Anda di halaman 1dari 8

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 56, NO.

8, AUGUST 2009

2821

DSP-Based Implementation of an LQR With Integral


Action for a Three-Phase Three-Wire Shunt
Active Power Filter
Bachir Kedjar, Member, IEEE, and Kamal Al-Haddad, Fellow, IEEE

AbstractThis paper presents the design and implementation


of a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) with Integral action
(LQRI) for a three-phase three-wire shunt active filter (SAF). The
integral action is added so as to cancel the steady-state errors
for reference tracking or disturbance rejection, knowing that the
standard LQR provides only proportional gains. The controller
is designed to achieve dc bus voltage regulation and harmonics
and reactive power compensation. The converter model is set in
the dq rotating reference frame. The latter is augmented with
the integral of the q component of the SAF currents and dc bus
voltage to achieve integral action. The controllers performance
depends on the weighting matrix, which is chosen to ensure satisfactory response. The converter is controlled as a whole, i.e., a
multi-inputmultioutput system and a fixed pulsewidth modulation at 10 kHz is used to generate the gating signals of the power
devices. The system is tested for harmonics, reactive power, and
load unbalance compensation for balanced/unbalanced loads. The
experimental results obtained with a digital signal processor-based
implementation of the controller on the DS1104 of dSPACE show
good performance in terms of dc bus voltage regulation (small
overshoot and very fast time response) and a low total harmonic
distortion of ac line currents.
Index TermsDigital signal processor (DSP), linear quadratic
regulator (LQR), optimal control, shunt active power filter.

I. I NTRODUCTION

OWADAYS, active filters are widely used in industrial applications in order to meet the international power quality
standards. By compensating for load harmonics, unbalances,
reactive power, and utility voltage unbalances, these filters
ensure that the input currents have a near-sinusoidal shape and
are in phase with the mains voltage. Currently, there is a large
variety of such filters available; however, the three-phase threewire shunt active filter (SAF) is the most used topology [1], [2].
Active filters are now directly integrated in power conversion
processes at both generation and distribution levels [3], [4] and
also integrated to motor control conversion schemes [5].
The linear control of SAF was applied in [6] because of
its simplicity to investigate direct and indirect current controls
Manuscript received July 31, 2007; revised August 27, 2008. First published
October 31, 2008; current version published July 24, 2009. This work was
supported by the Canadian Research Chair in Electric Energy Conversion and
Power Electronics.
The authors are with the Electrical Engineering Department and the Canada
Research Chair in Electric Energy Conversion and Power Electronics, cole
de Technologie Suprieure, Montreal, QC H3C 1K3, Canada (e-mail: bachir.
kedjar@ens.etsmtl.ca; kamal@ele.etsmtl.ca).
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TIE.2008.2006027

of the converter. It was found in that study that computing


the supply current references using the pq theory and only
the constant part of the power demand by the load improves the
performance in terms of the total harmonic distortion (THD)
of these currents. Nonlinear control in the dq reference frame
using input/output feedback linearization and exact linearization techniques is used in [7] and [8] in order to enhance the
dynamic performance of SAFs. These techniques of control
eliminate steady-state errors in the dc bus voltage and fundamental reactive current but not in the harmonic currents when
treated in the dq reference frame and proportionalintegral
(PI) regulators are used. In order to cancel this steady-state error
in those ac components, PI combined with S regulator which
uses Sine transfer function with specified resonant frequency
leading to PIS, repetitive and hybrid regulators were introduced.
In [9], the PIS was successfully applied to the voltage source
rectifier, SAF, and static synchronous compensator by canceling the steady-state error in the sinusoidal mains currents for
which this kind of controller is suitable. In [10], the repetitive
control which is suitable for multifrequency applications is used
to attenuate or reject the effect of harmonics and unbalance
of load currents in the three-phase three-wire uninterruptible
power system inverter voltages, leading to better performance
compared to conventional controllers. In [11], two feedback
schemes of the delay line simulating the infinite number of
oscillators in the repetitive control were proposed. Feedforward terms were added to both schemes in order to modify
the internal model characteristics of the repetitive controller
and then to improve performance. Analog implementations of
these useful repetitive controllers that can compensate for odd
harmonics or all harmonics using ICs are also given. In [12]
and [13], the digital repetitive controller dedicated to only
odd harmonics was also used for the single phase active filter
and the three-phase four-wire SAF, respectively. This controller does not introduce high gains for even harmonics [14],
thereby improving its robustness. In [15], a repetitive controller
dedicated for 6l 1 harmonic components is applied for the
SAF to compensate current harmonics produced by a threephase diode bridge. In [16], a hybrid version that combines the
features of multisynchronous PI and multiresonant regulators
which the authors called a single synchronous reference frame
hybrid (SSFH) controller was also successfully applied to the
SAF. The SSFH was compared to multisynchronous PI and
multiresonant controllers and found the best solution in terms of
computational time for multifrequency applications particularly

