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www.ksu.edu.sa

www.sciencedirect.com

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

microchannel heat exchanger

Mushtaq Ismael Hasan

a

b

a,*

Machines and Equipments Department, Shatra Technical Institute, Iraq

Available online 28 December 2012

KEYWORDS

Microchannel heat exchanger;

Parallel ow;

Numerical solution;

Axial heat conduction;

Effectiveness

Abstract In this paper the axial heat conduction in an isosceles right triangular microchannel heat

exchanger is numerically investigated, for laminar, 3D, incompressible, single-phase, steady state

ow. The behaviour of axial heat conduction in the separating wall under different conditions is

studied. The solution was obtained by solving the continuity and NavierStokes equations for

the hot and cold uids by using the pressure-correction method to obtain the velocity distribution,

and then the energy equations were solved for the two uids and the separating wall simultaneously

to obtain the temperature distribution. The governing equations are discretized using nite-volume

and the hybrid differencing scheme with FORTRAN code was used. Various parameters that can

have effect on the axial heat conduction were investigated.

The results showed that, the axial heat conduction plays an important role in a parallel ow

microchannel heat exchanger and the factors affecting the local and average axial heat conduction

are; Reynolds number (Re), thermal conductivity ratio (Kr), hydraulic diameter (Dh), thickness of

separating wall (ts) and channel volume. Increasing of Re, Kr and ts leads to an increase in the axial

heat conduction while increasing of Dh and channel volume leads to a decrease in the axial heat

conduction.

2013 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of King Saud University.

1. Introduction

The rapid development of modern electronics industry has

necessitated effective cooling techniques which are capable of

dissipating ultra-high heat ux of about 100 W/cm2 from the

highly integrated microelectronics systems to ensure a stable

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +964 7801140094.

E-mail address: mushtaq76h@yahoo.com (M.I. Hasan).

Peer review under responsibility of King Saud University.

cooling schemes have been proposed and investigated to meet

this demand requirement, among which, the microchannel heat

exchanger is especially promising for its superior thermal performance. Compared with conventional heat exchangers, the

main advantage of the microchannel heat exchangers is their

extremely high heat transfer area per unit volume. As a result,

the overall heat transfer coefcient per unit volume can be as

greater than 100 MW/(m3 K), which is much higher than that

for conventional heat exchangers (12 orders of magnitude)

(Jian et al., 2001). In the conventional heat exchanger the solid

thickness is comparatively small to the hydraulic diameter;

therefore the axial heat conduction may be neglected. This

1018-3639 2013 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of King Saud University.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jksues.2012.12.004

123

Nomenclature

Symbol

vin

x

D

L

u

v

w

Cc

Ch

q

z

Dh

m

qmax

P

ts

Cp

T

k

y

V

average velocity, m/s

axial coordinate, m

channel height and base, m

channel length, m

uid x-component velocity, m/s

uid y-component velocity, m/s

uid z-component velocity, m/s

heat capacity of cold uid, W/K

heat capacity of hot uid, W/K

heat transfer rate, W

horizontal coordinate, m

hydraulic diameter, m

mass ow rate, kg/s

maximum heat transfer rate, W

pressure, Pa

separating wall thickness, m

specic heat at constant pressure, J/(kg K)

temperature, K

thermal conductivity, W/m K

vertical coordinate, m

volumetric ow rate, m3/s

dependent on the ow in the ducts (uid properties and mass

ow rate). But, for a microchannel heat exchanger, the solid

thickness is comparatively large to the hydraulic diameter,

therefore the axial heat conduction in the separating wall (solid)

is considerable and the microchannel heat exchanger effectiveness may decrease due to the effect of axial heat conduction.

Kroeger (1967) solved the governing equations of a two

stream counter ow heat exchanger, taking into account the effect of axial heat conduction, he presented a closed form solution for nding the effectiveness of a balanced ow heat

exchanger using a simplied one dimensional plate separating

the two uids. He showed that, the effectiveness is largely

dependent on the axial heat conduction in the separating wall.

