by crystals, Braggs law, Experimental
techniques - Laues method and powder method.
Unit-VIII: Nanomaterials:
Introduction, nanoparticles, metal nanoclusters, carbon nanotubes, quantum
nanostructures nanodot, nanowire and quantum well. Applications of Nano
Particles.

57
Magnetism: Langevins theory of paramagnetism. Weiss theory of ferromagnetism
Concepts of magnetic domains.
Superconductivity: Basic experimental facts zero resistance, effect of magnetic
field, Meissner effect. Type I and Type II superconductors.
Elements of BCS theory-Cooper pairs. Applications.
High temperature
superconductors (general information)
Note: Problems should be solved from every chapter.
Text Books:
1. G. Aruldhas & P. Rajagopal , Modern Physics, Eastern Economy Edition.
2. Arthur Beiser, Concepts of Modern Physics. Tata McGraw-Hill Edition.
3. R. Murugeshan and Kiruthiga Siva Prasath, Modern Physics, S. Chand &
Co.
4. D.C. Tayal , Nuclear Physics, Himalaya Publishing House.
5. G. Aruldhas, Molecular Structure and Spectroscopy, Prentice Hall of
India, New Delhi.
6. Gurdeep R Chatwal and Shyam Anand, Spectroscopy Atomic and Molecular,
Himalaya Publishing House.
7. Telugu Academy , Third Year Physics
8. J.P. Srivastava.(for chapter on nanomaterials) Elements of Solid State Physics ,
Prentice-hall of India Pvt. Ltd.
Books for Reference:
1. Young & Freedman , A. Lewis Ford, University Physics with Modern Physics,
Low Price Edition (Eleventh Edition).
2. Eyvind H. Wichman, Quantum Physics, Volume.4. The McGraw-Hill
Companies.
3. Mahesh C. Jani, Quantum Mechanics, Eastern Economy Edition.
4. Irving Kaplan , Nuclear Physics, Narosa Publishing House.
5. Charles Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics, John Wiley and Sons.
6. A.J. Dekker., Solid State Physics , Mac Millan India.
Practicals - 4: Modern Physics
1. e/m of an electron by Thomson method.
2. Energy gap of semiconductor using a junction diode
3. Temperature characteristics of thermistor
4. R.C. coupled amplifier
5. Verification of Logic gates AND, OR NOT, X-OR gates
6. Realization of basic logic gates by NAND and NOR gates.
7. Verification of De Morgans theorems
8. Construction and verification of truth tables for half and full adders.
9. Phase shift Oscillator
10. Hysteresis curve of transformer core
11. Determination of Plancks constant (photocell)
12. Study of spectra of hydrogen spectrum (Rydberg constant)
13. Study of absorption of and rays.
14. Hall-probe method for measurement of magnetic field.
15. Absorption spectrum of iodine vapour.
Study of alkaline earth spectra using a concave grating
* One has to complete a minimum of 10 experiments

58
Practical Examination Scheme of Valuation and other guidelines.
Max: Marks: 50 (I.For Record 10: II.For Practical Exam: 40)
Record valuation is to be divided into two parts.i). For recording experiments (4 marks) ii).
For quality of record ( 6 marks)
I. For Record
i) For recording experiments
Based on the No. of experiments recorded, award of marks is as per the following table.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------No. of expts.
Marks to be awarded (max.4 marks)
(minimum of 10 experiments)
For 10 and above experiments
4
For 8/9 experiments
3
For 6/7 experiments
2
For below 6 experiments
0
ii) By considering procedure adopted, sketch of apparatus, correctness of observations and
result, quality of graphs drawn and neatness of the record etc, 6 marks are to be awarded
accordingly.
II. For practical examination 40 marks:
Circuit diagram and formula with explanation of symbols used
- 5 marks
Circuit connections / arrangement of apparatus
- 5 marks
Tabular form and procedure adopted
- 5 marks
Observations
- 10 marks
Calculations and graphs
- 6 marks
Result and Units
- 4 marks
Viva voce
- 5 marks
----------Total marks
40 marks
--------

One or two questions are to be assigned to each candidate taking the duration of practical
exam into consideration.,
Four or five question are to be arranged for each batch basing on available number of sets
of equipment.
All the 10 experiments are to be covered at any centre for any class.
Non-programmable calculations are allowed for calculation work.
Viva-Voice is to be conducted for every candidate pertaining to the question allotted.
Examiner is entitled to reject any number of recorded practicals under valued reasons.
Penalty for change of experiment in practical examinations.

i) In case of not recorded one


ii) In case of recorded one

- No Penalty
- 1/3 marks of candidates score
Out of 40 marks are to deducted.