0278-0046/$26.00 2009 IEEE

2822

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 56, NO. 8, AUGUST 2009

with the increasing number of harmonics controlled. In all the


papers previously referred to, the cascade control strategy is
used, where the outer loop uses a simple PI for the dc bus
voltage regulation and the inner one for the currents.
Artificial neural network techniques were applied to the SAF
in [17] because of their learning capabilitfy, which allowed
the improvement of performance by taking into account timevarying parameters. In that paper, adalines were used to extract
direct, inverse, and zero-sequence components of the voltages
at the point of common coupling (PCC), harmonic currents,
and to control the active filter. This full neuromimetic control
strategy was found superior to the low-pass filter with RST
controller.
The aforementioned methods that help to eliminate the
steady-state error in the ac components of the SAFs currents
or improve its robustness increase the complexity of their
implementation.
The linear quadratic regulator (LQR) based on the optimal
control of three-phase acdc converters with unity power factor was applied for sinusoidal current pulsewidth modulation
(PWM) rectifiers and the neutral point clamped PWM rectifier
in [18] and [19]. An optimal servo-controller was also applied
in [20] to the current inner loop of the SAF in the cascade
strategy where an outer loop used a simple PI regulator for the
dc bus voltage.
In this paper, the LQR was chosen so as to control the
SAF as a whole. This approach was resorted to, because it is
suitable for multi-inputmulti-output systems such as the SAF
in addition to being insensitive to small parameter variations
[14]. Integral action as in [21][24] was incorporated into the
LQR to complement the proportional action of this regulator.
The converters large signal model in the dq rotating frame as
reported in [7], [8], and [18] is rewritten and linearized around
a set point. The small-signal averaged model, which includes
the integral action, is then obtained. This modeling technique
allowed us to design the Linear Quadratic Regulator with
Integral action (LQRI) using the small-signal model. Taking
advantage of the LQR controller robustness [22], the latter is
used for the large-signal model describing the SAF dynamics to
regulate the dc bus voltage and to keep the power factor at PCC
close to unity. Using this approach, it becomes easier to find
the optimal gains of the controller with the acceptable tracking
of the SAFs current components for the whole operating range.
Moreover, the aforementioned methods that use indirect control
or help to eliminate the steady-state error in the ac components
of the SAFs currents or improve its robustness require more
computational time compared to the proposed one. The experimental results were carried out using a digital signal processor
(DSP)-based implementation on the DS1104 of dSPACE, which
confirmed the validity of the proposed control strategy.
This paper is organized as follows. In Section II, the SAFs
model in the dq rotating frame and its linearization around a
set point are presented. The optimal control law using an LQR
with integral action to cancel steady-state errors for the SAF
is derived in Section III. Section IV describes the control strategys DSP-based implementation. Various experimental results
in steady-state and transient operating modes are presented in
Section V. Finally, the conclusion is given in Section VI.

Fig. 1.

System under study.

II. C ONVERTER M ODEL


The topology of the three-phase shunt active filter with a balanced nonlinear load such as a three-phase diode bridge feeding
an R-L load and an unbalanced nonlinear load, represented by
a single-phase diode bridge R-L load, is shown in Fig. 1.
The state-space model in the dq rotating reference frame at
the mains angular frequency of the SAF is presented in [7], [8],
and [18]. The zero-sequence components of mains voltages and
currents are nil for a balanced three-phase source voltage and a
nonconnected neutral point. The three state variable equations
describing the SAF dynamics are given in (1.a)(1.c):

[ vd
[ id
[ dd

vq

R
dd
1
did
= id + iq vdc + vd
dt
L
L
L
diq
R
dq
1
= id iq vdc + vq
dt
L
L
L
3
dvdc
=
(dd id + dq iq )
dt
2C

(1.b)

vo ]T = K[ va

(1.d)

vb

iq

io ] = K[ ia

ib

dq

do ]T = K[ da

db

vc ]T

(1.a)

