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Art. 1206.

When only one prestation has been agreed upon, but the obligor may render
another in ____________, the obligation is called ___________.
The ____ or ______________ of the thing intended as a __________, through the
negligence of the _______, does not render him liable. But once the _____________ has
been made, the obligor is liable for the loss of the substitute on account of his delay,
negligence or fraud. (n)
SECTION 4. - Joint and Solidary Obligations
Art. 1207. The ___________ of two or more creditors or of two or more debtors in one and
the same obligation does not imply that each one of the former has a right to _________, or
that each one of the latter is bound to render, ______ __________ with the prestation. There
is a ________ liability only when the obligation _________ so states, or when the ___ or
the _______ of the obligation requires __________. (1137a)
Art. 1208. If from the ___, or the ______ or the _______ of the obligations to which the
preceding article refers the contrary does not _______, the ______ or ____ shall be
presumed to be _______ into as many shares as there are creditors or debtors, the credits or
debts being considered ________ from one another, subject to the Rules of Court governing
the ____________ of suits. (1138a)
Art. 1209. If the ________ is ___________, the right of the creditors may be __________
only by their collective acts, and the debt can be _________ only by proceeding against all
the debtors. If one of the latter should be __________, the others shall not be liable for his
share. (1139)
Art. 1210. The ______________ of an obligation does not ___________ give rise to
__________. Nor does __________ of itself imply ______________. (n)
Art. 1211. __________ may exist although the creditors and the debtors may not be _____
in the same ______ and by the same _______ and __________. (1140)
Art. 1212. Each one of the ________ creditors may do whatever may be useful to the
others, but not anything which may be ___________ to the latter. (1141a)
Art. 1213. A ________ creditor cannot assign his rights _______ the _______ of the others.
Art. 1214. The debtor may pay any one of the ________ creditors; but if any ______,
________ or _____________, has been made by one of them, payment should be made to
him. (1142a)
Art. 1215. ________, ____________, _________ or _________ of the debt, made by any
of the ________ creditors or with any of the ________ debtors, shall __________ the
obligation, _______ prejudice to the provisions of Article 1219.
The creditor who may have ________ any of these acts, as well as he who collects the debt,
shall be liable to the others for the share in the obligation corresponding to them. (1143)
Art. 1216. The creditor may proceed against any one of the ________ debtors or some or
all of them ______________. The demand made against one of them shall not be an
________ to those which may subsequently be directed against the others, so long as the
debt has not been _____ collected. (1144a)
Art. 1217. _______ made by one of the ________ debtors extinguishes the obligation. If
two or more ________ debtors offer to pay, the creditor may choose which offer to accept.

He who made the payment may claim from his __________ only the share which
corresponds to each, with the ________ for the payment already made. If the payment is
made before the debt is due, no interest for the ___________ period may be demanded.
When one of the solidary debtors cannot, because of his __________, _________ his share
to the debtor paying the obligation, such share shall be _____ by all his co-debtors, in
proportion to the debt of each. (1145a)
Art. 1218. Payment by a solidary debtor shall not entitle him to reimbursement from his codebtors if such payment is made after the obligation has _________ or become ______. (n)
Art. 1219. The __________ made by the creditor of the share which affects one of the
________ debtors does not release the latter from his ______________ towards the codebtors, in case the debt had been ________ paid by anyone of them ______ the remission
was effected. (1146a)
Art. 1220. The remission of the _____ ___________, obtained by one of the ________
debtors, does not entitle him to _____________ from his co-debtors. (n)
Art. 1221. If the _____ has been ____ or if the __________ has become __________
without the fault of the ________ debtors, the obligation shall be ____________.
If there was _____ on the part of any one of them, all shall be responsible to the ________,
for the _____ and the payment of _______ and ________, without prejudice to their action
against the guilty or negligent ______.
If through a ________________, the thing is lost or the performance has become
impossible after one of the solidary debtors has incurred in delay through the ________ or
_____________ demand upon him by the creditor, the provisions of the preceding
paragraph shall apply. (1147a)
Art. 1222. A ________ debtor may, in actions filed by the creditor, avail himself of all
________ which are derived from the ______ of the obligation and of those which are
________ to him, or pertain to his own share. With respect to those which personally
belong to the others, he may avail himself thereof only as _______ that part of the debt for
which the latter are ___________. (1148a)
SECTION 5. - Divisible and Indivisible Obligations
Art. 1223. The ____________ or ______________ of the things that are the object of
obligations in which there is only one ______ and only one _________ does not _____ or
______ the provisions of Chapter 2 of this Title. (1149)
Art. 1224. A _____ ___________ obligation gives rise to _________ for damages from the
time anyone of the debtors does not ______ with his ___________. The debtors who may
have been ready to _______ their promises shall not __________ to the indemnity beyond
the _____________ portion of the _____ of the thing or of the _____ of the service in
which the obligation consists. (1150)
Art. 1225. For the purposes of the preceding articles, obligations to give ________ things
and those which are not ___________ of _______ performance shall be deemed to be
When the obligation has for its object the _________ of a certain number of days of work,
the _____________ of work by ________ units, or _________ things which by their nature
are ___________ of partial performance, it shall be _________.

