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# EN40: Dynamics and Vibrations

Division of Engineering

Brown University

## Solutions to Differential Equations of Motion for Vibrating Systems

Here, we summarize the solutions to the most important differential equations of motion that we
encounter when analyzing single degree of freedom linear systems.

CASE I:

CASE II

CASE III

CASE IV

CASE V

CASE VI

1 d 2x

n2 dt 2

xC

1 d 2x

2 dt 2

2 dx
xC
n dt

2 dx
x C KF (t ) with F (t ) F0 sin t
n dt

1 d 2x

n2

dt

1 d 2x

n2

dt

1 d 2x

n2

dt

1 d 2x

n2 dt 2

x C

2 dx
2 dy
xCKy
with y Y0 sin t
n dt
n dt

2 dx
K d2y
with y Y0 sin t
xC
n dt
n2 dt 2

SOLUTION 1:
The equation
1 d 2x

n2 dt 2

xC

## with initial conditions

x x0

has solution

dx
v0
dt

t 0

x C X 0 sin nt
X 0 ( x0 C )2 v02 / n2

( x0 C )n

v0

tan 1

or, equivalently
v
x(t ) C ( x0 C )cos nt 0 sin nt

SOLUTION 2
The equation
1 d 2x

2 dt 2

x C

## with initial conditions

x x0

dx
v0
dt

t 0

has solution
v
v
1
1
x(t ) C ( x0 C ) 0 exp t ( x0 C ) 0 exp t
2

SOLUTION 3
The equation
1 d 2x

n2

dt

2 dx
xC
n dt

x x0

dx
v0
dt

t 0

## has the following solutions:

Case I: Overdamped System 1
v (n d )( x0 C )

v (n d )( x0 C )
x(t ) C exp(nt ) 0
exp(d t ) 0
exp(d t )
2d
2d

where d n 2 1
Case II: Critically Damped System 1
x(t ) C ( x0 C ) v0 n ( x0 C )t exp(nt )

## Case III: Underdamped System 1

v n ( x0 C )
x(t ) C exp(nt ) ( x0 C )cos d t 0
sin d t
d

where d n 1 2
The graphs below show x(t) for two types of initial condition: the first graph shows results with
v0 0 , while the second graph shows results with x0 0 . Both results are for C=0.

## Graphs of solutions to ODE governing free vibration of a damped spring-mass system

SOLUTION 4:
1 d 2x

n2

dt

2 dx
x C KF (t ) with F (t ) F0 sin t
n dt

x x0

dx
v0
dt

t 0

## has solution of the form

x(t ) C xh (t ) x p (t )

## where the steady state solution (or particular integral) is

x p (t ) X 0 sin t
X0

KF0

tan 1

1/2

2
2
2 2
1 / n 2 / n

2 / n
1 2 / n2

while the transient solution (or homogeneous solution, or complementary solution) is:
Case I: Overdamped System 1
h
h

v h (n d ) x0h
v (n d ) x0

xh (t ) exp(nt ) 0
exp(d t ) 0
exp(d t )
2

d
d

where d n 2 1
Case II: Critically Damped System 1

v h n x0h

## xh (t ) exp(nt ) x0h cos d t 0

sin d t
d

where d n 1 2
In all three preceding cases, we have set
x0h x0 C x p (0) x0 C X 0 sin
dx p

v0 X 0 cos
dt t 0
Observe that for large time, the transient solution always decays to zero.
v0h v0

The graphs below plot the amplitude of the steady state vibration and the steady state phase lead.

(a)
(b)
Steady state response of a forced springmass system (a) amplitude and (b) phase

SOLUTION 5
The equation
1 d 2x

n2

dt

2 dx
2 dy
xCKy
with y(t ) Y0 sin t
n dt
n dt

dx
v0
dt

x x0

t 0

## has solution of the form

x(t ) xh (t ) x p (t )

## where the steady state solution (or particular integral) is

x p (t ) X 0 sin t
X0

KY0 1 2 / n

2 1/2

1/2

2
2
2 2
1 / n 2 / n

tan 1

2 3 / n3
1 (1 4 2 ) 2 / n2

## while the transient solution (or homogeneous solution) is:

Case I: Overdamped System 1
h
h

v h (n d ) x0h
v (n d ) x0

xh (t ) exp(nt ) 0
exp(d t ) 0
exp(d t )
2d
2d

where d n 2 1
Case II: Critically Damped System 1

v h n x0h

## xh (t ) exp(nt ) x0h cos d t 0

sin d t

where d n 1 2
In all three preceding cases, we have set
x0h x0 C x p (0) x0 C X 0 sin
dx p

v0 X 0 cos
dt t 0
Observe that for large time, the transient solution always decays to zero.
v0h v0

The graphs below show the steady state amplitude and phase

(a)
(b)
Steady state response of a base excited spring mass system (a) Amplitude and (b) Phase

SOLUTION 6
The equation
1 d 2x

n2 dt 2

2 dx
K d2y
with y Y0 sin t
xC
n dt
n2 dt 2

x x0

dx
v0
dt

t 0

## has solution of the form

x(t ) xh (t ) x p (t )

## where the steady state solution (or particular integral) is

x p (t ) X 0 sin t
X0

KY0 2 / n2

tan 1

1/2

2
2
2 2
1 / n 2 / n

2 / n
1 2 / n2

## while the transient solution (or homogeneous solution) is:

Case I: Overdamped System 1
h
h

v h (n d ) x0h
v (n d ) x0

xh (t ) exp(nt ) 0
exp(d t ) 0
exp(d t )
2d
2d

where d n 2 1
Case II: Critically Damped System 1

v h n x0h

## xh (t ) exp(nt ) x0h cos d t 0

sin d t

where d n 1 2
In all three preceding cases, we have set

## x0h x0 C x p (0) x0 C X 0 sin

dx p

v0 X 0 cos
dt t 0
Observe that for large time, the transient solution always decays to zero.
v0h v0

The graphs below show the steady state amplitude and phase lead for Case 6.

(a)
(b)
Steady state response of a rotor excited springmass system (a) Amplitude; (b) Phase