Wang and Shyu (1991) experimentally studied the effect of

channel size and wall thermal conductivity in micro heat

exchangers for a hot/cold water test loop. They showed that

the channel size and wall material have a strong inuence on

the heat transfer capability of a micro heat exchanger.

Yin and Bau (1992) studied the ow between innite parallel plates and circular pipes to study the effect of axial heat

conduction on the performance of microchannel heat exchangers. They used a fully developed velocity eld and analytically

solved for the temperature elds in the channel and solid wall.

They found that, the axial conduction plays an important role

at the entrance region.

Stief et al. (1999) numerically investigated the effect of solid

thermal conductivity in micro heat exchangers. They showed

that the reduction of conductivity of the wall material can improve the heat transfer efciency of the exchanger due to the

inuence of axial heat conduction in the separation wall.

Vekatarathanam and Narayanan (1999) also found that the

performance of the heat exchanger is largely dependent on the

Greek symbols

q

density, kg/m3

l

dynamic viscosity, N s/m2

e

heat exchanger effectiveness,

Subscripts

c

cold uid

h

hot uid

I

inlet

max

maximum value

o

outlet

s

solid

Dimensionless groups

Pe = RePr Peclet number

P

Pr lC

kf Prandtl number

Re = quh,in Dh/l Reynolds number

Kr = ks/kf thermal conductivity ratio

heat conduction that takes place through the walls of the heat

exchangers used in miniature refrigerators. They used a two

dimensional energy balance to account for the conduction

through wall and convection through the uid. They assumed

the temperature of the uid to be uniform at any ow cross

section.

Al-bakhit and Fakheri (2005) numerically investigated

the parallel ow microchannel heat exchanger with rectangular ducts. They showed that using a high conductive material will not have an effect on increasing the heat

exchanger effectiveness since the heat exchanger effectiveness

will be independent of the wall thermal conductivity for Kr

above 40.

Al-bakhit and Fakheri (2006) numerically investigated the

parallel ow microchannel heat exchanger with rectangular

ducts. They showed that the overall heat transfer coefcient

is rapidly changed for x/DhPe (Graetz number) below 0.03,

and therefore the assumption of constant overall heat transfer

coefcient is not valid if the Graetz number based on the heat

exchanger length is of the order of 0.03. Also, the accurate results can be obtained by solving the thermally developing energy equation using fully developed velocity proles.

Al-Nimr et al. (2009) numerically investigated the hydrodynamics and thermal behaviours of the laminar, 2D, fully developed, slip ow inside an insulated parallel-plate microchannel

heat exchanger. They showed that both the velocity slip and

the temperature jump at the walls increased with increasing

Knudsen number.

Hasan (2009) made numerical investigation to study the

counter ow microchannel heat exchanger with different channel geometries and working uids. He studied the effect of axial heat conduction on the performance of counter ow

microchannel heat exchanger with square shaped channel

124

to a reduction in the effectiveness of this heat exchanger.

boundary conditions in Cartesian coordinates are written as

below (Hasan, 2009):

2. Mathematical formulation

Simulation of full continuity, momentum and energy equations for different uid ows arises in various engineering

problems. Various different algorithms have been proposed

and developed by various researchers. But an approach that

is fully robust from the point of view of numerical and modelling accuracy as well as efciency has yet to be developed.

The conguration shown in Fig. 1 represents a unit cell of

microchannel arrays. It includes two isosceles right triangular

channels with a separating wall between them where, L is

channel length, D is height and base of channel, ts is solid

thickness and S is projected distance of ts. In this gure, the

hot uid enters the lower channel with a uniform velocity uh,in

and uniform temperature Th,in, while the cold uid enters the

upper channel at uc,in and Tc,in. Heat is transferred from the

hot uid to the cold uid through the inclined wall of thickness

ts. However, the governing equations for the present model are

based on the following physical and geometrical assumptions:

The ow is laminar and steady.

The Knudsen number is small enough so that, the uid is a

continuous medium (no slip).

The uids are incompressible, Newtonian with constant

properties; in this case the water is used as working uid.

There is no heat transfer to/from the ambient.

The energy dissipation is negligible.

The pressure gradient is in axial direction only.