59
STATISTICS
Paper - 3: Applied Statistics
Unit I : Design of Sample Surveys: Concepts of population, sample, sampling unit,
parameter, statistic, sampling errors, sampling distribution, sample unit, sample frame
and standard error. Principal steps in sample surveys - need for sampling, census
versus sample surveys, Principles of sampling survey, sampling and non- sampling
errors, advantages and limitations of sampling.
Types of sampling: Subjective, probability and mixed sampling methods. Estimates
of population mean, total, and proportion, their variances and the estimates of
variances in the following methods.
(i) SRSWR and SRSWOR .
(ii) Stratified Random Sampling with proportional and optimum allocation.
Comparison of relative efficiencies. Advantages and disadvantages of above methods
of sampling.
(One 15 mark question and two 5 marks questions are to be set from this Unit)
UnitII: Analysis of Variance and Design of Experiments : Concept of Gauss-Markoff linear
model, Cochrans theorem, concept of fixed effect model and random effect model.
ANOVA one-way, two-way classifications with one observation per cell.
Expectation of various sums of squares, Mathematical analysis, importance and
applications of design of experiments. Principles of experimentation, Analysis of
Completely randomized Design (C.R.D), Randomized Block Design (R.B.D) and
Latin Square Design (L.S.D, Comparison of the efficiencies of above designs.
(One 15 mark question and two 5 marks questions are to be set from this Unit)
UnitIII: Time series: Time series and its components with illustrations, additive,
multiplicative and mixed models. Determination of trend by Semi average method,
least squares, moving average methods. Growth curves and their fitting- Modified
exponential, Gompertz and Logistic curves. Determination of seasonal indices by
Simple average method, Ratio to moving average, ratio to trend and link relative
methods.
Index Numbers: Concept, construction, uses and limitations of simple and weighted
index numbers. Problems involved in the construction of index numbers. Laspeyers,
Paasches and Fishers index numbers, criterion of a good index numbers. Fishers
index as ideal index number. Fixed and chain base index numbers. Cost of living
index numbers and wholesale price index numbers. Base shifting, splicing and
deflation of index numbers.
(One 15 mark question and two 5 marks questions are to be set from this Unit)
Unit IV: Vital statistics: Introduction, definition and uses of vital statistics. Sources of vital
statistics, registration method and census method. Rates and ratios, Crude death rates,
age specific death rate, standardized death rates, crude birth rate, age specific fertility
rate, general fertility rate, total fertility rate. Measurement of population growth,
crude rate of natural increase - Pearls vital index. Gross reproductive rate sand Net
reproductive rate, Life tables, construction and uses of life tables and abridged life
tables.
Demand Analysis: Introduction. Demand and supply, price elastics of demand and
supply. Methods of determining demand and supply curves, Leontiefs , Pigouss
methods of determining demand curve from time series data. Pareto law of income
distribution curves of concentration.
Official Statistics: Functions and organization of CSO and NSSO. National Income
and its computation, utility and difficulties in estimation of national income.