(1.c)

(1.f)

dc ]T

(1.g)

ic ]

where K is the Parks transformation matrix given by







4
sin t sin t 2
sin
t

3
3



2
. (1.h)
K = cos t cos t 2
cos t 4
3
3
3
3
3
3
2

In (1), [ id iq vdc ]T and [ dd dq ]T represent the state-space


vector and the control input vector, respectively. The statespace model [(1)], which is valid for large signal operation,
is nonlinear, since it contains multiplication terms of the state
variables and inputs.
The equilibrium point is obtained by making time derivatives
of (1.a)(1.c) equal to zero and by substituting all variables

KEDJAR AND AL-HADDAD: DSP-BASED IMPLEMENTATION OF LQR WITH INTEGRAL ACTION FOR POWER FILTER

by their steady-state values. The nominal steady-state operating


point is then

vd = V 2 vq = 0 id = Id iq = Iq vdc = Vdc . (2)


The small-signal model given in (3) is obtained using linearization around the previously mentioned operating point
dx
= A x + B u + E v
dt

(3)

where
x = [ id

vdc ]T

iq

u = [ dd

dq ]

v = [ vd

(3.a)
T

vq ] .

(3.b)

Vectors x , u , and v are the state, control, and disturbance


vectors, respectively. The matrices A, B, and E which represent the state, control, and disturbance matrices, respectively,
are given by

DLd
L
D
(3.c)
Lq
A = R
L
3D
3Dd
q
0
2C
2C
Vdc

L
0
0
L
VLdc E = 0 L1 .
B= 0
(3.d)
3Iq
3Id
0 0
2C

2C

III. LQRI C ONTROLLER D ESIGN


The LQR is designed in the dq frame. The linear smallsignal model [(3)] is used to calculate the control law u =
Kx. The control law is provided by the minimization of the
following LQR cost function:

J = (xT Qx + uT Ru)dt

(4)

where Q and R are the state and control weighting matrices


which are square and symmetric.
Typically, in linear control theory [25], matrix gain K is
given by
K = R1 BT P

(4.a)

where P is found by solving the continuous Riccati equation


given by
AT P + PA PBR1 BT P + Q = 0.

(4.b)

The LQR control law essentially gives a multivariable proportional regulator. Integral action has been added to the controller in order to cancel the steady-state errors. Two new states
[(5)] are then added to the small-signal model [(3)]. These new
state variables are the integrals of the state variables iq and vdc
dxa
= Aa xa + Ba u + Ea v
dt

(5)

2823

where
xa = [ id
u = [ dd

iq

vdc

dq ]T

iq

v = [ vd

vdc ]T

(5.a)

vq ]T .

(5.b)

In (5), vectors xa , u , and v are the new augmented state,


control, and disturbance vectors, respectively.
The matrices Aa , Ba , and Ea , which represent the state,
control, and disturbance matrices of the augmented system,
respectively, are computed and presented in the following:
R

DLd 0 0
D
R q 0 0
L
L

3Dq
3D
(5.c)
Aa =
0
0 0
2Cd

2C
0
1
0
0 0
0
0
1
0 0

Vdc
1

L
0
0
L
Vdc
1
0
L
0 L

3Iq
3Id
E
Ba =
=
(5.d)
0 0 .
a
2C
2C

0
0 0
0
0 0
0
0
Let us define the output equation by
y = Cxa

(6)

where y = [ id iq vdc ]T represents the output vector


and the matrix C is given by

1 0 0 0 0
C = 0 1 0 0 0.
(6.a)
0 0 1 0 0
Different weighting factors Qid , Qiq , Qvdc , Q

iq

, and Q

vdc

are used for each variable, and the state weighting matrix Q is
given as follows:

Qid
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Qiq

0
0
0
0
Qvdc
(7)
Q=
.
0
0
0
0
Q iq

0
0
0
0
Q
vdc

The control weighting matrix R is given in the following


where the same weight is chosen for both control variables:


1 0
R=W
.
(8)
0 1
Note that the cost function J is the integral sum of the performance criterion Jx [(9)] and the control effort Ju [(10)], which
are given as follows:
Jx = Qid (id )2 + Qiq (iq )2 + Qvdc (vdc )2

2

2


+ Q iq
iq + Q vdc
vdc


Ju = W (dd )2 + (dq )2 .