Three dimensional is the ow and heat transfer.

outlet

x-Momentum equation:

2

@ui

@ui

@ui

@p

@ ui @ 2 ui @ 2 ui

qi ui

vi

wi

i li

1

@x

@y

@z

@x

@x2 @y2 @z2

y-Momentum equation:

2

@vi

@vi

@vi

@ vi @ 2 vi @ 2 vi

vi

wi

li

qi ui

@x

@y

@z

@x2 @y2 @z2

z-Momentum equation:

2

@wi

@wi

@wi

@ wi @ 2 wi @ 2 wi

vi

wi

li

2 2

qi ui

@x

@y

@z

@x2

@y

@z

c

h

c

h

c

c

h

c

h

c

h

h

c

h

h

c

h

c

h

c

h

h

c

h

0

@x @y

@z

2

@Ti

@Ti

@Ti

@ Ti @ 2 Ti @ 2 Ti

5

vi

wi

ki

qi CPi ui

@x

@y

@z

@x2

@y2

@z2

Conduction equation for solid:

@ 2 Ts @ 2 Ts @ 2 Ts

2 0

@x2

@y2

@z

uh uh;in ; vh wh 0; Th Th;in

At x L

h

h c

h c c h

h c

c

h

c

h

c

c

h

h

c

c

h

@Th

0;

0

@x

@x

@x

@x

inlet

At y 0; 0 6 z 6 D

uh vh wh 0;

chamfered

S

@Th

0

@y

At y D z tan45; 0 6 z 6 D

S

cold fluid

D

uh vh wh 0

ts

hot fluid

S

D

y x

L

chamfered

kh

@Th

@Ts

ks

; Th Ts

@n

@n

At z 0; 0 6 y 6 D

exchanger.

As mentioned in the previous assumptions the pressure gradii

i

@p

0.

ents in y and z directions are negligible therefore, @p

@y

@z

The boundary conditions are:

h

c

Continuity equation:

At x 0

h

uh vh wh 0;

@Th

0

@z

At

z D y tan 45; 0 6 y 6 D

uh vh wh 0

@Th

@Ts

ks

; Th Ts

kh

@n

@n

Upper channel (cold uid)

At

x0

uc uc;in vc wc 0; Tc Tc;in

At

xL

@Tc

0;

0

@x

@x

@x

@x

At

y D z tan45 2S; S 6 z 6 D S

uc vc wc 0

kh

@Th

@Ts

ks

; Th Ts

@n

@n

At y D z tan45 2S; S 6 z 6 D S

kc

@Tc

@Ts

ks

; Tc Ts

@n

@n

At z D y tan45; 0 6 y 6 D

kh

@Th

@Ts

ks

; Th Ts

@n

@n

At z y tan45; S 6 y 6 D S

kc

@Tc

@Ts

ks

; Tc Ts

@n

@n

At z 0; D 6 y 6 D S

@Ts

0

@z

At z D S; 0 6 y 6 S

kc

@Tc

@Ts

ks

; Tc Ts

@n

@n

@Ts

0

@z

At

yDS

At y D S; 0 6 z 6 S

uc vc wc 0

@Ts

0

@y

@Tc

0

@y

At y 0; D 6 z 6 D S

At

z y tan45; S 6 y 6 D S

uc vc wc 0

kc

@Tc

@Ts

ks

; Tc Ts

@n

@n

At

zDS

uc vc wc 0

@Tc

0

@z

Separating wall (solid)

At

x0

@Ts

0

@x

At

xL

@Ts

0

@x

At

y D z tan45; 0 6 z 6 D

125

@Ts

0

@y

where, n is the normal to the iso surfaces (isotherm lines). After

establishing the governing equations and boundary conditions,

the nite-volume method with FORTRAN code will be used

to obtain a numerical solution to the problem.