60
(One 15 mark question and two 5 marks questions are to be set from this Unit)
Text Book:
1. Dr. D. Giri, Dr. K. Srinivasa Rao, Dr. A. Anad, Dr. V. Papayya Sastry, Statistics
Applied Statistics. Paper III, Academy.
Books for Reference:
1. V.K.Kapoor and S.C.Gupta : Fundamentals of Applied Statistics. Sultan Chand
2. Parimal Mukhopadhyay : Applied Statistics . New Central Book agency.
3. Daroga Singh and Chowdhary: Theory and Analysis of Sample survey designs. Wiley
Eastern.
4. Pratirupa Sidhanthamulu Telugu Academy.
5. Gerald Keller; Applied Statistics with Microsoft excel. Duxbury. Thomson Learning.
Practicals 3 : Applied Statistics
Sampling Technique:
Estimation of population mean, population total and variance of these estimates by
1. Simple random sampling with and without replacement. Comparison between
SRSWR and SRSWOR.
2. Stratified random sampling with proportional and optimum allocations. Comparison
between proportional and optimum allocations with SRSWOR.
Design of Experiments:
3. ANOVA for one way and two way classification with equal number of
observations
4. ANOVA for one way and two - way classification with equal number of observations
using MS Excel or using Statdisk
5. Analysis of CRD and RBD.
6. Analysis of CRD and RBD using MS Excel or Statdisk.
7. Analysis of LSD.
8. Analysis of LSD using MS Excel or Statdisk.
9. Comparison of relative efficiency of CRD with RBD and comparison of relative
efficiencies of LSD with RBD and CRD.
Time Series Analysis:
10. Measurement of trend by methods of Least squares and moving averages
12. Measurement of trend by method s of Least squares and moving averages using MS
Excel or using Statdisk.
13. Determination of seasonal indices by methods of Ratio to moving averages, Ratio to
trend and Link relatives.
14. Determination of seasonal indices by methods of Ratio to moving averages, Ratio to
trend and Link relatives using MS Excel or Statdisk.
Index Numbers:
15. Computation of all weighted index numbers.
16. Construction of cost of living index number and wholesale index number.
17. Computation of all weighted indices and cost of living index number using MS
Excel or using Statdisk.
Vital Statistics:
18. Computation of various Mortality rates, Fertility rates and Reproduction rates.
19. Construction of Life Tables and Abridged life tables.
20. Construction of various rates, life tables and abridged life tables using MS
Excel or using Statdisk.
Note: 1. Training shall be on establishing formulae in Excel cells and deriving the results. The
excel output shall be exported to MSWord for writing inferences.
2. The Statdisk related experiments output hardcopy shall be attached to the

61
record.
3. The practical problems must be related to real life situations.
Paper-4(a): Operations Research
Unit-I: Statistical Process Control: Importance of SQC in industry. Process and Product
control, Shewart control charts. Construction of control charts for variables (mean,
range and standard deviation) and attributes (p, np and c - charts with fixed and
varying sample sizes). Interpretation of control charts.
Acceptance sampling plans: Producers risk and consumers risk. Concept of AQL and
LTPD. Single and Double sampling plans for attributes and derivation of their OC
and ASN functions. Design of single and double sampling plans for attributes using
Binomial.
(One 15 mark question and two 5 marks questions are to be set from this Unit)
Unit-II: Reliability: Introduction. Hazard function, Exponential distribution as life model, its
memory- less property. Reliability function and its estimation. System reliability series, parallel and k out of N systems and their reliabilities.
Linear Programming: Meaning and scope of OR, applications of OR, Convex sets and
their properties. Definition of general form of LPP. Formulation of LPP, Fundamental
theorem of LPP. Solution of LPP by graphical method.
(One 15 mark question and two 5 marks questions are to be set from this Unit)
Unit-III: Linear Programming: slack and surplus variable, simplex algorithm. Concept of
artificial variables. Big M/Penalty method and two-phase simplex methods.
Concept of degeneracy and resolving it, Concept of duality, duality as LPP. Dual and
Primal relationship. Fundamental theorem of duality.
(One 15 mark question and two 5 marks questions are to be set from this Unit)
Unit-IV: Transportation: Definition of transportation problem, TPP as a special case of LPP,
Initial basic feasible solutions by North-West and Matrix minimum methods and
VAM. Optimal solution through MODI method. Balanced and unbalanced
transportation problems. Degeneracy in TP and resolving it.
Assignment: Formulation and description of Assignment problem and its variations.
Assignment problem as special case of TP and LPP. Unbalanced assignment
problem. Optimal solution using Hungarian method.
(One 15 mark question and two 5 marks questions are to be set from this Unit)
Text Book:
1. Dr. T.C. Ravi Chandra Kumar, Dr. R.V.S. Prasad, Dr. D. Giri, Dr. G.S. Devasena,
Statistics - Quality, Reliability and Operations Research, Paper IV. Academy.
Books for Reference:
1. Kanti Swaroop,P.K.Gupta and ManMohan, Operations Research. Sultan Chand.
2. D.C.Montgomary, Introduction to Statistical Quality Control. Wiley.
3. V.K.Kapoor and S.C.Gupta L Fundamentals of Applied Statistics, Sultan Chand.
4. S.K.Sinha, Reliability and life testing. Wiley Eastern.
5. Parikriya Parishodhana - Telugu Academy.
Practicals - 4(a): Operations Research
Statistical Quality Control:
1. Construction of mean, range and standard deviation charts.
2. Construction of mean, range and standard deviation charts using Excel or using
Statdisk.
3. Construction of p, np and c- charts with fixed and varying sample sizes.
4. Construction of p, np and c- charts with fixed and varying sample sizes using MS
Excel or using Statdisk.