(9)
(10)

2824

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 56, NO. 8, AUGUST 2009

Fig. 2. Block diagram of the implemented controller.

The entries of matrices Q and R are so chosen that (4.b)


holds in our experiments, and the weights Qid , Qiq , Qvdc ,
Q iq , and Q vdc are also chosen so as to get the fastest
dynamic response without deteriorating the steady-state one
and to avoid the saturation in any of the control variables.
One of the SAFs duties is to supply active current component to compensate for power losses in the converter devices
and other inductance in wiring cables and connectors. The SAF
must also maintain the dc bus voltage constant at its reference
value and compensate for reactive load currents.
Assuming that the SAF has zero losses, the capacitor C is
charged at its nominal value Vdc , and the averaged values of the
reactive current components are nearly zero, the steady-state
operation can be defined by the following:
Id  0

Iq  0.

This leads to the following static duty cycles:

V 2
Dd 
Dq  0.
Vdc

(11)

(12)

The system given in (3) is then tested and found controllable.


Since all state variables are available and measurable, there is
no need to check for observability.
IV. S YSTEM I MPLEMENTATION
For the DSP-based implementation of the LQRI, the built-in
lqrd function of Matlab is used. This function allows designing
discrete LQ regulator for continuous plant. It designs a discrete
full-state-feedback regulator that has response characteristics
similar to a continuous state-feedback regulator designed using
lqr function.
[K, S, e] = lqrd(A, B, Q, R, Ts) calculates the discrete statefeedback law that minimizes a discrete cost function equivalent
to the continuous cost function. The equivalent discrete gain
matrix is determined by discretizing the continuous plant and
weighting matrices using the sample time Ts and the zeroorder hold approximation. The matrices A and B specify the
continuous plant dynamics, and Ts specifies the sample time of
the discrete regulator.
Matrix K obtained using the previous function is (2 5) and
then divided into its two parts Kp (2 3) which represents the

proportional matrix and Ki (2 2) which is the integral action,


as follows:


K11 K12 K13 K14 K15
K=
(13)
K21 K22 K23 K24 K25
where

Kp =

Ki =

K11
K21

K12
K22

K14
K24

K15
K25

K13
K23
.

(14)

The scheme shown in Fig. 2 represents the block diagram


of the implemented controller on the DS1104 of dSPACE.
The controller (LQRI) is designed in Simulink/Matlab. The
Real-Time Workshop is used to generate C code for real-time
applications. The interface between Simulink/Matlab and the
DSP (DS1104 of dSPACE) allows running the control algorithm
on the hardware, namely, an MPC8240 processor [26], [27].
The slave DSP is used to generate the six (6) gating signals
required by the three-phase universal insulated-gate bipolar
transistor (IGBT) bridge where the PWM frequency is set to
10 kHz (sampling time of 100 s). The dead time for each
legs IGBT is set equal to 1 s. Four separate analog to digital
converters (ADCs) are used to sense two phases each of load
and SAF currents. Since the system is three wire, the third
current was deduced as ic = (ia + ib ). A multiplexed ADC
is also used to sense the synchronizing signal (filtered phase
a to neutral voltage at the secondary of 120/6-V transformer)
and the dc bus voltage. A phase-locked loop is then used to
evaluate the necessary t to perform the abc to dq0 and
reciprocal transformations. For the SAF current control in the
synchronous dq rotating reference frame, the d component
reference current is extracted from the load current using either
a high- or low-pass filter to retain all frequencies except the
fundamental [28], [29]. Here, we used the second strategy. The
a, b, and c currents of the load and the SAF are first transformed
into their dq0 components using the Parks transformation.
Since the source has to supply active current only at the mains
frequency, the SAFs current reference id is extracted from
the load current idL by subtracting its average value which
is computed at the most suitable period. This period depends
on the load current symmetry [30] which is 1/6 of the mains

KEDJAR AND AL-HADDAD: DSP-BASED IMPLEMENTATION OF LQR WITH INTEGRAL ACTION FOR POWER FILTER

period for balanced load and 1/2 for unbalanced load. The
same principle is also applied to filter out the dc bus voltage.
One can also notice that the integral action is not added to the
d component because of the aforementioned assumption. By
doing so, the SAFs d component will automatically not only
adjust to its reference obtained from the load currents but also
to that required to compensate for losses. Since the active filter
has to compensate for all load q components in order to achieve
unity power factor at the PCC, the q component reference iq is
set at the opposite of load currents (iqL ). The errors obtained
from comparing the two SAF current component references to
their measured values are then put through the LQRI regulator
and divided by the dc bus voltage to obtain the duty cycles in the
dq reference frame. These duty cycles are transformed to the
a, b, and c quantities using the inverse Parks transformation and
serve as inputs to the slave DSP to generate the gating signals
of the IGBTs.