The nite-volume method has become popular in Computational Fluid Dynamics CFD, this is because, rst, it ensures

that the discretization is conservative, i.e., mass, momentum,

and energy are conserved in a discrete sense. Second, the

nite-volume method does not require a coordinate transformation in order to be applied for irregular meshes. This exibility can be used to great advantages in generation grids about

arbitrary geometries (Lomax, 1999). Moreover, the nite volume method combines the simplicity of the nite differences

method with the local accuracy of the nite element method;

also, at the same dimension of the discretized problem, the

accuracy is higher than with nite differences and nearly the

same as with nite elements (Petrila and Trif, 2005; Versteeg

and Malalasekera, 1995).

After discretization of the governing equations and boundary conditions, a FORTRAN program is developed to perform the numerical solution to the problem. Firstly the

distribution of velocity, pressure and temperature for both

hot and cold liquids is obtained in addition to the distribution

of temperature in solid wall. Then, the parameters such as the

axial heat conduction q00 in the separating wall, the amount of

heat transferred between two uids and the effectiveness e

126

possible heat that can be transferred can be calculated from

Ashman and Kandlikar (2006):

e qactual =qmax: possible

1

0.8

Tm

0.6

together, and the term product of the capacity rates is

0.4

Cc m_ c cc

0.2

_ h

and Ch mc

10

Otherwise

qmax Cc Th;in Tc;in

11

Thus

qmax Cmin Th;in Tc;in

12

e

Cc Tc;out Tc;in

Ch Th;in Th;out

Ts; i Ts; i1

Q00x ks

Dx

x

13

14

and Ts; i1 at the next section as shown in Fig. 2.

3. Results and discussion

The behaviour of axial heat conduction in the separating wall in

a parallel ow microchannel heat exchanger under different

conditions has been studied. The dimensions of triangular

channels are 2 cm, 200 lm and 200 lm in x, y and z directions.

Both hot and cold uids are water with properties taken based

on the average bulk temperature (viscosity = 0.000598 N s/m2,

density = 981.3 kg/m3, thermal conductivity = 0.643 W/m K,

specic heat = 4189 J/(kg K). The inlet temperatures of hot

and cold uids are 80 C and 20 C, respectively. The material

of solid wall is variable; therefore the conductivity of material

will be studied through the ratio kr = ks/kf. The grid was 100

nodes in x direction and 50 nodes in each of y and z directions.

In order to verify the accuracy of the present numerical

model, a comparison is made between the results of present

model for rectangular microchannel heat exchanger and that

in literature. Fig. 3 represents a comparison between present

numerical model and data of Al-bakhit and Fakheri (2006).

The gure illustrates the variation of dimensionless mean tem-

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

x+

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

the hot and cold uids for present model and data of Al-bakhit

and Fakheri (2006).

x

distance x Dh Re

at Re = 100, and kkwsDtsh 100. From this

Pr

gure it can be seen that, there is a good agreement between

the numerical results of present model and that for Al-bakhit

and Fakheri (2006) and the maximum percentage error was

2.01%.

Fig. 4 represents the distribution of central axial velocity

along the direction of ow for different values of Reynolds

number at Dh = 117 lm. From this gure it can be noted that,

the velocity increased in the entrance region to reach its

maximum value in the fully developed region. Also it can be

seen that, the velocity increased with increasing Reynolds

number.

Fig. 5 shows the distribution of dimensionless axial velocity

in y and z directions, respectively for Re = 100 and

Dh = 117 lm at different locations along the x-axis (direction

of ow). From this gure one can see the parabolic shape of

the velocity, also the velocity increased along the ow direction

until it reaches its maximum value in the fully developed ow

region.

Fig. 6 represents the distribution of temperature for hot uids, cold uids and solid wall along the heat exchanger at

Re = 100, Dh = 117 lm, ts = 50 lm and kr = 1. This gure

indicates that, the temperature of cold uid increased and

T T

perature Tm Th;ini Tc;inc;in for the hot and cold uids in a rectangu-

flow

i+1

"

i qx

__

T s ,i +1

__

T s ,i

Figure 2

direction for different values of Re.

Distribution of axial velocity along y and z directions in different locations along x axis.

and solid wall along heat exchanger.

due to heat transfer from hot to the cold uid and the temperature of separating solid wall is in between them.