62
5. Designing of Single sampling plan and Double sampling plan for attributes and
construction of their OC and ASN curves
6. Designing of Single sampling plan and Double sampling plan for attributes and
construction of their OC and ASN curves using MS Excel or Statdisk.
Reliability:
7. Computation of reliability for series, parallel and k out of n systems.
8. Computation of reliability for series, parallel and k out of n systems using MS Excel.
Operations Research:
9. Formulation and graphical solutions of LPP (using different inequality type
constraints)
10. Solution of LPP by simplex method.
11. Solution of LPP by simplex method using TORA.
12. Solution of an LPP using Big-M and two phase simplex methods.
13. Solution of an LPP using Big-M method and two phase simplex method using
TORA.
14. Solution of an LPP using principal of duality method.
15. Solution of an LPP using principal of duality method using TORA.
16. Formulation and solution of transportation problem using North-West corner rule,
Matrix minimum method and VAM and to test their optimality.
17. Formulation and solution of transportation problem using North-West corner rule,
Matrix minimum methods and VAM and to test their optimality using TORA
18. Optimum solution to balanced transportation problems by MODI method (both
maximization and minimization cases).
19. Formulation and solution of balanced Assignment problem using Hungarian method
(both maximization and minimization cases),
20. Formulation and solution of balanced Assignment problem using Hungarian method
(both maximization and minimization cases) using TORA
Note: 1. Training shall be on establishing formulae in Excel cells and deriving the results. The
excel output shall be exported to MSWord for writing inferences.
2. The TORA software related experiments output hardcopy shall be attached to
the record.
3. The practical problems must be related to real life situations.
Paper-4(b) Sampling and Experimental Designs
Unit I: Review of Completely randomized Design (C.R.D), Randomized Block Design
(R.B.D) and Latin Square Design (L.S.D).
Missing plot technique: Analysis of Randomized Block Design (R.B.D) with one and
two missing observations and Latin Square Design (L.S.D) with one missing
observation.
Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA): Analysis of covariance for a one-way
classification with one concomitant variable in C.R.D. Layout and for two-way
classification with one concomitant variable in R.B.D.
(One 15 mark question and two 5 marks questions are to be set from this Unit)
Unit II: Factorial Design: Estimation of main effects, interactions and analysis of 22, 23 and
32 factorial experiments.
Orthogonality of a design and confounding: complete confounding in a 23
experiment, partial confounding in a 23 experiment.
(One 15 mark question and one 5 marks questions are to be set from this Unit)
Unit III: Sampling: Principal steps in sample surveys - need for sampling, census versus
sample surveys, Principles of sampling survey, sampling and non- sampling errors,
sources and treatment of non-sampling errors, advantages and limitations of sampling.

63
Concept of Random numbers, different sets of random numbers, construction and
their advantages. Procedures of draw the random samples from Binomial, Poisson and
Normal populations.
Systematic Sampling: Estimation of population mean and its variance, Systematic
sampling Vs Stratified Random sampling, populations with linear trend, circular
systematic sampling, advantages and disadvantages of systematic sampling.
(One 15 mark question and three 5 marks questions are to be set from this Unit)
Unit IV: Cluster Sampling: Cluster sampling with cluster of equal and unequal sizes.
Estimation of population mean and its variance, efficiency of cluster sampling,
determination of optimum sample and cluster sizes for a given cost.
Ratio Method of estimation: Concept, bias and mean square error, estimation of
variance, ratio estimators in Simple Random Sampling their bias and variance.
(One 15 mark question and two 5 marks questions are to be set from this Unit)
Books for Reference:
1. S.C. Gupta and V.K.Kapoor, Fundamentals of Applied Statistics, Sultan Chand and
sons.
2. Das, M.N. and N.C. Giri, Design and Analysis of Experiments, 2nd edition, New Age
International (P) Limited Publishers, 1986.
3. Montogomery, D.C: Design of Analysis of Experiments, John Wiley.
4. Murthy, M.N., Sampling theory and methods, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delthi, 1967.
5. Des Raj, Sampling Theory, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delthi, 1976.
Practicals-4(b): Sampling and Experimental Designs
1. Analysis of CRD and RBD with missing observation.
2. Analysis of CRD and RBD with missing observation using MS Excel or using
Statdisk.
3. Analysis of LSD with missing observation.
4. Analysis of LSD with missing observation using MS Excel.
5. Analysis of covariance for a one-way classification with one concomitant variable in
C.R.D.
6. Analysis of covariance for a one-way classification with one concomitant variable in
R.B.D.
7. Analysis of 22 Factorial Experiment.
8. Analysis of 22 Factorial Experiment using MS Excel.
9. Analysis of 23 Factorial Experiment.
10. Analysis of 23 Factorial Experiment using MS Excel.
11. 32 Factorial design - Complete Confounding.
12. 32 Factorial design Partial Confounding.
13. Estimation of population mean, population total and variance of these estimates by
Systematic sampling with N = nk.
14. Cluster sampling estimation of variance.
15. Cluster sampling estimation of variance using MS Excel.
16. Ratio method of Estimation in simple random sampling.
17. Ratio method of Estimation in simple random sampling using MS Excel.
Note: 1. Training shall be on establishing formulae in Excel cells and deriving the results. The
excel output shall be exported to MSWord for writing inferences.
2. The Statdisk related experiments output hardcopy shall be attached to the
record.
3. The practical problems must be related to real life situations.