However, even though the object or service may be __________ _________, an obligation
is ___________ if so provided by law or intended by the parties.
In obligations not to do, ____________ or ______________ shall be determined by the
_________ of the prestation in each __________ case. (1151a)
SECTION 6. - Obligations with a Penal Clause
Art. 1226. In obligations with a ____________, the penalty shall __________ the
_________ for damages and the payment of interests in case of _____________, if there is
no ___________ to the contrary. Nevertheless, damages shall be paid if the obligor
_______ to pay the penalty or is guilty of _____ in the ____________ of the obligation.
The penalty may be ________ only when it is __________ in accordance with the
provisions of this Code. (1152a)
Art. 1227. The ______ cannot ______ himself from the ___________ of the obligation by
paying the _______, save in the case where this right has been _________ ________ for
him. _______ can the creditor demand the ___________ of the obligation and the
____________ of the penalty at the same time, unless this right has been clearly granted
him. However, if after the ________ has decided to require the fulfillment of the obligation,
the ___________ thereof should become __________ without his fault, the penalty may be
________. (1153a)
Art. 1228. Proof of ______________ suffered by the ________ is not necessary in order
that the penalty may be ________. (n)
Art. 1229. The judge shall _________ reduce the penalty when the _________ obligation
has been ______ or ___________ complied with by the ______. Even if there has been no
___________, the penalty may also be _______ by the courts if it is __________ or
______________. (1154a)
Art. 1230. The _______ of the penal clause does not _____ with it that of the _________
The _______ of the _________ obligation _______ with it that of the penal clause. (1155)
Art. 1231. Obligations are ____________:
(1) By _______ or ___________:
(2) By the ____ of the __________:
(3) By the ____________ or _________ of the ____;
(4) By the __________ or ______ of the ______ of ________ and ______;
(5) By ____________;
(6) By ________.
Other ______ of ______________ of obligations, such as _________, __________,
___________ of a __________ condition, and prescription, are governed elsewhere in this
Code. (1156a)
SECTION 1. - Payment or Performance
Art. 1232. Payment means not only the ________ of money but also the ___________, in
any other manner, of an obligation. (n)
Art. 1233. A ____ shall not be __________ to have been paid unless the thing or service in
which the obligation consists has been completely _________ or ________, as the case may
be. (1157)

Art. 1234. If the obligation has been _____________ performed in __________, the
_______ may _______ as though there had been a ______ and ________ ___________,
less damages suffered by the _______. (n)
Art. 1235. When the _______ accepts the ___________, knowing its ______________ or
____________, and _______ expressing any _______ or _________, the obligation is
deemed _____ complied with. (n)
Art. 1236. The ________ is not bound to accept payment or performance by a third person
who has no ________ in the fulfillment of the obligation, unless there is a ___________ to
the contrary.
Whoever pays for another may ______ from the ______ what he has paid, ______ that if he
paid without the _________ or against the ____ of the ______, he can _______ only insofar
as the payment has been __________ to the debtor. (1158a)
Art. 1237. Whoever pays on ______ of the debtor without the knowledge or against the
will of the latter, cannot ______ the creditor to _________ him in his rights, such as those
arising from a ________, ________, or _______. (1159a)
Art. 1238. Payment made by a third person who does not ______ to be __________ by the
______ is deemed to be a ________, which requires the ________ _______. But the
payment is in any case _____ as to the ________ who has accepted it. (n)
Art. 1239. In obligations to ____, payment made by one who does not have the ____
________ of the thing ___ and ________ to _______ it shall not be _____, without
prejudice to the provisions of Article 1427 under the Title on "Natural Obligations."
Art. 1240. Payment shall be made to the person in whose _____ the obligation has been
___________, or his _________ in ________, or any person __________ to receive it.
Art. 1241. Payment to a person who is _____________ to __________ his property shall
be valid if he has kept the thing _________, or insofar as the payment has been __________
to him.
Payment made to a third person shall also be valid insofar as it has _________ to the benefit
of the ________. Such benefit to the creditor need not be proved in the following cases:
(1) If after the _______, the ____________ acquires the creditor's ______;
(2) If the creditor ________ the payment to the third person;
(3) If by the creditor's _______, the debtor has been led to believe that the third person had
_________ to _______ the payment. (1163a)
Art. 1242. Payment made in __________ to any person in __________ of the ______ shall
_______ the ______. (1164)
Art. 1243. Payment made to the creditor by the debtor after the latter has been __________
ordered to ______ the debt shall not be _____. (1165)
Art. 1244. The debtor of a thing cannot ______ the creditor to receive a _________ one,
although the latter may be of the same value as, or more ________ than that which is due.
In obligations to do or not to do, an act or ___________ cannot be ___________ by another
act or ___________ against the ______________. (1166a)
Art. 1245. _________________, whereby property is _________ to the creditor in