2825

Fig. 3. (ch1) Phase to neutral source voltage, (ch2) source current, (ch3) load
current, and (ch4) SAF current waveforms in steady-state operation.

V. E XPERIMENTAL R ESULTS
The systems steady-state operation and dynamic response,
as obtained on the prototypes DSP-based control algorithm, are
presented in this section. The weighting matrix Q and weight
W have been set to values that guarantee satisfactory response.
It is important to point out that increasing the weight for a
variable leads to speed up its response and vice versa. Weights
Q and W are chosen to get a settling time between one and
two cycles of the supply mains and duty cycles, between zero
and one. These values are first generated by simulation-based
examination responses obtained using Matlabs Sim Power
Systems and Simulink

TABLE I
PHASE VOLTAGES AND LINE AND LOAD CURRENT
CHARACTERISTICS FOR BALANCED LOAD

Qid = 10 c.u./A2
Qiq = 10 c.u./A2
Qvdc = 103 c.u./V2
Q iq = 103 c.u./A2
Q

vdc

= 105 c.u./V2

W = 1 c.u.
A. Compensation of Harmonics and Reactive Power
1) Steady-State Operation: Fig. 3 shows from top to bottom
the phase voltage va , line current isa , load current iLa , and
active filter current ia in steady-state operation, respectively,
when the switch S is open (only the three-phase nonlinear load
is connected and RL1 = 13.3 ).
The measured characteristics of phase voltages and line and
load currents are summarized in Table I.
The source currents measured THD equals 4.6% while those
of the source voltage and load currents equal 4.2% and 22.7%,
respectively. This demonstrates the acceptable compensation
for harmonics by the SAF.
Fig. 4 shows the dq components of reference and measured
current of SAF in steady-state operation.
One can observe the periodicity of variables id and iq which
is 1/6 of that of the mains for a balanced load. As expected, the
tracking of the d component shows an offset between reference

Fig. 4. (Top) SAFs reference component id and the latter id and


(bottom) SAFs reference component iq and the latter iq for balanced load.

and measured variables. The offset represents the converter


losses that are not taken into account and the fact that only a
proportional action of the controller is applied for this component. As for the q component, the tracking shown in Fig. 4 is
satisfactory even though the latter is alternating at six times
the network frequency. The slight difference seen between
reference and measured signals is caused by the integral part
of the controller. The gain of the integral part decreases with
the higher harmonic frequencies. In other words, the tracking
is better for low harmonic frequencies than for the higher ones.
Nevertheless, in comparison to methods that use instantaneous
abc current compensation, one can observe that the tracking
is better, thanks to the dq transformation which implies the
frequency shifting of the transformed signals.
2) Dynamic Response: Fig. 5(a) and (b) shows, when the
switch S is open (balanced load), the dc bus voltage vdc ,

2826

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 56, NO. 8, AUGUST 2009

Fig. 6. Phase a (ch1) source voltage, (ch2) source current, (ch3) load current,
and (ch4) SAF current (ch4) waveforms in steady-state operation.

Fig. 5. (a) (ch1) DC bus voltage, (ch2) source current, (ch3) load current,
and (ch4) SAF current waveforms for load power variation from 100% to 50%.
(b) (ch1) DC bus voltage, (ch2) source current, (ch3) load current, and (ch4)
SAF current waveforms for load power variation from 50% to 100%.

line current isa , load current iLa , and active filter current
ia , respectively, when a sudden variation of the three-phase
nonlinear load occurs. The power transmitted to the load has
been decreased from 100% to 50% and back to its initial value
(RL1 is switched from 13.3 to 26.6 and back to 13.3 ).
Compensation is achieved before and after load changes. The
controller ensures tracking of the dc bus voltage, and the steadystate error is zero. A small overshoot (5%) and a short settling
time of the dc bus voltage (one and a half cycle of the mains)
for these load power variations can be noticed. Also, one can
observe that the harmonic content, as well as the compensation,
is kept under control.