64
Paper-4(c): Bio-Statistics
Unit-I: Bioassay: The purpose and structure of biological assay. Types of biological
assays, Direct assays, Ratio estimates, asymptotic distributions: Fellers theorem.
Regression approach to estimating dose-response, relationships, Logit and Probit
approaches when dose-response curve for standard preparation is unknown,
quantal responses, methods of estimation of parameters, estimation of extreme
quantiles, dose allocation schemes, polychotomous quantal response, estimation
of points on the quantal response function.
Unit-II: Statistical Genetics: Basic terminology of genetics. Frequencies of genes and
genotypes, Mendals law, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Mating Frequencies,
estimation of allele frequency (dominant /co dominant cases). Multiple alleles.
Approach to equilibrium for X-linked gene, natural selection, mutation, genetic
drift, equilibrium when both natural selection and mutation are operative.
Unit-III: Survival Analysis: Survival functions and hazard rates. Types of censoring
and likelihood in these cases. Life distributions- Exponential, Gamma, Weibull,
Lognormal, Pareto. Linear failure rate. Point estimation, confidence intervals,
scores, likelihood ratio, MLE, tests for these distributions. Life tables, failure
rates, mean residual life and their elementary properties, Ageing classes and their
properties, Bathtub failure rate. Estimation of survival function. Acturial
estimator, Kaplan-Meier estimator, estimation under the assumption of
IFR/DFR. Tests of exponentially against nonparametric classes, total time on
test.
Unit-IV: Quantitative Epidemiology: Introduction to modern epidemiology, principles of
epidemiological investigation, serveillance and disease monitoring in populations.
Epidemiologic measures: Organizing and presenting epidemiologic data, measures of
disease frequency, measures of effect and association, causation and casual inference.
Design and analysis of epidemiologic studies. Types of studies, case-control studies,
cohort studies, cross over design, regression models for the estimation of relative risk.
Meta analysis, quantitative methods in screening.
Books for Reference:
1. D.J.Finney, Statistical methods in Biological Assay. Charles Griffin,1970.
2. Z.Govindarajulu, Statistical Techniques in Bioassay, Karger Publishers/Panther
Publishers, 2000.
3. C.C.Li, First course in population genetics, Boxwood press, California, 1976.
4. Falcon and Mackay, Introduction to quantitative genetics. Longman, 1998.
5. Cox.D.R. and Oakes.D, Analysis of survival data. Chapman and Hall, 1984.
Practicals - 4(c): Bio-Statistics
1. Estimation of relative potency and its standard error.
2.Fitting exponential growth model to data by linearization method.
3. Fitting logistic growth model.
4. Dose response relation and its estimation by least squares method.
5. Dose response relation and estimation by MLE method.
6. Estimation of extreme quantiles.
7. Estimation of points on the quantal response.
8. Hardy Weinberg equilibrium frequencies.
9. Estimation of allele frequencies.
10. Effects of mutation and selection.
11. EquilibriumBalance between selection and mutation.
12. Selection and the Hardy -Weinberg test.
13. Genetic drift.