To show the importance of axial heat conduction in a

microchannel heat exchanger. Fig. 7 indicates the distribution

of axial heat conduction ux and the ux of heat transferred

between two uids at Re = 100 and ts = 50 lm Kr = 1,

Dh = 117 lm along the heat exchanger (direction of ow).

This gure shows that, the amount of heat conducted in the

axial direction of the solid wall separating the uids cannot

be ignored due to its considerable value.

Fig. 8 shows the distribution of longitudinal axial heat conduction ux q00x in the separating wall along the heat exchanger for different Reynolds numbers at Dh = 117 lm, Kr = 1

and ts = 50 lm. The gure shows that, the value of q00x for all

Reynolds number is high in the entrance region, due to the effect at entrance region the maximum heat transfer occurs in

the entrance region and as a result a maximum value of axial

heat conduction is created in this region. Also it can be seen

from this gure that, the axial heat conduction ux increased

with increasing Re. Due to increasing amount of heat transferred and increasing effect of entrance region with Re, the

fraction of axial heat conduction is increased.

conducted between two uids along ow direction.

2000

1800

Re=100

1600

q "x ( kW m 2 )

Figure 5

127

Re=200

1400

Re=400

1200

1000

800

600

400

200

0

0.004

0.008

0.012

0.016

0.02

x (m)

Figure 8 Longitudinal variation of the axial heat conduction

ux with axial distance x for different Reynolds numbers.

conduction ux in the separating wall q00x along the heat exchanger for different hydraulic diameters at Re = 100,

Kr = 1 and ts = 50 lm. The gure shows that, the q00x for all

128

1200

1200

1000

Dh=58

800

q "x ( kW m 2 )

q "x ( kW m 2 )

1000

Dh=117

Dh=234

600

400

ts=0.00005 m

ts=0.0001 m

800

ts= 0.0002 m

600

400

200

200

0

0

0.004

0.008

0.012

0.016

0.004

x (m)

Figure 9 Longitudinal distribution of the axial heat conduction

ux with axial distance x for different hydraulic diameters.

0.008

0.012

0.016

0.02

x (m)

0.02

axial distance x for different wall thicknesses.

2500

0.025

ts=50

0.02

q "x (W )

ts=100

ts=200

0.015

0.01

0.005

0.004

0.008

0.012

0.016

0.02

x (m)

Figure 10 Longitudinal distribution of the axial heat conduction

with axial distance x for different wall thicknesses.

Kr=1

2000

q "x ( kW m 2 )

before. Also, the q00x decreased with increasing hydraulic diameter due to decreasing effect of wall thickness compared to the

channel dimensions.

Fig. 10 illustrates the longitudinal distribution of the axial

heat conduction in the separating wall along the heat exchanger for different values of wall thicknesses ts at Re = 100,

Kr = 1 and Dh = 117 lm. From this gure one can see that,

the value of axial heat conduction increased with increasing

wall thickness due to an increase in the cross-sectional area

in which the axial heat conduction transferred also due to

increasing conduction resistance for heat transferred to the

uid and as a result increasing the fraction of heat transferred

in the longitudinal direction (axial heat conduction). While

Fig. 11 shows the decreasing of the axial heat conduction ux

with increasing wall thickness due to an increase in the cross

sectional area of wall.

Fig. 12 shows the longitudinal distribution of the axial heat

conduction ux q00x with axial distance x for different thermal

conductivity ratios Kr at Re = 100, ts = 50 lm and Dh =

117 lm. For all values of thermal conductivity ratio, the results

indicate that the q00x is high in the entrance region and decreased

Kr=5

Kr=10

1500

Kr=40

Kr=100

1000

500

0

0

0.004

0.008

0.012

0.016

0.02

x (m)

Figure 12 Longitudinal variation of the axial heat conduction

ux with axial distance x for different values of Kr.

the axial heat conduction ux increased with increasing Kr

up to Kr = 10, after this value the axial conduction becomes

zero. This is due to that, the heat transferred from hot uid

to cold uid increased with increasing Kr up to Kr = 10, after

Kr = 10, which is considered as an optimum value for Kr in

this case there is no increase in heat transfer. The numerical results of Al-bakhit and Fakheri (2005) for the parallel ow rectangular microchannel heat exchanger showed that more heat is

transferred as the thermal conductivity ratio increased up to

Kr = 40, after which increasing the thermal conductivity ratio

will not enhance the heat transfer. They showed that this is because, the wall will behave as an innitely conducting wall with

negligible temperature gradient, and the heat transfer between

the two uids will be independent of the wall properties,

depending only on the uid conditions and channel geometry.