satisfaction of a debt in money, shall be ________ by the ____________. (n)

Art. 1246. When the obligation consists in the delivery of an _____________ or _______
thing, whose _______ and _____________ have not been stated, the creditor cannot
demand a thing of ________________. Neither can the debtor deliver a thing of
________________. The purpose of the obligation and other circumstances shall be taken
into _____________. (1167a)
Art. 1247. Unless it is otherwise __________, the _____________ expenses required by
the payment shall be for the account of the ______. With regard to ________ costs, the
Rules of Court shall govern. (1168a)
Art. 1248. Unless there is an _______ ___________ to that effect, the creditor cannot be
compelled _________ to receive the ___________ in which the obligation consists. Neither
may the debtor be required to make _______ payments.
However, when the debt is in part __________ and in part ____________, the creditor may
demand and the debtor may effect the payment of the former without _______ for the
___________ of the latter. (1169a)
Art. 1249. The payment of debts in money shall be made in the ___________________,
and if it is not possible to deliver such currency, then in the currency which is
____________ in the Philippines.
The delivery of ________________ payable to order, or __________________ or other
__________ documents shall produce the effect of payment only when they have been
______, or when through the fault of the creditor they have been ________.
In the meantime, the action derived from the ________ obligation shall be held in the
________. (1170)
Art. 1250. In case an _____________ inflation or deflation of the currency stipulated
should _________, the _____ of the currency at the time of the establishment of the
obligation shall be the basis of payment, unless there is an agreement to the contrary. (n)
Art. 1251. Payment shall be made in the place __________ in the obligation.
There being no express stipulation and if the undertaking is to deliver a ___________ thing,
the payment shall be made wherever the thing might be at the moment the obligation was
In any other case the place of payment shall be the domicile of the debtor.
If the debtor changes his ________ in _________ or after he has incurred in delay, the
__________ expenses shall be borne by him.
These provisions are without prejudice to venue under the Rules of Court. (1171a)
SUBSECTION 1. - Application of Payments
Art. 1252. He who has _____________ of the same kind in _____ of one and the same
creditor, may declare at the time of making the payment, to which of them the same must be
_______. Unless the parties so stipulate, or when the application of payment is made by the
party for whose benefit the term has been ___________, application shall not be made as to
debts which are not yet due.
If the debtor accepts from the creditor a receipt in which an ____________ of the payment
is made, the former cannot complain of the same, unless there is a cause for ____________
the contract. (1172a)

Art. 1253. If the debt produces ________, payment of the _________ shall not be deemed
to have been made until the interests have been _______. (1173)
Art. 1254. When the payment cannot be applied in accordance with the preceding rules, or
if application cannot be inferred from other _____________, the debt which is most
_______ to the debtor, among those due, shall be deemed to have been _________.
If the debts due are of the same ______ and ______, the payment shall be applied to all of
them _______________. (1174a)
SUBSECTION 2. - Payment by Cession
Art. 1255. The debtor may ____ or ______ his property to his creditors in payment of his
debts. This _______, unless there is stipulation to the contrary, shall only _______ the
debtor from responsibility for the net proceeds of the thing ________. The agreements
which, on the effect of the _______, are made between the debtor and his creditors shall be
governed by ____________. (1175a)