65
14. Parameter estimation in exponential and Weibull distributionsType-I, Type-II
censoring.
15. LR tests for exponential and Weibull distribution.
16. Actuarial method of estimation.
17. Kaplan-Meier estimator.
18. Total time on test.
19. Fitting bathtub shaped hazard function.
20. Measures of mortality.
21. Risk difference, risk ratio and odd ratio.
22. Cox Regression.
Note: The above practicals are to be carried out by using MS Excel. Training shall be in
establishing formulae in Excel cells and derive the results. The excel output shall be
exported to MS Word for writing inference.
Paper-4(d): C - Programming
Unit-I: History and features of C language. Components of C language, Structure of a C
program. Data type; Basic data types, Enumerated data types, Derived data types.
Variable declaration; Local, Global, Parametric variables, Assignment of variables.
Numeric. Character, real and string constants. Arithmetic, relation and logical
operators. Assignment operators. Increment and Decrement operators, conditional
operators, Bitwise operators.
Type modifiers and expressions, writing and
interpreting expressions, using expressions in statements. Basic input/output.
Control statements, conditional statements, if..else, Nesting of if..else, elseif ladder,
switch statements, loops in C: for, while, do.., while loops. Break, continue, exit( ),
goto and label declarations.
Unit-II: One dimensional, two dimensional and multidimensional arrays. Functions,
classification of functions, functions definition and declaration, assessing a function,
return statement.
Storage classes: Automatic variables, External variables, static variables, register
variables, Scope and lifetime declarations. Parameter passing in functions, recursion
in functions.
Pointers: Pointer notation: and *operators. Pointer declaration and Initialization,
assessing a variable le through pointer, pointer expressions, pointer arithmetic, pointer
comparison, pointer increment/decrement and scale factor.
Pointer and Array: Pointers and one dimensional arrays, dynamic memory allocation
functions malloc and calloc, pointers and multidimensional arrays, arrays of pointers.
Pointers and functions: Pointers to pointers, pointers and functions, pointers to
functions,
Function returning pointers, functions with variable number of arguments.
Unit-III: Structure: Definition and declaration, structure (initialization, comparison of
structure variables, array of structures; array within structures, structures within
structures. Passing structures to functions; structure pointers. Unions- definition and
declaration, Accessing a union member, union of structure, initialization of a union
variable, uses of union. Introduction to linked list, linear linked list insertion of a node
on list, removal of anode from list.
Unit-IV: Files in C: Defining and opening a file, closing a file, input-output operation on file,
Creating a file, reading a file.
Preprocessors: Introduction to preprocessors, Macro Substitution, simple Macro
Substitution, Macro with arguments Nesting of Macros, Undefining a Macro, File
inclusion, Conditional Compilation Directives. Standard header files, Library

66
functions. String functions, Mathematical functions, Date and time functions,
Variables argument list function, utility functions, character class test functions.
Books for Reference:
1. Balagurusamy, E, Programming in ANSI C, Tata McGraw Hill.
2. Kanetkar, Y.P., Working with C, BPB Publications.
3. Gottfried, Byron S, Theory and problems of programming with C, TMH.
4. Schildt, Herbert, C the complete reference, 3rd edition, TMH.
5. Schildt, Herbert, C Made easy, McGraw Hill.
Practicals - 4(d): C Programming
1. Reading and writing a line of text
2. Averaging students examination Scores
3. Calculating standard deviation
4. Finding the median
5. Roots of a quadratic equation
6. Finding whether a given number is a prime or not
7. Searching for palindromes
8. Calculating factorial
9. Reading and writing the name Character by Character
10. Finding longest of a given set values
11. Generating Fibonacci numbers
12. Calculating the correlation coefficient
13. Printing a line of text backwards
14. Encoding a string of Characters
15. Concatenation of two strings
16. Transpose of a given matrix
17. Addition of two matrices
18. Multiplication of two matrices
19. Check whether the given matrix is an identity matrix
20. Creating a data file
21. Reading a data file
22. Creating an co unformatted file
23. Processing students exam score defining a structure
24. Writing the output into a new data file
25. Appending a new record
Regarding practicals:
The Scheme of valuation for Statistics practical examinations for paper I, II, III and IV is as
follows
For Paper I, Paper II and Paper IV
Answer any three questions out of 5 questions
3 12 Marks
= 36
Viva
= 04
Record
= 10
----Total: 50 Marks
For Paper III
Answer any three questions out of 5 questions
3 10 Marks
= 30
Record
= 10
Project Work
= 10
-----