The difference between the numerical results of Al-bakhit and

Fakheri (2005) and present results is due to the difference in

geometry. However, Fig. 13 may explain this behaviour

(Hasan, 2009). As can be seen the dimensionless mean of wall

temperature Tsm Tsm Tc;in =Th;in Tc;in with x* = x/Dh

varied with uid temperature up to Kr = 10. After this value

the Tsm is independent of uid temperature and seen as a

straight line. This means that, the gradient oTs/ox = 0 and

then q00x 0 after Kr = 10.

1

0.0025

0.8

0.002

average

0.2

Kr = 1

K r = 500

Kr = 5

K r = 10

K r = 1000

0

34

68

102

136

0.001

K r = 100

0.0005

170

x

Figure 13 Longitudinal variation of the wall dimensionless mean

temperature for different thermal conductivity ratios taken from

Hasan (2009).

20

60

100

140

180

220

260

300

Number of channels

Figure 16 Variation of the heat exchanger effectiveness to

average axial heat conduction ratio with number of channels for

different Reynolds numbers.

450

450

400

400

350

350

300

"

q average

(kW m 2 )

"

q average

(kW m 2 )

Re=400

0.0015

Tsm

0.4

250

200

150

Re=100

100

Re=200

50

0

Re=100

Re=200

0.6

129

Re=400

300

250

200

Kr=1

150

Kr=5

Kr=10

100

Kr=40

50

20

60

100

140

180

220

260

300

Kr=100

Number of channels

20

with number of channels for different Reynolds numbers.

60

100

140

180

220

260

300

Number of channels

Figure 17 Variation of the average axial heat conduction ux

with number of channels for different thermal conductivity ratios.

0.5

0.5

0.45

0.4

0.35

0.4

0.3

0.25

0.3

0.2

0.15

Re=100

0.1

Re=200

0.05

Re=400

20

60

100

140

180

220

260

0.2

Kr=1

Kr=5

0.1

Kr=10

300

Number of channels

Figure 15 Variation of the microchannel heat exchanger effectiveness with number of channels for different Reynolds numbers.

Fig. 14 shows the variation of the average axial heat conduction ux q00average with the number of channels for different

Reynolds numbers for heat exchanger volume 2 108 m3 at

ts = 50 lm and Kr = 1. From this gure it can be noted that,

20

60

100

140

180

220

260

300

Number of channels

Figure 18 Variation of the heat exchanger effectiveness with

number of channels for different thermal conductivity ratios.

increasing number of channels, due to an increase in the heat

130

0.0014

0.0012

0.0008

0.0006

Kr=1

"

average

0.001

0.0004

Kr=5

Kr=10

0.0002

0

20

60

100

140

180

220

260

300

Number of channels

Figure 19 Variation of the heat exchanger effectiveness to average axial heat conduction ratio with number of channels for different

thermal conductivity ratios.

shows that the q00average increased with increasing Re, this is

due to an increase in the axial heat conduction with Re.

Fig. 15 illustrates the variation of the microchannel heat exchanger effectiveness e with the number of channels for heat

exchanger volume 2 108 m3 at Kr = 1 and ts = 50 lm.

For all values of Re, the gure claries that, the effectiveness

increased with increasing number of channels. This is due to

the amount of uid that decreased when the channel volume

decreased and then DT increased. On the other hand, the axial

conduction in the solid wall also increased as shown in previous gures but the heat transferred between the two uids is

large enough to overcome the axial heat conduction. Also,

the gure shows that, the effectiveness decreased with increasing Re, this is due to an increase in the velocity of uid with Re

and then DT decrease.