Fig. 7. Phase b (ch1) source voltage, (ch2) source current, (ch3) load current,
and (ch4) SAF current waveforms in steady-state operation.

B. Compensation of Harmonics, Reactive Power, and


Load Unbalance
Figs. 68 show the same variables as those of Fig. 4 for
phases a, b, and c when the switch S is closed (unbalanced load
with RL1 = RL2 = 26.6 ). Since the single-phase nonlinear
load is connected, one can observe that the load currents

Fig. 8. Phase c (ch1) source voltage, (ch2) source current, (ch3) load current,
and (ch4) SAF current waveforms in steady-state operation.

KEDJAR AND AL-HADDAD: DSP-BASED IMPLEMENTATION OF LQR WITH INTEGRAL ACTION FOR POWER FILTER

2827

TABLE II
PHASE VOLTAGES AND LINE AND LOAD CURRENT
CHARACTERISTICS FOR UNBALANCED LOAD

Fig. 10. (Top) SAFs reference component id and the latter id and
(bottom) SAFs reference component iq and the latter iq for unbalanced load.

The THD values of the line currents are less than 5.9%. The
dc bus voltage overshoot is less than 5%, with one and a half
cycles of settling time. These results are valid for all cases
tested, thereby demonstrating the good performance achieved
by the proposed controller.
VI. S YSTEM S PECIFICATIONS
RMS mains voltage
Mains frequency
Commutation inductor
DC bus voltage
Switching frequency
Boost inductors
DC bus capacitor
Load resistors
Load inductors
Fig. 9.

V = 95 V
f = 60 Hz
Lc = 1 mH
Vdc = 200 V
fsw = 10 kHz
L = 1 mH
C = 500 F
RL1 = 13.3/26.6 and RL2 = 26.6
LL1 = 10 mH and LL2 = 33 mH

Load and source current harmonic spectra.

are now unbalanced. However, the line currents have a nearsinusoidal shape and same magnitude and are in phase with the
corresponding supply voltages.
The measured characteristics of phase voltages and line and
load currents are summarized in Table II.
Fig. 9 shows from top to bottom the reduction levels of
harmonics and compensation of load unbalance by the SAF for
phases a, b, and c. The left column shows the characteristics of
load currents while the right column shows those of the mains.
The THD values of the measured line currents are 5.5%,
5.9%, and 5.7% for the corresponding fundamental components of 5.74, 5.62, and 5.33 A, respectively, for phases a,
b, and c. The measured THD values of the load currents are
15.3%, 17.2%, and 22.3% for the corresponding fundamental
components of 6.75, 5.89, and 3.63 A, respectively, for phases
a, b, and c. It can be observed from these results that the
source currents are balanced even though the load currents are
heavily unbalanced, thus demonstrating the ability of the SAF
to provide the required compensation for harmonics, reactive
power, and load unbalance.
Fig. 10 shows the same variables as in Fig. 4 for the unbalanced load. The periodicity of the two current components is
onehalf of that of the mains. Moreover, the same remarks hold
for id and iq tracking behaviors as for previously balanced load.

VII. C ONCLUSION
In this paper, as an extension of the other works in the linear
control of active filters, an LQR with integral action (LQRI)
is proposed and designed so as to control a three-phase threewire SAF in order to achieve unity power factor operation at
the PCC of heavily distorted and unbalanced load currents.
The controller was designed using an augmented small-signal
state-space averaged model of the converter in the rotating dq
reference frame including an integral action to complement
the standard LQR. The weighting matrices were chosen by
means of simulation-based examinations of the system transient
response to guarantee satisfactory responses. The experimental
results which were carried out for harmonics, reactive power,
and load unbalance compensation show good dynamic (small
overshoot and short settling time) as well as steady-state (low
values of THD of line currents) performance using the proposed
controller.
R EFERENCES
[1] H. Akagi, New trends in active filters for power conditioning, IEEE
Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 32, no. 32, pp. 13121332, Nov./Dec. 1996.
[2] H. Akagi, Active harmonic filters, Proc. IEEE, vol. 93, no. 12, pp. 2128
2141, Dec. 2005.
[3] A. K. Jain and V. T. Ranganathan, Wound rotor induction generator with
sensorless control and integrated active filter for feeding nonlinear loads

2828

[4]
[5]

[6]
[7]
[8]

[9]
[10]

[11]

[12]
[13]
[14]
[15]

[16]

[17]
[18]
[19]

[20]
[21]

[22]