67
Total: 50 Marks
Note: 1. The project work shall be done on any one of the following topics.
i. Crime Statistics
ii. Census Statistics
iii. Medical Statistics
iv. Election Statistics
v. Educational Statistics
vi. Accidents Statistics
vii. Population Statistics etc.,
2. The project work shall be submitted along with record as one book.
3. The project analysis and reports can be created by using Excel or Statdisk
Software. Mintab, SPSS or any other Statistical Softwares can be used, if needed.
4. 90% attendance is compulsory for practical classes.
Recommendations of the Chairman, members of the BOS and Government nominee:
The APSCHE shall insist that all Universities and in turn colleges should provide an
exclusive STATISTICS LAB for Statistics Practicals with following features
(because all the practicals shall be done by using software like Excel, Statdisk version
12.0.2 or more and TORA, in addition to the Scientific Calculators).
a) A Lab should have at least fifteen systems with one or two printers.
b) A skilled programmer is to be provide by the college to look after the lab.
c) MS Office 2007 or MS Office 2010 with all add-ins fully loaded (Like Data
Analysis pack, Solver, Equation Editor and Math Type equation etc.).
d) Statdisk version 12.0.2 or more and TORA (For Operations Research)

68
ZOOLOGY
Paper-3: Animal Physiology, Genetics & Evolution
Unit-I:
1. Physiology of Digestion
a) Definition of digestion and types of digestion extra and intracellular.
b) Digestion of Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and cellulose digestion.
c) Absorption and assimilation of digested food materials.
d) Gastrointestinal hormones- control of digestion.
1. Physiology of respiration
a) Types of respiration external and internal respiration.
b) Structure of mammalian lungs and gaseous exchange.
c) Transport of oxygen formation of oxyhaemoglobin and affinity of haemoglobin
for Oxygen, Oxygen dissociation curves.
d) Transport of CO2 Chloride shift, Bohr effect.
e) Cellular respiration Main steps of glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport,
Oxidative phosporylation and ATP production (Chemosmotic theory).
2. Physiology of Circulation
a) Open and closed circulation.
b) Structure of mammalian heart and its working mechanism- Heartbeat and cardiac
cycle. Myogenic and neurogenic hearts.
c) Regulation of heart rate Tachycardia and Bradycardia.
3. Physiology of Excretion
a) Definition of excretion.
b) Forms of nitrogenous waste material and their formation; classification of
animals on the basis of excretory products.
c) Gross organization of mammalian excretory system and structure of kidney.
d) Structure and function of Nephron Counter current mechanism.
Unit-II:
1. Physiology of muscle contraction:
a) General structure and types of muscles.
b) Ultra structure of skeletal muscle.
c) Sliding filament mechanism of muscle contraction.
d) Chemical changes during muscle contraction role of calcium, ATP utilization
and its replenishment.
2. Physiology of nerve impulse:
a) Structure of nerve cell.
b) Nature of nerve impulse resting potential and action potential. Properties of
nerve impulse threshold value, refractory period, all or none response.
c) Conduction of nerve impulse along an axon local circuit theory and saltatory
conduction theory.
d) Structure of synapse, mechanism of synaptic transmission electrical and
chemical transmissions.
3.Physiology of Endocrine system:
a) Relationship between hypothalamus and pituitary gland.
b) Hormones of hypothalamus.
c) Hormones of Adenohypophysis and Neurohypophysis.
d) Hormones of pineal gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid, thymus, adrenal and
pancreas.

69
e) Endocrine control of mammalian reproduction Male and female hormones
Hormonal control of menstrual cycle in humans.
4.Physiology of Homeostasis:
a) Concept of Homeostasis and its basic working mechanism.
b) Mechanism of Homeostasis giving three illustrations viz., Hormonal control of
glucose levels, Water and ionic regulation by freshwater and marine animals and
temperature regulation in man.
Unit-III:
1. Genetics:
a) Mendels laws Law of segregation and independent assortment; Genetic
interactions Incomplete dominance, codominance and epistasis.
b) Identification of DNA as the genetic material Griffiths experiment and Hershey
Chase experiment.
c) Central dogma of molecular biology Brief account of DNA replication (Semiconservative method), Replication fork (Continous and discontinous synthesis);
Transcription Brief account of initiation, elongation and termination in
eukaryotes; Translation; Genetic code; gene regulation as exemplified by lac
operon.
d) Human karyotyping, barr bodies and Lyon hypothesis and Amniocentesis
chromosomal disorders Autosomal and sex chromosomes.
2. Organic Evolution:
a) Genetic basis of Evolution, Gene pool and gene frequencies, Hardy-Weinbergs
Law, Force of destabilization, natural selection, genetic drift, Mutation, Isolation
and Migration.
b) Speciation Allopatry and sympatry.
Practicals - 3: Animal Physiology, Genetics & Evolution
1. Animal Physiology
a) Unit Oxygen Consumption in an aquatic animal [fish or crab]
b) Qualitative analysis of excretory products-Ammonia, Urea and uric acid.
c) Demonstration of the action of salivary amylase on starch.
2. Genetics:
a) A, B, O blood group identification.
b) Problems based on Blood grouping.
c) Karyotyping of human chromosomes [Human karyotype figure on paper should
be cut in to different sets of chromosomes and students are asked to arrange them
in an order and comment on the ideogram]
d) Identification of genetic syndromes and genetic disorders given on charts.
e) Problems based on Mendelian inheritance [at least one problem for each for the
laws of segregation and law of independent assortment.
Books for Reference:
1. S.C.Rastogi, Essentials of Animal Physiology.
2. C.B.Powar Vol-I, Genetics., Himalaya Publishing House Pvt.Ltd.
3. P.K.,Gupta Genetics..
4. P.S.Verma & V.K.Agarwal, Genetics..
5. N.Arumugam, Organic Evolution.