The variation of heat exchanger effectiveness to the average

axial heat conduction ratio e=q00average with the number of channels for different values of Re is indicated in Fig. 16. From this

gure it can be seen that, for all Reynolds number, the e=q00average

increased with an increase in the number of channels due to

increasing effectiveness with the number of channels in spite

of increasing the axial heat conduction. Also this ratio decreased with increasing Re due to decreasing effectiveness with

increasing Re.

Fig. 17 shows the variation of the average axial heat conduction ux q00average with the number of channels for different

thermal conductivity ratios for heat exchanger volume 2 108

m3 at Re = 200 and ts = 50 lm. For all thermal conductivity

ratios, the gure shows that, the q00average increased with

increasing number of channels due to the large amount of heat

transfer that undergoes through the wall in this case up to

Kr = 10, after this value the q00average is equal to zero as

explained before. Also, the gure shows that the q00average at

Kr = 1 is lower than for ve and 10, due to that, there is more

heat transfer in the axial direction at higher Kr.

Fig. 18 illustrates the variation of the heat exchanger effectiveness (e) with the number of channels for different values of

Kr for heat exchanger volume = 2 108 m3at Re = 200 and

ts = 50 lm. From this gure one can see that, for all values

of Kr, the effectiveness increased with increasing Kr due to

more heat that is transferred from hot to cold uid with

number of channels.

Fig. 19 shows the variation of the heat exchanger effectiveness to average axial heat conduction ratio e=q00average with the

number of channels at different values of Kr for heat exchanger

volume = 2 108 m3 at Re = 200 and ts = 50 lm. From this

gure it can be observed that, for all Kr values, the e=q00average increased with increasing number of channels this is because the

effectiveness increased with the number of channels in spite of

the increase in axial heat conduction. Also, the e=q00average at

Kr = 10 is larger than for one and ve because the effectiveness increases with Kr .

4. Conclusions

From the results obtained the following conclusions can be

drawn:

The parameters that affect the axial heat conduction in an

isosceles right triangular microchannel heat exchanger are:

thermal conductivity ratio Kr, Reynolds number Re,

hydraulic diameter Dh, channel volume and wall thickness

ts .

The axial heat conduction increased with increasing Kr up

to Kr = 10 after this value the axial conduction is equal

to zero.

The axial heat conduction increased with increasing Re, ts

and the number of channels but, decreased with increasing

Dh each separately.

References

Hussien Al-bakhit, Ahmad Fakheri, 2005. Entrance and wall conduction effects in parallel ow heat exchangers. In: Shah, R.K.,

Ishizuka, M., Rudy, T.M., Wadekar, V V. (Eds.), Proceedings of

Fifth Internal Conference on Enhanced, Compact and UltraCompact Heat Exchangers: Science, Engineering and Technology.

Engineering Conferences International, September (2005), Hoboken, NJ, USA.

Al-bakhit, Hussien, Fakheri, Ahmad, 2006. Numerical simulation of

heat transfer in simultaneously developing ows in parallel

rectangular ducts. Applied Thermal Engineering 26, 596603.

Al-Nimr, M.A., Maqableh, M., Khadrawi, A.F., Ammourah, S.A.,

2009. Fully developed thermal behaviors for parallel ow microchannel heat exchanger. International Communications in Heat

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Ashman, Sean, Kandlikar, Satish G., 2006. A review of manufacturing

processes for microchannel heat exchanger fabrication. In: Proceedings of ICNMM2006, Fourth International Conference on

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Hasan, Mushtaq I., 2009. Numerical simulation of counter ow

microchannel heat exchanger with different channel geometries and

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Collage of Engineering, Basrah University, Iraq.

Hasan, Hyder M., 2009. Numerical simulation of parallel ow

microchannel heat exchanger with isosceles right triangular geometry. Thesis, Engineering Collage, University of Basra.

Jian, Pei-Xue, Fan, Ming-Hong, Si, Guang-Shu, Ren, Ze-Pei, 2001.

Thermal-hydraulic performance of small scale microchannel and

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Kroeger, P.G.,1967. Performance deterioration in high effectiveness

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and heat transfer in microchannel heat sink. Project Report, ME

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