[23]
[24]
[25]
[26]

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 56, NO. 8, AUGUST 2009

in a stand-alone grid, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 218
228, Jan. 2008.
H. Tao, J. L. Duarte, and M. A. M. Hendrix, Line-interactive UPS using a
fuel cell as the primary source, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 8,
pp. 30123021, Aug. 2008.
K. Gulez, A. A. Adam, and H. Pastaci, Torque ripple and EMI noise
minimization in PMSM using active filter topology and field-oriented
control, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 251257,
Jan. 2008.
B. J. Singh, B. Singh, A. Chandra, P. Rastgoufard, and K. Al-Haddad, An
improved control algorithm for active filters, IEEE Trans. Power Del.,
vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 10091020, Apr. 2007.
G. D. Marques and P. Verdelho, Control of an active power filter based
on input-output linearization, in Proc. IEEE-IECON, Aachen, Germany,
Aug. 31Sep. 4, 1998, pp. 456461.
N. Mendalek, K. Al-Haddad, F. Fnaiech, and L. A. Dessaint, Nonlinear
control technique to enhance dynamic performance of a shunt active
power filter, Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng.Elect. Power Appl., vol. 150, no. 4,
pp. 373379, Jul. 2003.
S. Fukuda and R. Imamura, Application of a sinusoidal internal model to
current control of three-phase utility-interface converters, IEEE Trans.
Ind. Electron., vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 420426, Apr. 2005.
G. Escobar, A. A. Valdez, J. Leyva-Ramos, and P. Mattavelli, Repetitivebased controller for a UPS inverter to compensate unbalance and harmonic distortion, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 504510,
Feb. 2007.
G. Escobar, P. R. Martinez, and J. Leyva-Ramos, Analog circuits to
implement repetitive controllers with feedforward for harmonic compensation, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 567573,
Feb. 2007.
R. Gri, R. Cardoner, R. Costa-Castell, and E. Fossas, Odd-harmonic
digital repetitive control of a single-phase current active filter, IEEE
Trans. Power Electron., vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 10601068, Jul. 2004.
R. Gri, R. Cardoner, R. Costa-Castell, and E. Fossas, Digital repetitive control of a three-phase four-wire shunt active filter, IEEE Trans.
Ind. Electron., vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 14951503, Jun. 2007.
R. Gri and R. Costa-Castell, Digital repetitive plug-in controller for
odd-harmonic periodic references and disturbances, Automatica, vol. 41,
no. 1, pp. 153157, Jan. 2005.
G. Escobar, P. G. Hernandez-Briones, P. R. Martinez, M. HernandezGomez, and R. E. Torres-Olguin, A repetitive-based controller for the
compensation of 6l 1 harmonic components, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 31503158, Aug. 2008.
I. Etxeberria-Otadui, A. Lopez De Heredia, H. Gaztanaga, S. Bacha, and
M. R. Reyero, A Single Synchronous Frame Hybrid (SSFH) multifrequency controller for power active filters, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.,
vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 16401648, Oct. 2006.
D. O. Abdeslam, P. Wira, J. Merckl, D. Flieller, and Y.-A. Chapuis,
A unified artificial neural network architecture for active power filters,
IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 6176, Feb. 2007.
S. Fukuda, LQ control of sinusoidal current PWM rectifiers, Proc. Inst.
Elect. Eng.Elect. Power Appl., vol. 114, no. 2, pp. 95100, Mar. 1999.
S. Fukuda, Y. Matsumoto, and A. Sagawa, Optimal-regulator-based control of NPC boost rectifiers for unity power factor and reduced neutralpoint-potential variations, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 46, no. 3,
pp. 527534, Jun. 1999.
K. Izumi, M. Tsuji, E. Yamada, and J. Oyama, Active power filter with
optimal servo controller, in Proc. IEEE-IECON, Nov. 914, 1997, vol. 2,
pp. 816821.
S. Alepuz, J. Salaet, J. Bordonau, and J. Peracaula, Optimal regulator
with integral action and gain-scheduling for the comprehensive control
of three-level NPC VSI, in Proc. IEEE-PESC, Jun. 1519, 2003, vol. 3,
pp. 14201425.
S. Alepuz, J. S. Bousquets-Monge, J. Bordonau, J. Gago, D. Gonzalez,
and J. Balcells, Interfacing renewable energy sources to the utility grid
using a three-level inverter, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 53, no. 5,
pp. 15041511, Oct. 2006.
B. Kedjar and K. Al-Haddad, LQR with integral action for phase current
control of constant switching frequency Vienna rectifier, in Proc. IEEEISIE, Montreal, QC, Canada, Jul. 2006, vol. 2, pp. 14611466.
B. Kedjar and K. Al-Haddad, LQR with integral action to enhance dynamic performance of three-phase three-wire shunt active filter, in Proc.
IEEE-PESC, Orlando, FL, Jun. 2007, pp. 11381144.
R. S. Burns, Advanced Control Engineering, 1st ed. London, U.K.:
Butterworth, 2001.
L. Yacoubi, K. Al-Haddad, L. A. Dessaint, and F. Fnaiech, A DSPbased implementation of a nonlinear model reference adaptive control for