70
Paper-4: Applied Zoology
Unit-I: Fisheries and Aquaculture:
a) Capture fisheries Introduction, Types of fisheries, Fishery resources from
Freshwater, Brackish water and Marine habitats.
b) Freshwater, Brackish water and Mariculture.
c) Site selection criteria.
d) Aquaculture systems.
e) Induced breeding.
f) Fish Hatchery design and Management.
g) Larval rearing Nursery ponds, rearing and grow out ponds.
h) Shrimp and prawn culture Preservation and processing Freezing, solar drying,
Canning, salting, smoking.
Unit-II: Clinical Science:
1. Haematology
a) Blood composition and functions
b) Blood groups and transfusion problems
c) Blood diseases Anaemia, Leukemia, Leucocytosis, Leucopaenia
d) Biopsy and autopsy clinical importance
2. Immunology
a) Types of immunity Innate and acquired
b) Antigens Haptenes and epitopes and their properties.
c) Structure and biological properties of human immunoglobulin G (IgG)
d) Hypersensitivity innate and delayed.
3. Important Human Parasites
a) Blood Parasites (Structure and Clinical significance of Plasmodium).
b) Intestinal parasites Structure and clinical significance of Entamoeba.
c) Cholesterol and its significance in Cardiovascular problems.
d) Blood Sugar levels and Diabetes.
Unit-III: Animal Biotechnology:
a) Animal Biotechnology: Scope of Biotechnology, Cloning vectors Characteristics of vectors, Plasmids.
b) Gene Cloning Enzymatic cleavage of DNA, Restriction enzymes
(Endonucleases) and Ligation.
c) Transgenesis and Production of transgenic animals (Fish and Goat).
d) Application of Stem Cell technology in cell based therapy (Diabetes and
Parkinsons diseases).
Practicals4: Applied Zoology
1. Fisheries and Aquaculture:
a) Identification of important Freshwater and Marine edible fishes
b) Identification of important edible prawns
Field work :
Field work is compulsory. Field trip to local fisheries / aquaculture unit is to be
conducted and certified field note book should be submitted at the time of practical
examination.
2. Clinical science :
a) Identification of the following protozoan parasites.
Entamoeba histolytica
Giardia intestinalis
Balantidium coli
Trypanosoma gambiense

71
Plasmodium Any two stages
b) Identification of the following helminth parasites.
Taenia solium
Ascaris (Male and female)
Enterobius vermicularis
Dracanculus medinensis
Ancylostoma duodenale
c) Blood cell counting RBC and WBC
d) Estimation of Haemoglobin (Sahlis Method)
3. Animal biotechnology:
a) Identification of vectors (charts or photographs)
b) Identification of transgenic animals (charts or photographs)
Books for Reference:
1. B. Annadurai, A text book of Immunology and Immunotechnology, S. Chand
Publications.
2. N.V. Shastri, Principles of Immunology, Himalaya Publishing House Pvt.Ltd.
3. Mohan P. Arora, Genetic Engineering, Himalayan Publishers.
4. Chandler, Parasitology.
5. P.K.Gupta, Elements of Biotechnology.
6. P.K. Gupta, Genomics and Biotechnology .
7. Francis Day, Vol I & II The Fishes of India, William dawson & Sons Ltd, 1958.
8. V.R.P. Sinha and H.C. Siaslara, Aquaculture productivity , Oxford IBH ,1991.