[27]

[28]
[29]
[30]

three-phase three-level NPC boost rectifier prototype, IEEE Trans. Power


Electron., vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 10841092, Sep. 2005.
L. Yacoubi, K. Al-Haddad, L. A. Dessaint, and F. Fnaiech, Linear and
nonlinear control techniques for a three-phase three-level NPC boost
rectifier, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 19081918,
Dec. 2006.
F.-Z. Peng and H. Akagi, A study of active power filters using quadseries voltage source PWM for harmonics compensation, IEEE Trans.
Power Electron., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 915, Jan. 1990.
H. Fujita and H. Akagi, The unified power quality conditioner: The integration of series and shunt active filters, IEEE Trans. Power Electron.,
vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 315322, Mar. 1998.
J. L. Afonso, M. J. S. Freitas, and J. S. Martins, p-q theory
power components calculations, in Proc. IEEE-ISIE, Jun. 2003, vol. 1,
pp. 385390.

Bachir Kedjar (M06) received the Dipl.Ing. degree


from the cole Nationale Polythechnique, Algiers,
Algeria, the D.E.A. degree from the Universit Pierre
et Marie Curie, Paris, France, and the Ph.D. degree
from the Universit des Sciences et Techniques,
Lille, France, in 1984, 1985, and 1988, respectively.
From September 1989 to July 2001, he was with
the Universit de Bejaia, Bejaia, Algeria. Since
July 2002, he has been with the Electrical Engineering Department working as a Research Assistant with Canada Research Chair in Electric Energy
Conversion and Power Electronics, at the cole de Technologie Suprieure,
Montreal, QC, Canada, where he was also a Lecturer. His fields of interest are
unity power factor acdc converters and harmonics and reactive power control
using shunt, series, and hybrid power filters including their modeling and DSPbased control.

Kamal Al-Haddad (S82M88SM92F07) received the B.Sc.A. and M.Sc.A. degrees from
the University of Qubec Trois-Rivires, TroisRivires, QC, Canada, and the Ph.D. degree from the
Institut National Polythechnique, Toulouse, France,
in 1982, 1984, and 1988, respectively.
From June 1987 to June 1990, he was a Professor with the Engineering Department, Universit
du Qubec Trois Rivires. Since June 1990, he
has been with the teaching staff of the Electrical Engineering Department, cole de Technologie
Suprieure (ETS), Montreal, Canada, where he was a Professor and, since
2002, has held the Canada Research Chair in Electric Energy Conversion and
Power Electronics. He has supervised more than 60 Ph.D. and M.Sc.A. students
working in the field of power electronics and was the Director of graduate study
programs at ETS from 1992 until 2003. His fields of interest are high efficient
static power converters, harmonics and reactive power control using hybrid
filters, switch mode and resonant converters including the modeling, control,
and development of prototypes for various industrial applications in electric
traction, power supply for drives, telecommunication, etc. He is a coauthor of
the Power System Blockset software of Matlab. He is a Consultant and has established very solid links with many Canadian industries working in the field of
power electronics, electric transportation, aeronautics, and telecommunications.
He is the Chief of ETSBombardier Transportation North America division,
a joint industrial research laboratory on electric traction systems and power
electronics. He coauthored more than 275 transactions and conference papers.
Dr. Al-Haddad is a fellow member of the Canadian Academy of Engineering
and a life member of the Circle of Excellence of the University of Quebec. He
was the recipient of the Outstanding Researcher Award from ETS in 2000. He
is very active in the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, where he is the Vice
President for Publications, is an Adcom member, and serves as an Associate
Editor of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS and Guest
Editor of the special issue on hybrid and active filters.